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  • richardmitnick 10:18 am on July 8, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Plate tectonics research rewrites history of Earth's continents", , Curtin University, , ,   

    From Curtin University via phys.org: “Plate tectonics research rewrites history of Earth’s continents” 

    From Curtin University

    via


    phys.org

    July 8, 2020

    1
    Credit: Pixabay

    Curtin University-led research has found new evidence to suggest that the Earth’s first continents were not formed by subduction in a modern-like plate tectonics environment as previously thought, and instead may have been created by an entirely different process.

    Published in the journal Geology, the research team measured the iron and zinc isotopes in rock sourced from central Siberia and South Africa and determined that the composition of these rocks may have formed in a non-subduction environment.

    Lead author Dr. Luc-Serge Doucet, from the Earth Dynamics Research Group in Curtin’s School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, said the first continents were formed early in Earth’s history more than three billion years ago, but how they were formed is still open to debate.

    “Previous research has suggested that the first supercontinents formed through subduction and plate tectonics, which is when the Earth’s plates move under one another shaping the mountains and oceans,” Dr. Doucet said.

    The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in 1996, USGS.

    “Our research found that that the chemical makeup of the rock fragments was not consistent with what we would usually see when subduction occurs. If the continents were formed through subduction and plate tectonics we would expect the ratio of iron and zinc isotopes to be either very high or very low, but our analyses instead found the ratio of isotopes was similar to that found in non-subduction rocks.”

    Dr. Doucet said the team used a relatively new technique known as the non-traditional stable isotope method, which has been used to pinpoint the processes that formed continental and mantle rocks.

    “Our research provides a new, but unknown theory as to how the Earth’s continents formed more than three billion years ago. Further research will be needed to determine what the unknown explanation is,” Dr. Doucet said.

    The research was co-authored by researchers from Curtin’s Earth Dynamics Research Group, Université Libre de Bruxelles in Belgium, Institute for Geochemistry and Petrology in Switzerland, and Université de Montpellier in France.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Curtin University (formerly known as Curtin University of Technology and Western Australian Institute of Technology) is an Australian public research university based in Bentley and Perth, Western Australia. The university is named after the 14th Prime Minister of Australia, John Curtin, and is the largest university in Western Australia, with over 58,000 students (as of 2016).

    Curtin was conferred university status after legislation was passed by the Parliament of Western Australia in 1986. Since then, the university has been expanding its presence and has campuses in Singapore, Malaysia, Dubai and Mauritius. It has ties with 90 exchange universities in 20 countries. The University comprises five main faculties with over 95 specialists centres. The University formerly had a Sydney campus between 2005 & 2016. On 17 September 2015, Curtin University Council made a decision to close its Sydney campus by early 2017.

    Curtin University is a member of Australian Technology Network (ATN), and is active in research in a range of academic and practical fields, including Resources and Energy (e.g., petroleum gas), Information and Communication, Health, Ageing and Well-being (Public Health), Communities and Changing Environments, Growth and Prosperity and Creative Writing.

    It is the only Western Australian university to produce a PhD recipient of the AINSE gold medal, which is the highest recognition for PhD-level research excellence in Australia and New Zealand.

    Curtin has become active in research and partnerships overseas, particularly in mainland China. It is involved in a number of business, management, and research projects, particularly in supercomputing, where the university participates in a tri-continental array with nodes in Perth, Beijing, and Edinburgh. Western Australia has become an important exporter of minerals, petroleum and natural gas. The Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited the Woodside-funded hydrocarbon research facility during his visit to Australia in 2005.
    Contents

     
  • richardmitnick 10:49 am on June 30, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Uncovering the two 'faces' of the Earth", , Curtin University, , Earth's mantle is currently divided into two main domains African and Pacific (?)., , No such 'enrichment' feature was found in the Pacific domain., , The African domain was 'enriched' by subducted continental materials which was linked to the assembly and breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea., The distinct evolutionary histories of the two mantle domains during the Rodinia to Pangaea supercontinent cycles.   

    From Curtin University via phys.org: “Uncovering the two ‘faces’ of the Earth” 

    From Curtin University

    via


    phys.org

    June 30, 2020

    1
    Credit: Pixabay

    New Curtin University-led research has uncovered how rocks sourced from the Earth’s mantle are linked to the formation and breakup of supercontinents and super oceans over the past 700 million years, suggesting that the Earth is made up of two distinct “faces.”

    The research, published in the leading journal Nature Geoscience, examined the chemical and isotopic “make-up” of rocks sourced from thousands of kilometers below the surface to better understand how the Earth’s mantle responds to plate movements that occur near its surface.

    Lead author Dr. Luc-Serge Doucet, from the Earth Dynamics Research Group in Curtin’s School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, said the Earth’s mantle is currently divided into two main domains, African and Pacific, but little is known about their formation and history and they are commonly assumed to be chemically the same.

    “Our team used trace metals such as lead, strontium, and neodymium, from hotspot volcanic islands including the Hawaiian islands in the Pacific Ocean and the La Reunion island in the Indian Ocean, to examine whether these two domains have the same chemical ‘make-up,'” Dr. Doucet said.

    “We found that the African domain was ‘enriched’ by subducted continental materials, which was linked to the assembly and breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea, whereas no such feature was found in the Pacific domain.”

    The team found that the contents of the two mantle domains are not exactly the same as previously thought. Instead, the Earth appears to have two chemically distinct hemispheric “faces,” with the Pacific ring of fire being the surface expression of the boundary between the two.

    Co-author John Curtin Distinguished Professor Zheng Xiang Li, head of the Earth Dynamics Research Group, said the two chemically distinct hemispheres discovered by the team can best be explained by the distinct evolutionary histories of the two mantle domains during the Rodinia to Pangaea supercontinent cycles.

