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  • richardmitnick 11:52 am on May 1, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Black hole spin finding could shed light on relativity and stars", Cornell Chronicle   

    From Cornell Chronicle : “Black hole spin finding could shed light on relativity and stars” 

    From Cornell Chronicle

    April 29, 2021
    Kate Blackwood
    cunews@cornell.edu

    One of the key goals of gravitational wave astronomy is to understand and characterize binary black hole spins, according to Vijay Varma, a Klarman Postdoctoral Fellow in physics in the College of Arts and Sciences.

    By measuring the masses and spin rates of binary black hole systems in which two of the super-compact astronomical objects orbit each other, using gravitational waves emitted as the objects merge, researchers can gain insight into larger questions in astrophysics, including general relativity and the lifespan of stars.

    In a science paper published in Physical Review Letters on April 29, Varma and collaborators proposed a novel way of studying binary black holes by identifying each of their individual component black holes by their spins – rather than their masses – which leads to an improved measurement of the spins. The researchers applied the new method to analyze binary black hole data gathered by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors.

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo at Hanford, WA(US), Livingston, LA(US) and VIRGO Gravitational Wave interferometer, near Pisa(IT).

    “Rather than attempting to identify the spin of the heaviest and lightest of the two objects, as is usually done, we infer the properties of the objects with the highest and lowest spin,” the researchers wrote. This refocus on the black holes’ spins, rather than their masses, gives a new importance to spin measurements in binaries in which the masses of the two black holes are nearly equal – “which appear to be the majority,” they wrote.

    Their finding potentially changes the way scientists study black holes, which provide insight into general relativity and our knowledge of the evolution of stars, among other large questions.

    “We realized that for systems where the two black holes in the binary have equal masses or close to equal masses, it’s hard to measure the spin,” Biscoveanu said. The team reframed the question to look directly at the spin of the black hole with the highest spin and the black hole with the lowest spin.

    Varma and collaborators (lead author Sylvia Biscoveanu, Maximiliano Isi and Salvatore Vitale, all from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US)) were inspired to pursue this line of research while studying data from GW190521, a binary black hole system detected by LIGO, a very sensitive instrument which detects gravitational waves from astronomical objects, including black holes.

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo Hanford, WA, USA installation

    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo detector installation Livingston, LA, USA


    Cornell SXS, the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) project


    This system is particularly interesting, the researchers said, because it is the most massive detected to date, and it also demonstrates evidence for a unique spin signature that hadn’t previously been observed.

    “We are especially interested in systems that have spins because they carry a lot of astrophysical information that can tell us how these binaries were formed in the first place,” said Varma, an expert on developing ‘surrogate models’, which allow researchers to determine characteristics of black holes based on supercomputer simulations.

    Black holes are incredibly heavy and dense, Varma said, typically 10 to 30 times more massive than the sun, sometimes heavier, but packed into a space about the size of Hawaii.

    Biscoveanu compared measuring the mass and the spin of a binary black hole system to measuring the temperature and the sweetness of two juices. “You would measure the temperature of the coldest juice that you’re tasting and the sweetness of the sweetest juice,” she said. “You wouldn’t try to measure the sweetness of the coldest juice because that’s a convoluted question, especially if both of them are the same temperature.”

    The researchers said that inquiring about the fastest spinning black hole helps researchers learn more about individual binary black hole systems, or a whole population of binary black holes, such as those observed via gravitational waves by the LIGO-Virgo collaboration.

    “That has implications for how stars evolve and form black holes,” Varma said. “We can go back to the earlier stages of the evolution and try to understand the secrets of black hole astrophysics.”

    The research was funded by the Klarman Postdoctoral Fellowship in A&S, the Sherman Fairchild Foundation,the National Science Foundation, the Paul and Daisy Soros Fellowship and the NASA Hubble Fellowship.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

    Cornell University(US) is a private, statutory, Ivy League and land-grant research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell’s founding principle, a popular 1868 quotation from founder Ezra Cornell: “I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study.”

    The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its specific admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university also administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City, Qatar, and Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute(US) in New York City, a graduate program that incorporates technology, business, and creative thinking. The program moved from Google’s Chelsea Building in New York City to its permanent campus on Roosevelt Island in September 2017.

    Cornell is one of the few private land grant universities in the United States. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the State University of New York(US) (SUNY) system, including its Agricultural and Human Ecology colleges as well as its Industrial Labor Relations school. Of Cornell’s graduate schools, only the veterinary college is state-supported. As a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens (more than 4,300 acres) and the numerous university-owned lands in New York City are considered.

    Alumni and affiliates of Cornell have reached many notable and influential positions in politics, media, and science. As of January 2021, 61 Nobel laureates, four Turing Award winners and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Cornell. Cornell counts more than 250,000 living alumni, and its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 33 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 55 Olympic Medalists, 10 current Fortune 500 CEOs, and 35 billionaire alumni. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race. The student body consists of more than 15,000 undergraduate and 9,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 119 countries.

    History

    Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865; the New York State (NYS) Senate authorized the university as the state’s land grant institution. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty. The university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, and 412 men were enrolled the next day.

    Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus and to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds. Since 1894, Cornell has included colleges that are state funded and fulfill statutory requirements; it has also administered research and extension activities that have been jointly funded by state and federal matching programs.

    Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes. It was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Cornell was also among the Ivies that had heightened student activism during the 1960s related to cultural issues; civil rights; and opposition to the Vietnam War, with protests and occupations resulting in the resignation of Cornell’s president and the restructuring of university governance. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses. Cornell is also known for the Residential Club Fire of 1967, a fire in the Residential Club building that killed eight students and one professor.

    Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar. It has partnerships with institutions in India, Singapore, and the People’s Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a “transnational university”. On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University(US) laid the cornerstone for a new ‘Bridging the Rift Center’ to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.

    Research

    Cornell, a research university, is ranked fourth in the world in producing the largest number of graduates who go on to pursue PhDs in engineering or the natural sciences at American institutions, and fifth in the world in producing graduates who pursue PhDs at American institutions in any field. Research is a central element of the university’s mission; in 2009 Cornell spent $671 million on science and engineering research and development, the 16th highest in the United States. Cornell is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”.

    For the 2016–17 fiscal year, the university spent $984.5 million on research. Federal sources constitute the largest source of research funding, with total federal investment of $438.2 million. The agencies contributing the largest share of that investment are the Department of Health and Human Services and the National Science Foundation(US), accounting for 49.6% and 24.4% of all federal investment, respectively. Cornell was on the top-ten list of U.S. universities receiving the most patents in 2003, and was one of the nation’s top five institutions in forming start-up companies. In 2004–05, Cornell received 200 invention disclosures; filed 203 U.S. patent applications; completed 77 commercial license agreements; and distributed royalties of more than $4.1 million to Cornell units and inventors.

    Since 1962, Cornell has been involved in unmanned missions to Mars. In the 21st century, Cornell had a hand in the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Cornell’s Steve Squyres, Principal Investigator for the Athena Science Payload, led the selection of the landing zones and requested data collection features for the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. NASA-JPL/Caltech(US) engineers took those requests and designed the rovers to meet them. The rovers, both of which have operated long past their original life expectancies, are responsible for the discoveries that were awarded 2004 Breakthrough of the Year honors by Science. Control of the Mars rovers has shifted between National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US)’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory at Caltech and Cornell’s Space Sciences Building.

