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  • richardmitnick 11:31 am on December 17, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "COB": cosmic optical background, "New study confirms the light from outside our galaxy brighter than expected", , , , , ,   

    From The Rochester Institute of Technology: “New study confirms the light from outside our galaxy brighter than expected” 

    From The Rochester Institute of Technology

    12.16.22
    Luke Auburn
    luke.auburn@rit.edu

    3
    Left: Galactic coordinates of science fields color-coded by total integration time per field. Right: Heliocentric distance of each science field. The height of each bar indicates the total integration time per field. Credit: Rochester Institute of Technology.

    Study led by RIT scientists uses data taken by LORRI on NASA’s New Horizons mission

    Scientists analyzed new measurements showing that the light emitted by stars outside our galaxy is two to three times brighter than the light from known populations of galaxies, challenging assumptions about the number and environment of stars are in the universe. Results of the study led by researchers at Rochester Institute of Technology have been posted for The Astrophysical Journal [below].

    The research team analyzed hundreds of images of background light taken by the Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on NASA’s New Horizons mission to calculate the cosmic optical background (COB)—the sum of light emitted by stars beyond the Milky Way over the history of the universe. If the COB brightness doesn’t equal the light from galaxies we know about, it suggests there might be missing sources of optical light in the universe.

    “We see more light than we should see based on the populations of galaxies that we understand to exist and how much light we estimate they should produce,” said Teresa Symons ’22 Ph.D. (astrophysical sciences and technology), who led the study for her dissertation and is now a postdoctoral researcher at University of California Irvine. “Determining what is producing that light could change our fundamental understanding of how the universe formed over time.”

    Earlier this year, an independent team of scientists reported the COB was twice as large as originally believed in The Astrophysical Journal Letters [below]. Those results were no fluke, as corroborated using a much broader set of LORRI observations in the new study by Symons, RIT Associate Professor Michael Zemcov, and researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at Caltech, The University of California-Irvine, The University of California-Berkeley, and Johns Hopkins University.

    While an unobscured measurement of the COB is difficult to achieve from the Earth due to dust between planets, the New Horizons spacecraft is at the edge of our solar system where this foreground is minimal and provides a much clearer view for this type of study. The scientists hope that future missions and instruments can be developed to help explore the discrepancy.

    “This has gotten to the point where it’s an actual mystery that needs to be solved,” said Zemcov, a research professor at RIT’s Center for Detectors and School of Physics and Astronomy. “I hope that some of the experiments we’re involved in here at RIT including CIBER-2 and SPHEREx can help us resolve the discrepancy.”

    Science papers:
    The Astrophysical Journal
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters
    See the science papers for instructive material with images.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Rochester Institute of Technology is a private doctoral university within the town of Henrietta in the Rochester, New York metropolitan area.

    RIT is composed of nine academic colleges, including National Technical Institute for the Deaf(RIT). The Institute is one of only a small number of engineering institutes in the State of New York, including New York Institute of Technology, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. It is most widely known for its fine arts, computing, engineering, and imaging science programs; several fine arts programs routinely rank in the national “Top 10” according to US News & World Report.

    The university offers undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees and online masters as well.

    The university was founded in 1829 and is the tenth largest private university in the country in terms of full-time students. It is internationally known for its science; computer; engineering; and art programs as well as for the National Technical Institute for the Deaf- a leading deaf-education institution that provides educational opportunities to more than 1000 deaf and hard-of-hearing students. RIT is known for its Co-op program that gives students professional and industrial experience. It has the fourth oldest and one of the largest Co-op programs in the world. It is classified among “R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity”.

    RIT’s student population is approximately 19,000 students, about 16,000 undergraduate and 3000 graduate. Demographically, students attend from all 50 states in the United States and from more than 100 countries around the world. The university has more than 4000 active faculty and staff members who engage with the students in a wide range of academic activities and research projects. It also has branches abroad, its global campuses, located in China, Croatia and United Arab Emirates (Dubai).

    Fourteen RIT alumni and faculty members have been recipients of the Pulitzer Prize.

    History

    The university began as a result of an 1891 merger between Rochester Athenæum, a literary society founded in 1829 by Colonel Nathaniel Rochester and associates and The Mechanics Institute- a Rochester school of practical technical training for local residents founded in 1885 by a consortium of local businessmen including Captain Henry Lomb- co-founder of Bausch & Lomb. The name of the merged institution at the time was called Rochester Athenæum and Mechanics Institute (RAMI). The Mechanics Institute however, was considered as the surviving school by taking over The Rochester Athenaeum’s charter. From the time of the merger until 1944 RAMI celebrated The former Mechanics Institute’s 1885 founding charter. In 1944 the school changed its name to Rochester Institute of Technology and re-established The Athenaeum’s 1829 founding charter and became a full-fledged research university.

