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  • richardmitnick 1:20 pm on August 15, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: BioSAXS/HP-Bio Biological Small Angle X-ray Solution Scattering and High-Pressure Biology beamline., Cornell Chronicle, FlexX-Flexible Protein Crystallography beamline, MacCHESS Macromolecular X-ray science at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source., MacCHESS-Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), NYSTAR program will augment the award with up to $2.5 million over the next five years.   

    From Cornell Chronicle: “NIH awards $17.4 million to Cornell for CHESS subfacility” 

    From Cornell Chronicle

    August 15, 2019
    Rick Ryan
    cunews@cornell.edu

    1
    Richard Gillilan, MacCHESS staff scientist, loads a biological sample in preparation for X-rays. Cornell University

    A single human cell contains thousands of proteins that perform a vast array of functions, from fighting off viruses to transcribing DNA. By understanding the structure of these proteins, researchers can interpret their functions and develop methods for turning them on and off.

    To understand these biological processes, researchers have been using the high-energy X-rays at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). These intense beams of light are critical to solving the structure of these proteins, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will help ensure that this research continues.

    2
    Irina Kriksunov, MacCHESS research support specialist, loads a sample of protein crystals in preparation for X-rays.
    Cornell University

    On Aug. 15, the NIH awarded Cornell $17.4 million for MacCHESS (Macromolecular X-ray science at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source), a subfacility of CHESS that attracts hundreds of biomedical researchers each year.

    As part of its Empire State Development Division of Science, Technology and Innovation (NYSTAR) program to promote jobs in the state, New York state will augment the award with up to $2.5 million over the next five years.

    By using the X-rays and emerging technology at MacCHESS, researchers are able to observe cellular functions and analyze molecular interactions, yielding important insights into the most fundamental biological processes. This research is critical to understanding antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the development of cancer-fighting drugs, for example.

    “MacCHESS provides cutting-edge instrumentation and techniques to some of the most challenging questions confronting structural biologists,” said Rick Cerione, principal investigator for MacCHESS. “We are excited about working at the frontiers of structural biology to develop new technology that will provide long-term benefits to the biomedical research community as a whole.”

    Two experiment stations at MacCHESS are supported by this funding: the Flexible Protein Crystallography beamline (FlexX); and the Biological Small Angle X-ray Solution Scattering and High-Pressure Biology beamline (BioSAXS/HP-Bio).

    Researchers at the FlexX beamline will broadly focus on macromolecular crystallography (MX) and related methods that help determine the structures of proteins, viruses and nucleic acids, offering high-resolution 3D imaging that is needed for applications such as drug design.

    The BioSAXS/HP-Bio beamline will support researchers studying biomolecular structures in solution; high-pressure studies in biophysics; the structural biology of organisms living under high pressure and temperature (known as “deep life”); and food science. This beamline also will help researchers working on improved sterilization and processing methods in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

    CHESS recently completed a $15 million upgrade, solidifying the lab’s standing as a world-leading X-ray source. Earlier this year, Lt. Gov. Kathy Hochul came to CHESS to celebrate the successful completion of the upgrade, which was funded by New York state through the Upstate Revitalization Initiative.

    With this award, the NIH joins the NSF as a major contributing partner for user operations at CHESS. The NSF is funding the Center for High-Energy X-Ray Sciences at CHESS, or CHEXS, which consists of four beamlines and staff to support high-energy X-ray science user operations, X-ray technology research and development, and CHEXS leadership.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:32 pm on July 22, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Chess- Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, CHEXS @ CHESS, Cornell Chronicle, , While other synchrotron laboratories are traditionally located at national labs Cornell is the only U.S. university still operating a large accelerator complex.   

    From Cornell Chronicle: “Cornell announces $54M from NSF for new CHESS subfacility” 

    From Cornell Chronicle

    The Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, more commonly known as CHESS, entered a new era April 1.

    1
    Guebre Tessema, right, NSF materials research program director, tours the CHESS facility June 3 with CHESS director Joel Brock. Jason Koski/Cornell University

    A national research facility that annually attracts more than 1,200 users – who conduct X-ray analysis and collect data for research in materials, biomedical and other science fields – CHESS has been funded exclusively by the National Science Foundation since its commissioning in 1980. That changed in April, with Cornell transitioning to a new funding model in which multiple partners will steward facilities at CHESS.

    The NSF remains the largest of these contributing partners, and the science agency on July 18 announced that it will provide $54 million in federal funding over the next five years for a research and education subfacility at Wilson Laboratory, the home of CHESS.

    The NSF funding will be provided by its Division of Materials Research, the Directorate of Biology and the Directorate of Engineering.

    The newly funded NSF portion of the facility will be known as the Center for High-Energy X-ray Sciences at CHESS (CHEXS @ CHESS), and will include four beamlines and staff to support high-energy X-ray science user operations, X-ray technology research and development, and CHEXS leadership. In addition to research, CHEXS will support education and training, particularly of researchers in biological sciences, engineering and materials research.

    3
    Figure 1: New beamline sectors shown on the expanded floor space created by removing the CLEO detector (white rectangle), the CHESS West beamlines, power supplies in the west flare (shown occupied by sector 4 on left) and the west RF area (shown occupied by hutch ID3B).

    “The renewal of NSF funding for CHESS will ensure America and Cornell University remain at the the cutting edge of innovation in high-energy X-ray applications,” said Senate Minority Leader Charles Schumer, D-N.Y. “CHESS is a unique training ground for the scientific workforce we need to keep the U.S. competitive, and is part of the lifeblood of our scientific community, enabling researchers to make advancements in everything from clean energy technologies to stronger, more resilient infrastructure. I have been proud to fight and deliver funding to support CHESS and the NSF, and will continue to do so.”

