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  • richardmitnick 10:20 am on January 29, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "As the Colorado River Shrinks Washington Prepares to Spread the Pain", , Climate Change, , ,   

    From “The New York Times” : “As the Colorado River Shrinks Washington Prepares to Spread the Pain” 

    From “The New York Times”

    1.27.23
    Christopher Flavelle
    Graphics by Mira Rojanasakul

    1
    The shore of Lake Powell in Page, Arizona. Along with Lake Mead, it provides water and electricity for Arizona, Nevada and Southern California. Credit: Justin Sullivan/Getty Images.

    The seven states that rely on water from the shrinking Colorado River are unlikely to agree to voluntarily make deep reductions in their water use, negotiators say, which would force the federal government to impose cuts for the first time in the water supply for 40 million Americans.

    The Interior Department had asked the states to voluntarily come up with a plan by Jan. 31 to collectively cut the amount of water they draw from the Colorado. The demand for those cuts, on a scale without parallel in American history, was prompted by precipitous declines in Lake Mead and Lake Powell, which provide water and electricity for Arizona, Nevada and Southern California. Drought, climate change and population growth have caused water levels in the lakes to plummet.

    “Think of the Colorado River Basin as a slow-motion disaster,” said Kevin Moran, who directs state and federal water policy advocacy at the Environmental Defense Fund. “We’re really at a moment of reckoning.”

    Negotiators say the odds of a voluntary agreement appear slim. It would be the second time in six months that the Colorado River states, which also include Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming, have missed a deadline for consensus on cuts sought by the Biden administration to avoid a catastrophic failure of the river system.

    Without a deal, the Interior Department, which manages flows on the river, must impose the cuts. That would break from the century-long tradition of states determining how to share the river’s water. And it would all but ensure that the administration’s increasingly urgent efforts to save the Colorado get caught up in lengthy legal challenges.

    The crisis over the Colorado River is the latest example of how climate change is overwhelming the foundations of American life — not only physical infrastructure, like dams and reservoirs, but also the legal underpinnings that have made those systems work.

    A century’s worth of laws, which assign different priorities to Colorado River users based on how long they’ve used the water, is facing off against a competing philosophy that says, as the climate changes, water cuts should be apportioned based on what’s practical.

    The outcome of that dispute will shape the future of the southwestern United States.

    “We’re using more water than nature is going to provide,” said Eric Kuhn, who worked on previous water agreements as general manager for the Colorado River Water Conservation District. “Someone is going to have to cut back very significantly.”

    There’s not enough water (and probably never was)

    2
    A spillway for the Glen Canyon Dam near Page, Arizona, that was last full of water in the early 1980s. Credit: Caitlin Ochs/Reuters

    The rules that determine who gets water from the Colorado River, and how much, were always based, to a degree, on magical thinking.

    In 1922, states along the river negotiated the Colorado River Compact, which apportioned the water among two groups of states. The so-called upper basin states (Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming) would get 7.5 million acre-feet a year. The lower basin (Arizona, California and Nevada) got a total of 8.5 million acre-feet. A later treaty guaranteed Mexico, where the river reaches the sea, 1.5 million acre-feet.

    A Lifeline for the West
    3
    Sources: U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Arizona Department of Water Resources, California Department of Water Resources.

    (An acre-foot of water is enough water to cover an acre of land in a foot of water. That’s roughly as much water as two typical households use in a year.)

    But the premise that the river’s flow would average 17.5 million acre-feet each year turned out to be faulty. Over the past century, the river’s actual flow has averaged less than 15 million acre-feet each year.

    For decades, that gap was obscured by the fact that some of the river’s users, including Arizona and some Native American tribes, lacked the canals and other infrastructure to employ their full allotment. But as that infrastructure increased, so did the demand on the river.

    Then, the drought hit. From 2000 through 2022, the river’s annual flow averaged just over 12 million acre-feet; in each of the past three years, the total flow was less than 10 million.

    The Colorado River’s Declining Flow
    Water allocations are based on an assumed 17.5 million acre-feet of Colorado River flow, but the river’s actual flow has often been lower.

    3
    Note: Colorado River natural flows are estimated from measurements at Lee’s Ferry, Ariz. Values for 2021 and 2022 are provisional.Source: U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.

    The Bureau of Reclamation, an office within the Interior Department that manages the river system, has sought to offset that water loss by getting states to reduce their consumption. In 2003, it pushed California, which had been exceeding its annual allotment, the largest in the basin, to abide by that limit. In 2007, and again in 2019, the department negotiated still deeper reductions among the states.

    It wasn’t enough. Last summer, the water level in Lake Mead sank to 1,040 feet above sea level, its lowest ever.

    If the water level falls below 950 feet, the Hoover Dam will no longer be able to generate hydroelectric power. At 895 feet, no water would be able to pass the dam at all — a condition called “deadpool.”

    In June, the commissioner of the Bureau of Reclamation, Camille C. Touton, gave the states 60 days to come up with a plan to reduce their use of Colorado River water by two to four million acre-feet — about 20 to 40 percent of the river’s entire flow.

    Ms. Touton stressed that she preferred that the states develop a solution. But if they did not, she said, the bureau would act.

    “It is in our authorities to act unilaterally to protect the system,” Ms. Touton told lawmakers. “And we will protect the system.”

    The 60-day deadline came and went. The states produced no plan for the cuts the bureau demanded. And the bureau didn’t present a plan of its own.

    A spokesman for Ms. Touton said she was unavailable to comment.

    ‘You can’t take blood from a stone’

    4
    A residential area southwest of Las Vegas. Credit: Joe Buglewicz for The New York Times

    In November, the Biden administration tried again. The Bureau of Reclamation said it would analyze the environmental impact of large cuts in water use from the Colorado — the first step toward making those cuts, potentially this summer. To meet that timeline, the bureau asked states to submit a proposal to include in the study. If states fail to agree, the administration will be left to analyze and ultimately impose its own plan for rationing water. The government hasn’t said publicly what its plan would be.