    The university originally resided within the city of Rochester, New York, proper, on a block bounded by the Erie Canal; South Plymouth Avenue; Spring Street; and South Washington Street (approximately 43.152632°N 77.615157°W). Its art department was originally located in the Bevier Memorial Building. By the middle of the twentieth century, RIT began to outgrow its facilities, and surrounding land was scarce and expensive. Additionally in 1959 the New York Department of Public Works announced a new freeway- the Inner Loop- was to be built through the city along a path that bisected the university’s campus and required demolition of key university buildings. In 1961 an unanticipated donation of $3.27 million ($27,977,071 today) from local Grace Watson (for whom RIT’s dining hall was later named) allowed the university to purchase land for a new 1,300-acre (5.3 km^2) campus several miles south along the east bank of the Genesee River in suburban Henrietta. Upon completion in 1968 the university moved to the new suburban campus, where it resides today.

    In 1966 RIT was selected by the Federal government to be the site of the newly founded National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID). NTID admitted its first students in 1968 concurrent with RIT’s transition to the Henrietta campus.

    In 1979 RIT took over Eisenhower College- a liberal arts college located in Seneca Falls, New York. Despite making a 5-year commitment to keep Eisenhower open RIT announced in July 1982 that the college would close immediately. One final year of operation by Eisenhower’s academic program took place in the 1982–83 school year on the Henrietta campus. The final Eisenhower graduation took place in May 1983 back in Seneca Falls.

    In 1990 RIT started its first PhD program in Imaging Science – the first PhD program of its kind in the U.S. RIT subsequently established PhD programs in six other fields: Astrophysical Sciences and Technology; Computing and Information Sciences; Color Science; Microsystems Engineering; Sustainability; and Engineering. In 1996 RIT became the first college in the U.S to offer a Software Engineering degree at the undergraduate level.

    Colleges

    RIT has nine colleges:

    RIT College of Engineering Technology
    Saunders College of Business
    B. Thomas Golisano College of Computing and Information Sciences
    Kate Gleason College of Engineering
    RIT College of Health Sciences and Technology
    College of Art and Design
    RIT College of Liberal Arts
    RIT College of Science
    National Technical Institute for the Deaf

    There are also three smaller academic units that grant degrees but do not have full college faculties:

    RIT Center for Multidisciplinary Studies
    Golisano Institute for Sustainability
    University Studies

    In addition to these colleges, RIT operates three branch campuses in Europe, one in the Middle East and one in East Asia:

    RIT Croatia (formerly the American College of Management and Technology) in Dubrovnik and Zagreb, Croatia
    RIT Kosovo (formerly the American University in Kosovo) in Pristina, Kosovo
    RIT Dubai in Dubai, United Arab Emirates
    RIT China-Weihai Campus

    RIT also has international partnerships with the following schools:

    Yeditepe University İstanbul Eğitim ve Kültür Vakfı] (TR) in Istanbul, Turkey
    Birla Institute of Technology and Science [बिरला इंस्टिट्यूट ऑफ़ टेक्नोलॉजी एंड साइंस] (IN) in India
    Mother and Teacher Pontifical Catholic University [Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra] (DO)
    Santo Domingo Institute of Technology[Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo – INTEC] (DO) in Dominican Republic
    Central American Technological University [La universidad global de Honduras] (HN)
    University of the North [Universidad del Norte] (COL)in Colombia
    Peruvian University of Applied Sciences [Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas] (PE) (UPC) in Peru
    Research

    RIT’s research programs are rapidly expanding. The total value of research grants to university faculty for fiscal year 2007–2008 totaled $48.5 million- an increase of more than twenty-two percent over the grants from the previous year. The university currently offers eight PhD programs: Imaging science; Microsystems Engineering; Computing and Information Sciences; Color science; Astrophysical Sciences and Technology; Sustainability; Engineering; and Mathematical modeling.

    In 1986 RIT founded the Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science and started its first doctoral program in Imaging Science in 1989. The Imaging Science department also offers the only Bachelors (BS) and Masters (MS) degree programs in imaging science in the country. The Carlson Center features a diverse research portfolio; its major research areas include Digital Image Restoration; Remote Sensing; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Printing Systems Research; Color Science; Nanoimaging; Imaging Detectors; Astronomical Imaging; Visual Perception; and Ultrasonic Imaging.