    “We found that the African mantle domain contains continental materials, which were brought down by the subduction system for at least the past 600 million years. However, the Pacific mantle domain has been protected from the infiltration of such materials,” Professor Li said.

    “Our research findings are significant as they showcase a dynamic relationship between plate tectonic processes that operate near the surface and the formation and evolution of Earth’s deep mantle structures. The work helps us to understand what drives plate tectonics and the formation and reservation of global geotectonic features such as the Pacific ring of fire. The dynamic and interactive nature of the entire Earth system has important implications on the formation of Earth resources, the evolution of Earth environment, and even the evolution of life.”

    The research was co-authored by researchers from Curtin’s School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tanta University in Egypt, St Francis Xavier University in Canada, Université Libre de Bruxelles in Belgium, Queen’s University in Canada, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Curtin University (formerly known as Curtin University of Technology and Western Australian Institute of Technology) is an Australian public research university based in Bentley and Perth, Western Australia. The university is named after the 14th Prime Minister of Australia, John Curtin, and is the largest university in Western Australia, with over 58,000 students (as of 2016).

    Curtin was conferred university status after legislation was passed by the Parliament of Western Australia in 1986. Since then, the university has been expanding its presence and has campuses in Singapore, Malaysia, Dubai and Mauritius. It has ties with 90 exchange universities in 20 countries. The University comprises five main faculties with over 95 specialists centres. The University formerly had a Sydney campus between 2005 & 2016. On 17 September 2015, Curtin University Council made a decision to close its Sydney campus by early 2017.

    Curtin University is a member of Australian Technology Network (ATN), and is active in research in a range of academic and practical fields, including Resources and Energy (e.g., petroleum gas), Information and Communication, Health, Ageing and Well-being (Public Health), Communities and Changing Environments, Growth and Prosperity and Creative Writing.

    It is the only Western Australian university to produce a PhD recipient of the AINSE gold medal, which is the highest recognition for PhD-level research excellence in Australia and New Zealand.

    Curtin has become active in research and partnerships overseas, particularly in mainland China. It is involved in a number of business, management, and research projects, particularly in supercomputing, where the university participates in a tri-continental array with nodes in Perth, Beijing, and Edinburgh. Western Australia has become an important exporter of minerals, petroleum and natural gas. The Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited the Woodside-funded hydrocarbon research facility during his visit to Australia in 2005.
    Contents

     
  • richardmitnick 4:39 pm on November 20, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Curtin University, , ,   

    From Curtin University: “Outback telescope captures Milky Way centre, discovers remnants of dead stars” 

    20 November 2019

    Lucien Wilkinson
    Media Consultant
    Supporting Humanities and Science and Engineering
    Tel: +61 8 9266 9185
    Mob: +61 401 103 683
    lucien.wilkinson@curtin.edu.au

    Yasmine Phillips
    Manager, Media Relations
    Phone: +61 8 9266 9085
    Mobile: +61 401 103 877
    Email: yasmine.phillips@curtin.edu.au

    A radio telescope in the Western Australian outback has captured a spectacular new view of the centre of the galaxy in which we live, the Milky Way.

    1
    The image from the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) telescope shows what our galaxy would look like if human eyes could see radio waves.

    SKA Murchison Widefield Array, Boolardy station in outback Western Australia, at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO)

    Astrophysicist Dr Natasha Hurley-Walker, from the Curtin University node of the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), created the images using the Pawsey Supercomputing Centre in Perth.

    Magnus Cray XC40 supercomputer at Pawsey Supercomputer Centre Perth Australia

    Galaxy Cray XC30 Series Supercomputer at Pawsey Supercomputer Centre Perth Australia

    Fujisto Raijin supercomputer

    Fujitsu Raijin Supercomputer

    “This new view captures low-frequency radio emission from our galaxy, looking both in fine detail and at larger structures,” she said.

    “Our images are looking directly at the middle of the Milky Way, towards a region astronomers call the Galactic Centre.”

    The data for the research comes from the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky MWA survey, or ‘GLEAM’ for short.

    The survey has a resolution of two arcminutes (about the same as the human eye) and maps the sky using radio waves at frequencies between 72 and 231 MHz (FM radio is near 100 MHz).

    “It’s the power of this wide frequency range that makes it possible for us to disentangle different overlapping objects as we look toward the complexity of the Galactic Centre,” Dr Hurley-Walker said.

    “Essentially, different objects have different ‘radio colours’, so we can use them to work out what kind of physics is at play.”

    Using the images, Dr Hurley-Walker and her colleagues discovered the remnants of 27 massive stars that exploded in supernovae at the end of their lives.

    These stars would have been eight or more times more massive than our Sun before their dramatic destruction thousands of years ago.

    Younger and closer supernova remnants, or those in very dense environments, are easy to spot, and 295 are already known.

    Unlike other instruments, the MWA can find those which are older, further away, or in very empty environments.

    Dr Hurley-Walker said one of the newly-discovered supernova remnants lies in such an empty region of space, far out of the plane of our galaxy, and so despite being quite young, is also very faint.

    “It’s the remains of a star that died less than 9,000 years ago, meaning the explosion could have been visible to Indigenous people across Australia at that time,” she said.

    An expert in cultural astronomy, Associate Professor Duane Hamacher from the University of Melbourne, said some Aboriginal traditions do describe bright new stars appearing in the sky, but we don’t know of any definitive traditions that describe this particular event.

    “However, now that we know when and where this supernova appeared in the sky, we can collaborate with Indigenous elders to see if any of their traditions describe this cosmic event. If any exist, it would be extremely exciting,” he said.