    Further, Cornell researchers discovered the rings around the planet Uranus, and Cornell built and operated the telescope at Arecibo Observatory located in Arecibo, Puerto Rico(US) until 2011, when they transferred the operations to SRI International, the Universities Space Research Association (US) and the Metropolitan University of Puerto Rico [Universidad Metropolitana de Puerto Rico](US).

    The Automotive Crash Injury Research Project was begun in 1952. It pioneered the use of crash testing, originally using corpses rather than dummies. The project discovered that improved door locks; energy-absorbing steering wheels; padded dashboards; and seat belts could prevent an extraordinary percentage of injuries.

    In the early 1980s, Cornell deployed the first IBM 3090-400VF and coupled two IBM 3090-600E systems to investigate coarse-grained parallel computing. In 1984, the National Science Foundation began work on establishing five new supercomputer centers, including the Cornell Center for Advanced Computing, to provide high-speed computing resources for research within the United States. As an National Science Foundation (US) center, Cornell deployed the first IBM Scalable Parallel supercomputer.

    In the 1990s, Cornell developed scheduling software and deployed the first supercomputer built by Dell. Most recently, Cornell deployed Red Cloud, one of the first cloud computing services designed specifically for research. Today, the center is a partner on the National Science Foundation XSEDE-Extreme Science Eniginnering Discovery Environment supercomputing program, providing coordination for XSEDE architecture and design, systems reliability testing, and online training using the Cornell Virtual Workshop learning platform.

    Cornell scientists have researched the fundamental particles of nature for more than 70 years. Cornell physicists, such as Hans Bethe, contributed not only to the foundations of nuclear physics but also participated in the Manhattan Project. In the 1930s, Cornell built the second cyclotron in the United States. In the 1950s, Cornell physicists became the first to study synchrotron radiation.

    During the 1990s, the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, located beneath Alumni Field, was the world’s highest-luminosity electron-positron collider. After building the synchrotron at Cornell, Robert R. Wilson took a leave of absence to become the founding director of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), which involved designing and building the largest accelerator in the United States.

    Cornell’s accelerator and high-energy physics groups are involved in the design of the proposed ILC-International Linear Collider(JP) and plan to participate in its construction and operation. The International Linear Collider(JP), to be completed in the late 2010s, will complement the CERN Large Hadron Collider(CH) and shed light on questions such as the identity of dark matter and the existence of extra dimensions.

    As part of its research work, Cornell has established several research collaborations with universities around the globe. For example, a partnership with the University of Sussex(UK) (including the Institute of Development Studies at Sussex) allows research and teaching collaboration between the two institutions.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:23 pm on March 15, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Ancient light illuminates matter that fuels galaxy formation", , , , Cornell Chronicle,   

    From Cornell Chronicle: “Ancient light illuminates matter that fuels galaxy formation” 

    From Cornell Chronicle

    March 15, 2021
    Blaine Friedlander
    bpf2@cornell.edu

    Using light from the Big Bang, an international team led by Cornell and the DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(US) has begun to unveil the material which fuels galaxy formation.

    “There is uncertainty on the formation of stars within galaxies that theoretical models are unable to predict,” said lead author Stefania Amodeo, a Cornell postdoctoral researcher in astronomy in the College of Arts and Sciences (A&S), who now conducts research at the Observatory of Strasbourg, France. “With this work, we are providing tests for galaxy formation models to comprehend galaxy and star formation.”

    The research appears in the March 15 edition of Physical Review D.

    Proto galaxies are always full of gas and when they cool, the galaxies start to form, said senior author Nick Battaglia, assistant professor of astronomy in A&S. “If we were to just do a back-of-the-envelope calculation, gas should turn into stars,” he said. “But it doesn’t.”

    Galaxies are inefficient when they manufacture stars, Battaglia said. “About 10% of the gas – at most – in any given galaxy gets turned into stars,” he explained, “and we want to know why.”

    The scientists can now check their longtime theoretical work and simulations, by looking at microwave observations with data and applying a 1970s-era mathematical equation. They’ve looked at data from Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) – which observes the Big Bang’s static-filled cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation – and search for the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effects.

    Princeton Atacama Cosmology Telescope, on Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert in the north of Chile, near the Llano de Chajnantor Observatory, Altitude 4,800 m (15,700 ft).

    That combination of data enables the scientists to map out the material around that indicate the formation of galaxies in various stages.

    “How do galaxies form and evolve in our universe?” Battaglia said. “Given the nature of astronomy, we can’t sit and watch a galaxy evolve. We use various telescopic snapshots of galaxies – and each has its own evolution – and we try and stitch that information together. From there, we can extrapolate Milky Way formation.”

    Effectively, the scientists are using the cosmic microwave background [CMB] – remnants of the Big Bang – as a backlit screen that is 14 billion years old to find this material around galaxies.

    [CMB] per European Space Agency(EU) /Planck.

    “It’s like a watermark on a bank note,” said co-author Emmanuel Schaan, the Chamberlain postdoctoral fellow at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. “If you put it in front of a backlight then the watermark appears as a shadow. For us, the backlight is the cosmic microwave background. It serves to illuminate the gas from behind, so we can see the shadow as the CMB light travels through that gas.”

    Together with Simone Ferraro, divisional fellow at Lawrence Berkeley, Schaan led the measurement part of the project.

    “We’re making these measurements of this galactic material at distances from galaxy centers never before done,” Battaglia said. “These new observations are pushing the field.”

    In addition to Battaglia, Amodeo, Cornell researchers include doctoral students Emily Moser, Victoria Calafut, Eve Vavagiakis; Steve K. Choi, National Science Foundation postdoctoral fellow at the Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Astronomy; Rachel Bean, professor of astronomy and senior associate dean in A&S; and Mike Niemack, associate professor of physics and astronomy in A&S.

    The ACT team is an international collaboration, with scientists from 41 institutions in seven countries.

    In addition to the National Science Foundation(US)’s Atacama Cosmology Telescope, the work was supported by the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey in New Mexico, where the Berkeley Lab played a leading role; the European Space Agency’s Planck telescope and the Herschel Space Telescope; and the Cori supercomputer at Berkeley Lab’s National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center.

    European Space Agency(EU)/Planck 2009 to 2013

    European Space Agency(EU)/Herschel spacecraft active from 2009 to 2013.

    Cray Cori II supercomputer at NERSC – National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center at LBNL, named after Gerty Cori, the first American woman to win a Nobel Prize in science.