    “CHESS is a groundbreaking facility that provides world-class scientific research to upstate New York and the nation, including our military,” said Sen. Kirstin Gillibrand, D-N.Y., ranking member of the Senate Armed Services Personnel Subcommittee. “This federal funding will be used to support the Center for High-Energy X-ray Sciences, which will advance the state’s research and high-tech manufacturing sectors. CHESS continues to be a leader in upstate New York’s innovation economy.”

    “By supporting CHEXS, NSF is furthering new, unique, experimental capabilities for emerging research in materials, engineering and biology,” said Guebre X. Tessema, NSF materials research program director. “The new funding model unleashes a reinvented CHESS to pursue new partnerships with other federal agencies, universities and industry.”

    “We are always excited to continue our relationship with the NSF,” said Joel Brock, CHESS director and professor of applied and engineering physics. CHESS’s most recent grant renewal from the NSF came in 2014.

    “This support goes a long way in already securing funding from additional partners,” Brock said, “and ensures that this vital X-ray facility will remain productive into the future.”

    On June 4, CHESS held its annual users’ meeting, where Brock and Tessema toured the CHEXS research facility, showcasing the expansive space available to researchers.

    CHESS recently completed a $15 million upgrade, solidifying the lab’s standing as a world-leading X-ray source. Earlier this year, Lt. Gov. Kathy Hochul came to CHESS to celebrate the successful completion of the upgrade, which was funded by New York state. This project improved the infrastructure of the storage ring and CHESS’s X-ray beamlines, while also creating jobs by helping to expand the advanced manufacturing sector of central New York.

    After the installation of new undulator sources in all of its X-ray beamlines, CHESS is now considered a true third-generation (state-of-the-art) light source, and is equipped for studies of materials at the macroscopic level.

    With the recent upgrade and CHEXS’s new five-year cooperative agreement from the NSF, the lab is taking the opportunity to engineer a major transition in its funding model and organizational structure.

    For more than 30 years, the NSF has been the sole steward of CHESS, providing the funding needed to operate the large facility. CHESS will now transition from sole stewardship by the NSF as a national user facility and into a partner-funded laboratory.

    According to Brock, this funding reconfiguration presents a rare opportunity to redistribute the nation’s synchrotron resources among research communities.

    “Diverse groups including plant biology, structural materials and advanced manufacturing are eager to utilize a much larger fraction of the nation’s available synchrotron resources,” said Brock. “Using X-rays is a highly desirable technique that can transform your research, and this new NSF funding will help us reach a wider user base.”

    While CHESS attracts in excess of 1,200 users from around the world to perform research at the facility, roughly half of the submitted research proposals are denied due to a lack of beamtime availability. By diversifying the funding sources, CHESS hopes also to diversify and expand the research of the lab.

    “Since the facility owns the equipment, the responsibility for beamlines can be reassigned among the funding partners quickly without having to transfer assets,” Brock said. “By enabling partners like the NSF to align their support with evolving research needs, CHESS is able to offer its new partners access to the synchrotron radiation facility more rapidly.”

    While other partners contribute money for research at the X-ray facility, the NSF will remain CHESS’s largest funding member of these partner organizations. This allows researchers to focus on using the high-flux X-rays at CHESS that are optimized for time-resolved, high-energy applications. These types of X-rays are ideal for researching quantum materials, fuel cells and high-pressure biological processes.

    While other synchrotron laboratories are traditionally located at national labs, Cornell is the only U.S. university still operating a large accelerator complex. The university graduates roughly 20 percent of the nation’s Ph.D.s trained in accelerator science and advanced X-ray technology, and approximately 60 undergraduates participate in CHESS laboratory research every year.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:24 pm on February 6, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Active Learning Initiative funds nine projects, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell Chronicle, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Entomology, In all 70 faculty members will work on substantially changing the way they teach in more than 40 courses to over 4500 students. The work will be supported by 17 new teaching innovation postdoctoral fe, Information Science, , Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Natural Resources, Psychology, The School of Integrative Plant Science   

    From Cornell Chronicle: “Active Learning Initiative funds nine projects” 

    Cornell Bloc

    From Cornell Chronicle

    February 6, 2019
    Daniel Aloi
    dea35@cornell.edu

    1
    Students work together in Introduction to Evolutionary Biology and Diversity, an Active Learning Initiative course. Cornell Brand Communications File Photo.

    Cornell’s Active Learning Initiative (ALI) will nearly double in scope and impact with a new round of funding for innovative projects to enhance undergraduate teaching and learning in nine departments.

    In the first universitywide ALI grant competition, about $5 million has been awarded in substantial new grants ranging from $195,000 to almost $1 million, spread over two to five years. The funded projects will affect courses at all levels, including sequences aimed at majors, survey courses for non-majors, and introductory, online and lab courses.

    In all, 70 faculty members will work on substantially changing the way they teach in more than 40 courses to over 4,500 students. The work will be supported by 17 new teaching innovation postdoctoral fellows across the projects.

    The initiative aims to improve teaching and learning in groups of courses by introducing active learning and other research-based pedagogies drawn from a variety of disciplines. Two previous grant cycles in 2014 and 2017 focused on projects within the College of Arts and Sciences.

    Undergraduate teaching departments across the university received a call for proposals last fall. The Departments of Mathematics and of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology won their second ALI grants, and large projects in information science and engineering are among those funded this cycle.