    The department’s latest request and new deadline, set for Jan. 31, has led to a new round of negotiations, and finger-pointing, among the states.

    Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming argue they are unable to significantly reduce their share of water. Those states get their water primarily from stream flow, rather than from giant reservoirs like in the lower basin states. As the drought reduces that flow, the amount of water they use has already declined to about half their allotment, officials said.

    “Clearly, the lion’s share of what needs to be done has to be done by the lower basin states,” said Estevan López, the negotiator for New Mexico who led the Bureau of Reclamation during the Obama administration.

    Drawing Down the Reserves
    Storage levels at Lake Mead are approaching critical levels, threatening Lower Basin states that depend on that water.

    6
    Note: Elevation above mean sea level. Source: U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.

    Nor can much of the solution come from Nevada, which is allotted just 300,000 acre-feet from the Colorado. Even if the state’s water deliveries were stopped entirely, rendering Las Vegas effectively uninhabitable, the government would get barely closer to its goal.

    And Nevada has already imposed some of the basin’s most aggressive water-conservation strategies, according to John Entsminger, general manager of the Southern Nevada Water Authority. The state has even outlawed some types of lawns.

    “We’re using two-thirds of our allocation,” Mr. Entsminger said in an interview. “You can’t take blood from a stone.”

    Farms versus subdivisions

    That leaves California and Arizona, which have rights to 4.4 million and 2.8 million acre-feet from the Colorado — typically the largest and third-largest allotments among the seven states. Negotiators from both sides seem convinced of one thing: The other state ought to come up with more cuts.

    In California, the largest user of Colorado River water is the Imperial Irrigation District, which has rights to 3.1 million acre-feet — as much as Arizona and Nevada put together. That water lets farmers grow alfalfa, lettuce and broccoli on about 800 square miles of the Imperial Valley, in the southeast corner of California.

    California has senior water rights to Arizona, which means that Arizona’s supply should be cut before California is forced to take reductions, according to JB Hamby, vice president of the Imperial Irrigation District and chairman of the Colorado River Board of California, which is negotiating for the state.

    “We have sound legal footing,” Mr. Hamby said in an interview. He said that fast-growing Arizona should have been ready for the Colorado River drying up. “That’s kind of a responsibility on their part to plan for these risk factors.”

    Tina Shields, Imperial’s water department manager, put the argument more bluntly. It would be hard to tell the California farmers who rely on the Colorado River to stop growing crops, she said, “so that other folks continue to build subdivisions.”

    Still, Mr. Hamby conceded that significantly reducing the water supply for large urban populations in Arizona would be “a little tricky.” California has offered to cut its use of Colorado River water by as much as 400,000 acre-feet — up to one-fifth of the cuts that the Biden administration has sought.

    If the administration wants to impose deeper cuts on California, he said, it’s welcome to try.

    “Reclamation can do whatever Reclamation wants,” Mr. Hamby said. “The question is, will it withstand legal challenge?”

    7
    A canal carried Colorado River water past a spinach field in the Imperial Valley, Calif. Credit: Caitlin Ochs/Reuters.

    Equity versus the law

    On the other side of the Colorado, Arizona officials acknowledge that the laws governing the river may not work in their favor. But they have arguments of their own.

    Arizona’s status as a junior rights holder was cemented in 1968, when Congress agreed to pay for the Central Arizona Project, an aqueduct that carries water from the Colorado to Phoenix and Tucson, and the farms that surround them.

    But the money came with a catch. In return for their support, California’s legislators insisted on a provision that their state’s water rights take priority over the aqueduct.

    If Arizona could have foreseen that climate change would permanently reduce the river’s flow, it might never have agreed to that deal, said Tom Buschatzke, director of the state’s Department of Water Resources.

    Because of its junior rights, Arizona has taken the brunt of recent rounds of voluntary cuts. The state’s position now, Mr. Buschatzke said, is that everyone should make a meaningful contribution, and that nobody should lose everything. “That’s an equitable outcome, even if it doesn’t necessarily strictly follow the law.”

    There are other arguments in Arizona’s favor. About half of the water delivered through the Central Arizona Project goes to Native American tribes — including those in the Gila River Indian Community, which is entitled to 311,800 acre-feet per year.

    The United States can’t cut off that water, said Governor Stephen Roe Lewis of the Gila River Indian Community. “That would be a rejection of the trust obligation that the federal government has for our water.”

    In an interview this week, Tommy Beaudreau, deputy secretary of the Interior Department, said the federal government would consider “equity, and public health, and safety” as it weighs how to spread the reductions.

    The department will compare California’s preference to base cuts on seniority of water rights with Arizona’s suggestion to cut allotments in ways meant to “meet the basic needs of communities in the lower basin,” Mr. Beaudreau said.

    “We’re in a period of 23 years of sustained drought and overdraws on the system,” he added. “I’m not interested, under those circumstances, in assigning blame.”

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

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  • richardmitnick 10:05 am on January 27, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Earth Matters", "Whiplash weather - What we can learn from California’s deadly storms", , Climate Change, , , Much of the precipitation in the western U.S. each year falls from atmospheric rivers – narrow bands in the atmosphere that act like highways for transporting moisture from the tropics to higher lat, Neighborhoods have been constructed in areas that were previously farmland which changes how floodwaters move and increases the number of people and homes at risk from flooding., , Surface water reservoir capacity is modest by comparison., The back-to-back rains triggered landslides and filled up stormwater drains and flooded communities as infrastructure and the natural landscape were quickly saturated., , There are roughly 140 million acre-feet of available space in California’s groundwater aquifers.   