    The Center for Microelectronic and Computer Engineering was founded by RIT in 1986. The university was the first university to offer a bachelor’s degree in Microelectronic Engineering. The Center’s facilities include 50,000 square feet (4,600 m^2) of building space with 10,000 square feet (930 m^2) of clean room space. The building will undergo an expansion later this year. Its research programs include nano-imaging; nano-lithography; nano-power; micro-optical devices; photonics subsystems integration; high-fidelity modeling and heterogeneous simulation; microelectronic manufacturing; microsystems integration; and micro-optical networks for computational applications.

    The Center for Advancing the Study of CyberInfrastructure (CASCI) is a multidisciplinary center housed in the College of Computing and Information Sciences. The Departments of Computer science; Software Engineering; Information technology; Computer engineering; Imaging Science; and Bioinformatics collaborate in a variety of research programs at this center. RIT was the first university to launch a Bachelor’s program in Information technology in 1991; the first university to launch a Bachelor’s program in Software Engineering in 1996 and was also among the first universities to launch a Computer Science Bachelor’s program in 1972. RIT helped standardize the Forth programming language and developed the CLAWS software package.

    The Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation was founded in 2007. The CCRG comprises faculty and postdoctoral research associates working in the areas of general relativity; gravitational waves; and galactic dynamics. Computing facilities in the CCRG include gravitySimulator, a novel 32-node supercomputer that uses special-purpose hardware to achieve speeds of 4TFlops in gravitational N-body calculations, and newHorizons [image N/A], a state-of-the art 85-node Linux cluster for numerical relativity simulations.

    2
    Gravity Simulator at the Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, RIT, Rochester, New York, USA.

    The Center for Detectors was founded in 2010. The CfD designs; develops; and implements new advanced sensor technologies through collaboration with academic researchers; industry engineers; government scientists; and university/college students. The CfD operates four laboratories and has approximately a dozen funded projects to advance detectors in a broad array of applications, e.g. astrophysics; biomedical imaging; Earth system science; and inter-planetary travel. Center members span eight departments and four colleges.

    RIT has collaborated with many industry players in the field of research as well, including IBM; Xerox; Rochester’s Democrat and Chronicle; Siemens; National Aeronautics Space Agency; and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). In 2005, it was announced by Russell W. Bessette- Executive Director New York State Office of Science Technology & Academic Research (NYSTAR), that RIT will lead the SUNY University at Buffalo and Alfred University in an initiative to create key technologies in microsystems; photonics; nanomaterials; and remote sensing systems and to integrate next generation IT systems. In addition, the collaboratory is tasked with helping to facilitate economic development and tech transfer in New York State. More than 35 other notable organizations have joined the collaboratory, including Boeing, Eastman Kodak, IBM, Intel, SEMATECH, ITT, Motorola, Xerox, and several Federal agencies, including as NASA.

    RIT has emerged as a national leader in manufacturing research. In 2017, the U.S. Department of Energy selected RIT to lead its Reducing Embodied-Energy and Decreasing Emissions (REMADE) Institute aimed at forging new clean energy measures through the Manufacturing USA initiative. RIT also participates in five other Manufacturing USA research institutes.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:07 pm on December 5, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "An Unexpected Source Might Be Helping The Universe Glow More Than It Should", "COB": cosmic optical background, A potential explanation for the cosmic optical background [COB] excess that is allowed by independent observational constraints., , , , , , Galaxies rotate faster than they should under the gravity generated by the mass of visible matter [see Coma Cluster]., Roughly 80 percent of the matter in the Universe is dark matter., , , Very very faintly the space between the stars was glowing with optical light., When the New Horizons probe reached the outer dark of the Solar System out past Pluto its instruments picked up something strange.   

    From The Johns Hopkins University Via “Science Alert (AU)” : “An Unexpected Source Might Be Helping The Universe Glow More Than It Should” 

    From The Johns Hopkins University

    Via

    ScienceAlert

    “Science Alert (AU)”

    12.5.22
    Michelle Starr

    When the New Horizons probe reached the outer dark of the Solar System out past Pluto its instruments picked up something strange.

    Very very faintly the space between the stars was glowing with optical light. This in itself was not unexpected; this light is called the cosmic optical background [COB], a faint luminescence from all the light sources in the Universe outside our galaxy [Nature Communications (below)].