    “We received many excellent and thoughtful proposals,” said Vice Provost for Academic Innovation Julia Thom-Levy, who supervises the initiative with support from the Center for Teaching Innovation. “Over the three competitions, we have already or will work with more than 100 faculty in 16 departments and four colleges, putting Cornell at the cutting edge of innovation in undergraduate education. This is an extremely exciting development, and many people have worked hard to get us to this point.”

    The grants have so far supported projects in the natural sciences, social sciences, engineering, mathematics and the humanities. Projects are jointly funded by ALI and the respective colleges, with support for the initiative coming from the Office of the Provost and a donor.

    The departments and projects funded:

    Information Science will transform six core courses over the next three years. Faculty and postdocs will incorporate innovative techniques for activities in and out of the classroom, including live-coding collaborations and group data visualization projects. The project explores how to facilitate student learning and implement collaborative classwork and peer feedback with increasingly large class sizes. Impact: more than 1,500 students over three years.

    Mathematics will redesign two linear algebra courses providing foundational math knowledge for many fields, with a target of improving students’ conceptual understanding and ability to model real-life situations; and the department will continue to develop instructor training. Impact: more than 400 students a year. The department received a three-year ALI grant in 2017 to transform two introductory calculus courses and a proofs course, together serving more than 900 students a year.

    Biological and Environmental Engineering: Three existing courses and one new course will focus on developing problem-solving skills that span disciplines, allowing students to transfer skills and knowledge across courses and contexts, and identify and develop solutions to complex problems. Overall impact of the three-year grant: About 200 students will take these courses every year.

    Ecology and Evolutionary Biology faculty will take active learning a step further following a five-year ALI grant in 2014 that transformed two core introductory courses. A new, online active learning version of one, Evolutionary Biology and Diversity, will launch to run parallel to the classroom course during the academic year and on its own in the summer. Goals of the three-year project include reaching a broader, more diverse group of students without increasing an already large class size; and establishing a model for designing online courses and assessing their effectiveness in comparison to the in-person course that is already offered on campus.

    Entomology faculty will redesign three popular classes for non-majors with a three-year grant. Active learning modules will be incorporated to prompt students to practice thinking and communicating like scientists, and learn to critically evaluate and interpret scientific information. Impact: more than 300 students a year.

    Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering faculty have developed a plan to transform six courses and combine the best elements of project teams and coursework through case-based learning. The courses are taken simultaneously by nearly all MAE students as juniors, allowing for projects and assignments spanning multiple courses, focusing on different aspects of the same engineering challenge. Impact of the project, funded by a four-year grant: “a richer and more applied engineering experience” for more than 130 students a year.

    The School of Integrative Plant Science plans to further transform its core 10-course undergraduate curriculum with a five-year grant. SIPS revised the curriculum when it was established in 2015, and enrollment in the major has since more than doubled in size. The grant will support the work of 14 faculty members and four postdocs, developing in-class activities to improve student learning and targeting the laboratory components of the program by moving away from observational labs and toward experimental labs.

    Natural Resources: Faculty teaching in the multidisciplinary Environmental and Sustainability Sciences (ESS) major will redesign an online course on Climate Solutions and a Field Biology course, and develop new courses aimed at collaboratively solving complex environmental problems, such as improving water resource management and assessing environmental policy. Climate Solutions students on campus can engage in discussions with students from around the world taking a parallel MOOC version of the class. Natural resources faculty will lead these efforts over three years; the rapidly growing ESS major involves 75 faculty members from 22 departments across the Colleges of Agriculture and Life Sciences and Arts and Sciences.

    Psychology: Introduction to Psychology, one of the largest courses at Cornell with more than 800 students, will be transformed as part of an ALI-funded, three-year project to implement active learning strategies in several undergraduate courses. Faculty aim to introduce polling questions and student discussion in the large course and more inquiry-driven group work in smaller classes. The project will target learning outcomes established by the American Psychological Association.

    “The new projects build on impressive results from previous competitions within the College of Arts and Sciences,” said Peter Lepage, the Goldwin Smith Professor of Physics and director of ALI. “Research shows that student learning can be improved dramatically through active learning, and that is what we are finding at Cornell.”

    ALI, together with the Center for Teaching Innovation, works with departments throughout the grant period, helps train staff in active learning and helps departments design assessments to measure impacts.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:56 pm on January 14, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Cornell Chronicle, ,   

    From Cornell Chronicle: “Next-gen particle accelerator is aim of Bright Beams work” 

    Cornell Bloc

    From Cornell Chronicle

    January 10, 2019
    Rick Ryan

    1
    Professor James Sethna, left, and postdoctoral theorist Danilo Liarte, both members of the Center for Bright Beams, are working toward more efficient particle accelerators. Provided.

    Particle accelerators have been used for decades to answer questions regarding the nuclei of atoms, the smallest forms of matter. New research is helping address current challenges and develop more efficient accelerators.

    Currently, particles get accelerated thanks to metallic chambers known as superconducting radio-frequency cavities. These chambers, also known as RF cavities, are spaced along a particle accelerator. As a beam of particles passes through a cavity, it is hit with energy from radio waves, causing it to accelerate. However, in order for the RF cavity to be superconducting, it must be cooled with liquid helium to near zero kelvins – approximately minus 460 degrees Fahrenheit – an expensive proposition.

    Another problem is dissipation of energy, in the form of heat, from the radio waves. Experimentalists traditionally have been able to bypass some of the negative impacts by carefully reducing the temperature of the RF cavity to well below the superconducting threshold. While this approach works, researchers are seeking a more efficient and lasting solution.

    Recently, theorists and experimentalists from the Center for Bright Beams (CBB) – a multi-institution National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center led by Cornell – published research that may help enhance the theoretical framework used to model future accelerators. The ultimate goal is to simplify the refrigeration needs for RF cavities while reducing RF power losses.