    Dr Hurley-Walker said two of the supernova remnants discovered are quite unusual “orphans”, found in a region of sky where there are no massive stars, which means future searches across other such regions might be more successful than astronomers expected.

    Other supernova remnants discovered in the research are very old, she said.

    “This is really exciting for us, because it’s hard to find supernova remnants in this phase of life—they allow us to look further back in time in the Milky Way.”

    The MWA telescope is a precursor to the world’s largest radio telescope, the Square Kilometre Array, which is due to be built in Australia and South Africa from 2021.

    “The MWA is perfect for finding these objects, but it is limited in its sensitivity and resolution,” Dr Hurley-Walker said.

    “The low-frequency part of the SKA, which will be built at the same site as the MWA, will be thousands of times more sensitive and have much better resolution, so should find the thousands of supernova remnants that formed in the last 100,000 years, even on the other side of the Milky Way.”

    The new images of the Galactic Centre can be viewed via a web browser using the GLEAMoscope app or through an android device using the GLEAM app3.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Curtin University (formerly known as Curtin University of Technology and Western Australian Institute of Technology) is an Australian public research university based in Bentley and Perth, Western Australia. The university is named after the 14th Prime Minister of Australia, John Curtin, and is the largest university in Western Australia, with over 58,000 students (as of 2016).

    Curtin was conferred university status after legislation was passed by the Parliament of Western Australia in 1986. Since then, the university has been expanding its presence and has campuses in Singapore, Malaysia, Dubai and Mauritius. It has ties with 90 exchange universities in 20 countries. The University comprises five main faculties with over 95 specialists centres. The University formerly had a Sydney campus between 2005 & 2016. On 17 September 2015, Curtin University Council made a decision to close its Sydney campus by early 2017.

    Curtin University is a member of Australian Technology Network (ATN), and is active in research in a range of academic and practical fields, including Resources and Energy (e.g., petroleum gas), Information and Communication, Health, Ageing and Well-being (Public Health), Communities and Changing Environments, Growth and Prosperity and Creative Writing.

    It is the only Western Australian university to produce a PhD recipient of the AINSE gold medal, which is the highest recognition for PhD-level research excellence in Australia and New Zealand.

    Curtin has become active in research and partnerships overseas, particularly in mainland China. It is involved in a number of business, management, and research projects, particularly in supercomputing, where the university participates in a tri-continental array with nodes in Perth, Beijing, and Edinburgh. Western Australia has become an important exporter of minerals, petroleum and natural gas. The Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited the Woodside-funded hydrocarbon research facility during his visit to Australia in 2005.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:53 pm on October 15, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New research suggests global ice age changed the face of the planet", Curtin University   

    From Curtin University: “New research suggests global ice age changed the face of the planet” 

    From Curtin University

    15 October 2019

    Lucien Wilkinson
    Media Consultant
    Supporting Humanities and Science and Engineering
    Tel: +61 8 9266 9185
    Mob: +61 401 103 683
    lucien.wilkinson@curtin.edu.au

    Vanessa Beasley
    Senior Media Consultant
    Phone: +61 8 9266 1811
    Mobile: +61 466 853 121
    Email: vanessa.beasley@curtin.edu.au

    Curtin University researchers have discovered that a global ice age more than 600 million years ago dramatically altered the face of the planet, leaving a barren, flooded landscape and clear oceans.

    1
    Credit: NASA

    The research, published in Terra Nova, examined how distinctive carbonate sedimentary rocks formed over the course of millions of years after the Snowball Earth.

    The sedimentary rocks, much like the limestone in tropical oceans today, formed in oceans starved of sand and mud eroded from the land.

    Lead author PhD candidate Adam Nordsvan, from the School of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Curtin University, said the new research called into question previous suggestions that the formation of the characteristic rocks took place over a much shorter period of time.

    “It was previously thought that these distinctive carbonate rocks were deposited over less than 10 thousand years, as the sea level rose when the ice that covered the entire globe melted, but we have shown that they were likely deposited over hundreds of thousands to millions of years following the sea-level rise,” Mr Nordsvan said.

    “There is already some evidence that suggested these rocks took a long time to form, but no one had been able to explain why this might have occurred.

    “What is intriguing about the period following Snowball Earth is that the planet surface was essentially completely renovated. It appears that the extended glacial period removed all the beaches, deserts, rivers and floodplains, and reset important Earth systems that took millions of years to recover.”

    Co-author Dr Milo Barham, also from Curtin’s School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, said the findings may have important implications for the evolution of complex life.

    “The melting of ice sheets after Snowball Earth caused a dramatic rise in sea level, ultimately flooding the continents, driving a remarkable retreat of shorelines and the development of clearer ocean water,” Dr Barham said.

    “Researchers have long been aware that the timing of Snowball Earth and the development of more complex life seem to have coincided, but no one has really thought about how the oceans being starved of sediment might have helped ancient organisms thrive in the oceans.”

    The research was co-authored by researchers from the School of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Curtin University and the Eberhard Karls University of Tubingen in Germany.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Curtin University (formerly known as Curtin University of Technology and Western Australian Institute of Technology) is an Australian public research university based in Bentley and Perth, Western Australia. The university is named after the 14th Prime Minister of Australia, John Curtin, and is the largest university in Western Australia, with over 58,000 students (as of 2016).

    Curtin was conferred university status after legislation was passed by the Parliament of Western Australia in 1986. Since then, the university has been expanding its presence and has campuses in Singapore, Malaysia, Dubai and Mauritius. It has ties with 90 exchange universities in 20 countries. The University comprises five main faculties with over 95 specialists centres. The University formerly had a Sydney campus between 2005 & 2016. On 17 September 2015, Curtin University Council made a decision to close its Sydney campus by early 2017.