    That combination of data enables the scientists to map out the material around that indicate the formation of galaxies in various stages.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.
    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.
    Cornell University(US) is a private, statutory, Ivy League and land-grant research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell’s founding principle, a popular 1868 quotation from founder Ezra Cornell: “I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study.”
    The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its specific admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university also administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City, Qatar, and Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute(US) in New York City, a graduate program that incorporates technology, business, and creative thinking. The program moved from Google’s Chelsea Building in New York City to its permanent campus on Roosevelt Island in September 2017.
    Cornell is one of the few private land grant universities in the United States. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the State University of New York(US) (SUNY) system, including its Agricultural and Human Ecology colleges as well as its Industrial Labor Relations school. Of Cornell’s graduate schools, only the veterinary college is state-supported. As a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens (more than 4,300 acres) and the numerous university-owned lands in New York City are considered.
    Alumni and affiliates of Cornell have reached many notable and influential positions in politics, media, and science. As of January 2021, 61 Nobel laureates, four Turing Award winners and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Cornell. Cornell counts more than 250,000 living alumni, and its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 33 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 55 Olympic Medalists, 10 current Fortune 500 CEOs, and 35 billionaire alumni. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race. The student body consists of more than 15,000 undergraduate and 9,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 119 countries.
    History
    Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865; the New York State (NYS) Senate authorized the university as the state’s land grant institution. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty. The university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, and 412 men were enrolled the next day.
    Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus and to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds. Since 1894, Cornell has included colleges that are state funded and fulfill statutory requirements; it has also administered research and extension activities that have been jointly funded by state and federal matching programs.
    Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes. It was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Cornell was also among the Ivies that had heightened student activism during the 1960s related to cultural issues; civil rights; and opposition to the Vietnam War, with protests and occupations resulting in the resignation of Cornell’s president and the restructuring of university governance. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses. Cornell is also known for the Residential Club Fire of 1967, a fire in the Residential Club building that killed eight students and one professor.
    Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar. It has partnerships with institutions in India, Singapore, and the People’s Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a “transnational university”. On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University(US) laid the cornerstone for a new ‘Bridging the Rift Center’ to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.
    Research
    Cornell, a research university, is ranked fourth in the world in producing the largest number of graduates who go on to pursue PhDs in engineering or the natural sciences at American institutions, and fifth in the world in producing graduates who pursue PhDs at American institutions in any field. Research is a central element of the university’s mission; in 2009 Cornell spent $671 million on science and engineering research and development, the 16th highest in the United States. Cornell is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”.
    For the 2016–17 fiscal year, the university spent $984.5 million on research. Federal sources constitute the largest source of research funding, with total federal investment of $438.2 million. The agencies contributing the largest share of that investment are the Department of Health and Human Services and the National Science Foundation(US), accounting for 49.6% and 24.4% of all federal investment, respectively. Cornell was on the top-ten list of U.S. universities receiving the most patents in 2003, and was one of the nation’s top five institutions in forming start-up companies. In 2004–05, Cornell received 200 invention disclosures; filed 203 U.S. patent applications; completed 77 commercial license agreements; and distributed royalties of more than $4.1 million to Cornell units and inventors.
    Since 1962, Cornell has been involved in unmanned missions to Mars. In the 21st century, Cornell had a hand in the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Cornell’s Steve Squyres, Principal Investigator for the Athena Science Payload, led the selection of the landing zones and requested data collection features for the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. NASA-JPL/Caltech(US) engineers took those requests and designed the rovers to meet them. The rovers, both of which have operated long past their original life expectancies, are responsible for the discoveries that were awarded 2004 Breakthrough of the Year honors by Science. Control of the Mars rovers has shifted between National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US)’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory at Caltech and Cornell’s Space Sciences Building. Further, Cornell researchers discovered the rings around the planet Uranus, and Cornell built and operated the telescope at Arecibo Observatory located in Arecibo, Puerto Rico(US) until 2011, when they transferred the operations to SRI International, the Universities Space Research Association and the Metropolitan University of Puerto Rico [Universidad Metropolitana de Puerto Rico](US).
    The Automotive Crash Injury Research Project was begun in 1952. It pioneered the use of crash testing, originally using corpses rather than dummies. The project discovered that improved door locks; energy-absorbing steering wheels; padded dashboards; and seat belts could prevent an extraordinary percentage of injuries.
    In the early 1980s, Cornell deployed the first IBM 3090-400VF and coupled two IBM 3090-600E systems to investigate coarse-grained parallel computing. In 1984, the National Science Foundation began work on establishing five new supercomputer centers, including the Cornell Center for Advanced Computing, to provide high-speed computing resources for research within the United States. As an NSF center, Cornell deployed the first IBM Scalable Parallel supercomputer. In the 1990s, Cornell developed scheduling software and deployed the first supercomputer built by Dell. Most recently, Cornell deployed Red Cloud, one of the first cloud computing services designed specifically for research. Today, the center is a partner on the National Science Foundation XSEDE-Extreme Science Eniginnering Discovery Environment supercomputing program, providing coordination for XSEDE architecture and design, systems reliability testing, and online training using the Cornell Virtual Workshop learning platform.
    Cornell scientists have researched the fundamental particles of nature for more than 70 years. Cornell physicists, such as Hans Bethe, contributed not only to the foundations of nuclear physics but also participated in the Manhattan Project. In the 1930s, Cornell built the second cyclotron in the United States. In the 1950s, Cornell physicists became the first to study synchrotron radiation. During the 1990s, the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, located beneath Alumni Field, was the world’s highest-luminosity electron-positron collider. After building the synchrotron at Cornell, Robert R. Wilson took a leave of absence to become the founding director of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), which involved designing and building the largest accelerator in the United States. Cornell’s accelerator and high-energy physics groups are involved in the design of the proposed ILC-International Linear Collider(JP) and plan to participate in its construction and operation. The International Linear Collider(JP), to be completed in the late 2010s, will complement the CERN Large Hadron Collider(CH) and shed light on questions such as the identity of dark matter and the existence of extra dimensions.
    As part of its research work, Cornell has established several research collaborations with universities around the globe. For example, a partnership with the University of Sussex(UK) (including the Institute of Development Studies at Sussex) allows research and teaching collaboration between the two institutions.

     
  • richardmitnick 7:35 pm on March 15, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Cheaper and greener particle accelerators will speed innovation", , , Cornell Center for Bright Beams (CBB), Cornell Chronicle, , , ,   

    From Cornell Chronicle: “Cheaper and greener particle accelerators will speed innovation” 

    From Cornell Chronicle

    March 15, 2021
    Rick Ryan
    cunews@cornell.edu

    1
    Cornell doctoral student Ryan Porter prepares an superconducting radio-frequency cavity made from the element Nb3Sn in the clean room of Newman Lab. Provided.

    A team of scientists at the Cornell Center for Bright Beams (CBB) – a National Science Foundation(US) Science and Technology Center led by Cornell – are working on the next generation of superconducting materials that will greatly reduce the costs associated with operating large particle accelerators and lessen their environmental impact.

    The research could also make it easier for smaller institutions and industry to use these critical tools.

    2
    Niobium-3-tin has now become the first-ever usable alternative to Niobium for SRF cavities. Provided.

    Particle accelerators play a vital role in the fight against climate change as they help strengthen new technologies such as lithium-ion storage capabilities and solar panels. However, the amount of energy required to operate some of these large machines is enormous, not only adding to the carbon footprint they seek to reduce, but limiting their accessibility.

    This energy consumption is a major hurdle for researchers, and is mostly due to one simple fact. Accelerators use superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities – made from niobium – to propel particles, such as electrons, at nearly the speed of light.

    The typical operating temperature of niobium cavities is 2 kelvins, or minus 456 degrees Fahrenheit. Cooling an accelerator cavity to these temperatures requires an intense amount of liquid helium-based cooling (cryogenics), which is not readily available at smaller institutions.

    “Some of these really large machines that we’re dreaming about – they’re barely feasible with current technology,” said Matthias Liepe, professor of physics in the College of Arts and Sciences and head of the SRF cavity team at Cornell. “You’d have to build a nuclear plant to run them, and that’s certainly not within what’s possible or [what] can be funded.”

