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  • richardmitnick 1:02 pm on December 12, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Climate change is intimately linked to our oceans, CSIROscope, Fish are helping feed a hungry world, industry and future research, , Oceans are the lungs of our planet, Piping hot marine research delivered to your door, The data we collect about biodiversity informs policy, We don’t know much about what dwells in the deep blue   

    From CSIROscope: “Piping hot marine research delivered to your door” 

    CSIRO bloc

    From CSIROscope

    1
    Every biodiversity surveys discovers new life in our oceans. Credit Asher Flatt.

    Did you order some world-class marine research? On 12 December 2014, our resolute research vessel Investigator was commissioned into service, delivering a flexible blue-water research platform for collaborative marine research in Australia.

    3
    RV Investigator

    Four years and forty voyages on, we‘re serving up four reasons why the marine research we deliver flavours your world.

    1) Oceans are the lungs of our planet

    Every breath you take, every move you make, the oceans have contributed more than half of your oxygen. In fact, marine photosynthesisers such as phytoplankton, are estimated to produce up to 80% of the world’s oxygen.

    The problem is, we don’t fully understand how changes in our oceans are impacting on phytoplankton populations. We know factors like ocean temperature and iron levels are important but we need better data on ocean inputs and dynamics to better understand ocean productivity.

    Research we deliver includes study of ocean properties to look at what makes for happy phytoplankton and, as a result, healthy ocean food webs and oxygen production.

    2) Fish are helping feed a hungry world

    Give a man a fish and feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and he will contribute towards a global fish catch estimated at over 120 million tonnes per year. The global harvest of fish has increased dramatically to meet the demands of growing populations, with recent studies estimating that four million fishing boats ply our oceans.

    For effective and sustainable fisheries management, we need to know about the size, distribution and health of fish populations, something that is poorly understood for fisheries globally (but slightly better for Australian waters).

    Our research contributes to the better management of fisheries through study of population sizes, changes and movements. This helps inform government and industry to manage fisheries so our increasing demand for fish doesn’t outstrip what our oceans can sustainably supply.

    2
    Investigator delivers piping hot marine research from ice edge to equator.

    3) Climate change is intimately linked to our oceans

    When the winds of change blow, we need to look to our oceans for answers. Our oceans help regulate the global climate by absorbing heat (possibly 90% of heat from global warming) and chemicals such as carbon dioxide.

    To understand and predict climate change, we need to understand the interaction between ocean and atmosphere, including how currents move energy and regulate temperature, and how chemicals are absorbed into the ocean.

    The research we deliver helps plug gaps in our knowledge by enabling long term ocean monitoring as well as targeted research into complex ocean systems that are poorly understood. The end result, more and better data, leading to better models and better predictions.

    4) We don’t know much about what dwells in the deep blue

    Imagine if every time you walked out the door you discovered a new species! Well, that’s what happens nearly every time we undertake biodiversity surveys in our oceans. We find new fish new corals, new molluscs, new worms, new algae – you name it, we find it. And then name it!

    A good reason to study and understand biodiversity is because it influences productivity. Recent studies have found that diverse fish communities are more productive and resistant to the impacts of climate change. For effective and sustainable management of our marine environment, we first need to know what’s down there.

    The data we collect about biodiversity informs policy, industry and future research. A recent report into life found in the Great Australian Bight, including during biodiversity surveys by RV Investigator, found 400 new species. This knowledge is already being used to better inform planning for future development in the region.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    SKA/ASKAP radio telescope at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Mid West region of Western Australia

    So what can we expect these new radio projects to discover? We have no idea, but history tells us that they are almost certain to deliver some major surprises.

    Making these new discoveries may not be so simple. Gone are the days when astronomers could just notice something odd as they browse their tables and graphs.

    Nowadays, astronomers are more likely to be distilling their answers from carefully-posed queries to databases containing petabytes of data. Human brains are just not up to the job of making unexpected discoveries in these circumstances, and instead we will need to develop “learning machines” to help us discover the unexpected.

    With the right tools and careful insight, who knows what we might find.

    CSIRO campus

    CSIRO, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, is Australia’s national science agency and one of the largest and most diverse research agencies in the world.

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  • richardmitnick 12:27 pm on December 5, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , CSIROSat-1 CubeSat, CSIROscope   

    From CSIROscope: “Good things come in small packages, satellites included” 

    CSIRO bloc

    From CSIROscope

    5 December 2018
    Tanya Griffiths

    1
    Artist Impression of CSIROSat-1 CubeSat. Credit: Inovor Technologies

    What’s roughly the size of a toaster but much more useful for Earth observation? Nanosatellites – aka CubeSats. Weighing in at just over one kilogram, CubeSats have a base size of 10cm x 10cm x 10cm. But because every scientist ever is a fan of Lego® building blocks, they’ve also made the cube base stackable so you can add expansion packs. And we’re adding a new breed of these miniature, low-cost satellites to our Earth observation capabilities.

    CubeStats are often used to demonstrate new technology to test new science, new concepts and new infrastructure. A customised selection of scientific instruments carry out specific research and miniaturised electronics conduct and communicate the scientific findings. What also makes these little cubes so versatile is that they can be grouped together into “constellations” to provide advanced mission concepts. Their size and weight also add to their appeal as they can piggy-back a ride with other larger cargo heading up to the International Space Station, where they are launched into orbit around Earth. They generally have a short life-span – lasting about a year or two before their power components fail, and they burn up when they re-enter Earth’s atmosphere, but during their lifetime they provide a valuable science data collection. And this is where they punch well above their weight. CubeSats are rapidly evolving and pushing the research boundaries. Their “tech demonstrator” status means they are a viable option for trialling new scientific approaches and pilot infrastructure. And just recently two CubeSats did something no other CubeSat has done before – they travelled to another planet! In the recent InSight lander mission to Mars, two CubeSats developed by NASA accompanied the lander on its journey to the red planet. This was an amazing demonstration of their capability and potential to support the scientific exploration of interplanetary missions. It signalled a game changer for the scientific and technical scope of these low-cost, mini spacecrafts.