    From “Earth Matters” In The School of Earth & Energy & Environmental Sciences At Stanford University : “Whiplash weather – What we can learn from California’s deadly storms” 

    From “Earth Matters”

    In

    1

    The School of Earth & Energy & Environmental Sciences

    at

    Stanford University Name

    Stanford University

    1.25.23
    Madison Pobis

    Media Contacts
    Noah Diffenbaugh
    Stanford Doerr School of Sustainability
    diffenbaugh@stanford.edu
    (650) 223-9425

    Rosemary Knight
    Stanford Doerr School of Sustainability
    rknight@stanford.edu
    (650) 736-1487

    Jenny Suckale
    Stanford Doerr School of Sustainability
    jsuckale@stanford.edu
    (650) 497-6456

    1
    “It would be really exciting to think a little bit more creatively about how we can as a community get ready for that kind of whiplash of different challenges and different extremes that we might not be anticipating in detail,” said Jenny Suckale, an assistant professor of geophysics in the Stanford Doerr School of Sustainability, during a Jan. 18 webinar. (Image credit: Getty Images)

    Stanford and local experts discuss ways to mitigate risk to communities and infrastructure amid dramatic swings between flood and drought.

    A barrage of storms starting in late December 2022 highlighted the dangers of “whiplash weather,” a pattern of swings between heavy winter rainfall and severe summer drought in the western U.S.

    Stanford scholars and the public information manager for Sacramento County – an area that saw some of the heaviest damage from recent state-wide flooding – discussed the science behind the storms, implications for drought recovery, and tools to help communities mitigate future risk. The Jan. 18 event was the latest in a series of webinars hosted by the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment to explore the connections between climate science, extreme weather events, and inequitable impacts across communities.

    Expect the unexpected

    Much of the precipitation in the western U.S. each year falls from atmospheric rivers – narrow bands in the atmosphere that act like highways for transporting moisture from the tropics to higher latitudes. But the rapid succession of this year’s atmospheric rivers was highly unusual, according to Noah Diffenbaugh, a professor of Earth system science in the Stanford Doerr School of Sustainability. The back-to-back rains triggered landslides, filled up stormwater drains, and flooded communities as infrastructure and the natural landscape were quickly saturated.

    Even with advances in artificial intelligence and computing power for short-term precipitation forecasting, “there are real limits to our abilities to know the future,” said Diffenbaugh. “Where we can really take action is on our systems and practices and implementation for being prepared.”

    Jenny Suckale, an assistant professor of geophysics in the Stanford Doerr School of Sustainability, emphasized that a problem-solving mindset is essential as climate change increases uncertainty and pushes existing infrastructure toward risk.

    “A lot of planning efforts choose one design event and then try to mitigate the risks for that particular event,” said Suckale. “The drawbacks of that is that two floods don’t tend to be alike.”

    Suckale’s research group is working with San Francisco Bay Area stakeholders and community members to plan for a wide spectrum of possible flood events by improving risk assessment and understanding community needs in the context of existing inequity.

    Recognize a shifting landscape

    “The one factor that has changed isn’t where the water is coming from; it’s where the water is hitting,” said Matt Robinson, public information manager for Sacramento County. Neighborhoods have been constructed in areas that were previously farmland, which changes how floodwaters move and increases the number of people and homes at risk from flooding.

    Robinson spends a large part of his time explaining to people in the Sacramento region that they live in a floodplain, despite what they might observe from all-too-familiar dry conditions. Although the recent rains have downgraded much of California from “extreme” to “severe” drought status, maintaining those levels will depend on how much precipitation falls in the remainder of the year.

    Look to natural infrastructure

    Climate change is increasing demands on engineered infrastructure like dams, canals, and reservoirs that perform multiple functions throughout the year, such as moving and storing surface water supplies and managing flood water.

    Rosemary Knight, a professor of geophysics at the Stanford Doerr School of Sustainability, noted that we could be taking advantage of the vast natural infrastructure just below ground.

    There are roughly 140 million acre-feet of available space in California’s groundwater aquifers – roughly equal to the capacity of 30 Lake Shastas. Surface water reservoir capacity is modest by comparison, with a combined available capacity of about nine Lake Shastas, Knight said. Agricultural fields and orchards with sandy channels could be strategically flooded during rainfall events to allow water to trickle through an intricate subsurface network, refilling the aquifers below.

    3
    No one knows the exact amount of water that can be stored within California’s 515 groundwater basins. California’s Department of Water Resources estimates the total storage capacity at somewhere between 850 million and 1.3 billion acre-feet. In comparison, surface storage from all the major reservoirs in California is less than 50 million acre-feet. Source: Stanford Water in the West.

    Knight’s group has developed a geophysical system that maps these underground structures with magnetic imaging to help identify areas primed for groundwater recharge. “Growers are really starting to say, ‘Hey, we want to be part of the solution,’ ..because they clearly see an opportunity there to use their land during the wet season to give more water availability during the growing season,” said Knight.

    As climate change increases the likelihood of extreme winter weather, California water managers will need to employ the full range of tools – from natural and built infrastructure to policy and regulatory frameworks – to manage flood risk and supply water during drought periods.

    “It would be really exciting to think a little bit more creatively about how we can as a community get ready for that kind of whiplash of different challenges and different extremes that we might not be anticipating in detail,” said Suckale.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    “Earth Matters”

    Published by the Stanford Doerr School of Sustainability, Stanford Earth Matters provides sustainability research news and insights for the public, decision-makers, and educators.

    Our website and monthly newsletter feature the work of Stanford University scholars who are focused on deepening knowledge of Earth, climate, and society, and creating solutions to sustainability challenges.

    We also link to essays and opinions published elsewhere by Stanford experts, and to stories, podcasts, videos, events, and more from our colleagues at Stanford News, Stanford Engineering Magazine, Stanford Law School, Stanford Graduate School of Business, Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment, and Precourt Institute for Energy, among other groups across campus.

    For its first seven years, Stanford Earth Matters was published by Stanford’s School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences (Stanford Earth), which became part of the Doerr School of Sustainability in September 2022. Watch for changes to our website and newsletter as the new school takes shape.

    Let Stanford Earth Matters come to you: Subscribe to our newsletter to have original research stories and curated links delivered to your inbox once a month.

    Have questions, comments, or ideas? Send an email to managing editor Josie Garthwaite at josieg@stanford.edu.

    We are scientists! Undergraduates, graduate students, professors, educational staff, and alumni working professionals. We build community in our field trips, classes, and cocurriculars. We care about the Earth and making its resources available to people across the globe now and in the future.