    More efficient accelerator technology would unleash a torrent of research, not only in energy development and storage, but also medical treatments, large-scale sanitation and the semiconductor industry, as well as the critical endeavor of basic research.

    The complexity, size and power consumption of the cryogenics needed to operate these machines severely limits them to primarily large-scale, nonindustrial accelerators, according to Liepe.

    “Everything is reliant upon the performance and cost of the niobium SRF cavities,” he said.

    CBB’s interdisciplinary team of scientists, representing universities and national labs across the country, is making significant strides in tackling this problem by revolutionizing SRF technology and employing next-generation materials, primarily niobium-3-tin.

    “Niobium has been the state-of-the-art SRF material for decades due to its very good performance. And since it is a pure metal, it is fairly easy to make these cavities,” said Sam Posen, Ph.D. ’15, former Cornell SRF graduate student and now scientist and deputy division head at the DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), and affiliate at CBB. “While niobium-3-tin is a specific mixture of niobium and tin, it is somewhat harder to make cavities, but it can be very much worth the effort in a number of applications.”

    Niobium-3-tin turns superconducting at 18 kelvins, allowing researchers to operate SRF cavities at much higher temperatures – a significant jump.

    “The higher operating temperature will allow a company to cool their cavities with a small device called a cryocooler instead of a large, complex and difficult-to-maintain cryogenic plant,” said Posen, who works with his colleagues at Fermilab on related research. “This could enable new industrial particle accelerator applications, in domains like isotope production, wastewater treatment and tools for the semiconductor industry.”

    In the center’s first four years of operation, CBB researchers have developed powerful theoretical and experimental tools for material screening and RF performance testing, demonstrating the potential applications of other materials, such as niobium nitride and niobium titanium nitride. These developments have been made possible by CBB’s collaborative model, which brings together experts from a range of fields and includes experimentalists as well as theorists. This NSF collaboration, with other funding provided by the Department of Energy, is not only driving discoveries in the acceleration of particles, but also the production and transport of electron beams.

    In the long term, the CBB team hopes that niobium-3-tin cavities could be used for high-energy linear colliders, as the material is predicted to withstand higher electromagnetic fields than niobium.

    “So far this hasn’t been demonstrated yet,” said Posen, “but we’ve been making steady progress towards this exciting goal.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

    Cornell University(US) is a private, statutory, Ivy League and land-grant research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell’s founding principle, a popular 1868 quotation from founder Ezra Cornell: “I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study.”

    The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its specific admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university also administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City, Qatar, and Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute(US) in New York City, a graduate program that incorporates technology, business, and creative thinking. The program moved from Google’s Chelsea Building in New York City to its permanent campus on Roosevelt Island in September 2017.

    Cornell is one of the few private land grant universities in the United States. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the State University of New York(US) (SUNY) system, including its Agricultural and Human Ecology colleges as well as its Industrial Labor Relations school. Of Cornell’s graduate schools, only the veterinary college is state-supported. As a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens (more than 4,300 acres) and the numerous university-owned lands in New York City are considered.

    Alumni and affiliates of Cornell have reached many notable and influential positions in politics, media, and science. As of January 2021, 61 Nobel laureates, four Turing Award winners and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Cornell. Cornell counts more than 250,000 living alumni, and its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 33 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 55 Olympic Medalists, 10 current Fortune 500 CEOs, and 35 billionaire alumni. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race. The student body consists of more than 15,000 undergraduate and 9,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 119 countries.

    History

    Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865; the New York State (NYS) Senate authorized the university as the state’s land grant institution. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty. The university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, and 412 men were enrolled the next day.

    Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus and to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds. Since 1894, Cornell has included colleges that are state funded and fulfill statutory requirements; it has also administered research and extension activities that have been jointly funded by state and federal matching programs.

    Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes. It was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Cornell was also among the Ivies that had heightened student activism during the 1960s related to cultural issues; civil rights; and opposition to the Vietnam War, with protests and occupations resulting in the resignation of Cornell’s president and the restructuring of university governance. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses. Cornell is also known for the Residential Club Fire of 1967, a fire in the Residential Club building that killed eight students and one professor.

    Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar. It has partnerships with institutions in India, Singapore, and the People’s Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a “transnational university”. On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University(US) laid the cornerstone for a new ‘Bridging the Rift Center’ to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.

    Research

    Cornell, a research university, is ranked fourth in the world in producing the largest number of graduates who go on to pursue PhDs in engineering or the natural sciences at American institutions, and fifth in the world in producing graduates who pursue PhDs at American institutions in any field. Research is a central element of the university’s mission; in 2009 Cornell spent $671 million on science and engineering research and development, the 16th highest in the United States. Cornell is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”.

    For the 2016–17 fiscal year, the university spent $984.5 million on research. Federal sources constitute the largest source of research funding, with total federal investment of $438.2 million. The agencies contributing the largest share of that investment are the Department of Health and Human Services and the National Science Foundation(US), accounting for 49.6% and 24.4% of all federal investment, respectively. Cornell was on the top-ten list of U.S. universities receiving the most patents in 2003, and was one of the nation’s top five institutions in forming start-up companies. In 2004–05, Cornell received 200 invention disclosures; filed 203 U.S. patent applications; completed 77 commercial license agreements; and distributed royalties of more than $4.1 million to Cornell units and inventors.

    Since 1962, Cornell has been involved in unmanned missions to Mars. In the 21st century, Cornell had a hand in the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Cornell’s Steve Squyres, Principal Investigator for the Athena Science Payload, led the selection of the landing zones and requested data collection features for the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. NASA-JPL/Caltech(US) engineers took those requests and designed the rovers to meet them. The rovers, both of which have operated long past their original life expectancies, are responsible for the discoveries that were awarded 2004 Breakthrough of the Year honors by Science. Control of the Mars rovers has shifted between National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US)’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory at Caltech and Cornell’s Space Sciences Building. Further, Cornell researchers discovered the rings around the planet Uranus, and Cornell built and operated the telescope at Arecibo Observatory located in Arecibo, Puerto Rico(US) until 2011, when they transferred the operations to SRI International, the Universities Space Research Association and the Metropolitan University of Puerto Rico [Universidad Metropolitana de Puerto Rico](US).

    The Automotive Crash Injury Research Project was begun in 1952. It pioneered the use of crash testing, originally using corpses rather than dummies. The project discovered that improved door locks; energy-absorbing steering wheels; padded dashboards; and seat belts could prevent an extraordinary percentage of injuries.

    In the early 1980s, Cornell deployed the first IBM 3090-400VF and coupled two IBM 3090-600E systems to investigate coarse-grained parallel computing. In 1984, the National Science Foundation began work on establishing five new supercomputer centers, including the Cornell Center for Advanced Computing, to provide high-speed computing resources for research within the United States. As an NSF center, Cornell deployed the first IBM Scalable Parallel supercomputer. In the 1990s, Cornell developed scheduling software and deployed the first supercomputer built by Dell. Most recently, Cornell deployed Red Cloud, one of the first cloud computing services designed specifically for research. Today, the center is a partner on the National Science Foundation XSEDE-Extreme Science Eniginnering Discovery Environment supercomputing program, providing coordination for XSEDE architecture and design, systems reliability testing, and online training using the Cornell Virtual Workshop learning platform.