    Eye spy with my little space eye

    This week we took another step forward in expanding our stable of assets in Earth observation with the acquisition of a bespoke CubeSat with infrared sensing capability, the first of its kind in Australia.

    Known as CSIROSat-1, the new satellite will allow researchers to ‘see’ features that can’t otherwise be seen using optical satellites. This will be valuable for detecting bushfires through smoke, studying cloud formation and the development of tropical cyclones and much more. CSIROSat-1 is expected to support our approach to overcoming some of the challenges in monitoring the Australian landscape such as remote locations, areas of low population density and challenging environments. The development of our CSIROSat-1 is also a team effort – being built and assembled by South Australian space start-up Inovor Technologies. This research is supported by the Science and Industry Endowment Fund and in-kind contributions from collaboration research partners UNSW Canberra Space, Australian National University and Defence Science and Technology Group.

    For Australia, and our fledgeling space industry, this technology, along with the recently launched NovaSAR satellite, will be a valuable asset to our space technology portfolio.

    Being an Australian designed, controlled and operated CubeSat, it will offer the advantages of an optimised data stream customised for Australian users and near-real-time data access via Australian receiving stations. Good things really do come in small packages.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    SKA/ASKAP radio telescope at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Mid West region of Western Australia

    So what can we expect these new radio projects to discover? We have no idea, but history tells us that they are almost certain to deliver some major surprises.

    Making these new discoveries may not be so simple. Gone are the days when astronomers could just notice something odd as they browse their tables and graphs.

    Nowadays, astronomers are more likely to be distilling their answers from carefully-posed queries to databases containing petabytes of data. Human brains are just not up to the job of making unexpected discoveries in these circumstances, and instead we will need to develop “learning machines” to help us discover the unexpected.

    With the right tools and careful insight, who knows what we might find.

    CSIRO campus

    CSIRO, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, is Australia’s national science agency and one of the largest and most diverse research agencies in the world.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:58 am on November 16, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: ACC- Antarctic Circumpolar Current, , CSIROscope, ,   

    From CSIROscope: “Explainer: how the Antarctic Circumpolar Current helps keep Antarctica frozen” 

    CSIRO bloc

    From CSIROscope

    16 November 2018
    Helen Phillips
    Benoit Legresy
    Nathan Bindoff

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current, or ACC, is the strongest ocean current on our planet. It extends from the sea surface to the bottom of the ocean, and encircles Antarctica.

    It is vital for Earth’s health because it keeps Antarctica cool and frozen. It is also changing as the world’s climate warms. Scientists like us are studying the current to find out how it might affect the future of Antarctica’s ice sheets, and the world’s sea levels.

    The ACC carries an estimated 165 million to 182 million cubic metres of water every second (a unit also called a “Sverdrup”) from west to east, more than 100 times the flow of all the rivers on Earth. It provides the main connection between the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

    The tightest geographical constriction through which the current flows is Drake Passage, where only 800 km separates South America from Antarctica. While elsewhere the ACC appears to have a broad domain, it must also navigate steep undersea mountains that constrain its path and steer it north and south across the Southern Ocean.

    1
    Scientists deploying a vertical microstructure profiler (VMP-2000), which measures temperature, salinity, pressure and turbulence, from RV Investigator in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, November 2018. Photo credit: Nathan Bindoff.

    What is the Antarctic Circumpolar Current?

    A satellite view over Antarctica reveals a frozen continent surrounded by icy waters. Moving northward, away from Antarctica, the water temperatures rise slowly at first and then rapidly across a sharp gradient. It is the ACC that maintains this boundary.

    2
    Map of the ocean surface temperature as measured by satellites and analysed by the European Copernicus Marine Services. The sea ice extent around the antarctic continent for this day appears in light blue. The two black lines indicate the long term position of the southern and northern front of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

    The ACC is created by the combined effects of strong westerly winds across the Southern Ocean, and the big change in surface temperatures between the Equator and the poles.

    Ocean density increases as water gets colder and as it gets more salty. The warm, salty surface waters of the subtropics are much lighter than the cold, fresher waters close to Antarctica. We can imagine that the depth of constant density levels slopes up towards Antarctica.

    The westerly winds make this slope steeper, and the ACC rides eastward along it, faster where the slope is steeper, and weaker where it’s flatter.

    Fronts and bottom water

    In the ACC there are sharp changes in water density known as fronts. The Subantarctic Front to the north and Polar Front further south are the two main fronts of the ACC (the black lines in the images). Both are known to split into two or three branches in some parts of the Southern Ocean, and merge together in other parts.

    Scientists can figure out the density and speed of the current by measuring the ocean’s height, using altimeters. For instance, denser waters sit lower and lighter waters stand taller, and differences between the height of the sea surface give the speed of the current.

    3
    Map of how fast the waters around Antarctica are moving in an easterly direction. It is produced using 23 years of satellite altimetry (ocean height) observations as provided by the European Copernicus Marine Services. Author provided.

    The path of the ACC is a meandering one, because of the steering effect of the sea floor, and also because of instabilities in the current.

    The ACC also plays a part in the meridional (or global) overturning circulation, which brings deep waters formed in the North Atlantic southward into the Southern Ocean. Once there it becomes known as Circumpolar Deep Water, and is carried around Antarctica by the ACC. It slowly rises toward the surface south of the Polar Front.

    Once it surfaces, some of the water flows northward again and sinks north of the Subarctic Front. The remaining part flows toward Antarctica where it is transformed into the densest water in the ocean, sinking to the sea floor and flowing northward in the abyss as Antarctic Bottom Water. These pathways are the main way that the oceans absorb heat and carbon dioxide and sequester it in the deep ocean.

    Changing current

    The ACC is not immune to climate change. The Southern Ocean has warmed and freshened in the upper 2,000 m. Rapid warming and freshening has also been found in the Antarctic Bottom Water, the deepest layer of the ocean.

    Waters south of the Polar Front are becoming fresher due to increased rainfall there, and waters to the north of the Polar Front are becoming saltier due to increased evaporation. These changes are caused by human activity, primarily through adding greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and depletion of the ozone layer. The ozone hole is now recovering but greenhouse gases continue to rise globally.