    Curtin University is a member of Australian Technology Network (ATN), and is active in research in a range of academic and practical fields, including Resources and Energy (e.g., petroleum gas), Information and Communication, Health, Ageing and Well-being (Public Health), Communities and Changing Environments, Growth and Prosperity and Creative Writing.

    It is the only Western Australian university to produce a PhD recipient of the AINSE gold medal, which is the highest recognition for PhD-level research excellence in Australia and New Zealand.

    Curtin has become active in research and partnerships overseas, particularly in mainland China. It is involved in a number of business, management, and research projects, particularly in supercomputing, where the university participates in a tri-continental array with nodes in Perth, Beijing, and Edinburgh. Western Australia has become an important exporter of minerals, petroleum and natural gas. The Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited the Woodside-funded hydrocarbon research facility during his visit to Australia in 2005.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:38 am on August 31, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Millions of High-Speed Black Holes Could Be Zooming Around The Milky Way", , , , , Curtin University, ,   

    From Curtin University and ICRAR via Science Alert: “Millions of High-Speed Black Holes Could Be Zooming Around The Milky Way” 

    From Curtin University

    and

    ICRAR Logo
    From International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research

    via

    ScienceAlert

    Science Alert

    30 AUG 2019
    MICHELLE STARR

    1
    (StudioM1/iStock)

    How are black holes born? Astrophysicists have theories, but we don’t actually know for certain. It could be massive stars quietly imploding with a floompf, or perhaps black holes are born in the explosions of colossal supernovas. New observations now indicate it might indeed be the latter.

    In fact, the research suggests that those explosions are so powerful, they can kick the black holes across the galaxy at speeds greater than 70 kilometres per second (43 miles per second).

    “This work basically talks about the first observational evidence that you can actually see black holes moving with high velocities in the galaxy and associate it to the kick the black hole system received at birth,” astronomer Pikky Atri of Curtin University and the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR) told ScienceAlert.

    And it means there are potentially millions stellar-mass black holes zooming around the galaxy at high speed. The paper has been accepted into the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

    The study was based on 16 black holes in binary systems. Unless they’re actively feeding, we can’t actually find black holes, since no detectable electromagnetic radiation can escape their insane gravity. But if they’re in a binary pair and actively feeding on the other star, the matter swirling around the black hole gives off powerful X-rays and radio waves.

    Once we can see these black hole beacons, we can see how the black hole is behaving. The international team of researchers used this behaviour to try and reconstruct the black hole’s history.

    “We tracked how these systems were moving in our galaxy – so, figured out their velocities today, moved back in time, and tried to understand what the velocity was of the system when it was born, individually for each of these 16 systems,” Atri explained.

    “Based on the velocities, you can actually find out if they were born with a supernova explosion, or if the stars just directly collapsed onto themselves without a supernova explosion.”

    We know that neutron stars can be violently punted out across space at high speeds by their own supernova explosions – this is called a Blaauw kick, or natal kick, and it happens when the supernova explosion is lopsided, resulting in a recoil.

    It was unknown if black holes could be kicked in the same way. Hypothetically, they might – and indeed seven black hole x-ray binaries have been previously associated with natal kicks.

    The new research has analysed these, as well as nine others, in greater detail, combining measured proper motions, systemic radial velocities, and distances to these systems for the most detailed analysis yet.

    The motion of one of these black holes as calculated by the team can be seen in the video below.

    The researchers found that 12 of these 16 black hole X-ray binaries did indeed have high velocities and trajectories that indicated a natal kick. That’s 75 percent of the sample. If this scales up to the estimated 10 million black holes in the Milky Way, that might mean around 7.5 million high-speed black holes careening out there. And 10 million is a low estimate.

    In line with previous theories, these speeding black holes are slower than kicked neutron stars by a factor of about three or four, due to their higher mass. Interestingly, there seemed to be no correlation between black hole mass and velocity, which means we don’t yet know if there’s a correlation between progenitor star mass and the likelihood of a supernova.

    This is a relatively small sample size of black holes, of course. But, according to Atri, it’s a step towards building up a larger sample that can help us to understand how stars evolve and die, and give rise to black holes.

    “Eventually, all of this will feed into how many black holes we expect in our galaxy, how many black holes that will actually merge to give those gravitational wave detections that LIGO finds,” she added.

    To continue to build on the research, the team will keep watching the sky. These binary systems aren’t always bright – they come and go, transient. So the researchers are hoping to find more of these binary systems to continue building a census of Milky Way black holes, whether speeding or not.

    And, in case you’re worried right now abut a black hole cruising right into our Solar System, you don’t really need to panic.

    “The closest black hole, we think it’s two kiloparsecs away [6,523 light-years],” Atri said.

    “It’s very, very far away. So there’s no chance that we’re getting sucked up by any black hole any time soon.”

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    ICRAR is an equal joint venture between Curtin University and The University of Western Australia with funding support from the State Government of Western Australia. The Centre’s headquarters are located at UWA, with research nodes at both UWA and the Curtin Institute for Radio Astronomy (CIRA).
    ICRAR has strong support from the government of Australia and is working closely with industry and the astronomy community, including CSIRO and the Australian Telescope National Facility, <a
    ICRAR is:

    Playing a key role in the international Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project, the world's biggest ground-based telescope array.

    Attracting some of the world’s leading researchers in radio astronomy, who will also contribute to national and international scientific and technical programs for SKA and ASKAP.
    Creating a collaborative environment for scientists and engineers to engage and work with industry to produce studies, prototypes and systems linked to the overall scientific success of the SKA, MWA and ASKAP.