    The School of Earth, Energy, and Environmental Sciences (formerly the School of Earth Sciences) lists courses under the subject code EARTH on the Stanford Bulletin’s ExploreCourses web site. Courses offered by the School’s departments and inter-departmental programs are linked on their separate sections, and are available at the ExploreCourses web site.

    The School of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences includes the departments of Geological Sciences, Geophysics, Energy Resources Engineering, and Earth System Science; and three interdisciplinary programs: the Earth Systems undergraduate B.S. and coterminal M.A. and M.S. programs, the Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources (E-IPER) with Ph.D. and joint M.S, and the Sustainability and Science Practice Program with coterminal M.A. and M.S. programs.

    The aims of the school and its programs are:

    to prepare students for careers in the fields of agricultural science and policy, biogeochemistry, climate science, energy resource engineering, environmental science and policy, environmental communications, geology, geobiology, geochemistry, geomechanics, geophysics, geostatistics, sustainability science, hydrogeology, land science, oceanography, paleontology, petroleum engineering, and petroleum geology;

    to conduct disciplinary and interdisciplinary research on a range of questions related to Earth, its resources and its environment;

    to provide opportunities for Stanford undergraduate and graduate students to learn about the planet’s history, to understand the energy and resource bases that support humanity, to address the geological and geophysical, and human-caused hazards that affect human societies, and to understand the challenges and develop solutions related to environment and sustainability.

    To accomplish these objectives, the school offers a variety of programs adaptable to the needs of the individual student:

    four-year undergraduate programs leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science (B.S.)

    five-year programs leading to the coterminal Bachelor of Science and Master of Science (M.S.)

    five-year programs leading to the coterminal Bachelor of Science and Master of Arts (M.A.)

    graduate programs offering the degrees of Master of Science, Engineer, and Doctor of Philosophy.

    Details of individual degree programs are found in the section for each department or program.
    Undergraduate Programs in the School of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences

    Any undergraduate admitted to the University may declare a major in one of the school’s departments or the Earth Systems Program by contacting the appropriate department or program office.

    Requirements for the B.S. degree are listed in each department or program section. Departmental academic advisers work with students to define a career or academic goal and assure that the student’s curricular choices are appropriate to the pursuit of that goal. Advisers can help devise a sensible and enjoyable course of study that meets degree requirements and provides the student with opportunities to experience advanced courses, seminars, and research projects. To maximize such opportunities, students are encouraged to complete basic science and mathematics courses in high school or during their freshman year.
    Coterminal Master’s Degrees in the School of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences

    The Stanford coterminal degree program enables an undergraduate to embark on an integrated program of study leading to the master’s degree before requirements for the bachelor’s degree have been completed. This may result in more expeditious progress towards the advanced degree than would otherwise be possible, making the program especially important to Earth scientists because the master’s degree provides an excellent basis for entry into the profession. The coterminal plan permits students to apply for admission to a master’s program after earning 120 units, completion of six non-summer quarters, and declaration of an undergraduate major, but no later than the quarter prior to the expected completion of the undergraduate degree.

    The student may meet the degree requirements in the more advantageous of the following two ways: by first completing the 180 units required for the B.S. degree and then completing the three quarters required for the M.S. or the M.A. degree; or by completing a total of 15 quarters during which the requirements for the two degrees are completed concurrently. In either case, the student has the option of receiving the B.S. degree upon meeting all the B.S. requirements or of receiving both degrees at the end of the coterminal program.

    Students earn degrees in the same department or program, in two different departments, or even in different schools; for example, a B.S. in Physics and an M.S. in Geological Sciences. Students are encouraged to discuss the coterminal program with their advisers during their junior year. Additional information is available in the individual department offices.

    University requirements for the coterminal master’s degree are described in the “Coterminal Master’s Program” section. University requirements for the master’s degree are described in the “Graduate Degrees” section of this bulletin.
    Graduate Programs in the School of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences

    Admission to the Graduate Program

    A student who wishes to enroll for graduate work in the school must be qualified for graduate standing in the University and also must be accepted by one of the school’s four departments or the E-IPER Ph.D. program. One requirement for admission is submission of scores on the verbal and quantitative sections of the Graduate Record Exam. Admission to one department of the school does not guarantee admission to other departments.

    Faculty Adviser

    Upon entering a graduate program, the student should report to the head of the department or program who arranges with a member of the faculty to act as the student’s adviser. Alternatively, in several of the departments, advisers are established through student-faculty discussions prior to admission. The student, in consultation with the adviser(s), then arranges a course of study for the first quarter and ultimately develops a complete plan of study for the degree sought.

    Financial Aid
    Detailed information on scholarships, fellowships, and research grants is available from the school’s individual departments and programs.

    Stanford University campus

    Leland and Jane Stanford founded Stanford University to “promote the public welfare by exercising an influence on behalf of humanity and civilization.” Stanford opened its doors in 1891, and more than a century later, it remains dedicated to finding solutions to the great challenges of the day and to preparing our students for leadership in today’s complex world. Stanford, is an American private research university located in Stanford, California on an 8,180-acre (3,310 ha) campus near Palo Alto. Since 1952, more than 54 Stanford faculty, staff, and alumni have won the Nobel Prize, including 19 current faculty members.

    Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private research university located in Stanford, California. Stanford was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr., who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford is consistently ranked as among the most prestigious and top universities in the world by major education publications. It is also one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.

    Leland Stanford was a U.S. senator and former governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon. The school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates’ entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would later be known as Silicon Valley.

    The university is organized around seven schools: three schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate level as well as four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in law, medicine, education, and business. All schools are on the same campus. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference. It has gained 126 NCAA team championships, and Stanford has won the NACDA Directors’ Cup for 24 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995. In addition, Stanford students and alumni have won 270 Olympic medals including 139 gold medals.