    Winds have strengthened by about 40% over the Southern Ocean over the past 40 years. Surprisingly, this has not translated into an increase in the strength of the ACC. Instead there has been an increase in eddies that move heat towards the pole, particularly in hotspots such as Drake Passage, Kerguelen Plateau, and between Tasmania and New Zealand.

    We have observed much change already. The question now is how this increased transfer of heat across the ACC will impact the stability of the Antarctic ice sheet, and consequently the rate of global sea-level rise.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    SKA/ASKAP radio telescope at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Mid West region of Western Australia

    So what can we expect these new radio projects to discover? We have no idea, but history tells us that they are almost certain to deliver some major surprises.

    Making these new discoveries may not be so simple. Gone are the days when astronomers could just notice something odd as they browse their tables and graphs.

    Nowadays, astronomers are more likely to be distilling their answers from carefully-posed queries to databases containing petabytes of data. Human brains are just not up to the job of making unexpected discoveries in these circumstances, and instead we will need to develop “learning machines” to help us discover the unexpected.

    With the right tools and careful insight, who knows what we might find.

    CSIRO campus

    CSIRO, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, is Australia’s national science agency and one of the largest and most diverse research agencies in the world.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:00 am on November 6, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: 1983–2018 in scientific illustration, CSIROscope, Early programs morphed into the familiar Adobe Photoshop Adobe Illustrator and Corel Draw. They radically changed my world. We went from black-and-white to full colour, In a black-and-white world the tools of trade for a scientific illustrator were pencil pen Letraset – sticky letters for labeling illustrations, In the mid 1980's computers arrived in our Entomology graphics departments, New approaches such as 3-D scanning 3-D printing CT scanning and the amazing new software packages required to process this new type of data are developing, Pen to pixel, Pencil drawings were converted to ink using Rotring pens, The first technology to produce a change in these methods was a large static camera called a Process Camera, The video camera gave way to high-resolution digital cameras with automated focusing software culminating in the Visionary Digital BK system widely used in ANIC today   

    From CSIROscope: “Pen to pixel, 1983–2018 in scientific illustration” 

    CSIRO bloc

    From CSIROscope

    1 November 2018
    Anne Hastings

    1
    In a black-and-white world, the tools of trade for a scientific illustrator were pencil, pen, Letraset – sticky letters for labeling illustrations, and stippling – a technique used to represent light and shade in an ink drawing. These old methods give way to pixels, full colour, digital controls, Bézier curves and text tools.

    When I started here at CSIRO in the early eighties, pen, pencil and ink were the tools of trade for a scientific illustrator. How things have changed!

    An illustration began with the specimen under the microscope. A camera lucida attached to the side of the microscope reflected the image of the insect onto a piece of paper. Here the hand of the illustrator holding the pencil could be seen superimposed over the specimen. The insect could then be traced, ensuring complete accuracy. Evidence suggests that Vermeer employed a similar trick for his Dutch Interiors.

    Often the legs, wings and body of the insect were twisted and tangled. This required each component to be drawn separately, untangled and re-joined to produce a well conformed drawing.

    Pencil drawings were converted to ink using Rotring pens. These pens held a quantity of black ink in the same way a syringe holds fluid. Pens with nibs of specific thickness were available and using these, the outline of the pencil drawing was traced through a transparent medium — either drafting velum, or by employing a light-table. Making a tonal drawing to feature the specimen as a three-dimensional object was easy with pencil but tricky with pen. With pen, you used a technique called stippling — a method that involved building up the tone by making small individual dots of ink at different densities. This was a time-consuming process.

    The first technology to produce a change in these methods was a large static camera called a Process Camera; it was about 1900 mm wide, 1400 mm high and 900 mm deep. The camera was housed in a large dark room, along with chemical developers and a clothes line for hanging up the developing images. It produced a hard copy called a bromide.

    2
    John Lawrence and Anne Hastings preparing Beetles of the World, to be published on a CD-ROM. This was our second digital product after Beetle Larvae of the World. Partly visible over John’s shoulder is a video camera, on top of a microscope. We used this camera to create the visual content for the interactive identification key and information system for Beetles of the World.

    Using this camera, a toned pencil drawing was photographed through a fine screen that converted the pencil tones into stipples in the way that black-and-white photographs were prepared for newspaper publication. Although still time consuming, it was an improvement over the time taken to stipple an ink drawing.

    Then, in the mid 1980s, computers arrived in our Entomology graphics departments. They brought two new approaches: a pixel-based program called “Digital Darkroom” and a Bézier curve program for drawing mathematically determined curves and lines, thus making them independent of pixels and resolution.

    These early programs morphed into the familiar Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator and Corel Draw. They radically changed my world. We went from black-and-white to full colour, from using the convention of broken inked lines to indicate transparency to having the ability to actually make structures transparent! There was so much to learn and so many new ways of doing things. It was an exciting time for an illustrator.

    The next change was replacement of the camera lucida with a video camera mounted on top of the microscope. The resolution was low, but we could take photographs of sections of the subject matter under high magnification and then stitch the images together to make a high-resolution composite.

    In time, the video camera gave way to high-resolution digital cameras with automated focusing software, culminating in the Visionary Digital BK system widely used in ANIC today.

    John Lawrence, Mike Dallwitz, Matt Colloff, Adam Ślipiński and David Yeates were all influential in the transition of scientific illustration to digital media. One of the early products I worked on with John Lawrence and Mike Dallwitz was Beetles of the World, an interactive key and information system. It was produced as a CD-ROM, a technology now superseded by other digital technologies such as the World Wide Web.

    Interactive identification keys and supporting material could go online. HTML and coding languages to control websites and keys became part of the mix of new tools and skills required by an illustrator.

    In 2018 there is no sign of developments slowing. Three dimensions seems to be the next frontier. New approaches such as 3-D scanning, 3-D printing, CT scanning and the amazing new software packages required to process this new type of data are developing.