    Murchison Widefield Array,SKA Murchison Widefield Array, Boolardy station in outback Western Australia, at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO)

    A Small part of the Murchison Widefield Array

    Curtin University (formerly known as Curtin University of Technology and Western Australian Institute of Technology) is an Australian public research university based in Bentley and Perth, Western Australia. The university is named after the 14th Prime Minister of Australia, John Curtin, and is the largest university in Western Australia, with over 58,000 students (as of 2016).

    Curtin was conferred university status after legislation was passed by the Parliament of Western Australia in 1986. Since then, the university has been expanding its presence and has campuses in Singapore, Malaysia, Dubai and Mauritius. It has ties with 90 exchange universities in 20 countries. The University comprises five main faculties with over 95 specialists centres. The University formerly had a Sydney campus between 2005 & 2016. On 17 September 2015, Curtin University Council made a decision to close its Sydney campus by early 2017.

    Curtin University is a member of Australian Technology Network (ATN), and is active in research in a range of academic and practical fields, including Resources and Energy (e.g., petroleum gas), Information and Communication, Health, Ageing and Well-being (Public Health), Communities and Changing Environments, Growth and Prosperity and Creative Writing.

    It is the only Western Australian university to produce a PhD recipient of the AINSE gold medal, which is the highest recognition for PhD-level research excellence in Australia and New Zealand.

    Curtin has become active in research and partnerships overseas, particularly in mainland China. It is involved in a number of business, management, and research projects, particularly in supercomputing, where the university participates in a tri-continental array with nodes in Perth, Beijing, and Edinburgh. Western Australia has become an important exporter of minerals, petroleum and natural gas. The Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited the Woodside-funded hydrocarbon research facility during his visit to Australia in 2005.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:11 pm on August 8, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Curtin University, , Metamorphic rocks are those that transform as they are buried and heated when tectonic plates grind together., , Plate Techtonics origins, Plate tectonics evolved gradually over the past 2.5 billion years as our planet slowly cooled   

    From Curtin University: “Curtin research helps solve mystery of when plate tectonics emerged” 

    From Curtin University

    8 August 2019

    Lucien Wilkinson
    Media Consultant
    Supporting Humanities and Science and Engineering
    Tel: +61 8 9266 9185
    Mob: +61 401 103 683
    lucien.wilkinson@curtin.edu.au

    Yasmine Phillips
    Media Relations Manager, Public Relations
    Tel: +61 8 9266 9085
    Mob: +61 401 103 877
    yasmine.phillips@curtin.edu.au

    New Curtin University research into how Earth’s rocks formed billions of years ago has helped unlock the mystery of how the planet’s unique plate tectonic behaviour changed over its more than four billion-year lifetime.

    1

    In the article. No image credit.

    The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in 1996, USGS.

    The research, published in Nature today, found that by comparing the temperature, pressure and age of ancient rocks, it was revealed that plate tectonics evolved gradually over the past 2.5 billion years as our planet slowly cooled.

    Lead Australian researcher Dr Tim Johnson, from the School of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Curtin University, said the new research helped settle the ongoing debate of when and how earth’s plate tectonics system began.

    “Metamorphic rocks are those that transform as they are buried and heated when tectonic plates grind together. Not only are they exceptionally beautiful, they may also hold the key to unlocking the mystery of how Earth’s unique plate tectonic behaviour changed throughout time,” Dr Johnson said.

    “Some geologists consider that Earth has had plate tectonics throughout its four-and-a-half billion-year existence, whereas others consider that plate tectonics appeared abruptly some one billion years ago.

    “Using a simple statistical analysis of the temperature, pressure and age of metamorphic rocks, we have revealed that plate tectonics evolved gradually over the past 2.5 billion years as our planet slowly cooled.”

    Dr Johnson said a large focus of the research was on how Earth’s tectonic processes might have changed through the Proterozoic Eon, 2.5 billion to 0.54 billion years ago, which represents nearly half of Earth’s history.

    “There is debate as to whether the plate tectonic processes we observe today can be used to interpret really ancient rocks or if Earth’s tectonic processes were fundamentally different in the deep geological past,” Dr Johnson said.

    “Understanding how the ancient Earth was different to the modern Earth is key to accurately interpreting how Earth’s rocks formed and why they are distributed across the continents in the patterns that we see, including where mineral resources occur, how extensive they might be, and where additional resources might be found.”

    The research paper was co-authored by Dr Robert Holder and Professor Daniel Viete of Johns Hopkins University and Professor Michael Brown from the University of Maryland.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Curtin University (formerly known as Curtin University of Technology and Western Australian Institute of Technology) is an Australian public research university based in Bentley and Perth, Western Australia. The university is named after the 14th Prime Minister of Australia, John Curtin, and is the largest university in Western Australia, with over 58,000 students (as of 2016).

    Curtin was conferred university status after legislation was passed by the Parliament of Western Australia in 1986. Since then, the university has been expanding its presence and has campuses in Singapore, Malaysia, Dubai and Mauritius. It has ties with 90 exchange universities in 20 countries. The University comprises five main faculties with over 95 specialists centres. The University formerly had a Sydney campus between 2005 & 2016. On 17 September 2015, Curtin University Council made a decision to close its Sydney campus by early 2017.

    Curtin University is a member of Australian Technology Network (ATN), and is active in research in a range of academic and practical fields, including Resources and Energy (e.g., petroleum gas), Information and Communication, Health, Ageing and Well-being (Public Health), Communities and Changing Environments, Growth and Prosperity and Creative Writing.

    It is the only Western Australian university to produce a PhD recipient of the AINSE gold medal, which is the highest recognition for PhD-level research excellence in Australia and New Zealand.