    Cornell scientists have researched the fundamental particles of nature for more than 70 years. Cornell physicists, such as Hans Bethe, contributed not only to the foundations of nuclear physics but also participated in the Manhattan Project. In the 1930s, Cornell built the second cyclotron in the United States. In the 1950s, Cornell physicists became the first to study synchrotron radiation. During the 1990s, the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, located beneath Alumni Field, was the world’s highest-luminosity electron-positron collider. After building the synchrotron at Cornell, Robert R. Wilson took a leave of absence to become the founding director of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US), which involved designing and building the largest accelerator in the United States. Cornell’s accelerator and high-energy physics groups are involved in the design of the proposed ILC-International Linear Collider(JP) and plan to participate in its construction and operation. The International Linear Collider(JP), to be completed in the late 2010s, will complement the CERN Large Hadron Collider(CH) and shed light on questions such as the identity of dark matter and the existence of extra dimensions.

    As part of its research work, Cornell has established several research collaborations with universities around the globe. For example, a partnership with the University of Sussex(UK) (including the Institute of Development Studies at Sussex) allows research and teaching collaboration between the two institutions.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:43 pm on February 16, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Slow motion precursors give earthquakes the fast slip", An Antarctic glacier called Whillans Ice Plain., “Slow slips” precede dozens of large magnitude 7 earthquakes., Cornell Chronicle, During an earthquake a fast slip happens when energy builds up underground and is released quickly along a fault.,   

    From Cornell Chronicle: “Slow motion precursors give earthquakes the fast slip” 

    From Cornell Chronicle

    February 16, 2021
    Blaine Friedlander
    bpf2@cornell.edu

    1
    Matthew Siegfried, forefront, and seismologist Marino Protti, of the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica, prepare to move equipment at Whillans Ice Plain. The Transantarctic Mountains are in the background. Credit: Grace Barcheck/Cornell University.

    At a glacier near the South Pole, earth scientists have found evidence of a quiet, slow-motion fault slip that triggers strong, fast-slip earthquakes many miles away, according to Cornell research published Feb. 5 in Science Advances.

    During an earthquake, a fast slip happens when energy builds up underground and is released quickly along a fault. Blocks of earth rapidly slide against one another.

    However, at an Antarctic glacier called Whillans Ice Plain, the earth scientists show that “slow slips” precede dozens of large magnitude 7 earthquakes. “We found that there is almost always a precursory ‘slow slip’ before an earthquake,” said lead author Grace Barcheck, research associate in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, in the College of Engineering.

    2
    Matthew Siegfried inspects a GPS device, powered by a solar panel at Whillans Ice Plain. Credit: Grace Barcheck/Cornell University.

    Barcheck said that these slow-slip precursors – occurring as far as 20 miles away from the epicenter – are directly involved in starting the earthquake. “These slow slips are remarkably common,” she said, “and they migrate toward where the fast earthquake slip starts.”

    Observations before several large tsunami-generating magnitude 8 and 9 earthquakes on subduction zone faults suggest a similar process may have occurred, according to Patrick Fulton, assistant professor and Croll Sesquicentennial Fellow in the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences.

    As these faults are mostly offshore and deep underwater, and because it is difficult to know when or where a large earthquake will occur, the start of large earthquakes is generally hard to observe.

    To overcome these challenges, the scientists placed GPS sensors above an icy glacial fault at Whillans Ice Plain, where large magnitude 7 earthquakes occur nearly twice a day over a 60-mile-wide area of the glacier.

    Within a period of two months in 2014, the group captured 75 earthquakes at the bottom of the Antarctic glacier. Data from GPS stations indicated that 73 – or 96% – of the 75 earthquakes showed a period of precursory slow motion.

    The data from the GPS tracking stations and surface seismometers allowed the team to identify how the slow precursory slip triggers the fast earthquake slip.

    “Our group was a little surprised to see so many precursors,” Barcheck said.

    “In some cases, we can actually see the migration of the earthquake precursor towards where the earthquake begins.”

    “Before we pored over the data, I thought that if we saw any precursors before the earthquakes, they would be rare and in the same place as the earthquake epicenter,” she said. “Instead, we found many slow-slip precursors – starting miles from the epicenters and migrating across the fault.“

    In addition to Barcheck and Fulton, co-authors on the research were Emily Brodsky, professor, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, formerly a visiting professor at Cornell; Matt King, professor, Geography and Spatial Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (AU); Matthew Siegfried, Department of Geophysics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado; and Slawek Tulaczyk, professor, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz.

    Field work and analysis for this research was supported by the National Science Foundation.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

     
  • richardmitnick 6:24 pm on January 4, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New View of Nature’s Oldest Light Adds Twist to Debate Over Universe’s Age", , , , , Cornell Chronicle, , , European Space Agency’s Planck satellite, The ACT measurement is slower than the 74 kilometers per second per megaparsec inferred from the measurements of galaxies., The ACT measurements suggest a Hubble Constant of 67.6 kilometers per second per megaparsec., The age of the universe also reveals how fast the cosmos is expanding- a number quantified by the Hubble Constant., We’ve come up with an answer where Planck and ACT agree.   

    From Cornell Chronicle: “New View of Nature’s Oldest Light Adds Twist to Debate Over Universe’s Age” 

    From Cornell Chronicle

    January 4, 2021
    Linda B. Glaser
    cunews@cornell.edu

    From an observatory high above Chile’s Atacama Desert, astronomers have taken a new look at the oldest light in the universe.

    Their observations, plus a bit of cosmic geometry, suggest that the universe is 13.77 billion years old – give or take 40 million years. A Cornell researcher co-authored one of two papers* about the findings, which add a fresh twist to an ongoing debate in the astrophysics community.

    The new estimate, using data gathered at the National Science Foundation’s Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), matches the one provided by the standard model of the universe, as well as measurements of the same light made by the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite, which measured remnants of the Big Bang from 2009 to ’13.

    Princeton Atacama Cosmology Telescope, on Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert in the north of Chile, near the Llano de Chajnantor Observatory, Altitude 4,800 m (15,700 ft).

    LBL The Simons Array in the Atacama in Chile, altitude 5,200 m (17,100 ft) with the 6 meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope.

    CMB per ESA/Planck.

    ESA/Planck 2009 to 2013

    The research was published Dec. 30 in the Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics.

    In 2019, a research team measuring the movements of galaxies calculated that the universe is hundreds of millions of years younger than the Planck team predicted. That discrepancy suggested a new model for the universe might be needed and sparked concerns that one of the sets of measurements might be incorrect.

    “Now we’ve come up with an answer where Planck and ACT agree,” said Simone Aiola, a researcher at the Flatiron Institute’s Center for Computational Astrophysics and first author of one of two papers. “It speaks to the fact that these difficult measurements are reliable.”

    3
    A portion of a new picture of the oldest light in the universe taken by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. Credit: ACT collaboration .

    From The Cornell University article published July 15, 2020

    The age of the universe also reveals how fast the cosmos is expanding, a number quantified by the Hubble constant. The ACT measurements suggest a Hubble constant of 67.6 kilometers per second per megaparsec. That means an object 1 megaparsec (around 3.26 million light-years) from Earth is moving away from us at 67.6 kilometers per second due to the expansion of the universe. This result agrees almost exactly with the previous estimate of 67.4 kilometers per second per megaparsec by the Planck satellite team, but it’s slower than the 74 kilometers per second per megaparsec inferred from the measurements of galaxies.