    All in all, it has been quite a journey.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    SKA/ASKAP radio telescope at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Mid West region of Western Australia

    So what can we expect these new radio projects to discover? We have no idea, but history tells us that they are almost certain to deliver some major surprises.

    Making these new discoveries may not be so simple. Gone are the days when astronomers could just notice something odd as they browse their tables and graphs.

    Nowadays, astronomers are more likely to be distilling their answers from carefully-posed queries to databases containing petabytes of data. Human brains are just not up to the job of making unexpected discoveries in these circumstances, and instead we will need to develop “learning machines” to help us discover the unexpected.

    With the right tools and careful insight, who knows what we might find.

    CSIRO campus

    CSIRO, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, is Australia’s national science agency and one of the largest and most diverse research agencies in the world.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:06 pm on October 31, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , CSIRO’s Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder, CSIROscope, ,   

    From CSIROscope: “The search for the source of a mysterious fast radio burst comes relatively close to home” 

    CSIRO bloc

    From CSIROscope

    31 October 2018
    Elizabeth Mahony

    1
    Antennas of CSIRO’s Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) radio telescope first picked up the Fast Radio Burst. CSIRO/Alex Cherney, Author provided.

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are just that – enormous blasts of radio waves from space that only last for a fraction of a second. This makes pinpointing their source a huge challenge.

    Our team recently discovered 20 new FRBs using CSIRO’s Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder in the Western Australian outback, almost doubling the known number of FRBs.

    In follow-up research, published today in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, we have taken one of these new detections – known as FRB 171020 (the day the radio waves arrived at Earth: October 20, 2017) – and narrowed down the location to a galaxy close to our own.

    This is the closest FRB detected (so far) but we still don’t know what causes these mysterious radio bursts that can contain more energy than our Sun produces in decades.

    Waves in space

    As radio waves travel through the universe they pass through other galaxies and our own Milky Way before arriving at our telescopes.

    The longer radio wavelengths are slowed down more than the shorter wavelengths, meaning that there is a slight delay in the arrival time of longer wavelengths.

    This difference in arrival times is called the dispersion measure and indicates the amount of matter the radio emission has travelled through.

    FRB 171020 has the lowest dispersion measure of any FRB detected to date, meaning that it hasn’t travelled from half way across the universe like most of the other FRBs detected so far. That means it originated from relatively nearby (by astronomical standards).By using models of the distribution of matter in the universe we can put a hard limit on how far the radio signal has travelled. For this particular FRB, we estimate that it could not have originated from further than a billion light years away, and likely occurred much closer. (Our Milky Way galaxy is about 100,000 light years across.)This distance limit, combined with the sky area we know the FRB came from (an area half a square degree – or roughly two full Moons across) enormously narrows down the search volume to look for the host galaxy.

    Closing in

    A region of the sky this size typically contains hundreds of galaxies. We used giant optical telescopes in Chile – including the appropriately named Very Large Telescope and Gemini South – to derive distances to these galaxies by either measuring their redshifts directly, or by using their optical colours to estimate their distance.

    ESO VLT at Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert, •ANTU (UT1; The Sun ),
    •KUEYEN (UT2; The Moon ),
    •MELIPAL (UT3; The Southern Cross ), and
    •YEPUN (UT4; Venus – as evening star).
    elevation 2,635 m (8,645 ft) from above Credit J.L. Dauvergne & G. Hüdepohl atacama photo


    Gemini South telescope, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) campus near La Serena, Chile, at an altitude of 7200 feet

    This allowed us to drastically reduce the number of possible galaxies within the distance limit to just 16.

    By far the closest, and we believe most likely to host the FRB, is a nearby spiral galaxy called ESO 601-G036. This is 120 million light years away – making this FRB host almost our next door neighbour.

    3
    Optical image of the search area from the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS). The circles mark possible host galaxies for FRB 171020, but these are all much further away than the most likely galaxy ESO 601-G036, shown in the lower left as a three-colour image from the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) ATLAS survey. ESO, Digitized Sky Survey and VST-ATLAS, Author provided.

    Part of ESO’s Paranal Observatory, the VLT Survey Telescope (VISTA) observes the brilliantly clear skies above the Atacama Desert of Chile. It is the largest survey telescope in the world in visible light.
    Credit: ESO/Y. Beletsky, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    What is particularly striking about this galaxy is that it shares many similar features to the only galaxy known to produce FRBs: FRB 121102.

    This FRB is also known as the repeating FRB due to its – so far unique – property of producing multiple bursts. This helped astronomers locate it to a small galaxy about more than 3 billion light years away.

    ESO 601-G036 is similar in size, and forming new stars at about the same rate, as the host galaxy of the repeating FRB.

    But there is one intriguing feature of the repeating FRB that we don’t see in ESO 601-G036.

    Other emissions

    In addition to repeat bursts of radio emission, the repeating FRB emits lower energy radio emission continuously.

    Using CSIRO’s Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) in Narrabri, NSW, we have searched for this persistent radio emission in ESO 601-G036. If it was anything like the repeater’s galaxy, it should have a boomingly bright radio source in it. We saw nothing.

    5
    The Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) used in the follow-up observations. CSIRO, Author provided

    Not only did we find that ESO 601-G036 doesn’t have any persistent radio emission, but there are no other galaxies in our search volume that show similar properties to that seen in the repeating FRB.

    This points to the possibility that there are different types of fast radio bursts that may even have different origins.

    Finding the galaxies that FRBs originate from is a big step towards solving the mystery of what produces these extreme bursts. Most FRBs travel much further distances so finding one so close to Earth allows us to study the environments of FRBs in unprecedented detail.

    The hunt for more

    Unfortunately, we can’t say with absolute certainty that ESO 601-G036 is the galaxy that FRB 171020 came from.

    The next big hurdle in understanding what causes FRBs is to pinpoint more of them. If we can do that we’ll be able to work out not only exactly which galaxy an FRB occurred in, but even where within the galaxy it occurred.

    If FRBs occur within the central nuclei of galaxies, this could perhaps point to black holes as their source. Or do they prefer the outskirts of galaxies? Or regions where a lot of new stars have recently formed? There are still so many unknowns about FRBs.