    As of October 2020, 84 Nobel laureates, 28 Turing Award laureates, and eight Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, alumni, faculty, or staff. In addition, Stanford is particularly noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups. Stanford alumni have founded numerous companies, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue, roughly equivalent to the 7th largest economy in the world (as of 2020). Stanford is the alma mater of one president of the United States (Herbert Hoover), 74 living billionaires, and 17 astronauts. It is also one of the leading producers of Fulbright Scholars, Marshall Scholars, Rhodes Scholars, and members of the United States Congress.

    Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child. The institution opened in 1891 on Stanford’s previous Palo Alto farm.

    Jane and Leland Stanford modeled their university after the great eastern universities, most specifically Cornell University. Stanford opened being called the “Cornell of the West” in 1891 due to faculty being former Cornell affiliates (either professors, alumni, or both) including its first president, David Starr Jordan, and second president, John Casper Branner. Both Cornell and Stanford were among the first to have higher education be accessible, nonsectarian, and open to women as well as to men. Cornell is credited as one of the first American universities to adopt this radical departure from traditional education, and Stanford became an early adopter as well.

    Despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I. The Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (originally named the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), established in 1962, performs research in particle physics.

    Land

    Most of Stanford is on an 8,180-acre (12.8 sq mi; 33.1 km^2) campus, one of the largest in the United States. It is located on the San Francisco Peninsula, in the northwest part of the Santa Clara Valley (Silicon Valley) approximately 37 miles (60 km) southeast of San Francisco and approximately 20 miles (30 km) northwest of San Jose. In 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped.

    Stanford’s main campus includes a census-designated place within unincorporated Santa Clara County, although some of the university land (such as the Stanford Shopping Center and the Stanford Research Park) is within the city limits of Palo Alto. The campus also includes much land in unincorporated San Mateo County (including the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve), as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park (Stanford Hills neighborhood), Woodside, and Portola Valley.

    Non-central campus

    Stanford currently operates in various locations outside of its central campus.

    On the founding grant:

    Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 1,200-acre (490 ha) natural reserve south of the central campus owned by the university and used by wildlife biologists for research.
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility west of the central campus operated by the university for the Department of Energy. It contains the longest linear particle accelerator in the world, 2 miles (3.2 km) on 426 acres (172 ha) of land.


    Golf course and a seasonal lake: The university also has its own golf course and a seasonal lake (Lake Lagunita, actually an irrigation reservoir), both home to the vulnerable California tiger salamander. As of 2012 Lake Lagunita was often dry and the university had no plans to artificially fill it.

    Off the founding grant:

    Hopkins Marine Station, in Pacific Grove, California, is a marine biology research center owned by the university since 1892.
    Study abroad locations: unlike typical study abroad programs, Stanford itself operates in several locations around the world; thus, each location has Stanford faculty-in-residence and staff in addition to students, creating a “mini-Stanford”.

    Redwood City campus for many of the university’s administrative offices located in Redwood City, California, a few miles north of the main campus. In 2005, the university purchased a small, 35-acre (14 ha) campus in Midpoint Technology Park intended for staff offices; development was delayed by The Great Recession. In 2015 the university announced a development plan and the Redwood City campus opened in March 2019.

    The Bass Center in Washington, DC provides a base, including housing, for the Stanford in Washington program for undergraduates. It includes a small art gallery open to the public.

    China: Stanford Center at Peking University, housed in the Lee Jung Sen Building, is a small center for researchers and students in collaboration with Beijing University [北京大学](CN) (Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics at Peking University (CN) (KIAA-PKU).

    Administration and organization

    Stanford is a private, non-profit university that is administered as a corporate trust governed by a privately appointed board of trustees with a maximum membership of 38. Trustees serve five-year terms (not more than two consecutive terms) and meet five times annually.[83] A new trustee is chosen by the current trustees by ballot. The Stanford trustees also oversee the Stanford Research Park, the Stanford Shopping Center, the Cantor Center for Visual Arts, Stanford University Medical Center, and many associated medical facilities (including the Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital).

    The board appoints a president to serve as the chief executive officer of the university, to prescribe the duties of professors and course of study, to manage financial and business affairs, and to appoint nine vice presidents. The provost is the chief academic and budget officer, to whom the deans of each of the seven schools report. Persis Drell became the 13th provost in February 2017.

    As of 2018, the university was organized into seven academic schools. The schools of Humanities and Sciences (27 departments), Engineering (nine departments), and Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences (four departments) have both graduate and undergraduate programs while the Schools of Law, Medicine, Education and Business have graduate programs only. The powers and authority of the faculty are vested in the Academic Council, which is made up of tenure and non-tenure line faculty, research faculty, senior fellows in some policy centers and institutes, the president of the university, and some other academic administrators, but most matters are handled by the Faculty Senate, made up of 55 elected representatives of the faculty.

    The Associated Students of Stanford University (ASSU) is the student government for Stanford and all registered students are members. Its elected leadership consists of the Undergraduate Senate elected by the undergraduate students, the Graduate Student Council elected by the graduate students, and the President and Vice President elected as a ticket by the entire student body.

    Stanford is the beneficiary of a special clause in the California Constitution, which explicitly exempts Stanford property from taxation so long as the property is used for educational purposes.

    Endowment and donations

    The university’s endowment, managed by the Stanford Management Company, was valued at $27.7 billion as of August 31, 2019. Payouts from the Stanford endowment covered approximately 21.8% of university expenses in the 2019 fiscal year. In the 2018 NACUBO-TIAA survey of colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, only Harvard University, the University of Texas System, and Yale University had larger endowments than Stanford.

    In 2006, President John L. Hennessy launched a five-year campaign called the Stanford Challenge, which reached its $4.3 billion fundraising goal in 2009, two years ahead of time, but continued fundraising for the duration of the campaign. It concluded on December 31, 2011, having raised a total of $6.23 billion and breaking the previous campaign fundraising record of $3.88 billion held by Yale. Specifically, the campaign raised $253.7 million for undergraduate financial aid, as well as $2.33 billion for its initiative in “Seeking Solutions” to global problems, $1.61 billion for “Educating Leaders” by improving K-12 education, and $2.11 billion for “Foundation of Excellence” aimed at providing academic support for Stanford students and faculty. Funds supported 366 new fellowships for graduate students, 139 new endowed chairs for faculty, and 38 new or renovated buildings. The new funding also enabled the construction of a facility for stem cell research; a new campus for the business school; an expansion of the law school; a new Engineering Quad; a new art and art history building; an on-campus concert hall; a new art museum; and a planned expansion of the medical school, among other things. In 2012, the university raised $1.035 billion, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.