    Postdoctoral theorist Danilo Liarte is lead author of “Vortex Dynamics and Losses Due to Pinning: Dissipation from Trapped Magnetic Flux in Resonant Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavities,” published Nov. 27 in Physical Review Applied. Senior authors are Cornell physics professors James Sethna and Matthias Liepe, both CBB members.

    The material of choice for today’s accelerating cavities is niobium, which becomes superconducting at a higher temperature than any other pure metal. “Higher” is relative, though: The operating temperature is minus 456 degrees Fahrenheit, or 2 kelvins, and requires costly cryogenic equipment to cool the cavity in a bath of liquid helium.

    “A current challenge in accelerator physics is to maximize the accelerating field, and minimize the dissipation (heat) within the superconducting cavity,” said Liarte, a member of the Sethna lab. “By understanding the power losses from having these theoretical models, we can better understand the material properties of the cavities.”

    Future accelerators, Liarte said, are likely to be compound superconductors such as triniobium-tin (Nb3Sn). These compounds have better intrinsic properties than niobium and could operate at a higher superconducting temperature – minus 452 degrees Fahrenheit, or 4.2 kelvins.

    While this jump in temperature may seem negligible, it can drastically reduce the costs of operating SRF cavities by eliminating the need for superfluid helium refrigeration.

    While understanding of Nb3Sn cavities is still limited, there are certain properties that can be better understood by looking at multiple types of superconductors.

    For their most recent study, the group collected data from three separate cavity treatments: niobium sprayed onto copper, Nb3Sn and niobium with impurities.

    Each of these materials provided insight into one of the most sought-after pieces of evidence for the negative impacts on accelerating cavities: vortex lines. Considered the “smoking gun” of superconducting cavities, these lines of errant magnetic fields within the cavity are surrounded by vortices of electrons that interfere with the desired radio waves.

    “Pretty much all of the superconducting materials that we use will have at least some vortex lines in them,” said contributor Peter Koufalis, a doctoral student in the Liepe group and a member of the Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-based Sciences and Education (CLASSE). “It is very hard to completely get rid of them.”

    These vortices can get trapped within the active layer of the superconductor, creating magnetic fields that cause disarray within what should be a finely ordered system of acceleration. The vortex lines get trapped in the inevitable impurities of the cavity, the group found, and can dissipate RF power more quickly than earlier theorized.

    “What we have now is basically a model that explains this behavior in a quantitative and qualitative manner,” Liarte said.

    Other contributors to the study included Daniel Hall, Ph.D. ’17, from the Liepe group; doctoral student Alen Senanian from the Sethna group; and Akira Miyazaki of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the University of Manchester, England.

    This work, conducted at Cornell and CERN, was supported by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:43 am on September 20, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Cornell Chronicle, Cornell’s Center for Advanced Computing (CAC) was named a training partner on a $60 million National Science Foundation-funded project to build the fastest supercomputer at any U.S. university and o, , ,   

    From Cornell Chronicle: “Cornell writing the (how-to) book on new supercomputer” 

    Cornell Bloc

    From Cornell Chronicle

    September 18, 2018
    Melanie Lefkowitz
    mll9@cornell.edu

    Cornell’s Center for Advanced Computing (CAC) was named a training partner on a $60 million, National Science Foundation-funded project to build the fastest supercomputer at any U.S. university and one of the most powerful in the world.

    1
    3

    CAC will develop training materials to help users get the most out of the Frontera supercomputer, to be deployed in summer 2019 at the Texas Advanced Computing Center at the University of Texas at Austin.

    Texas Advanced Computer Center

    “Computers don’t do great work unless you have people ready to use them for great research. Being able to be the on-ramp for a system like this is really valuable,” said Rich Knepper, CAC’s deputy director. “This represents the next step in leadership computing, and it’s an opportunity for Cornell to be a very integral part of that.”

    CAC, which provides high-performance computing and cloud computing services to the Cornell community and beyond, will receive $1 million from the NSF over the next five years to create Cornell Virtual Workshops – online content explaining how to use Frontera.

    The Texas Advanced Computing Center will build the supercomputer, with the primary computing system provided by Dell EMC and powered by Intel processors. Other partners in the project are the California Institute of Technology, Princeton University, Stanford University, the University of Chicago, the University of Utah, the University of California, Davis, Ohio State University, the Georgia Institute of Technology and Texas A&M University.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:09 pm on September 14, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Cornell Chronicle, , Earth Source Heat (ESH), Seismicity project, Vibroseis truck – known as T-Rex   

    From Cornell Chronicle: “Cornell to conduct Earth Source Heat seismic survey Sept. 21-25” 

    Cornell Bloc

    From Cornell Chronicle

    1
    A vibroseis truck similar to this one will be on campus beginning Sept. 21 to perform a seismic survey on campus and in the towns of Ithaca and Dryden, as part of Cornell’s plans to implement Earth Source Heat.

    September 15, 2018
    Tom Fleischman
    tjf85@cornell.edu

    Cornell is taking the next step in pursuit of eliminating its carbon footprint over the next two decades.

    From Sept. 21-25, faculty and students from Cornell Engineering will be conducting geological characterization of rock formations under campus and adjacent land to establish baseline seismicity, as part of the university’s study of Earth Source Heat (ESH), a proposed enhanced geothermal system to heat the Ithaca campus.

    As part of its goal of achieving carbon neutrality by 2035, Cornell is exploring ESH as a way to reduce its energy footprint – just as Lake Source Cooling eliminated the use of refrigerants to cool campus, reducing reliance on fossil fuels, keeping more than 10,000 metric tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere annually, and cutting energy costs by 86 percent.