    Several radio telescopes around the world are commissioning systems to pinpoint bursts. Our study has shown that by combining observations from radio and optical telescopes we’ll be able to paint a complete picture of FRB host galaxies, and be able to finally determine what causes these FRBs.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    SKA/ASKAP radio telescope at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Mid West region of Western Australia

    So what can we expect these new radio projects to discover? We have no idea, but history tells us that they are almost certain to deliver some major surprises.

    Making these new discoveries may not be so simple. Gone are the days when astronomers could just notice something odd as they browse their tables and graphs.

    Nowadays, astronomers are more likely to be distilling their answers from carefully-posed queries to databases containing petabytes of data. Human brains are just not up to the job of making unexpected discoveries in these circumstances, and instead we will need to develop “learning machines” to help us discover the unexpected.

    With the right tools and careful insight, who knows what we might find.

    CSIRO campus

    CSIRO, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, is Australia’s national science agency and one of the largest and most diverse research agencies in the world.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:52 pm on October 30, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A possible source of gas for the enormous Magellanic Stream that encircles the Milky Way, ASKAP is unrivalled in the world for this kind of research due to its unique radio receivers that give it a panoramic view of the sky, Astronomers expect the SMC will ultimately be gobbled up by our own Milky Way, Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) radio telescope array, CSIROscope, Dying, not waving: nearby dwarf galaxy running out of gas,   

    From CSIROscope: “Dying, not waving: nearby dwarf galaxy running out of gas” 

    CSIRO bloc

    From CSIROscope

    30 October 2018
    Nicholas Kachel

    1
    A radio image of hydrogen gas in the Small Magellanic Cloud as observed by CSIRO’s ASKAP telescope. Image credit: Naomi McClure-Griffiths et al, CSIRO’s ASKAP telescope.

    Even though it’s on an astronomical timeline, a close intergalactic neighbour of ours known as the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is slowly dying.

    The SMC (named after famous Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan) is about 200,000 light years away, and is one of the furthest objects viewable in our skies with the naked eye. Astronomers from the Australian National University (ANU) and our own team have used our powerful Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) radio telescope array to capture images of the dwarf galaxy, observing a powerful outflowing of hydrogen gas from it.

    Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the Universe, and is the main ingredient of stars. But for every Sun sized star that the SMC makes, it loses up to 10 times that amount of this star-forming gas due to its (comparatively) weaker gravitational fields. If the SMC loses all its hydrogen it will eventually lose its ability to create new stars, slowly but surely fading into oblivion.

    Thankfully, we’re not talking a Macauley Caulkin post-Richie Rich timeline here: astronomers say the process will take billions of years.

    And it’s not all doom and gloom. This observation has helped confirm simulations developed by theorists on how small galaxies like the SMC might evolve.

    Lead researcher Professor Naomi McClure-Griffiths from ANU said the discovery, which is part of a project that investigates the evolution of galaxies, provided the first clear observational measurement of the amount of mass lost from a dwarf galaxy.

    “The result is also important because it provides a possible source of gas for the enormous Magellanic Stream that encircles the Milky Way,” she said.

    CSIRO co-researcher Dr David McConnell said ASKAP was unrivalled in the world for this kind of research due to its unique radio receivers that give it a panoramic view of the sky.

    “The telescope covered the entire SMC galaxy in a single shot and photographed its hydrogen gas with unprecedented detail,” he said.

    Astronomers expect the SMC will ultimately be gobbled up by our own Milky Way.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    SKA/ASKAP radio telescope at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Mid West region of Western Australia

    So what can we expect these new radio projects to discover? We have no idea, but history tells us that they are almost certain to deliver some major surprises.

    Making these new discoveries may not be so simple. Gone are the days when astronomers could just notice something odd as they browse their tables and graphs.

    Nowadays, astronomers are more likely to be distilling their answers from carefully-posed queries to databases containing petabytes of data. Human brains are just not up to the job of making unexpected discoveries in these circumstances, and instead we will need to develop “learning machines” to help us discover the unexpected.

    With the right tools and careful insight, who knows what we might find.

    CSIRO campus

    CSIRO, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, is Australia’s national science agency and one of the largest and most diverse research agencies in the world.

     
  • richardmitnick 7:00 am on September 18, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CSIROscope, , , Picture this: snap the sea for science   

    From CSIROscope: “Picture this: snap the sea for science” 

    CSIRO bloc

    From CSIROscope

    18 September 2018
    Natalie Kikken

    1
    Contributing to water quality monitoring, from the palm of your hand

    Most people often think of water as blue, but in reality, it rarely is. Sometimes it turns brown after a storm, other times there might be floating green things in it, and sometimes there might be a rainbow sheen on the surface. All of that information is invaluable to scientists when assessing the quality of water. So when you see it, snap it, upload it using the Eye on Water Australia app and you can help scientists get a global picture of water quality.

    A simple tool for complex science

    Eye on Water enables you to take a photo of water – both fresh and sea water – and upload it to the app. This helps us monitor changes to Australian waters such as algae blooms, seasonal changes, sediment and salinity.

    Water colour can be seen from space using satellite imagery however it can be easily affected by clouds, lighting and the time of day. The information you capture will feed into a global database to monitor water quality while supporting our extensive research to calibrate in-water measurements with satellite data to understand any changes.

    How does the app work?

    The first step is to grab your mobile and download the free app. Then head to your nearest water source that’s relatively deep – the photo can’t have the bottom of the river or ocean in the shot. Ideally, find a spot where the sun is behind you then snap a photo of water. Make sure we can’t see anything else in the photo, like your feet or your finger! Once you have uploaded your image, you will be asked to compare the colour of the water in your photo to a colour chart and submit it. And that’s your job done – you can now call yourself a citizen scientist! You can even create your own profile in the app so you can keep track of your valuable contributions.

    Hit us with your best shot

    The citizen science images are used to validate satellite imagery acquired by our scientists. This means that any small changes in a water system can be accurately detected and monitored over time, such as heavy rainfall or dredging.