    Research centers and institutes

    DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
    Stanford Research Institute, a center of innovation to support economic development in the region.
    Hoover Institution, a conservative American public policy institution and research institution that promotes personal and economic liberty, free enterprise, and limited government.
    Hasso Plattner Institute of Design, a multidisciplinary design school in cooperation with the Hasso Plattner Institute of University of Potsdam [Universität Potsdam](DE) that integrates product design, engineering, and business management education).
    Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute, which grew out of and still contains the Martin Luther King Jr. Papers Project.
    John S. Knight Fellowship for Professional Journalists
    Center for Ocean Solutions
    Together with University of California-Berkeley and University of California-San Francisco, Stanford is part of the Biohub, a new medical science research center founded in 2016 by a $600 million commitment from Facebook CEO and founder Mark Zuckerberg and pediatrician Priscilla Chan.

    Discoveries and innovation

    Natural sciences

    Biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) – Arthur Kornberg synthesized DNA material and won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959 for his work at Stanford.
    First Transgenic organism – Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer were the first scientists to transplant genes from one living organism to another, a fundamental discovery for genetic engineering. Thousands of products have been developed on the basis of their work, including human growth hormone and hepatitis B vaccine.
    Laser – Arthur Leonard Schawlow shared the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physics with Nicolaas Bloembergen and Kai Siegbahn for his work on lasers.
    Nuclear magnetic resonance – Felix Bloch developed new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements, which are the underlying principles of the MRI.

    Computer and applied sciences

    ARPANETStanford Research Institute, formerly part of Stanford but on a separate campus, was the site of one of the four original ARPANET nodes.

    Internet—Stanford was the site where the original design of the Internet was undertaken. Vint Cerf led a research group to elaborate the design of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP/IP) that he originally co-created with Robert E. Kahn (Bob Kahn) in 1973 and which formed the basis for the architecture of the Internet.

    Frequency modulation synthesis – John Chowning of the Music department invented the FM music synthesis algorithm in 1967, and Stanford later licensed it to Yamaha Corporation.

    Google – Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford. They were working on the Stanford Digital Library Project (SDLP). The SDLP’s goal was “to develop the enabling technologies for a single, integrated and universal digital library” and it was funded through the National Science Foundation, among other federal agencies.

    Klystron tube – invented by the brothers Russell and Sigurd Varian at Stanford. Their prototype was completed and demonstrated successfully on August 30, 1937. Upon publication in 1939, news of the klystron immediately influenced the work of U.S. and UK researchers working on radar equipment.

    RISCARPA funded VLSI project of microprocessor design. Stanford and University of California- Berkeley are most associated with the popularization of this concept. The Stanford MIPS would go on to be commercialized as the successful MIPS architecture, while Berkeley RISC gave its name to the entire concept, commercialized as the SPARC. Another success from this era were IBM’s efforts that eventually led to the IBM POWER instruction set architecture, PowerPC, and Power ISA. As these projects matured, a wide variety of similar designs flourished in the late 1980s and especially the early 1990s, representing a major force in the Unix workstation market as well as embedded processors in laser printers, routers and similar products.
    SUN workstation – Andy Bechtolsheim designed the SUN workstation for the Stanford University Network communications project as a personal CAD workstation, which led to Sun Microsystems.

    Businesses and entrepreneurship

    Stanford is one of the most successful universities in creating companies and licensing its inventions to existing companies; it is often held up as a model for technology transfer. Stanford’s Office of Technology Licensing is responsible for commercializing university research, intellectual property, and university-developed projects.

    The university is described as having a strong venture culture in which students are encouraged, and often funded, to launch their own companies.

    Companies founded by Stanford alumni generate more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue, equivalent to the 10th-largest economy in the world.

    Some companies closely associated with Stanford and their connections include:

    Hewlett-Packard, 1939, co-founders William R. Hewlett (B.S, PhD) and David Packard (M.S).
    Silicon Graphics, 1981, co-founders James H. Clark (Associate Professor) and several of his grad students.
    Sun Microsystems, 1982, co-founders Vinod Khosla (M.B.A), Andy Bechtolsheim (PhD) and Scott McNealy (M.B.A).
    Cisco, 1984, founders Leonard Bosack (M.S) and Sandy Lerner (M.S) who were in charge of Stanford Computer Science and Graduate School of Business computer operations groups respectively when the hardware was developed.[163]
    Yahoo!, 1994, co-founders Jerry Yang (B.S, M.S) and David Filo (M.S).
    Google, 1998, co-founders Larry Page (M.S) and Sergey Brin (M.S).
    LinkedIn, 2002, co-founders Reid Hoffman (B.S), Konstantin Guericke (B.S, M.S), Eric Lee (B.S), and Alan Liu (B.S).
    Instagram, 2010, co-founders Kevin Systrom (B.S) and Mike Krieger (B.S).
    Snapchat, 2011, co-founders Evan Spiegel and Bobby Murphy (B.S).
    Coursera, 2012, co-founders Andrew Ng (Associate Professor) and Daphne Koller (Professor, PhD).

    Student body

    Stanford enrolled 6,996 undergraduate and 10,253 graduate students as of the 2019–2020 school year. Women comprised 50.4% of undergraduates and 41.5% of graduate students. In the same academic year, the freshman retention rate was 99%.

    Stanford awarded 1,819 undergraduate degrees, 2,393 master’s degrees, 770 doctoral degrees, and 3270 professional degrees in the 2018–2019 school year. The four-year graduation rate for the class of 2017 cohort was 72.9%, and the six-year rate was 94.4%. The relatively low four-year graduation rate is a function of the university’s coterminal degree (or “coterm”) program, which allows students to earn a master’s degree as a 1-to-2-year extension of their undergraduate program.