    Curtin has become active in research and partnerships overseas, particularly in mainland China. It is involved in a number of business, management, and research projects, particularly in supercomputing, where the university participates in a tri-continental array with nodes in Perth, Beijing, and Edinburgh. Western Australia has become an important exporter of minerals, petroleum and natural gas. The Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited the Woodside-funded hydrocarbon research facility during his visit to Australia in 2005.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:39 am on July 8, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Curtin University, , The thickness of the tiny rectangular-shaped nanocrystals called nanoplatelets could be controlled with atomic precision., Tiny ‘greener’ nanocrystals that can be manipulated to produce high-quality pictures and lighting in electronic devices such as televisions.   

    From Curtin University: “Tiny nanocrystals create ‘brighter’ future for TV viewers, study finds” 

    From Curtin University

    8 July 2019

    Lucien Wilkinson
    Media Consultant
    Supporting Humanities and Science and Engineering
    Tel: +61 8 9266 9185
    Mob: +61 401 103 683
    lucien.wilkinson@curtin.edu.au

    Yasmine Phillips
    Media Relations Manager, Public Relations
    Tel: +61 8 9266 9085
    Mob: +61 401 103 877
    yasmine.phillips@curtin.edu.au

    Curtin University researchers have discovered tiny ‘greener’ nanocrystals that can be manipulated to produce high-quality pictures and lighting in electronic devices such as televisions.

    The research, published in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, found that the thickness of the tiny rectangular-shaped nanocrystals, called nanoplatelets, could be controlled with atomic precision, and can be used to improve the brightness and colour performance displayed on an LCD screen.

    Lead researcher ARC DECRA Fellow Dr Guohua Jia, from Curtin’s School of Molecular and Life Sciences and the Curtin Institute for Functional Molecules and Interfaces, said manufacturers were constantly searching for products with unprecedented picture quality given the high demand and competition in the electronics industry.

    “A popular choice by consumers are quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLED) televisions, which use quantum dots to produce better brightness and a wider colour spectrum. The dots act like an activation layer when applied on a blue LED backlight, producing a more saturated and wider colour gamut,” Dr Jia said.

    “Our research explored whether we could improve the picture and lighting quality in similar electronic devices by creating a new form of nanocrystal. We were able to create these by using a wet-chemical, ‘bottom-up’ method, in which chemicals in their ionic phase react in a solvent in the presence of organic ligands such as amine.

    “Due to their unique shape and thickness, the nanocrystals produce colour that is much more pure. If they are used in electronic devices, they can greatly improve the lighting and picture quality by generating more vivid colours.”

    Dr Jia explained that the rectangular-shaped nanocrystals were non-toxic and ‘greener’ in comparison to other nanocrystals commonly used in similar devices and do not contain heavy-metal compounds.

    “The method that we invented can produce the nanocrystals in a large scale. This is valuable for industrial applications, as it can greatly improve the production of nanocrystals that can be used in electronic devices such as QLED televisions,” Dr Jia said.

    “The collaboration between several research groups around the world including Professor Chunsen Li from Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Dr Amit Sitt from Tel Aviv University in Israel, each with its unique capabilities and knowledge base, allowed us to tackle this unique problem both experimentally and theoretically, and may open the way for the development of new and exciting materials and technologies.

    “This research also underpinned a Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) application, and our team is looking for commercial and development partners to progress the commercialisation of this important research outcome.”

    The research was co-authored by researchers from the WA School of Mines: Minerals, Energy and Chemical Engineering at Curtin University, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), The University of Western Australia and Tel Aviv University, in Israel.

    The research was funded by an Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (ARC DECRA).

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Curtin University (formerly known as Curtin University of Technology and Western Australian Institute of Technology) is an Australian public research university based in Bentley and Perth, Western Australia. The university is named after the 14th Prime Minister of Australia, John Curtin, and is the largest university in Western Australia, with over 58,000 students (as of 2016).

    Curtin was conferred university status after legislation was passed by the Parliament of Western Australia in 1986. Since then, the university has been expanding its presence and has campuses in Singapore, Malaysia, Dubai and Mauritius. It has ties with 90 exchange universities in 20 countries. The University comprises five main faculties with over 95 specialists centres. The University formerly had a Sydney campus between 2005 & 2016. On 17 September 2015, Curtin University Council made a decision to close its Sydney campus by early 2017.

    Curtin University is a member of Australian Technology Network (ATN), and is active in research in a range of academic and practical fields, including Resources and Energy (e.g., petroleum gas), Information and Communication, Health, Ageing and Well-being (Public Health), Communities and Changing Environments, Growth and Prosperity and Creative Writing.

    It is the only Western Australian university to produce a PhD recipient of the AINSE gold medal, which is the highest recognition for PhD-level research excellence in Australia and New Zealand.

    Curtin has become active in research and partnerships overseas, particularly in mainland China. It is involved in a number of business, management, and research projects, particularly in supercomputing, where the university participates in a tri-continental array with nodes in Perth, Beijing, and Edinburgh. Western Australia has become an important exporter of minerals, petroleum and natural gas. The Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited the Woodside-funded hydrocarbon research facility during his visit to Australia in 2005.
    Contents

     
  • richardmitnick 8:16 am on March 22, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: ARC-Australian Research Council, , Curtin University,   

    From Curtin University: “New ARC-funded research uses new tool to examine world’s oldest rocks” 

    From Curtin University

    19 March 2019

    Yasmine Phillips
    Media Relations Manager, Public Relations
    Tel: +61 8 9266 9085
    Mob: +61 401 103 877
    yasmine.phillips@curtin.edu.au

    Curtin University researchers will develop a new fingerprinting tool capable of delving deeper into the Earth’s rock layers, in what promises to be an important development for Australia’s mining and petroleum sectors.

    The research will enhance industry’s understanding of the Earth’s sedimentary rocks by investigating case studies at the Yilgarn Craton, Australia’s premier gold and nickel province spanning from Meekatharra to WA’s South-West including Kalgoorlie, as well as the Canning Basin, located in the Kimberley, and the Northern Carnarvon Basin.