    Figure 1: The trajectory of New Horizons through the solar system.
    2
    Data collection periods of relevance to this study are indicated. Both the x−y and r−z planes are shown (a,b, respectively), with the axes in solar ecliptic units [see formula in Nature Communications paper below]. New Horizons was launched from Earth at 1 a.u., and the data with the LORRI dust cover in place were acquired at 1.9 a.u., just beyond Mars’ orbit at 1.5 a.u. (inner blue dotted lines). The dust cover was ejected near 3.6 a.u., and the data were acquired before and during an encounter with Jupiter. The data considered here were taken between 2007 and 2010 while New Horizons was in cruise phase. The red vectors indicate the relative positions of fields 1−4 compared to the sun and plane of the ecliptic.

    Figure 2: Measurements of the COB surface brightness.
    3
    The [see formula in Nature Communications paper below] determined in this study are shown as both an upper limit (red) and a mean (red star). We also show previous results in the literature, including direct constraints on the COB (filled symbols) and the IGL (open symbols). The plotted LORRI errors are purely statistical and are calculated from the observed variance in the mean of individual 10 s exposures; see Fig. 3 for an assessment of the systematic uncertainties in the measurement. We include the measurements from HST-WFPC2 (ref. 7; green squares), combinations of DIRBE and 2MASS10,11,12,13 (diamonds; the wavelengths of these measurements have been shifted for clarity), a measurement using the ‘dark cloud’ method8 (grey circles), and previous Pioneer 10/11 measurements22,23 (blue upper limit leader and circles). The gold region indicates the H.E.S.S. constraints on the extragalactic background light29. We include the background inferred from CIBER5 (pentagons). The IGL points are compiled from HST-STIS in the ultraviolet (UV)62 (open square), and the Hubble Deep Field63 (downward open triangles) the Subaru Deep Field64,65 (upward open triangles and sideways pointing triangles) in the optical/near-IR. Where plotted, horizontal bars indicate the effective wavelength band of the measurement. Our new LORRI value from just 260 s of integration time is consistent with the previous Pioneer values.

    The strange part was the amount of light. There was significantly more than scientists thought there should be – twice as much, in fact.

    Now, in a new paper [PRL (below)], scientists lay out a possible explanation for the optical light excess: a by-product of an otherwise undetectable interaction of dark matter.

    “The results of this work,” write a team of researchers led by astrophysicist José Luis Bernal of Johns Hopkins University, “provide a potential explanation for the cosmic optical background [COB] excess that is allowed by independent observational constraints, and that may answer one of the most long-standing unknowns in cosmology: the nature of dark matter.”

    We have many questions about the Universe, but dark matter is among the most vexing. It’s the name we give to a mysterious mass in the Universe responsible for providing far more gravity in concentrated spots than there ought to be.

    Galaxies rotate faster than they should under the gravity generated by the mass of visible matter.

    The curvature of space-time around massive objects is greater than it should be if we calculated the warping of space based only on the amount of glowing material.

    But whatever it is creating this effect, we can’t detect it directly. The only way we know it’s there is that we just can’t account for this extra gravity.

    And there’s a lot of it. Roughly 80 percent of the matter in the Universe is dark matter.

    __________________________________
    Dark Matter Background
    Fritz Zwicky discovered Dark Matter in the 1930s when observing the movement of the Coma Cluster., and Vera Rubin a Woman in STEM, denied the Nobel, some 30 years later, did most of the work on Dark Matter.

    Fritz Zwicky.
    Coma cluster via NASA/ESA Hubble, the original example of Dark Matter discovered during observations by Fritz Zwicky and confirmed 30 years later by Vera Rubin.

    In modern times, it was astronomer Fritz Zwicky, in the 1930s, who made the first observations of what we now call dark matter. His 1933 observations of the Coma Cluster of galaxies seemed to indicated it has a mass 500 times more than that previously calculated by Edwin Hubble. Furthermore, this extra mass seemed to be completely invisible. Although Zwicky’s observations were initially met with much skepticism, they were later confirmed by other groups of astronomers.

    Thirty years later, astronomer Vera Rubin provided a huge piece of evidence for the existence of dark matter. She discovered that the centers of galaxies rotate at the same speed as their extremities, whereas, of course, they should rotate faster. Think of a vinyl LP on a record deck: its center rotates faster than its edge. That’s what logic dictates we should see in galaxies too. But we do not. The only way to explain this is if the whole galaxy is only the center of some much larger structure, as if it is only the label on the LP so to speak, causing the galaxy to have a consistent rotation speed from center to edge.