    The seismicity project also will academically engage students on campus and at two local high schools.

    For the next phase of ESH research, Cornell will deploy a mobile acoustic energy source vehicle to locations on campus and in the towns of Ithaca and Dryden for seismic vibration (or “vibroseis”) surveying. A vibrating pad will apply low-frequency signals to the ground for several seconds at regular stops along the route.

    The vibroseis truck – known as T-Rex – will arrive at Cornell Sept. 20 and spend approximately four days surveying land under Game Farm Road (north and south from Dryden Road to Ellis Hollow Road) and Stevenson Road (east and west from Game Farm Road to Turkey Hill Road). The truck will also survey on the access road to the Cornell Teaching Dairy Barn; the road runs east and west off of Game Farm Road, which also serves as the Ithaca-Dryden town line.

    The surveying is to determine the site of a future test well, which will be used to further feasibility studies of ESH. While Cornell is only considering university-owned land for a potential project site, it is surveying neighboring towns’ land as it is necessary to create a wide grid for testing to provide adequate imaging of existing rock formations.

    The rock’s reaction to the vibration will be recorded by approximately 400 geophones, or nodes, to be set up along the survey route from Sept. 16-19. The nodes will record the acoustic reflections from rock formations hundreds of feet below the surface, allowing researchers to infer critical details about subsurface conditions.

    Computer processing can then use these recordings of reflected sound waves to make a picture of the subsurface. These images can reveal the geometry of the various rock layers, changes in their physical properties and whether they are disrupted by geological faults.

    “It’s very similar to sonar in water,” said Larry Brown, the Sidney Kaufman Professor in Geophysics in the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences. “Such information is critical to decisions about where and how to drill through these rocks, for any purpose.”

    Developed in the 1950s, vibroseis was designed to replace dangerous ways of producing ground vibrations, such as dynamite. Since the strength and frequency of the vibrations can be controlled, researchers will be able to tune T-Rex to avoid negative impacts to road surfaces or nearby structures and underground utilities.

    “There is generally no danger to anyone passing near the operations,” said Brown, noting that he has taken part in hundreds of such surveys and has even stood on the baseplate of a similar machine as it shook the ground.

    “We will have flaggers during operations on public roads to ensure that normal traffic is minimally disrupted during the operations,” he said.

    The mobile acoustic energy source vehicle will come from the University of Texas’ Natural Hazards Engineering Research Infrastructure.

    There will be an educational outreach component to this phase of ESH study: Ground motion sensors will be placed on the Cornell campus as well as at Ithaca and Dryden high schools. The T-Rex truck is also scheduled to visit the two high schools Sept. 28, Brown said.

    Signals from the truck’s vibrations – as well as signals from any earthquake around the world – will be picked up by these sensors and can be used by students to study any tectonic activity they indicate.

    An informational video and FAQ (“Exploring ESH”) are available at earthsourceheat.cornell.edu.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:09 pm on August 30, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Cornell Chronicle, In historic shift women comprise half of Cornell engineering undergrads,   

    From Cornell Chronicle: Women in STEM: “In historic shift, women comprise half of engineering undergrads” 

    Cornell Bloc

    From Cornell Chronicle

    1

    August 30, 2018
    Melanie Lefkowitz

    1
    Lydia Johnson ’17, right, and Kristopher Yoo ’16, M.Eng. ’16, work in David Schneider’s lab on a prototype for an exoskeleton system designed for physical rehabilitation.
    Robyn Wishna/Provided

    With the arrival of the Class of 2022, the College of Engineering now enrolls equal numbers of undergraduate women and men – the first engineering school of its size and stature to achieve this milestone.

    Particular gains have been made in computer science, where female students once comprised a fraction of the department. In 2017-18, women accounted for 38 percent of computer science majors, who come from both the College of Engineering and the College of Arts and Sciences. Among this year’s incoming engineering class, 55 percent of students indicating an interest in the field are women.

    Women are not only enrolling in engineering at Cornell, they’re succeeding. In the Class of 2018, men and women had average GPAs of 3.4, and the five-year graduation rate for both female and male undergraduates was 88 percent. Following decades of underrepresentation of women in engineering fields worldwide, Cornell’s numbers represent a historic shift.

    ________________________________________

    “How could you make something like a phone or an app or a web landing page or a site without understanding half your audience?”
    Greg Morrisett, dean of Computing and Information Science
    ________________________________________

    “Something really special is happening here,” said Lance Collins, the Joseph Silbert Dean of Engineering. “Women are going through the same rigorous training as the men and performing at exactly the same level. We’re debunking the notion that these fields are fundamentally male.”

    Achieving gender equity at the College of Engineering was decades in the making, a product of advocacy at the university’s highest levels. Resources supported Diversity Programs in Engineering, and nimble admissions practices took quick advantage of cultural shifts to encourage promising, high-performing females to consider engineering at Cornell. The student-run Society of Women Engineers (SWE) and Women in Computing at Cornell (WICC) organizations foster a welcoming and supportive community.

    3
    Madisen Swallow ’18, works in the Chris Schaffer-Nozomi Nishimura lab, where she did research on Alzheimer’s disease. Women now comprise half of the undergraduates in the College of Engineering. Dave Burbank/University Photography

    “It’s been a tremendous change, where not just the percentage of women but the absolute number of women has grown so dramatically,” said Greg Morrisett, dean of Computing and Information Science. “These fields are better with more diverse populations. Especially if you’re building products – how could you make something like a phone or an app or a web landing page or a site without understanding half your audience?”