    The project secured $352,000 from the Australian Research Council’s Linkage Project scheme as part of the latest funding announcement made by the Federal Minister for Education, the Hon. Dan Tehan, today.

    Curtin University Acting Deputy Vice-Chancellor Research Professor Garry Allison said the research had potentially important implications for the mining and petroleum sectors.

    “Western Australia’s mineral and petroleum exports are major contributors to the Australian economy, but in recent years the number of significant discoveries has fallen and those that have been identified tend to be at greater depths,” Professor Allison said.

    “This new research will develop a new fingerprinting tool capable of shedding more light on some of the world’s oldest rocks with the aim of helping Australian mining and petroleum explorers to uncover major new mineral and hydrocarbon deposits.”

    The state-wide isotope-based research project will be led by Associate Professor Chris Kirkland and Professor Chris Elders, both from the School of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Curtin University.

    Curtin University researchers will work with Northern Star Resources and the Geological Survey of Western Australia, within the Department of Mines, Industry Regulation and Safety, on the project.

    As part of the latest round of ARC grants announced today, Curtin University researchers will also work on an international project, led by The University of Western Australia, that will test and review the success of teaching Einstein’s theories of space, time, matter, light and gravity. That project was awarded $898,560 in ARC funding.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Curtin University (formerly known as Curtin University of Technology and Western Australian Institute of Technology) is an Australian public research university based in Bentley and Perth, Western Australia. The university is named after the 14th Prime Minister of Australia, John Curtin, and is the largest university in Western Australia, with over 58,000 students (as of 2016).

    Curtin was conferred university status after legislation was passed by the Parliament of Western Australia in 1986. Since then, the university has been expanding its presence and has campuses in Singapore, Malaysia, Dubai and Mauritius. It has ties with 90 exchange universities in 20 countries. The University comprises five main faculties with over 95 specialists centres. The University formerly had a Sydney campus between 2005 & 2016. On 17 September 2015, Curtin University Council made a decision to close its Sydney campus by early 2017.

    Curtin University is a member of Australian Technology Network (ATN), and is active in research in a range of academic and practical fields, including Resources and Energy (e.g., petroleum gas), Information and Communication, Health, Ageing and Well-being (Public Health), Communities and Changing Environments, Growth and Prosperity and Creative Writing.

    It is the only Western Australian university to produce a PhD recipient of the AINSE gold medal, which is the highest recognition for PhD-level research excellence in Australia and New Zealand.

    Curtin has become active in research and partnerships overseas, particularly in mainland China. It is involved in a number of business, management, and research projects, particularly in supercomputing, where the university participates in a tri-continental array with nodes in Perth, Beijing, and Edinburgh. Western Australia has become an important exporter of minerals, petroleum and natural gas. The Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited the Woodside-funded hydrocarbon research facility during his visit to Australia in 2005.
    Contents

     
  • richardmitnick 11:20 am on March 21, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Autism Open Day aims to create ‘a better future’ for people on the spectrum", , Curtin Autism Research Group, Curtin University, Telethon Kids Institute   

    From Curtin University: “Autism Open Day aims to create ‘a better future’ for people on the spectrum” 

    From Curtin University

    18 March 2019

    Lauren Sydoruk
    Media Consultant
    Tel: +61 8 9266 4241
    Mob: +61 401 103 373
    lauren.sydoruk@curtin.edu.au

    Yasmine Phillips
    Media Relations Manager, Public Relations
    Tel: +61 8 9266 9085
    Mob: +61 401 103 877
    yasmine.phillips@curtin.edu.au

    Researchers from Curtin University and the Telethon Kids Institute will explore the strengths and skills that can help build a better future for people living on the spectrum at this year’s Autism Open Day.

    1

    Adults and children with autism, their families and the wider community are invited to attend the free annual event, which will include presentations from autistic adults and information on current research and programs aiming to support people with autism.

    Autism Open Day will mark the start of Curtin’s Research Rumble, a series of events that promote the innovative research projects being undertaken at Curtin University, from March 24 to 27.

    Curtin Autism Research Group (CARG) Director Professor Sonya Girdler, from the School of Occupational Therapy, Social Work and Speech Pathology at Curtin University, said only 42 per cent of Australian adults with autism participate in employment, compared to 53 per cent with other disabilities and 83 per cent without disabilities.

    “People with autism possess unique skills and qualities that include being punctual, having high attention to detail and a high tolerance for repetitive tasks, and these skills can be beneficial to many employers, especially in the technology and software development industries,” Professor Girdler said.

    “It is essential to prepare and mentor young adults with autism throughout their education to ensure they are ready to tackle the workforce. Employers can play an important role in supporting autistic people in work environments, making small changes to the workplace and tailoring job descriptions to match an autistic individual’s skill set and strengths.

    “Australia has historically performed poorly in creating employment opportunities for autistic individuals compared to other nations, but the combined work of researchers, employers, the autistic and the wider community is working to improve that and create a brighter future for people on the spectrum.”

    Professor Girdler explained that Autism Open Day offered a great opportunity for people with autism and their families to exchange knowledge and experiences in a safe environment.

    “Members of the public attending this year’s Autism Open Day will have access to a range of important information about pathway planning for school leavers with autism, quality of life tips for adults with autism, medication use amongst adults with autism, the transition to school, and peer-mentoring programs for university students with autism,” Professor Girdler said.

    Autism Open Day will be held in the Technology Park Function Centre, 2 Brodie Hall Drive, Bentley, on Sunday, 24 March, from 10am to 3pm. Further information can be found online here.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Curtin University (formerly known as Curtin University of Technology and Western Australian Institute of Technology) is an Australian public research university based in Bentley and Perth, Western Australia. The university is named after the 14th Prime Minister of Australia, John Curtin, and is the largest university in Western Australia, with over 58,000 students (as of 2016).