    Users can learn about how regular tidal or seasonal patterns can affect water colour. Recognising specific water colour traits can also educate users on the uniqueness of the waters in their area and the expected and unexpected parameters of a healthy water system.

    Starting young: students leading the water charge

    We have been introducing Eye on Water to community groups, schools and education programs to bring science to life for students. This provides them with hands-on learning tools and scientific knowledge, plus the opportunity to use other water quality methods such as Secchi disks to test water clarity and water properties like pH, salinity, temperature and conductivity. This information can also feed into the app.

    We recently visited the Broome Senior High School Bushrangers Group to conduct water quality testing, and are planning to visit more schools this year.

    Eye on Water Australia is an effective way to capture more data on our oceans which will help us better understand its current conditions, monitor changes and the effect this can have on the future. Make a splash and join us to build on our aquatic knowledge – all from the palm of your hand!

    Get snapping!

    Download the Eye on Water app

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    SKA/ASKAP radio telescope at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Mid West region of Western Australia

    So what can we expect these new radio projects to discover? We have no idea, but history tells us that they are almost certain to deliver some major surprises.

    Making these new discoveries may not be so simple. Gone are the days when astronomers could just notice something odd as they browse their tables and graphs.

    Nowadays, astronomers are more likely to be distilling their answers from carefully-posed queries to databases containing petabytes of data. Human brains are just not up to the job of making unexpected discoveries in these circumstances, and instead we will need to develop “learning machines” to help us discover the unexpected.

    With the right tools and careful insight, who knows what we might find.

    CSIRO campus

    CSIRO, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, is Australia’s national science agency and one of the largest and most diverse research agencies in the world.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:53 am on August 24, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CSIROscope, ,   

    From CSIROscope: “How hydrogen power can help us cut emissions, boost exports, and even drive further between refills” 

    CSIRO bloc

    From CSIROscope

    24 August 2018
    Sam Bruce

    1
    Could this be the way to fill up in future?

    Hydrogen could become a significant part of Australia’s energy landscape within the coming decade, competing with both natural gas and batteries, according to our new roadmap for the industry.

    2

    Hydrogen gas is a versatile energy carrier with a wide range of potential uses. However, hydrogen is not freely available in the atmosphere as a gas. It therefore requires an energy input and a series of technologies to produce, store and then use it.

    Why would we bother? Because hydrogen has several advantages over other energy carriers, such as batteries. It is a single product that can service multiple markets and, if produced using low- or zero-emissions energy sources, it can help us significantly cut greenhouse emissions.

    2
    Potential uses for hydrogen. No image credit.

    Compared with batteries, hydrogen can release more energy per unit of mass. This means that in contrast to electric battery-powered cars, it can allow passenger vehicles to cover longer distances without refuelling. Refuelling is quicker too and is likely to stay that way.

    The benefits are potentially even greater for heavy vehicles such as buses and trucks which already carry heavy payloads, and where lengthy battery recharge times can affect the business model.

    Hydrogen can also play an important role in energy storage, which will be increasingly necessary both in remote operations such as mine sites, and as part of the electricity grid to help smooth out the contribution of renewables such as wind and solar. This could work by using the excess renewable energy (when generation is high and/or demand is low) to drive hydrogen production via electrolysis of water. The hydrogen can then be stored as compressed gas and put into a fuel cell to generate electricity when needed.

    Australia is heavily reliant on imported liquid fuels and does not currently have enough liquid fuel held in reserve. Moving towards hydrogen fuel could potentially alleviate this problem. Hydrogen can also be used to produce industrial chemicals such as ammonia and methanol, and is an important ingredient in petroleum refining.

    Further, as hydrogen burns without greenhouse emissions, it is one of the few viable green alternatives to natural gas for generating heat.

    Our roadmap predicts that the global market for hydrogen will grow in the coming decades. Among the prospective buyers of Australian hydrogen would be Japan, which is comparatively constrained in its ability to generate energy locally. Australia’s extensive natural resources, namely solar, wind, fossil fuels and available land lend favourably to the establishment of hydrogen export supply chains.

    Why embrace hydrogen now?

    Given its widespread use and benefit, interest in the “hydrogen economy” has peaked and troughed for the past few decades. Why might it be different this time around? While the main motivation is hydrogen’s ability to deliver low-carbon energy, there are a couple of other factors that distinguish today’s situation from previous years.

    Our analysis shows that the hydrogen value chain is now underpinned by a series of mature technologies that are technically ready but not yet commercially viable. This means that the narrative around hydrogen has now shifted from one of technology development to “market activation”.

    The solar panel industry provides a recent precedent for this kind of burgeoning energy industry. Large-scale solar farms are now generating attractive returns on investment, without any assistance from government. One of the main factors that enabled solar power to reach this tipping point was the increase in production economies of scale, particularly in China. Notably, China has recently emerged as a proponent for hydrogen, earmarking its use in both transport and distributed electricity generation.

    But whereas solar power could feed into a market with ready-made infrastructure (the electricity grid), the case is less straightforward for hydrogen. The technologies to help produce and distribute hydrogen will need to develop in concert with the applications themselves.

    A roadmap for hydrogen

    In light of this, the primary objective of our National Hydrogen Roadmap is to provide a blueprint for the development of a hydrogen industry in Australia. With several activities already underway, it is designed to help industry, government and researchers decide where exactly to focus their attention and investment.

    Our first step was to calculate the price points at which hydrogen can compete commercially with other technologies. We then worked backwards along the value chain to understand the key areas of investment needed for hydrogen to achieve competitiveness in each of the identified potential markets. Following this, we modelled the cumulative impact of the investment priorities that would be feasible in or around 2025.

    3

    What became evident from the report was that the opportunity for clean hydrogen to compete favourably on a cost basis with existing industrial feedstocks and energy carriers in local applications such as transport and remote area power systems is within reach. On the upstream side, some of the most material drivers of reductions in cost include the availability of cheap low emissions electricity, utilisation and size of the asset.