    Vera Rubin, following Zwicky, postulated that the missing structure in galaxies is dark matter. Her ideas were met with much resistance from the astronomical community, but her observations have been confirmed and are seen today as pivotal proof of the existence of dark matter.
    Astronomer Vera Rubin at the Lowell Observatory in 1965, worked on Dark Matter (The Carnegie Institution for Science).

    Vera Rubin, with Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) image tube spectrograph attached to the Kitt Peak 84-inch telescope, 1970.

    Vera Rubin measuring spectra, worked on Dark Matter(Emilio Segre Visual Archives AIP SPL).

    Dark Matter Research

    Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search from DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory at Stanford University at SNOLAB (Vale Inco Mine, Sudbury, Canada).

    LBNL LZ Dark Matter Experiment xenon detector at Sanford Underground Research Facility Credit: Matt Kapust.


    DAMA at Gran Sasso uses sodium iodide housed in copper to hunt for dark matter LNGS-INFN.

    Yale HAYSTAC axion dark matter experiment at Yale’s Wright Lab.

    DEAP Dark Matter detector, The DEAP-3600, suspended in the SNOLAB (CA) deep in Sudbury’s Creighton Mine.

    The LBNL LZ Dark Matter Experiment Dark Matter project at SURF, Lead, SD.

    DAMA-LIBRA Dark Matter experiment at the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics’ (INFN’s) Gran Sasso National Laboratories (LNGS) located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy.

    DARWIN Dark Matter experiment. A design study for a next-generation, multi-ton dark matter detector in Europe at The University of Zurich [Universität Zürich](CH).

    PandaX II Dark Matter experiment at Jin-ping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in Sichuan, China.

    Inside the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment U Washington Credit : Mark Stone U. of Washington. Axion Dark Matter Experiment.

    3
    The University of Western Australia ORGAN Experiment’s main detector. A small copper cylinder called a “resonant cavity” traps photons generated during dark matter conversion. The cylinder is bolted to a “dilution refrigerator” which cools the experiment to very low temperatures.
    __________________________________

    There are some hypotheses about what it might be. One of the candidates is the axion, which belongs to a hypothetical class of particles first conceptualized in the 1970s to resolve the question of why strong atomic forces follow something called charge-parity symmetry when most models say they don’t need to.

    [See ADMX above]

    As it turns out, axions in a specific mass range should also behave exactly like we expect dark matter to. And there might be a way to detect them – because theoretically, axions are expected to decay into pairs of photons in the presence of a strong magnetic field.

    Several experiments are searching for sources of these photons, but they should also be streaming through space in excess numbers.

    The difficulty is in separating them from all the other sources of light in the Universe, and this is where the cosmic optical background comes in.

    The background is itself very difficult to detect since it’s so faint. The Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) aboard the New Horizons is possibly the best tool for the job yet. It’s far from Earth and the Sun, and LORRI is far more sensitive than instruments attached to the more distant Voyager probes that launched 40 years earlier.

    Scientists have presumed the excess detected by New Horizons to be the product attributed to stars and galaxies that we can’t see. And that option is still very much on the table. The work of Bernal and his team was to assess whether axion-like dark matter could possibly be responsible for the extra light.

    They conducted mathematical modeling and determined that axions with masses between 8 and 20 electronvolts could produce the observed signal under certain conditions.

    That’s incredibly light for a particle, which tends to be measured in megaelectronvolts. But with recent estimates putting the hypothetical piece of matter at a fraction of a single electronvolt, these numbers would demand axions to be relatively beefy.

    It’s impossible to tell which explanation is correct based solely on the current data. However, by narrowing down the masses of the axions that could be responsible for the excess, the researchers have laid the foundations for future searches for these enigmatic particles.

    “If the excess arises from dark-matter decay to a photon line, there will be a significant signal in forthcoming line-intensity mapping measurements,” the researchers write.

    “Moreover, the ultraviolet instrument aboard New Horizons (which will have better sensitivity and probe a different range of the spectrum) and future studies of very high-energy gamma-ray attenuation will also test this hypothesis and expand the search for dark matter to a wider range of frequencies.”

    The research has been published in Physical Review Letters.

    Science paper:
    Nature Communications 2017
    See the science paper for instructive material with more images.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Johns Hopkins University opened in 1876, with the inauguration of its first president, Daniel Coit Gilman. “What are we aiming at?” Gilman asked in his installation address. “The encouragement of research … and the advancement of individual scholars, who by their excellence will advance the sciences they pursue, and the society where they dwell.”

