European Southern Observatory
15 December 2015
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Observations from ESO telescopes provide crucial third dimension in probe of Universe’s dark side
ESO telescopes have provided an international team of astronomers with the gift of the third dimension in a plus-sized hunt for the largest gravitationally bound structures in the Universe — galaxy clusters. Observations by the VLT and the NTT complement those from other observatories across the globe and in space as part of the XXL survey — one of the largest ever such quests for clusters.
Galaxy clusters are massive congregations of galaxies that host huge reservoirs of hot gas — the temperatures are so high that X-rays are produced. These structures are useful to astronomers because their construction is believed to be influenced by the Universe’s notoriously strange components — dark matter and dark energy. By studying their properties at different stages in the history of the Universe, galaxy clusters can shed light on the Universe’s poorly understood dark side.
The team, consisting of over 100 astronomers from around the world, started a hunt for the cosmic monsters in 2011. Although the high-energy X-ray radiation that reveals their location is absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere, it can be detected by X-ray observatories in space. Thus, they combined an ESA XMM-Newton survey — the largest time allocation ever granted for this orbiting telescope — with observations from ESO and other observatories.
The result is a huge and growing collection of data across the electromagnetic spectrum , collectively called the XXL survey.
“The main goal of the XXL survey is to provide a well-defined sample of some 500 galaxy clusters out to a distance when the Universe was half its current age,” explains XXL principal investigator Marguerite Pierre of CEA, Saclay, France.
The XMM-Newton telescope imaged two patches of sky — each one hundred times the area of the full Moon — in an attempt to discover a huge number of previously unknown galaxy clusters. The XXL survey team have now released their findings in a series of papers using the 100 brightest clusters discovered .
Observations from the EFOSC2 instrument installed on the New Technology Telescope (NTT), along with the FORS instrument attached to ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT), also were used to carefully analyse the light coming from galaxies within these galaxy clusters.
Crucially, this allowed the team to measure the precise distances to the galaxy clusters, providing the three-dimensional view of the cosmos required to perform precise measurements of dark matter and dark energy .
The XXL survey is expected to produce many exciting and unexpected results, but even with one fifth of the final expected data, some surprising and important findings have already appeared.
One paper reports the discovery of five new superclusters — clusters of galaxy clusters — adding to those already known, such as our own, the Laniakea Supercluster.
The Laniakea Supercluster
Another reports followup observations of one particular galaxy cluster (informally known as XLSSC-116), located over six billion light-years away . In this cluster unusually bright diffuse light was observed using MUSE on the VLT.
“This is the first time that we are able to study in detail the diffuse light in a distant galaxy cluster, illustrating the power of MUSE for such valuable studies,” explained co-author Christoph Adami of the Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, Marseille, France.
The team have also used the data to confirm the idea that galaxy clusters in the past are scaled down versions of those we observe today — an important finding for the theoretical understanding of the evolution of clusters over the life of the Universe.
The simple act of counting galaxy clusters in the XXL data has also confirmed a strange earlier result — there are fewer distant clusters than expected based on predictions from the cosmological parameters measured by ESA’s Planck telescope.
The reason for this discrepancy is unknown, however the team hope to get to the bottom of this cosmological curiosity with the full sample of clusters in 2017.
These four important results are just a foretaste of what is to come in this massive survey of some of the most massive objects in the Universe.
 The XXL survey has combined archival data as well as new observations of galaxy clusters covering the wavelength range from 1 × 10—4 μm (X-ray, observed with XMM) to 492 μm (submillimetre range, observed with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope [GMRT]).
 The galaxy clusters reported in the thirteen papers are found at redshifts between z = 0.05 and z = 1.05, which correspond to when the Universe was approximately 13 and 5.7 billion years old, respectively.
 Probing the galaxy clusters required their precise distances to be known. While approximate distances — photometric redshifts — can be measured by analysing their colours at different wavelengths, more accurate spectroscopic redshifts are needed. Spectroscopic redshifts were also sourced from archival data, as part of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) and the GAMA survey.
 This galaxy cluster was found to be at a redshift of z = 0.543.
A description of the survey, and some of the early science results, will be presented in a series of papers to appear in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics on 15 December 2015.
XXL is an international project based around an XMM Very Large Programme surveying two 25 square degrees extragalactic fields at a depth of ~5 × 10–15 erg cm—2 s—1 in the [0.5—2] keV band for point-like sources. The XXL website is found here. Multi-band information and spectroscopic follow-up of the X-ray sources are obtained through a number of survey programmes is summarised here.