    The college has been making slow but steady progress since the early 2000s, but women’s admissions have accelerated in recent years. Summer workshops aimed at high school students, such as Diversity Programs in Engineering’s CURIE Academy for girls, have proven effective at reaching promising girls early and showing them what to expect at Cornell. The college’s short videos of Cornell undergraduate women describing their experiences are widely viewed, and many of the high school students who view them eventually apply, said Scott Campbell, director of engineering undergraduate admissions.

    4
    Hannah Childs ’18, at work on an MTT assay in the lab of Professor David Putnam. Robyn Wishna/Provided

    “We’re at a place now where a critical mass of women is improving the caliber of the education for every single person here,” he said. “Engineering is about solving challenging problems. We need people from multiple life experiences coming to the table to produce elegant solutions. If you don’t have that, you likely won’t find the best solution to any engineering problem.”

    The college has invested in developing a support network. Women who have been admitted to the college are invited to Women in Engineering Day in April. Once enrolled, female students are eligible for stipends to attend the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing, the world’s largest gathering of female technologists; in 2018, 34 students received funds to attend.

    Grace Hopper

    NERSC Hopper Cray XE6 supercomputer

    SWE and WICC provide critical support services that help women succeed, such as peer mentoring, said WICC’s faculty adviser, Eva Tardos.

    “I think they’re such a positive force in making the major a more welcoming environment for everyone,” said Tardos, the Jacob Gould Schurman Professor of Computer Science. “There are lots and lots of these activities, but beyond this, they provide a community.”

    ________________________________________
    “I’m really happy because [the stereotype of a ‘typical computer scientist’] is slowly changing, but we need to constantly make sure we’re making systematic changes in industry and academia.”
    Nandita Mohan ’20, co-president of Women in Computing at Cornell
    ________________________________________

    WICC co-president Nandita Mohan ’20 wasn’t sure she would major in computer science when she attended her first meeting.

    “The first thing I noticed was how awesome the community was. WICC was all about bringing the community together and helping them succeed, and I found I related to a lot of people there,” she said. “A lot of women struggle with lower confidence, or they struggle with trying to fit the stereotype of a ‘typical’ computer scientist. I’m really happy because that stereotype is slowly changing, but we need to constantly make sure we’re making systematic changes in industry and academia.”

    Although some other leading universities are also enrolling more women in engineering, higher education and industry generally lag far behind in diversifying their ranks. Collins said he hopes Cornell’s model can be applied in other settings to correct a persistent imbalance in gender as well as race.

    5
    Beatrice Awasthi ‘17, M.Eng. ’18, and Jenna Chong, M.Eng. ’18, working with bacterial outer membrane vesicles in the lab of Professor David Putnam.

    Cornell Engineering is continuing to explore ways to enhance diversity and equity. The number of underrepresented minorities at the school rose to 21 percent of engineering undergraduates in fall 2018, from 7 percent in 2007. In 2018, 11 percent of computer science majors were from underrepresented minority groups.

    “There needs to be commitment at the top, and there needs to be collaboration between admissions and programming to support students,” Collins said. “It’s very easy to work in a group in which everyone is homogenous. It’s not that challenging, but it’s also not that creative. In fact, creativity originates from the collision of different ideas and different perspectives. We want to create an environment in which those collisions can occur, and in order to do that we need to have a diverse population of students.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:30 pm on July 31, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Albedos (the light reflected by a surface), , , , Cornell Chronicle, , Exoplanet detectives create catalog of ‘light-fingerprints’   

    From Cornell Chronicle: “Exoplanet detectives create catalog of ‘light-fingerprints’ “ 

    Cornell Bloc

    From Cornell Chronicle

    July 31, 2018
    Linda B. Glaser
    cunews@cornell.edu

    1
    Earth with the albedo plotted over it. Jack Madden/NASA.

    Earthbound detectives rely on fingerprints to solve their cases; now astronomers can do the same, using “light-fingerprints” instead of skin grooves to uncover the mysteries of exoplanets.

    Cornell researchers have created a reference catalog using calibrated spectra and geometric albedos (the light reflected by a surface) of 19 of the most diverse bodies in our solar system: all eight planets, from rocky to gaseous; nine moons, from frozen to lava spewing; and two dwarf planets, one in the asteroid belt (Ceres) and one in the Kuiper belt (Pluto).

    By comparing observed spectra and albedos of exoplanets to this catalog of our own home planetary system, scientists will be able to characterize them in reference to the wide range of icy, rocky and gaseous worlds in our home system.

    A Catalog of Spectra, Albedos and Colors of Solar System Bodies for Exoplanet Comparison” was published online July 31 in the journal Astrobiology and will be featured on the print edition’s cover in December.

    “We use our own solar system and all we know about its incredible diversity of fascinating worlds as our Rosetta Stone,” said co-author Lisa Kaltenegger, associate professor of astronomy and director of the Carl Sagan Institute. “With this catalog of light-fingerprints, we will be able to compare new observations of exoplanets to objects in our own solar system – including the gaseous worlds of Jupiter and Saturn, the icy worlds of Europa, the volcanic world of Io and our own life-filled planet.”

    The catalog, freely available on the Carl Sagan Institute website, includes high- and low-resolution versions of the data, which shows astronomers the influence of spectral resolution on an object’s identification. In addition, the catalog offers examples of how the colors of the 19 solar system models would change if they were orbiting stars other than our sun.