    As of 2010, fifteen percent of undergraduates were first-generation students.

    Athletics

    As of 2016 Stanford had 16 male varsity sports and 20 female varsity sports, 19 club sports and about 27 intramural sports. In 1930, following a unanimous vote by the Executive Committee for the Associated Students, the athletic department adopted the mascot “Indian.” The Indian symbol and name were dropped by President Richard Lyman in 1972, after objections from Native American students and a vote by the student senate. The sports teams are now officially referred to as the “Stanford Cardinal,” referring to the deep red color, not the cardinal bird. Stanford is a member of the Pac-12 Conference in most sports, the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation in several other sports, and the America East Conference in field hockey with the participation in the inter-collegiate NCAA’s Division I FBS.

    Its traditional sports rival is the University of California, Berkeley, the neighbor to the north in the East Bay. The winner of the annual “Big Game” between the Cal and Cardinal football teams gains custody of the Stanford Axe.

    Stanford has had at least one NCAA team champion every year since the 1976–77 school year and has earned 126 NCAA national team titles since its establishment, the most among universities, and Stanford has won 522 individual national championships, the most by any university. Stanford has won the award for the top-ranked Division 1 athletic program—the NACDA Directors’ Cup, formerly known as the Sears Cup—annually for the past twenty-four straight years. Stanford athletes have won medals in every Olympic Games since 1912, winning 270 Olympic medals total, 139 of them gold. In the 2008 Summer Olympics, and 2016 Summer Olympics, Stanford won more Olympic medals than any other university in the United States. Stanford athletes won 16 medals at the 2012 Summer Olympics (12 gold, two silver and two bronze), and 27 medals at the 2016 Summer Olympics.

    Traditions

    The unofficial motto of Stanford, selected by President Jordan, is Die Luft der Freiheit weht. Translated from the German language, this quotation from Ulrich von Hutten means, “The wind of freedom blows.” The motto was controversial during World War I, when anything in German was suspect; at that time the university disavowed that this motto was official.
    Hail, Stanford, Hail! is the Stanford Hymn sometimes sung at ceremonies or adapted by the various University singing groups. It was written in 1892 by mechanical engineering professor Albert W. Smith and his wife, Mary Roberts Smith (in 1896 she earned the first Stanford doctorate in Economics and later became associate professor of Sociology), but was not officially adopted until after a performance on campus in March 1902 by the Mormon Tabernacle Choir.
    “Uncommon Man/Uncommon Woman”: Stanford does not award honorary degrees, but in 1953 the degree of “Uncommon Man/Uncommon Woman” was created to recognize individuals who give rare and extraordinary service to the University. Technically, this degree is awarded by the Stanford Associates, a voluntary group that is part of the university’s alumni association. As Stanford’s highest honor, it is not conferred at prescribed intervals, but only when appropriate to recognize extraordinary service. Recipients include Herbert Hoover, Bill Hewlett, Dave Packard, Lucile Packard, and John Gardner.
    Big Game events: The events in the week leading up to the Big Game vs. UC Berkeley, including Gaieties (a musical written, composed, produced, and performed by the students of Ram’s Head Theatrical Society).
    “Viennese Ball”: a formal ball with waltzes that was initially started in the 1970s by students returning from the now-closed Stanford in Vienna overseas program. It is now open to all students.
    “Full Moon on the Quad”: An annual event at Main Quad, where students gather to kiss one another starting at midnight. Typically organized by the Junior class cabinet, the festivities include live entertainment, such as music and dance performances.
    “Band Run”: An annual festivity at the beginning of the school year, where the band picks up freshmen from dorms across campus while stopping to perform at each location, culminating in a finale performance at Main Quad.
    “Mausoleum Party”: An annual Halloween Party at the Stanford Mausoleum, the final resting place of Leland Stanford Jr. and his parents. A 20-year tradition, the “Mausoleum Party” was on hiatus from 2002 to 2005 due to a lack of funding, but was revived in 2006. In 2008, it was hosted in Old Union rather than at the actual Mausoleum, because rain prohibited generators from being rented. In 2009, after fundraising efforts by the Junior Class Presidents and the ASSU Executive, the event was able to return to the Mausoleum despite facing budget cuts earlier in the year.
    Former campus traditions include the “Big Game bonfire” on Lake Lagunita (a seasonal lake usually dry in the fall), which was formally ended in 1997 because of the presence of endangered salamanders in the lake bed.

    Award laureates and scholars

    Stanford’s current community of scholars includes:

    19 Nobel Prize laureates (as of October 2020, 85 affiliates in total)
    171 members of the National Academy of Sciences
    109 members of National Academy of Engineering
    76 members of National Academy of Medicine
    288 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
    19 recipients of the National Medal of Science
    1 recipient of the National Medal of Technology
    4 recipients of the National Humanities Medal
    49 members of American Philosophical Society
    56 fellows of the American Physics Society (since 1995)
    4 Pulitzer Prize winners
    31 MacArthur Fellows
    4 Wolf Foundation Prize winners
    2 ACL Lifetime Achievement Award winners
    14 AAAI fellows
    2 Presidential Medal of Freedom winners

    Stanford University Seal

     
  • richardmitnick 11:23 pm on January 25, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Getting to the bottom of Antarctic Bottom Water", A team of scientists is plumbing the depths in East Antarctica to increase our understanding of Antarctic Bottom Water., Antarctic Bottom Water ventilates the deep ocean., , , Climate Change, , , , , Long sediment cores taken will reveal past changes in sea ice., , Scientists will use deep sea cameras to take the first images of the seafloor life in this remote part of Antarctica.   