    “I didn’t have a particular preference for any specific value — it was going to be interesting one way or another,” says Choi. “We find an expansion rate that is right on the estimate by the Planck satellite team. This gives us more confidence in measurements of the universe’s oldest light.”

    Like the Planck satellite, ACT peers at the CMB [above], the afterglow of the Big Bang.

    As ACT continues making observations, astronomers will have an even clearer picture of the CMB and a more exact idea of how long ago the cosmos began. The ACT team will also scour those observations for signs of physics that doesn’t fit the standard cosmological model. Such strange physics could resolve the disagreement between the predictions of the age and expansion rate of the universe arising from the measurements of the CMB and the motions of galaxies.

    The ACT team is an international collaboration, with scientists from 41 institutions in seven countries, in which Cornell University plays an essential role. Cornell researchers helped develop the ACT optics, detector arrays, survey strategy, software infrastructure, and data analysis tools. Niemack led the development of the Advanced ACTPol detector arrays and serves on the ACT guiding board. ACT is supported by the National Science Foundation and contributions from member institutions.

    *The article refers to two science papers but this article in Cornell Chronicle and the full article from July 15, 2020 only present the one paper included here.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:38 pm on December 16, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Cornell postdoc detects possible exoplanet radio emission", , , , Cornell Chronicle, ,   

    From Cornell Chronicle: “Cornell postdoc detects possible exoplanet radio emission” 

    From Cornell Chronicle

    December 16, 2020
    Blaine Friedlander
    bpf2@cornell.edu

    1
    In this artistic rendering of the Tau Boötes b system, the lines representing the invisible magnetic field are shown protecting the hot Jupiter planet from solar wind. Credit: Jack Madden/Cornell University.

    By monitoring the cosmos with a radio telescope array, an international team of scientists has detected radio bursts emanating from the constellation Boötes – that could be the first radio emission collected from a planet beyond our solar system.

    The team, led by Cornell postdoctoral researcher Jake D. Turner, Philippe Zarka of the Observatoire de Paris – Paris Sciences et Lettres University and Jean-Mathias Griessmeier of the Université d’Orléans will publish their findings in the forthcoming research section of Astronomy & Astrophysics, on Dec. 16.

    “We present one of the first hints of detecting an exoplanet in the radio realm,” Turner said. “The signal is from the Tau Boötes system, which contains a binary star and an exoplanet. We make the case for an emission by the planet itself. From the strength and polarization of the radio signal and the planet’s magnetic field, it is compatible with theoretical predictions.”

    Among the co-authors is Turner’s postdoctoral advisor Ray Jayawardhana, the Harold Tanner Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, and a professor of astronomy.

    “If confirmed through follow-up observations,” Jayawardhana said, “this radio detection opens up a new window on exoplanets, giving us a novel way to examine alien worlds that are tens of light-years away.”

    Using the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), a radio telescope in the Netherlands, Turner and his colleagues uncovered emission bursts from a star-system hosting a so-called hot Jupiter, a gaseous giant planet that is very close to its own sun.

    ASTRON LOFAR Radio Antenna Bank, Netherlands.

    The group also observed other potential exoplanetary radio-emission candidates in the 55 Cancri (in the constellation Cancer) and Upsilon Andromedae systems. Only the Tau Boötes exoplanet system – about 51 light-years away – exhibited a significant radio signature, a unique potential window on the planet’s magnetic field.

    Observing an exoplanet’s magnetic field helps astronomers decipher a planet’s interior and atmospheric properties, as well as the physics of star-planet interactions, said Turner, a member of Cornell’s Carl Sagan Institute.

    Earth’s magnetic field protects it from solar wind dangers, keeping the planet habitable.

    Magnetosphere of Earth, original bitmap from NASA. SVG rendering by Aaron Kaase.

    “The magnetic field of Earth-like exoplanets may contribute to their possible habitability,” Turner said, “by shielding their own atmospheres from solar wind and cosmic rays, and protecting the planet from atmospheric loss.”

    Two years ago, Turner and his colleagues examined the radio emission signature of Jupiter and scaled those emissions to mimic the possible signatures from a distant Jupiter-like exoplanet. Those results became the template for searching radio emission from exoplanets 40 to 100 light-years away.

    After poring over nearly 100-hours of radio observations, the researchers were able to find the expected hot Jupiter signature in Tau Boötes. “We learned from our own Jupiter what this kind of detection looks like. We went searching for it and we found it,” Turner said.

    The signature, though, is weak. “There remains some uncertainty that the detected radio signal is from the planet. The need for follow-up observations is critical,” he said.

    Turner and his team have already begun a campaign using multiple radio telescopes to follow up on the signal from Tau Boötes.

    In addition to Turner, Jayawardhana, Griessmeier and Zarka, the co-authors are Laurent Lamy and Baptiste Cecconi of the Observatoire de Paris, France; Joseph Lazio from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory; J. Emilio Enriquez and Imke de Pater from the University of California, Berkeley; Julien N. Girard from Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa; and Jonathan D. Nichols from the University of Leicester, United Kingdom.

    Turner, who laid the groundwork for this research while earning his doctorate at the University of Virginia, received funding from the National Science Foundation.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:02 pm on December 9, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Physics professor advances research on black hole paradox", , Cornell Chronicle, It turns out that a powerful way to learn about one black hole is to study two black holes., Late physicist Stephen Hawking showed that when quantum effects are included black holes do have a temperature.,   

    From Cornell Chronicle: “Physics professor advances research on black hole paradox” 

    From Cornell Chronicle

    December 9, 2020
    Kate Blackwood
    cunews@cornell.edu

    1
    Thomas Hartman, right, associate professor of physics, and Amirhossein Tajdini, Ph.D. ’20, diagram in 2019 a replica wormhole, a concept associated with quantum gravity. They were two authors of “Replica Wormholes and the Entropy of Hawking Radiation,” a paper important to recent progress on the black hole paradox. Credit: Dave Burbank/Cornell University.

    Do black holes emit information?

    For decades, physicists have theorized on this high-stakes question. At the heart of the so-called “black hole information paradox” is a fundamental incompatibility between the two pillar theories of theoretical physics: general relativity and quantum mechanics.

    But in the past two years, a series of breakthrough calculations by researchers – including Tom Hartman, associate professor of physics in the College of Arts and Sciences – have led to proclamations in the field of theoretical physics that “the most famous paradox in physics,” according to Quanta Magazine, is nearing its end.

    “It’s fair to say that these calculations have given us a new way to think about black hole information and given us hints about how to make sense of quantum gravity,” Hartman said, confirming the progress and his significant contribution. “It solves some corner of the paradox.”

    Hartman researches quantum gravity, a theory to reconcile quantum mechanics and general relativity. His paper published in May in the Journal of High Energy Physics, reports a mathematical technique for calculating the physics of a black hole. Collaborators on the paper included former Cornell postdoctoral researcher Edgar Shaghoulian, now a postdoc at the University of Pennsylvania; and Amir Tajdini, Ph.D. ’20, now a postdoc at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

    “Black holes are a place where both quantum mechanics and gravity can be important at the same time,” Hartman said. “If you’re thinking about quantum gravity and how to put the two theories together, black holes are a great way to study that problem.”