    Curtin was conferred university status after legislation was passed by the Parliament of Western Australia in 1986. Since then, the university has been expanding its presence and has campuses in Singapore, Malaysia, Dubai and Mauritius. It has ties with 90 exchange universities in 20 countries. The University comprises five main faculties with over 95 specialists centres. The University formerly had a Sydney campus between 2005 & 2016. On 17 September 2015, Curtin University Council made a decision to close its Sydney campus by early 2017.

    Curtin University is a member of Australian Technology Network (ATN), and is active in research in a range of academic and practical fields, including Resources and Energy (e.g., petroleum gas), Information and Communication, Health, Ageing and Well-being (Public Health), Communities and Changing Environments, Growth and Prosperity and Creative Writing.

    It is the only Western Australian university to produce a PhD recipient of the AINSE gold medal, which is the highest recognition for PhD-level research excellence in Australia and New Zealand.

    Curtin has become active in research and partnerships overseas, particularly in mainland China. It is involved in a number of business, management, and research projects, particularly in supercomputing, where the university participates in a tri-continental array with nodes in Perth, Beijing, and Edinburgh. Western Australia has become an important exporter of minerals, petroleum and natural gas. The Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited the Woodside-funded hydrocarbon research facility during his visit to Australia in 2005.
    Contents

     
  • richardmitnick 12:38 pm on January 29, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: AuScope, Curtin University, John de Laeter Research Centre at the University’s Bentley Campus, National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy, SHRIMP-Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe   

    From Curtin University: “Curtin home to new equipment that unlocks the secrets of the Universe” 

    From Curtin University

    29 January 2019

    Yasmine Phillips
    Media Relations Manager, Public Relations
    Tel: +61 8 9266 9085
    Mob: +61 401 103 877
    yasmine.phillips@curtin.edu.au

    Lucien Wilkinson
    Media Consultant
    Supporting Humanities and Science and Engineering
    Tel: +61 8 9266 9185
    Mob: +61 401 103 683
    lucien.wilkinson@curtin.edu.au

    Curtin University will be home to new equipment vital for gaining a better understanding of the Earth and its place in the Universe after AuScope received $5 million in Federal Government funding.

    AuScope supports the purchase, upgrade and maintenance of geochemical research infrastructure at Curtin and a new replacement Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) age-dating instrument will be installed at the John de Laeter Research Centre at the University’s Bentley Campus.

    Funded through the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy, the new SHRIMP will enable continued research and innovation at the world-leading zircon geochronology facility at the centre.

    Curtin University Vice-Chancellor Professor Deborah Terry congratulated the John de Laeter Research Centre team for presenting a strong case for funding to upgrade the existing 25-year-old SHRIMP.

    “A quarter of a century ago, Professor John de Laeter led a proposal to commission a new SHRIMP ion microprobe at Curtin, which would subsequently bring about new understandings of the Australian continent, the Earth’s tectonic plates and the age of the Solar System, among other breakthroughs,” Professor Terry said.

    “This new SHRIMP instrument will enable the continuation of the important research that has been demonstrated over many years as having tremendous benefit to government, industry and academia.

    “The funding allows our researchers to remain working at the forefront of a science that shapes our collective understanding of the Earth and its place in the Universe.”

    John de Laeter Research Centre Director Professor Brent McInnes said the SHRIMP instrument had played a huge role in the advancement of geoscience research in Australia and around the globe, enabling new scientific discoveries and reshaping the geological map of Australia.

    “The new funding will allow industry, government and academic researchers to undertake new Earth and planetary research, such as those related to deep drilling projects and asteroid sample return missions,” Professor McInnes said.

    The John de Laeter Research Centre has strong links with the Geological Survey of Western Australia and Geoscience Australia, and provides geochronology and isotope geoscience data critical to their missions of mapping and understanding the Australian continent and its resources.

    AuScope’s SHRIMP instrument forms part of the Earth Composition and Evolution infrastructure located at Curtin University, The University of Melbourne and Macquarie University.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Curtin University (formerly known as Curtin University of Technology and Western Australian Institute of Technology) is an Australian public research university based in Bentley and Perth, Western Australia. The university is named after the 14th Prime Minister of Australia, John Curtin, and is the largest university in Western Australia, with over 58,000 students (as of 2016).

    Curtin was conferred university status after legislation was passed by the Parliament of Western Australia in 1986. Since then, the university has been expanding its presence and has campuses in Singapore, Malaysia, Dubai and Mauritius. It has ties with 90 exchange universities in 20 countries. The University comprises five main faculties with over 95 specialists centres. The University formerly had a Sydney campus between 2005 & 2016. On 17 September 2015, Curtin University Council made a decision to close its Sydney campus by early 2017.

    Curtin University is a member of Australian Technology Network (ATN), and is active in research in a range of academic and practical fields, including Resources and Energy (e.g., petroleum gas), Information and Communication, Health, Ageing and Well-being (Public Health), Communities and Changing Environments, Growth and Prosperity and Creative Writing.

    It is the only Western Australian university to produce a PhD recipient of the AINSE gold medal, which is the highest recognition for PhD-level research excellence in Australia and New Zealand.

    Curtin has become active in research and partnerships overseas, particularly in mainland China. It is involved in a number of business, management, and research projects, particularly in supercomputing, where the university participates in a tri-continental array with nodes in Perth, Beijing, and Edinburgh. Western Australia has become an important exporter of minerals, petroleum and natural gas. The Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited the Woodside-funded hydrocarbon research facility during his visit to Australia in 2005.
    Contents

     
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