    The development of an export industry, meanwhile, is a potential game-changer for hydrogen and the broader energy sector. While this industry is not expected to scale up until closer to 2030, this will enable the localisation of supply chains, industrialisation and even automation of technology manufacture that will contribute to significant reductions in asset capital costs. It will also enable the development of fossil-fuel-derived hydrogen with carbon capture and storage, and place downward pressure on renewable energy costs dedicated to large scale hydrogen production via electrolysis.

    In light of global trends in industry, energy and transport, development of a hydrogen industry in Australia represents a real opportunity to create new growth areas in our economy. Blessed with unparalleled resources, a skilled workforce and established manufacturing base, Australia is extremely well placed to capitalise on this opportunity. But it won’t eventuate on its own.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    SKA/ASKAP radio telescope at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Mid West region of Western Australia

    So what can we expect these new radio projects to discover? We have no idea, but history tells us that they are almost certain to deliver some major surprises.

    Making these new discoveries may not be so simple. Gone are the days when astronomers could just notice something odd as they browse their tables and graphs.

    Nowadays, astronomers are more likely to be distilling their answers from carefully-posed queries to databases containing petabytes of data. Human brains are just not up to the job of making unexpected discoveries in these circumstances, and instead we will need to develop “learning machines” to help us discover the unexpected.

    With the right tools and careful insight, who knows what we might find.

    CSIRO campus

    CSIRO, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, is Australia’s national science agency and one of the largest and most diverse research agencies in the world.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:10 am on August 16, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CSIROscope, Samy Movassaghi,   

    From CSIROscope: Women in STEM- “The key to a STEM career? Curiosity, persistence and a knack for problem solving!” Samy Movassaghi 

    CSIRO bloc

    From CSIROscope

    16 August 2018
    Ali Green

    1
    On top of Samy’s work as a researcher, she is often sought after as a spokesperson for inspiring young people to take up a career in tech.

    It’s National Science Week and we’ve been taking a closer look at science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) careers and pathways – answering burning questions and debunking myths like: what kinds of opportunities can be found in a STEM career path? What current and future jobs rely on STEM skills? What kinds of people pursue STEM careers? Can I only become a physicist if I study physics?

    To answer some of these questions, we’re getting up close and personal with Telecommunications Engineer, 2017 Google Research Fellowship recipient and ICT Student of the Year, Samy Movassaghi to hear about some of the cool things she’s doing in her job, what sparked her interest in STEM, and the pathway that led to her becoming a STEM professional. Samy even has some tips for eager young STEM enthusiasts!

    2
    Samy developed an algorithm inspired by fireflies to help solve a communications network challenge.

    Tell us a bit about what you’re working on at the moment and how you got there.

    Samy: I work on wearable biomarker sensors, or “insideables” that can track our health. Specifically, communications between a network of intelligent, low-power, micro and nano-technology sensors which can be placed on or in the body (including in the blood stream) to monitor vitals and provide timely data for medical diagnoses and action. One potential advantage of this technology is early detection of medical conditions, resulting in major improvements to quality of life. These networks can be expanded beyond healthcare for use in sport, entertainment and many other areas with their main characteristic being to improve the user’s quality of life.

    Apparently some of this work was inspired by fireflies?

    Yeah, that’s right. I designed a self-organisation algorithm inspired by the way fireflies stimulate each other to communicate (flash their lights) which allows the coexisting networks to autonomously configure themselves when communicating. The difficulty is, these sensors, which are all battery powered, are placed on and in the body, making constant recharging and replacement impractical. A better solution would be to extend their battery life as much as possible. So, like a swarm of fireflies, my protocol allows the sensors to communicate with each other and power up and adapt their transmissions when needed, minimising the drain on their batteries.

    And what was your pathway to this job?

    Well, I did a PhD in telecommunications engineering. During this time I did a couple of internships and won a few awards like the ICT student of the year award from the Australian Computer Society (ACS) at the Digital Disruptor Awards, a Google Fellowship award that is funding me to go to Mountain View at the end of this month, being featured as part of the CSIROSeven campaign promoting STEM careers, Business Innovation in IT award from Nasscom Australia and some others!

    Wow that’s impressive! What were all these awards for?

    So they were mainly for my proposals and research work during my PhD studies, showcased across various competitions, and also the work that I had accomplished by participating in solving challenges at a number of hackathons.

    What type of personality traits or interests do you think lend themselves to a career in computers and tech?

    So this work is mainly about persistence and problem solving. For me, it’s just like wanting to solve a brain teaser or find my way through a maze – I like the challenge of finding a way to solve a problem.

    What’s the earliest step you remember taking on your education path towards a career in information technology (IT)?

    As a child I was quite lucky that my parents were very open to us exploring what we wanted to do. They would constantly buy me all these electronic starter kits, and I would put them together and then watch them work, progressing to more complex projects – and that’s how it all started. I was constantly inspired by remote controls, or anything electronic. I would pull them apart trying to understand what those circuits and components were all about and how they led to certain functionalities. I decided electronic engineering was my natural calling and so I pursued a bachelor degree to understand more around that. Later on I decided to look into the communication between circuits, which led to further research in telecommunications engineering through my Masters and PhD Studies.

    And for any young people looking to pursue a career similar to yours, what are your recommendations?

    Nowadays, even at the very early ages in primary school, I can see there are a lot of coding challenges and different competitions that really encourage students to pursue a career in STEM and get exposed to coding or building new applications for certain challenges within a specific area of demand.

    ____________________
    Over the next month there are a number of different events encouraging young people to get into ICT, one of which is the international Bebras computational thinking challenge. The Bebras challenge is designed to enhance students’ problem solving skills and prepare them for the jobs of the future. It’s a free classroom resource for teachers and runs 3-14 September. Visit the link below to take the Bebras Challenge.
    ____________________

    With how much urgency should we be promoting people to take up careers in STEM or ICT?

    With the recent advancements in the Internet of Things, machine learning, data science, and big data, a career in ICT is very promising for one’s future. As humans collect more and more data, having an IT background helps you to better understand the science behind the data and how it can be used to make decisions and improve ones’ quality of life. There are so many opportunities to marry IT knowledge with all sorts of other STEM disciplines – medical, environment and design for example.

    Do you have any final words of advice for someone thinking about pursuing a STEM career?