    2
    Jupiter with the albedo. Jack Madden/NASA

    “Planetary science broke new ground in the ’70s and ’80s with spectral measurements for solar system bodies. Exoplanet science will see a similar renaissance in the near future,” said Jack Madden, doctoral candidate at the Carl Sagan Institute and lead author of the study. “The technology to directly collect the light from Earth-sized planets around other stars is currently in a clean room waiting to be assembled and trained on the right target. With the upcoming launch of the James Webb Space Telescope and the current construction of large ground-based telescopes such as the Giant Magellan Telescope and the Extremely Large Telescope, we are entering a new age of observational ability, so we need a reference catalog of all the planets and moons we already know, to compare these new exoplanet spectra to.”

    NASA/ESA/CSA Webb Telescope annotated

    Giant Magellan Telescope, to be at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s Las Campanas Observatory, to be built some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high

    ESO/E-ELT,to be on top of Cerro Armazones in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, at an altitude 3,046 m (9,993 ft)

    The catalog will enable scientists to prioritize time-intensive, high-resolution observations of extrasolar planets and moons. It also offers insights into what kind of worlds won’t be so easy to categorize without high-resolution spectra. For example, Venus is a rocky planet, but because sunlight reflects from its dense carbon dioxide atmosphere rather than its rocky surface, the colors astronomers observe from such a planet are similar to those of an icy world. On the outer edge of the habitable zone, rocky exoplanets are likely to have dense atmospheres like Venus. Such worlds will require long observations to characterize correctly.

    “Examining our solar system from the vantage point of a distant observeris an illuminating exercise,” said Madden.

    “By unraveling the mysteries of the objects in our own solar system we can glimpse the secrets of these new worlds we are finding,” said Kaltenegger.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:13 pm on July 28, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Cornell Chronicle, Guinness World Record for micro view into hidden worlds, , Record-breaking microscope developed using methods pioneered by Sheffield scientists,   

    From U Sheffield and Cornell University: “Record-breaking microscope developed using methods pioneered by Sheffield scientists” 

    From U Sheffield

    23 July 2018
    Sean Barton
    Media Relations Officer
    University of Sheffield
    0114 222 9852
    s.barton@sheffield.ac.uk

    1
    A revolutionary microscope that has produced images in the highest resolution ever obtained has been developed by researchers using microscopic techniques pioneered by scientists at the University of Sheffield.

    Revolutionary microscope produces images in the highest resolution ever obtained
    Electron microscope developed using computational algorithms pioneered by University of Sheffield scientists
    Record-breaking microscope could be used to study 3D atomic structure at unprecedented resolution

    The record-breaking electron microscope, built by researchers at Cornell University in the USA, can produce images at a higher resolution than conventional approaches. It could be used to determine the atomic structure of materials that are normally damaged using existing methods.

    The microscope may eventually allow researchers to study 2D materials, such graphene, using unprecedented precision to provide new insights into this burgeoning class of useful materials that have extraordinary physical and electrical properties, and which could revolutionise many modern technologies.

    It may also lead to the development of a method that can image individual atoms in 3D objects without damaging the structure by using ‘slow’ low-energy electrons.

    Electron imaging is usually conducted using expensive lenses and high-energy electrons that damage many types of material. Alternatively, the Cornell research team recorded electrons that had been scattered through high angles to get around these problems.

    Once scattered, the electrons don’t look anything like an image, so the Cornell research team used computational algorithms developed by scientists at the University of Sheffield to work out backwards what the specimen looked like. This is what enabled the microscope to generate the record-breaking high resolution image.

    For many years, this backwards calculation, known as the phase problem, was regarded as impossible to solve for a large image.

    Professor John Rodenburg from the University of Sheffield’s Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, who developed the computational algorithms together with his colleague Andrew Maiden, commented:

    “The electron microscope developed by the Cornell research team is the most powerful microscope we’ve ever seen. It is capable of capturing images that have an unprecedented level of detail, which is important because it now paves the way for us to develop new insights into material structure at the atomic scale.

    “Such an advanced electron microscope wasn’t possible previously because although the technique we developed here at the University of Sheffield works well for X-ray and light microscopes, in the case of electron microscopy it needs a near-perfect detector to get good enough quality data. Now, due to the advances in detector technology made by the Cornell team, this record-breaking microscope can successfully run the Sheffield algorithm.”

    Cornell Bloc

    From Cornell Chronicle

    Guinness World Record for micro view into hidden worlds

    2

    July 25, 2018
    Tom Fleischman

    In a recent research paper published in Nature, a group led by physics professors David Muller and Sol Gruner claimed a world record for electron microscope resolution using a high-powered detector and a technique called ptychography. Their technique was shown to measure down to 0.39 ångströms or 0.039 nanometers (one-billionth of a meter).

    Guinness World Records has officially recognized the Cornell collaboration’s achievement, listing it alongside such notables as Robert Pershing Wadlow (at 8 feet, 11.1 inches, the world’s tallest human) and Lee Redmond (longest fingernails, with a combined length of 28 feet, 4 inches).

    Gruner, former director of the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, said he’d always dreamed of making the Guinness grade, but didn’t figure microscopy would be his ticket to fame.

    “I always thought that I’d need to eat 40 hamburgers in five minutes or stand on one foot for days to get into the Guinness book,” he said. “Who would have thought that seeing a few atoms would do the trick?”

    That brings to four the number of current Cornell University-affiliated record-holders. Muller also shares the record for thinnest glass (three atoms thick, 2013); the other records are held in part by applied and engineering physics professor Harold Craighead, who shares records for smallest replica guitar (1997) and lightest object weighed (2004). In addition, the current record for furthest distance covered by a quadruped robot (83.28 miles, in 2015) eclipsed the mark of 40.5 miles set by Cornell’s Ranger robot in 2011.

