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  • richardmitnick 1:44 pm on November 10, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A pair of inspiraling neutron stars, A possible scenario would be a neutrino created in the relativistic outflows of a merger of binary neutron stars or black holes or the core-collapse of a supernova all cataclysmic cosmic environments , , , , , , CNRS ANTERES, , , , , The detection of gravitational waves and neutrinos from a single source would set a new milestone in multimessenger astronomy, The scrutiny of an astrophysical source with three different messengers would not only be the next breakthrough in the field but would also confirm that multimessenger astronomy is the only path to a ,   

    From U Wisconsin IceCube Collaboration: “Multimessenger searches for sources of gravitational waves and neutrinos” 

    U Wisconsin ICECUBE neutrino detector at the South Pole

    IceCube employs more than 5000 detectors lowered on 86 strings into almost 100 holes in the Antarctic ice NSF B. Gudbjartsson, IceCube Collaboration

    Lunar Icecube

    IceCube DeepCore annotated

    IceCube PINGU annotated


    DM-Ice II at IceCube annotated

    From From U Wisconsin IceCube Collaboration

    09 Nov 2018
    Sílvia Bravo

    1
    Artist’s now iconic illustration of two merging neutron stars. The rippling space-time grid represents gravitational waves that travel out from the collision, while the narrow beams show the bursts of gamma rays and neutrinos that are shot out just seconds after the gravitational waves. Image: NSF/LIGO/Sonoma State University/A. Simonnet

    Last year was an extraordinary year for multimessenger astrophysics. In August 2017, a gravitational wave and its electromagnetic counterpart emission were detected from a pair of inspiraling neutron stars. Only a month later, a high-energy neutrino was detected at the South Pole and electromagnetic follow-up observations helped identify the first likely source of very high energy neutrinos and cosmic rays.

    Since then, the dream of astrophysicists has been to join neutrinos and gravitational waves in the detection of a multimessenger source. According to our understanding of the extreme universe, a possible scenario would be a neutrino created in the relativistic outflows of a merger of binary neutron stars or black holes or the core-collapse of a supernova, all cataclysmic cosmic environments that should also produce gravitational waves.

    The IceCube, LIGO, Virgo, and ANTARES collaborations have used data from the first observing period of Advanced LIGO and from the two neutrino detectors to search for coincident neutrino and gravitational wave emission from transient sources.

    The goal was to explore the discovery potential of a multimessenger observation, i.e., of a source detection that needs both messengers to confirm its astrophysical origin. Scientists did not find any significant coincidence. The results, recently submitted to The Astrophysical Journal, set a constraint on the density of these sources.

    The detection of gravitational waves and neutrinos from a single source would set a new milestone in multimessenger astronomy, allowing the simultaneous study of the inner and outer processes powering high-energy emission from astrophysical objects.

    A joint detection would also significantly improve the localization of the source and enable faster and more precise electromagnetic follow-up observations. The scrutiny of an astrophysical source with three different messengers would not only be the next breakthrough in the field but would also confirm that multimessenger astronomy is the only path to a profound understanding of the extreme universe.

    Even though the current search was very limited in time, researchers have set a strong constraint for joint emission from core-collapse supernovas, while binary mergers remain secure as potential multimessenger sources of gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos.

    This study used datasets, spanning less than 2.5 months, that are also limited by LIGO’s sensitivity, which will soon improve by a factor of 2. The addition of new LIGO and Virgo data as well as from IceCube and ANTARES will greatly increase the sensitivity of joint searches. In the longer term, future next-generation neutrino and gravitational wave detectors will boost the potential of discovery for these searches.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    IceCube is a particle detector at the South Pole that records the interactions of a nearly massless sub-atomic particle called the neutrino. IceCube searches for neutrinos from the most violent astrophysical sources: events like exploding stars, gamma ray bursts, and cataclysmic phenomena involving black holes and neutron stars. The IceCube telescope is a powerful tool to search for dark matter, and could reveal the new physical processes associated with the enigmatic origin of the highest energy particles in nature. In addition, exploring the background of neutrinos produced in the atmosphere, IceCube studies the neutrinos themselves; their energies far exceed those produced by accelerator beams. IceCube is the world’s largest neutrino detector, encompassing a cubic kilometer of ice.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:42 am on January 7, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CNRS ANTERES, Do fast radio bursts emit high-energy neutrinos?, , ,   

    From IceCube: “Do fast radio bursts emit high-energy neutrinos?” 

    icecube
    U Wisconsin IceCube South Pole Neutrino Observatory

    ICECUBE neutrino detector

    19 Dec 2017
    Sílvia Bravo

    Maybe, but not many, according to IceCube.