    In my case, I’m really happy that I chose a career in STEM because it has given me the opportunity to explore my world in another dimension. With all the advancements happening around us, my STEM background gives me a better understanding of our changing world, and makes me feel like I can make a contribution. That is very motivating and quite exciting.

    I’d recommend that students interested in a STEM career investigate the different competitions and challenges available to them. It’s a great way to sharpen and test your STEM skills set while having fun.

    ____________________

    How will your computational thinking skills prepare you for the jobs of the future?
    Take the Bebras Challenge

    ____________________

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    SKA/ASKAP radio telescope at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Mid West region of Western Australia

    So what can we expect these new radio projects to discover? We have no idea, but history tells us that they are almost certain to deliver some major surprises.

    Making these new discoveries may not be so simple. Gone are the days when astronomers could just notice something odd as they browse their tables and graphs.

    Nowadays, astronomers are more likely to be distilling their answers from carefully-posed queries to databases containing petabytes of data. Human brains are just not up to the job of making unexpected discoveries in these circumstances, and instead we will need to develop “learning machines” to help us discover the unexpected.

    With the right tools and careful insight, who knows what we might find.

    CSIRO campus

    CSIRO, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, is Australia’s national science agency and one of the largest and most diverse research agencies in the world.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:35 am on August 14, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CSIROscope, Dr. Cathy Foley, ,   

    From CSIROscope: Women in STEM- “We just appointed our new Chief Scientist and she is one ‘super woman’” Dr. Cathy Foley 

    CSIRO bloc

    From CSIROscope

    14 August 2018
    Nicholas Kachel

    1

    When Dr Cathy Foley was in primary school she found out she was dyslexic. She had terrible handwriting and spelling and was struggling in class. As one of seven kids, her brothers teased her relentlessly about her challenges with reading and writing. But she managed to turn her tribulation into determination and resilience. And those are traits that she still carries with her today. The teasing, she says, just helped push her even harder to prove them wrong.

    And then when she was just nine years old, her mother passed away. This obviously took a huge toll on Cathy but she says it helped teach her resilience and that even painful situations show you that you can move on and survive another day. In high school, Cathy had a teacher who picked up that although she was struggling in most of her subjects, she was excelling in one – science. At that stage, though, Cathy thought she’d channel this into becoming a science teacher.

    “I always thought you had to be sort of Einstein’s relative if you were going to be a physicist. But I still had that secret desire,” Cathy says.

    That teacher was one of Cathy’s first science mentors and she attributes some of her success to those formative years where she finally felt like she was doing well in a subject she enjoyed.

    It wasn’t until Cathy was at a youth camp that she realised she wanted to change the world. Her compassion for others and a sense of wanting to see more fairness in the world, changed the course of her career.

    ”At the youth camp, I found one on one interactions were frustrating for me. It was then that I decided I wanted to change the world rather than work face to face, one engagement at a time. Science and technology seemed like the way I could do this. And then CSIRO was the perfect vehicle for me to realise this vision.”

    She studied physics and education at Sydney’s Macquarie University with the intention of becoming a high school science teacher.

    “But I fell in love with research and I did my PhD in nitride semiconductors and did a smidgen of the early work that led to the white LED,” she says.

    Today Cathy’s achievements over a career spanning 33 years are pretty intimidating.

    Having decided to pursue a career in research, Cathy joined us as a post-doctoral fellow working in magnetics and was asked to join the team working on applications for the new high temperature superconductors.

    2

    Cathy is a world-renowned physicist and science leader most noted for her work developing superconducting systems including a technology called LANDTEM which uses superconductors to create three-dimensional maps of underground ore bodies. The device that Cathy helped develop has revolutionised the way mining companies detect ore underground and uncovered deposits worth billions of dollars around the world.

    Cathy has risen through the ranks here holding many senior positions is currently the Deputy Director and Science Director of our Manufacturing business unit.

    And in her latest venture, Cathy has just been appointed as our Chief Scientist. This is one of the most senior roles in the organisation and she says her priority will be putting science, STEM and women in science back in the spotlight.

    Although Cathy is now less involved in hands-on research than she used to be, she still finds her job exciting.

    “It’s pretty exciting to think that the work you do actually has an enormous impact and can make a difference. If you ask the people I work with, they all say that’s what they love about working at CSIRO. We do things that actually change the world and I think that’s a nice thing to do,” she says.

    Not only is she one of Australia’s leading scientists, has a Doctor of Philosophy in Physics, a Bachelor of Science and a Diploma of Education, but she is leading the way for women in science and encouraging the next generation of young girls to follow in her footsteps.

    “Australia’s future prosperity will be fuelled by science. Science which creates new industries, new jobs and shapes the minds and aspirations of our future leaders. We can’t keep thinking about science as something which is locked away in a lab. It connects and drives everything we touch and do.

    “In my new role, I’m looking forward to not just spreading the word, but helping shape the science agenda, raising the profile of the role of women in STEM and being a mentor to other women inspired by science.”

    Cathy credits much of her success to being supported by her family, particularly her husband, her six siblings and step-mother.

    “My step-mother helped me to not only have attention to detail, but also be organised. While my sisters and brothers have always been my mentors and greatest supporters. We all mentor each other swapping between being the mentor and mentee.”

    “And my husband Tony is a rock. Having a supportive husband and great children has been absolutely critical to my success.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    SKA/ASKAP radio telescope at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Mid West region of Western Australia

    So what can we expect these new radio projects to discover? We have no idea, but history tells us that they are almost certain to deliver some major surprises.

    Making these new discoveries may not be so simple. Gone are the days when astronomers could just notice something odd as they browse their tables and graphs.

    Nowadays, astronomers are more likely to be distilling their answers from carefully-posed queries to databases containing petabytes of data. Human brains are just not up to the job of making unexpected discoveries in these circumstances, and instead we will need to develop “learning machines” to help us discover the unexpected.

    With the right tools and careful insight, who knows what we might find.

    CSIRO campus

    CSIRO, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, is Australia’s national science agency and one of the largest and most diverse research agencies in the world.

     
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