    See the full Sheffield article here .
    See the full Cornell Chronicle article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

    U Sheffield campus

    The University of Sheffield (informally Sheffield University) is a public research university in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It received its royal charter in 1905 as successor to the University College of Sheffield, which was established in 1897 by the merger of Sheffield Medical School (founded in 1828), Firth College (1879) and Sheffield Technical School (1884).

    Sheffield is a multi-campus university predominantly over two campus areas: the Western Bank and the St George’s. The university is organised into five academic faculties composed of multiple departments. It had 20,005 undergraduate and 8,710 postgraduate students in 2016/17. The annual income of the institution for 2016–17 was £623.6 million of which £155.9 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £633.0 million. Sheffield ranks among the top 10 of UK universities for research grant funding.

    Sheffield was placed 75th worldwide according to QS World University Rankings and 104th worldwide according to Times Higher Education World University Rankings. It was ranked 12th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality (GPA) of its research and for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework. In 2011, Sheffield was named ‘University of the Year’ in the Times Higher Education awards. The Times Higher Education Student Experience Survey 2014 ranked the University of Sheffield 1st for student experience, social life, university facilities and accommodation, among other categories.

    It is one of the original red brick universities, a member of the Russell Group of research-intensive universities, the Worldwide Universities Network, the N8 Group of the eight most research intensive universities in Northern England and the White Rose University Consortium. There are eight Nobel laureates affiliated with Sheffield and six of them are the alumni or former long-term staffs of the university.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:45 pm on July 2, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey, , , , Cornell Chronicle,   

    From Cornell Chronicle: “Decade-long galaxy survey releases final catalog” 

    Cornell Bloc

    From Cornell Chronicle

    July 2, 2018
    Linda B. Glaser

    The last data release and final official survey paper from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, led by Cornell astronomers, published July 2 in Astrophysical Journal Supplement.

    The paper marks the conclusion of a vast project that required 4,400 hours of telescope time and resulted in more than 100 papers co-authored by faculty, staff and students at Cornell. The survey was the basis of 10 Cornell doctorates and an equal number by graduate students from other universities.

    “The population of galaxies we’ve detected include the most isolated galaxies in the universe, the least clustered,” said Martha Haynes, co-principal investigator. “Studying these galaxies reveals how galaxies evolve in the absence of interactions with other galaxies or with the hot gas found in clusters of galaxies.”

    Among ALFALFA’s discoveries are enigmatic objects such as the nearby faint dwarf Leo P, and Leoncino, a galaxy with very little metal content. ALFALFA also identified what the researchers call an “intriguing population” of massive galaxies with unusually high percentages of their mass composed of cool hydrogen gas.

    ALFALFA fulfilled one of its primary goals by discovering a small population of galaxies with dark matter and gas and almost no detectable starlight. Researchers say they don’t yet understand why these galaxies haven’t turned their abundant gas into stars.

    Since it began in 2005, ALFALFA has detected radio emissions from cool gas in more than 30,000 galaxies. It has produced the first comprehensive census of gas-bearing galaxies up to a distance of 800 million light years from our galaxy, the Milky Way, encompassing nearly one-sixth of the sky.

    The survey was the first to use the Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFA) radio camera on the 305-meter-diameter radio telescope at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, focusing on the frequency range that includes a spectral line emitted by neutral atomic hydrogen. Nearly every previous sky survey has been of optically, infrared- or X-ray-selected galaxies.

    NAIC Arecibo Observatory operated by University of Central Florida, Yang Enterprises and UMET, Altitude 497 m (1,631 ft)

    The importance of the hydrogen, explains co-principal investigator Riccardo Giovanelli, emeritus professor of astronomy, is that gas-rich systems of low mass that have not been able to convert their cosmic material into stars – so-called dark galaxies – are optically inert because they have few or no stars but can be detected by their hydrogen signature.

    Data from the survey, including individual spectra, are available on the ALFALFA website and will be incorporated into the NASA Extragalactic Database.

    While ALFALFA discoveries have been impressive, the project’s impact on teaching and learning through the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team has been equally profound, said Haynes. The team is a consortium of 23 mostly undergraduate colleges, for which Haynes serves as science lead.

    “ALFALFA wasn’t a big-grant, big-team, big-science project but rather something that a small, distributed group has done to undertake a major scientific contribution,” said Haynes, the Goldwin Smith Professor of Astronomy in the College of Arts and Sciences. “It’s a legacy survey done without any professional staff; all the work was done by faculty, undergraduate and graduate students. We are very proud of the success of the project as part of the academic educational process.”

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team’s latest project is the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey, which builds on ALFAFA data to measure the mass of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster for the first time.

    2
    A map of the Perseus-Pisces Supercluster.
    Richard Powell

    2
    A Winter Supercluster: Perseus – Pisces. http://www.astronomy-mall.com/Adventures.In.Deep.Space/supercl.htm

    “ALFALFA is the source of many research projects and the seed of many discoveries to come,” said principal investigator Rebecca Koopmann of Union College. “It’s a gift to the community.”

    Co-authors of “The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: The ALFALFA Extragalactic Hi Source Catalog” include Elizabeth Adams, Ph.D. ’14; Gregory Hallenbeck, Ph.D. ’14; Kelley Hess ’05; Lyle Hoffman, Ph.D. ’83; Shan Huang, Ph.D. ‘13; Michael Jones, Ph.D. ’16; Brian Kent, Ph.D. ’08; David A. Kornreich, Ph.D. ’01; Lukas Leisman, Ph.D. ’17; and Emmanouil Papastergis, Ph.D. ’14.

    The ALFALFA team at Cornell has been supported by the National Science Foundation and the Brinson Foundation.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

     
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