    Although fast radio bursts’ (FRBs) progenitors are supposed to be compact and perhaps catastrophic cosmic events that may also produce neutrinos, IceCube has not detected any such neutrinos that could be associated with a known FRB in six years of data. These results are far from precluding the eventual detection of neutrinos from FRBs in the future, but they have set the best limits yet on how many are emitted. The results have been submitted today to The Astrophysical Journal.

    1
    The most signal-like event in both northern searches was detected 200.806 s after the radio detection of FRB 121102 b3. The directional reconstruction of this event has an angular separation ∆Ψ= 2.31◦ with the FRB and an estimated error σ= 1.31◦. Event reconstruction contours are drawn for confidence intervals of 50%, 90%, and 99%, taking the reconstruction as a radially symmetric 2-D Gaussian. FRB directional uncertainty (<<1◦) is taken into account in this analysis, but not shown for this scale. The post-trial p-value for this max-burst search is p=0.25. Image: IceCube Collaboration.

    A fast radio burst consists of bright radio emission, usually only a few milliseconds long, that may be the result of the collision of a neutron star with a black hole or of another extreme astrophysical event. Discovered in 2007, they were initially thought to be produced by a cataclysmic event that would destroy its source. However, ten years after their discovery, at least one of the sources has produced repeated radio bursts over 100 times. According to Justin Vandenbroucke, an assistant professor of physics at UW–Madison and a corresponding author of this work, “fast radio bursts are a mysterious new class of astrophysical transients—we don’t know what’s producing them.”

    Between May 2010 and May 2016, radio astronomers detected 29 FRBs across the whole sky from a total of 13 directions–17 of them were bursts from FRB 121101, the only source to date that has been found to repeat. IceCube’s gigantic size, a cubic kilometer of instrumented ice, provides omnidirectional detection capabilities that enable a continuous scan of both the northern and southern sky. In these six years of data, a few neutrinos were detected near the locations of some FRBs, but scientists have shown that their arrival times and overall distribution can be explained with background neutrino emission from other sources.

    “This is only the beginning of a long quest,” says Donglian Xu, a postdoctoral researcher at UW–Madison and also a corresponding author of this paper.

    FRBs are one of the hottest topics in astrophysics. In the near future, brand new radio observatories may discover over a thousand FRBs every year. And that’s why scientists around the world are honing their analysis skills to use signals from multiple messengers to learn about the origins of these fast, whether one-time or intermittent, radio bursts.

    In IceCube, this search for neutrino emission from FRBs used data samples optimized for searches of neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with energies between 0.1 TeV and several PeV. IceCube scientists are already working on a more sensitive selection that will include all neutrino flavors and lower the energy threshold. Samuel Fahey, a graduate student at UW–Madison, is one of those scientists. “We’re working on using every tool at IceCube’s disposal—this analysis was just one piece of the puzzle.”

    Very little is known about the sources of FRBs. Their distribution across the sky, as well as indirect evidence of their distance, suggests an extragalactic origin. Yet only one FRB is proven to be extragalactic. Galactic neutron stars or other sources might also produce radio bursts. If this happens, IceCube might detect a sudden increase in the background Cherenkov light due to MeV-scale neutrinos.

    3
    A 2-dimensional plot shows the ratio of the effective areas of IceCube to ANTARES over energy and declination, with a bin-width of 0.1 in sin(δ) and bin-height equal to one quarter of a decade in energy. Where ANTARES provides a non-zero effective area, but IceCube’s is equal to zero for this event selection, the ratio plotted is the scale minimum; likewise, where the converse is true, the ratio plotted is the scale maximum. Image: IceCube Collaboration.

    The most powerful searches can benefit from the collaboration of two telescopes, as is often the case in neutrino astronomy. ANTARES, a smaller neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, has better sensitivity in the Southern Hemisphere for energies below 50 TeV.

    4
    CNRS ANTERES

    In a joint search for FRBs, IceCube and ANTARES could provide the best sensitivity across the full sky.

    The good news is that, one way or another, neutrinos are ready to roll in the quest for FRBs.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    IceCube is a particle detector at the South Pole that records the interactions of a nearly massless sub-atomic particle called the neutrino. IceCube searches for neutrinos from the most violent astrophysical sources: events like exploding stars, gamma ray bursts, and cataclysmic phenomena involving black holes and neutron stars. The IceCube telescope is a powerful tool to search for dark matter, and could reveal the new physical processes associated with the enigmatic origin of the highest energy particles in nature. In addition, exploring the background of neutrinos produced in the atmosphere, IceCube studies the neutrinos themselves; their energies far exceed those produced by accelerator beams. IceCube is the world’s largest neutrino detector, encompassing a cubic kilometer of ice.

     
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