    The mission laid out by Gilman remains the university’s mission today, summed up in a simple but powerful restatement of Gilman’s own words: “Knowledge for the world.”

    What Gilman created was a research university, dedicated to advancing both students’ knowledge and the state of human knowledge through research and scholarship. Gilman believed that teaching and research are interdependent, that success in one depends on success in the other. A modern university, he believed, must do both well. The realization of Gilman’s philosophy at Johns Hopkins, and at other institutions that later attracted Johns Hopkins-trained scholars, revolutionized higher education in America, leading to the research university system as it exists today.

    The Johns Hopkins University is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur and philanthropist Johns Hopkins. His $7 million bequest (approximately $147.5 million in today’s currency)—of which half financed the establishment of the Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States up to that time. Daniel Coit Gilman, who was inaugurated as the institution’s first president on February 22, 1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U.S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a graduate school from Germany’s historic Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg, [Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg] (DE), Johns Hopkins University is considered the first research university in the United States. Over the course of several decades, the university has led all U.S. universities in annual research and development expenditures. In fiscal year 2016, Johns Hopkins spent nearly $2.5 billion on research. The university has graduate campuses in Italy, China, and Washington, D.C., in addition to its main campus in Baltimore.

    Johns Hopkins is organized into 10 divisions on campuses in Maryland and Washington, D.C., with international centers in Italy and China. The two undergraduate divisions, the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering, are located on the Homewood campus in Baltimore’s Charles Village neighborhood. The medical school, nursing school, and Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Johns Hopkins Children’s Center are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore. The university also consists of the Peabody Institute, Applied Physics Laboratory, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, School of Education, Carey Business School, and various other facilities.

    Johns Hopkins was a founding member of the American Association of Universities. As of October 2019, 39 Nobel laureates and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins. Founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men’s lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles and plays in the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member as of 2014.

    Research

    The opportunity to participate in important research is one of the distinguishing characteristics of Hopkins’ undergraduate education. About 80 percent of undergraduates perform independent research, often alongside top researchers. In FY 2013, Johns Hopkins received $2.2 billion in federal research grants—more than any other U.S. university for the 35th consecutive year. Johns Hopkins has had seventy-seven members of the Institute of Medicine, forty-three Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigators, seventeen members of the National Academy of Engineering, and sixty-two members of the National Academy of Sciences. As of October 2019, 39 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university as alumni, faculty members or researchers, with the most recent winners being Gregg Semenza and William G. Kaelin.

    Between 1999 and 2009, The Johns Hopkins University was among the most cited institutions in the world. It attracted nearly 1,222,166 citations and produced 54,022 papers under its name, ranking No. 3 globally [after Harvard University and the Max Planck Society (DE)] in the number of total citations published in Thomson Reuters-indexed journals over 22 fields in America.

    In FY 2000, Johns Hopkins received $95.4 million in research grants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, making it the leading recipient of NASA research and development funding. In FY 2002, Hopkins became the first university to cross the $1 billion threshold on either list, recording $1.14 billion in total research and $1.023 billion in federally sponsored research. In FY 2008, Johns Hopkins University performed $1.68 billion in science, medical and engineering research, making it the leading U.S. academic institution in total R&D spending for the 30th year in a row, according to a National Science Foundation ranking. These totals include grants and expenditures of JHU’s Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland.

    The Johns Hopkins University also offers the “Center for Talented Youth” program—a nonprofit organization dedicated to identifying and developing the talents of the most promising K-12 grade students worldwide. As part of the Johns Hopkins University, the “Center for Talented Youth” or CTY helps fulfill the university’s mission of preparing students to make significant future contributions to the world. The Johns Hopkins Digital Media Center (DMC) is a multimedia lab space as well as an equipment, technology and knowledge resource for students interested in exploring creative uses of emerging media and use of technology.

    In 2013, the Bloomberg Distinguished Professorships program was established by a $250 million gift from Michael Bloomberg. This program enables the university to recruit fifty researchers from around the world to joint appointments throughout the nine divisions and research centers. For The American Academy of Arts and Sciences each professor must be a leader in interdisciplinary research and be active in undergraduate education. Directed by Vice Provost for Research Denis Wirtz, there are currently thirty-two Bloomberg Distinguished Professors at the university, including three Nobel Laureates, eight fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, ten members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and thirteen members of the National Academies.

     
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