    Although we think of black holes as having nothing coming out from them, Hartman said, late physicist Stephen Hawking showed that when quantum effects are included, black holes do have a temperature.

    This leads to the paradox: The fact that black holes have a temperature, Hartman said, means that particles are escaping the black hole. Hawking found that these particles are “pure thermal radiation,” or radiation that is completely random and does not carry any information, Hartman said. If this is true, then when a black hole evaporates away and disappears, the information that was originally contained in the black hole has been destroyed, he said.

    “It is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics that information cannot be destroyed,” Hartman said. “So the paradox is a contradiction between quantum mechanics and Hawking’s calculation showing that black holes radiate randomly.”

    In the paper, Hartman and collaborators used a mathematical trick involving extra copies of the black hole called “replicas” to calculate the physics of a single black hole.

    “It turns out that a powerful way to learn about one black hole is to study two black holes,” he said. “The reason is that there are statistical properties of radiation that are hard to understand if you look at one black hole but easier to understand if you look at two at once.”

    Using this technique, they found evidence that the particles emitted in Hawking radiation are not random, after all.

    In November, Hartman published further research in the Journal of High Energy Physics. In the paper, he and Shaghoulian, along with Yikun Jiang, a Ph.D. student in the field of physics, explore the possibility that the new theory of Hawking radiation could also apply to the early universe.

    Hartman co-organized a virtual workshop on this and related topics in November with researchers from Stanford and the University of California, San Diego, joined by 40 participants from around the world.

    Far from being near an end, the information paradox is a problem that multiplies as physicists look into it, Hartman said. What started as one paradox has grown into a whole field of study.

    “There are many aspects of it,” he said. “It’s something thousands of people will work on for decades.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:19 am on November 18, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Stretchable sensor gives robots and VR a human touch", , Cornell Chronicle, , SLIMS-Stretchable lightguide for multimodal sensing, VR and AR immersion is based on motion capture.   

    From Cornell Chronicle: “Stretchable sensor gives robots and VR a human touch” 

    From Cornell Chronicle

    November 12, 2020
    David Nutt
    cunews@cornell.edu

    1
    Cornell researchers in the Organic Robotics Lab designed a 3D-printed glove lined with stretchable fiber-optic sensors that use light to detect a range of deformations in real time. Provided.

    It’s not a stretch to say that stretchable sensors could change the way soft robots function and feel. In fact, they will be able to feel quite a lot.

    Cornell researchers have created a fiber-optic sensor that combines low-cost LEDs and dyes, resulting in a stretchable “skin” that detects deformations such as pressure, bending and strain. This sensor could give soft robotic systems – and anyone using augmented reality technology – the ability to feel the same rich, tactile sensations that mammals depend on to navigate the natural world.


    Stretchable sensor gives robots and VR a human touch.

    The researchers, led by Rob Shepherd, associate professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering in the College of Engineering, are working to commercialize the technology for physical therapy and sports medicine.

    Their paper, “Stretchable Distributed Fiber-Optic Sensors,” published Nov. 13 in Science. The paper’s co-lead authors are doctoral student Hedan Bai ’16 and Shuo Li, Ph.D. ’20.

    The project builds upon an earlier stretchable sensor, created in Shepherd’s Organic Robotics Lab in 2016, in which light was sent through an optical waveguide, and a photodiode detected changes in the beam’s intensity to determine when the material was deformed. The lab has since developed a variety of similar sensory materials, such as optical lace and foams.

    For the new project, Bai drew inspiration from silica-based distributed fiber-optic sensors, which detect minor wavelength shifts as a way to identify multiple properties, such as changes in humidity, temperature and strain. However, silica fibers aren’t compatible with soft and stretchable electronics. Intelligent soft systems also present their own structural challenges.

    “We know that soft matters can be deformed in a very complicated, combinational way, and there are a lot of deformations happening at the same time,” Bai said. “We wanted a sensor that could decouple these.”

    Bai’s solution was to make a stretchable lightguide for multimodal sensing (SLIMS). This long tube contains a pair of polyurethane elastomeric cores. One core is transparent; the other is filled with absorbing dyes at multiple locations and connects to an LED. Each core is coupled with a red-green-blue sensor chip to register geometric changes in the optical path of light.

    The dual-core design increases the number of outputs by which the sensor can detect a range of deformations – pressure, bending or elongation – by lighting up the dyes, which act as spatial encoders. Bai paired that technology with a mathematical model that can decouple, or separate, the different deformations and pinpoint their exact locations and magnitudes.

    Whereas distributed fiber-optic sensors require high-resolution detection equipment, SLIMS sensors can operate with small optoelectronics that have lower resolution. That makes them less expensive, simpler to manufacture and more easily integrated into small systems. For example, a SLIMS sensor could be incorporated into a robot’s hand to detect slippage.

    The technology is also wearable. The researchers designed a 3D-printed glove with a SLIMS sensor running along each finger. The glove is powered by a lithium battery and equipped with Bluetooth so it can transmit data to basic software, which Bai designed, that reconstructs the glove’s movements and deformations in real time.

    “Right now, sensing is done mostly by vision,” Shepherd said. “We hardly ever measure touch in real life. This skin is a way to allow ourselves and machines to measure tactile interactions in a way that we now currently use the cameras in our phones. It’s using vision to measure touch. This is the most convenient and practical way to do it in a scalable way.”

    Bai explored SLIMS’ commercial potential through the National Science Foundation Innovation Corps (I-Corps) program. She and Shepherd are working with Cornell’s Center for Technology Licensing to patent the technology, with an eye toward applications in physical therapy and sports medicine. Both fields have leveraged motion-tracking technology but until now have lacked the ability to capture force interactions.

    The researchers are also looking into the ways SLIMS sensors can boost virtual and augmented reality experiences.

    “VR and AR immersion is based on motion capture. Touch is barely there at all,” Shepherd said. “Let’s say you want to have an augmented reality simulation that teaches you how to fix your car or change a tire. If you had a glove or something that could measure pressure, as well as motion, that augmented reality visualization could say, ‘Turn and then stop, so you don’t overtighten your lug nuts.’ There’s nothing out there that does that right now, but this is an avenue to do it.”

    Co-authors include Clifford Pollock, the Ilda and Charles Lee Professor of Engineering; doctoral student Jose Barreiros, M.S. ’20, M.Eng. ’17; and Yaqi Tu, M.S. ’18.

    The research was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF); the Air Force Office of Scientific Research; Cornell Technology Acceleration and Maturation; the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture; and the Office of Naval Research.

    The researchers made use of the Cornell NanoScale Science and Technology Facility and Cornell Center for Materials Research, both of which are supported by the NSF.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:46 pm on October 29, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "CHESS receives $32.6M from NSF for new X-ray beamline", CHESS’s Center for High Energy X-ray Science (CHEXS), Cornell Chronicle, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), High Magnetic Field (HMF) beamline, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (National MagLab) at Florida State University, University of Puerto Rico   

    From Cornell Chronicle: “CHESS receives $32.6M from NSF for new X-ray beamline” 

    From Cornell Chronicle

    October 29, 2020
    David Nutt
    cunews@cornell.edu

    1
    Rice plants are photographed in the X-ray beamline at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source. Credit: Cornell University File Photo.