Scientific Papers in Astronomy & Astrophysics
The full XXL CONSORTIUM:
C. Adami (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, Marseille, FR)
S. Alis (Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, Nice, FR)
A. Alshino (University of Bahrain, BH)
B. Altieri (European Space Astronomy Center, Madrid, SP)
N. Baran (University of Zagreb, HR)
S. Basilakos (Research Center for Astronomy, Academy of Athens, GR)
C. Benoist (Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, Nice, FR)
M. Birkishaw (University of Bristol, UK)
A. Bongiorno (Rome Observatory, Italy)
V. Bouillot (Observatoire de Paris, FR)
M. Bremer (University of Bristol, UK)
T. Broadhurst (Basque University, Bilbao, SP)
M. Brusa (INAF-OABO, Bologna, IT)
A. Butler (University of Western Austalia, AU)
N. Cappelluti (INAF-OABO, Bologna, IT)
A. Cappi (INAF-OABO, Bologna, IT)
T. Chantavat (Naresuan University, TH)
L. Chiappetti (INAF-IASF, Milano, IT)
P. Ciliegi (INAF-OABO, Bologna, IT)
F. Civano (H. S. Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, US)
A. Comastri (INAF-OABO, Bologna, IT)
P. S. Corasaniti (Observatoire de Paris, FR)
J. Coupon (ASIAA, Taipei, TW)
N. Clerc (Service d’Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)
C. De Breuck (ESO Garching, DE)
J. Delhaize (University of Zagreb, HR)
J. Democles (University of Birmingham, UK)
Sh. Desai (University of Illinois, US)
J. Devriendt (University of Oxford, UK)
O. Dore (JPL Caltech, Pasadena, US)
Y. Dubois (University of Oxford, UK)
D. Eckert (ISCD, Geneva Observatory, CH)
L. Edwards (Mount Allison Observatory, CA)
D. Elbaz (Service d’Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)
A. Elyiv (University of Liege, BE)
S. Ettori (INAF-OABO, Bologna, IT)
A. E. Evrard (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, US)
L. Faccioli (Service d’Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)
A. Farahi (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, US)
C. Ferrari (Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, FR)
F. Finet (Aryabhatta Research institute for Observational Science, IN)
F. Fiore (Observatory of Roma, IT)
S. Fotopoulou (ISCD, Geneva Observatory, CH)
W. Forman (H. S. Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, US)
E. Freeland (Stockholm University)
P. Gandhi (ISAS, JAXA, Sagamihara, JP)
F. Gastadello (INAF-IASF, Milan, IT)
I. Georgantopoulos (Observatory of Athens, GR)
P. Gilles (University of Bristol, UK)
R. Gilli (INAF-OABO, Bologna, IT)
A. Goulding (H. S. Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, US)
Ch. Gordon (University of Oxford, UK)
L. Guennou (University of Kwazulu-Natal, ZA)
V. Guglielmo (Observatory of Padova, IT)
R. C. Hickox (Durham University, UK)
C. Horellou (Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala, SE)
K. Husband (University of Bristol, UK)
M. Huynh (University of Western Austalia, AU)
A. Iovino (INAF-OAB, Brera, IT)
Ch. Jones (H. S. Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, US)
S. Lavoie (University of Victoria, CA)
A. Le Brun (Service d’Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)
J.-P. Le Fevre (Service d’Informatique CEA, Saclay, FR)
M. Lieu (University of Birmingham, UK)
C.A Lin (Service d’Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)
M. Kilbinger (Service d’Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)
E. Koulouridis (Service d’Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)
Ch. Lidman (Australian Astronomical Observatory, Epping, AU)
M. Matturi (ITA/ZAH Heildelberg, DE)
B. Maughan (University of Bristol, UK)
A. Mantz (University of Chicago, US)
S. Maurogordato (Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, Nice, FR)
I. McCarthy (University of Liverpool, UK)
S. McGee (Leiden Univeristy, NL)
F. Menanteau (University of Illinois, US)
J.-B. Melin (Service de Physique des Particules CEA, Saclay, FR)
O. Melnyk (University of Liege, BE)
J. Mohr (University of Munich, DE)
S. Molnar (ASIAA, Taipei, TW)
E. Mörtsell (Stockholm University, SE)
L. Moscardini (University of Bologna, IT)
S. S. Murray (Jon Hopkins, Baltimore, US)
M. Novak (University of Zagreb, HR)
F. Pacaud (Argelander-Institut fur Astronomie, Bonn, DE)
S. Paltani (ISCD, Geneva Observatory, CH)
S. Paulin-Henriksson (Service d’Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)
E. Piconcelli (INAF, Roma Observatory, IT)
M. Pierre (Service d’Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)
T. Plagge (University of Chicago, US)
M. Plionis (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, GR)
B. Poggianti (Observatory of Padova, IT)
D. Pomarede (Service d’Informatique CEA, Saclay, FR)
E. Pompei (European Souhern Observatory, Garching, DE)
T. Ponman (University of Birmingham, UK)
M. E. Ramos Ceja (Argelander-Institut fur Astronomie, Bonn, DE)
P. Ranalli (Observatory of Athens, GR)
D. Rapetti (Copenhagen University, DK)
S. Raychaudhury (University of Birmingham, UK)
T. Reiprich (Argelander-Institut fur Astronomie, Bonn, DE)
H. Rottgering (Leiden Observatory, NL)
E. Rozo (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, US)
E. Rykoff (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, US)
T. Sadibekova (Service d’Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)
M. Sahlén (University of Oxford, UK)
J. Santos (INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri, IT)
J.-L. Sauvageot (Service d’Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)
C. Schimd (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, Marseille, FR)
M. Sereno (University of Bologna, IT)
J. Silk (University of Oxford, UK)
G.P. Smith (University of Birmingham, UK)
V. Smolcic (University of Zagreb, HR)
S. Snowden (NASA, GSFC, US)
D. Spergel (Princeton University, US)
A. Stanford (University of California, Davis, US)
J. Surdej (University of Liege, BE)
K. Umetsu (ASIAA, Taipei, TW)
P. Valageas (Institut de Physique Theorique du CEA, Saclay, FR)
A. Valotti (Service d’Astrophysique CEA, Saclay, FR)
I. Valtchanov (European Space Astronomy Center, Madrid, SP)
C. Vignali (University of Bologna, IT)
J. Willis (University of Victoria, CA)
F. Ziparo (University of Birmingham, UK)
See the full article here .
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ESO is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It is supported by 16 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world’s most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and two survey telescopes. VISTA works in the infrared and is the world’s largest survey telescope and the VLT Survey Telescope is the largest telescope designed to exclusively survey the skies in visible light. ESO is a major partner in ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. And on Cerro Armazones, close to Paranal, ESO is building the 39-metre European Extremely Large Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become “the world’s biggest eye on the sky”.
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