    The National Science Foundation has awarded the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) $32.6 million to build a High Magnetic Field (HMF) beamline, which will allow researchers to conduct precision X-ray studies of materials in persistent magnetic fields that exceed those available at any other synchrotron.

    Cornell CHESS High Energy Synchrotron Source.

    The HMF beamline, to be located at CHESS’s Center for High Energy X-ray Science (CHEXS), is a partnership with the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (National MagLab), headquartered at Florida State University, and the University of Puerto Rico (UPR).

    “This significant new infusion of NSF funding for Cornell’s CHESS lab will guarantee the preservation and expansion of its revolutionary scientific research in the heart of upstate New York,” said Sen. Chuck Schumer, D-New York, a long-time supporter of the facility whose advocacy in 2012 helped secure an extension of CHESS’s funding from the NSF.

    “This facility has played a pivotal role in a multitude of medical discoveries and scientific breakthroughs, including two Nobel prizes, and supports more than 200 jobs,” Schumer said. “That is why I am working to expand CHESS’s partnership with the federal government, including with the Air Force Research Laboratory, in addition to ensuring the NSF continues to have the funding needed for support of CHESS and to maintain America’s global leadership in innovation. This latest funding confirms the tremendous potential the facility holds for unprecedented scientific discovery and I will continue to fight to ensure scientists at the CHESS lab are able to advance their groundbreaking research at this world-renowned facility for years to come.”

    The partnership brings together CHESS’s expertise in high-energy X-ray science – which can be harnessed to explore the physical, chemical and structural properties in materials, molecules, organisms and devices – with the National MagLab’s leadership in high magnetic field technology. The HMF beamline will merge these strengths, so that researchers can manipulate electrons using magnetic fields and monitor their response using X-rays.

    “This project is a unique opportunity for the NSF to converge the nation’s top national X-ray user facility, CHESS, with a new high-strength magnet to create the most powerful facility of its kind in the nation, leveraging the enormous expertise of the Cornell staff,” Provost Michael I. Kotlikoff said. “This will create an infrastructure that will have immense impacts on the future of our nation’s economy, well-being and scientific achievements.”

    The project builds upon several longstanding relationships. CHEXS and the National MagLab are both NSF-funded national user facilities; CHESS and UPR previously established an NSF-supported initiative to train UPR students from underrepresented groups in X-ray technology at CHESS. The new funding will expand that effort to include cutting-edge magnet technology.

    “This new beamline will be a generational change for both CHESS and the X-Ray community,” said Joel Brock, director of CHESS. “While we have plenty of X-Ray users at CHESS, the pipeline for beamline scientists – the people that know how to build an actual beamline – is drying up. This new project will not just expand the lab, it will also expand the network of experts of the underpinnings of the technology. That is why the education of undergraduates, grad students and postdocs is a major part of this project.”

    The HMF beamline will feature a custom low-temperature superconducting magnet that generates continuous magnetic fields as high as 20 Tesla and will be capable of collecting nearly 1 billion distinct measurements per second. The beamline will be designed to accommodate even higher fields from future magnets made possible by anticipated developments in high-temperature superconducting magnet technology.

    The HMF beamline will generate new insights into a range of fields, from quantum materials research to chemistry and biology.

    “X-rays are a really powerful way to observe what the electrons are doing inside a material, but X-rays don’t really offer us many ways to control these electrons,” said Jacob Ruff, director of CHEXS. “On the other hand, magnetic fields offer very precise control of electrons inside materials. So, for me, what’s exciting about the new beamline at CHESS is that we will be able to control electrons with very strong magnetic fields and watch what happens with X-rays at the same time.

    “This means we can start to intervene and manipulate different quantum states of matter, rather than just being spectators,” Ruff said. “We’re going to learn things we simply wouldn’t have been able to without the combination of the two capabilities.”

    The funding is from the NSF’s Mid-scale Research Infrastructure-2 program, which supports projects between $20 million and $70 million that enable advances in scientific and engineering fields, as well as STEM education, by creating new research capabilities and training early-career researchers in the development, design and construction of cutting-edge infrastructure.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:27 am on October 24, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Smile and wave: Some exoplanets may be able to see us too", , , , Cornell Chronicle, Cornell’s Carl Sagan Institute, ,   

    From Cornell Chronicle: “Smile, wave: Some exoplanets may be able to see us, too” 

    From Cornell Chronicle

    October 21, 2020
    Blaine Friedlander
    bpf2@cornell.edu


    Earth visible from distant exoplanets.

    Three decades after Cornell astronomer Carl Sagan suggested that Voyager 1 snap Earth’s picture from billions of miles away – resulting in the iconic Pale Blue Dot photograph – two astronomers now offer another unique cosmic perspective:

    NASA/Voyager 1.

    Pale Blue Dot.NASA Voyager 1 photo.

    Some exoplanets – planets from beyond our own solar system – have a direct line of sight to observe Earth’s biological qualities from far, far away.

    Lisa Kaltenegger, associate professor of astronomy in the College of Arts and Sciences and director of Cornell’s Carl Sagan Institute; and Joshua Pepper, associate professor of physics at Lehigh University, have identified 1,004 main-sequence stars (similar to our sun) that might contain Earth-like planets in their own habitable zones – all within about 300 light-years of Earth – and which should be able to detect Earth’s chemical traces of life.

    The paper, Which Stars Can See Earth as a Transiting Exoplanet? was published Oct. 21 in the MNRAS.

    “Let’s reverse the viewpoint to that of other stars and ask from which vantage point other observers could find Earth as a transiting planet,” Kaltenegger said. A transiting planet is one that passes through the observer’s line of sight to another star, such as the sun, revealing clues as to the makeup of the planet’s atmosphere.

    “If observers were out there searching, they would be able to see signs of a biosphere in the atmosphere of our Pale Blue Dot,” she said, “And we can even see some of the brightest of these stars in our night sky without binoculars or telescopes.”

    Transit observations are a crucial tool for Earth’s astronomers to characterize inhabited extrasolar planets, Kaltenegger said, which astronomers will start to use with the launch of NASA’s James Webb Space telescope next year.

    Planet transit. NASA/Ames.

    But which stars systems could find us? Holding the key to this science is Earth’s ecliptic – the plane of Earth’s orbit around the Sun. The ecliptic is where the exoplanets with a view of Earth would be located, as they will be the places able to see Earth crossing its own sun – effectively providing observers a way to discover our planet’s vibrant biosphere.

    Pepper and Kaltenegger created the list of the thousand closest stars using NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) star catalog.

    NASA/MIT TESS replaced Kepler in search for exoplanets.

    “Only a very small fraction of exoplanets will just happen to be randomly aligned with our line of sight so we can see them transit.” Pepper said. ”But all of the thousand stars we identified in our paper in the solar neighborhood could see our Earth transit the sun, calling their attention.”

    “If we found a planet with a vibrant biosphere, we would get curious about whether or not someone is there looking at us too,” Kaltenegger said.

    “If we’re looking for intelligent life in the universe, that could find us and might want to get in touch” she said, “we’ve just created the star map of where we should look first.”

    This work was funded by the Carl Sagan Institute and the Breakthrough Initiative.

    2

    Breakthrough Listen Project.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

     
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