    From “CSIROscope” (AU) At CSIRO (AU)-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization : “Getting to the bottom of Antarctic Bottom Water” 

    CSIRO bloc

    From “CSIROscope” (AU)

    At

    CSIRO (AU)-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization

    1.25.23
    Dr Alix Post | Geoscience Australia
    Associate Professor Helen Bostock | The University of Queensland
    Matt Marrison | CSIRO

    A team of scientists is plumbing the depths in East Antarctica to increase our understanding of Antarctic Bottom Water.

    R/V Investigator [below] is once again sailing south to conduct important research in Antarctica. Called “CANYONS”, scientists on this 47-day voyage will investigate Antarctic Bottom Water in the Cape Darnley region of East Antarctica.

    This is what you need to know about Antarctic Bottom Water.

    1
    Voyage Chief Scientist Dr Alix Post from Geoscience Australia will lead the 47-day voyage to East Antarctica. Image: Asaesja Young.

    What is Antarctic Bottom Water?

    You probably haven’t heard about Antarctic Bottom Water before but it’s very important for our oceans and climate. Put simply, Antarctic Bottom Water is dense, cold, oxygen-rich water that forms in just a few places around the Antarctic continent.

    This water forms as cold winds blowing off Antarctica cool the ocean surface and form sea ice. As fresh sea ice forms, the salt in the seawater is ‘rejected’ (released). As a consequence, very salty and cold water is left behind. The same winds blowing off Antarctica then blow the sea ice away, exposing the ocean and forming new sea ice. This process further increases the saltiness of the water. This water then sinks through the water column forming Antarctic Bottom Water in the deepest parts of the ocean.

    These bodies of open water, which are called polynya, can be thought of as sea ice factories.

    The most important thing to know about Antarctic Bottom Water is that it’s the densest water on the planet. As the densest water mass, Antarctic Bottom Water flows down the Antarctic continental margin and north across the seafloor. In fact, it’s been found to occupy depths below 4000 metres in all ocean basins that have a connection to the Southern Ocean.

    For this reason, it has a significant influence on the circulation of the world’s oceans.

    Why is it so important?

    The flow of Antarctic Bottom Water drives ocean circulation, assists in carbon capture and storage, and also carries oxygen to the deep ocean. As such, Antarctic Bottom Water ventilates the deep ocean.

    However, climate change and the melting of the Antarctic ice sheet has led to increased fresh water flowing into the oceans around Antarctica. This has reduced the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water as it impedes the process to make cold, salty water. This reduction is likely to continue as the climate continues to warm.

    Potentially, a complete shutdown of Antarctic Bottom Water formation is possible in the future. If this happens, it will likely have dramatic effects on ocean circulation. This will have consequences for weather patterns and the global climate. Moreover, a shutdown would likely create additional warming of the climate, including from reduced carbon capture and storage.

    2
    The CTD (conductivity, temperature and depth instrument) on R/V Investigator will be used to collect water samples and photograph seafloor life in Antarctica. Image Rod Palmer.

    Where are we going and why?

    The Cape Darnley region of East Antarctica is one of only four regions where the cold, salty and dense Antarctic Bottom Water forms. Scientists on this voyage aim to determine the flow pathways of this dense water mass down the rugged submarine canyons of the seafloor in this region. At the same time, they will also investigate its impact on seafloor life and ecosystems.

    Importantly, they are also seeking insights into Antarctic Bottom Water sensitivity to changes in climate. This will help us predict how a warming climate will influence its future formation and impact on ocean circulation. Changes in the water mass have been detected over recent decades.

    However, changes in this region have been little studied.

    To address this, a multidisciplinary team of scientists from Australian research institutions and universities has been assembled on board R/V Investigator. This team will be led by Dr Alix Post from Geoscience Australia and A/Prof Helen Bostock from The University of Queensland.

    Putting together pieces of an icy puzzle

    Scientists want to better understand the tipping points that influence the production of Antarctic Bottom Water by investigating different climate states in the past climate record. To achieve this, the team on R/V Investigator will undertake detailed seafloor mapping of this area for the first time. Complete seafloor maps will reveal where Antarctic Bottom Water flows through the rugged submarine canyons. This will enable realistic ocean, climate and ecosystem models to be developed.

    3
    Multibeam sonar systems on R/V Investigator will be used to map the seafloor to study how features in the region, such as deep canyons, influence the flow of Antarctic Bottom Water.

    In addition, they will also collect long sediment cores, analyze seawater samples and use deep sea cameras to image seafloor life.

    Long sediment cores will reveal past changes in sea ice, ice-sheets and ocean circulation. These records will unlock the history of Antarctic dense water formation during periods of Earth’s history that were warmer than today. As a result, we will gain important insights into how our global climate is likely to respond to changes in the future.

    Furthermore, the team will also collect large volumes of Antarctic seawater. Importantly, this will give us valuable insights into the processes controlling the distribution of trace metals in Antarctic waters. It will also contribute to developing new geochemical tracers for past ocean and ice sheet change.

    Protecting Antarctica’s ecosystems

    The area is one of three regions proposed as Antarctic Marine Protected Areas on the East Antarctic margin. Scientists will use deep sea cameras to take the first images of the seafloor life in this remote part of Antarctica. Altogether, the information they collect will help ensure this region can be protected into the future.

    Join us in the south

    The team will be bringing their research to life through photography, video, blogs and podcasts. These will be released through the Australian Centre for Excellence in Antarctic Science. We’ll share updates across our social channels with #RVInvestigator.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    CSIRO campus

    CSIRO (AU)-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization , is Australia’s national science agency and one of the largest and most diverse research agencies in the world.

    CSIRO works with leading organizations around the world. From its headquarters in Canberra, CSIRO maintains more than 50 sites across Australia and in France, Chile and the United States, employing about 5,500 people.

    Federally funded scientific research began in Australia 104 years ago. The Advisory Council of Science and Industry was established in 1916 but was hampered by insufficient available finance. In 1926 the research effort was reinvigorated by establishment of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), which strengthened national science leadership and increased research funding. CSIR grew rapidly and achieved significant early successes. In 1949 further legislated changes included renaming the organization as CSIRO.

    Notable developments by CSIRO have included the invention of atomic absorption spectroscopy; essential components of Wi-Fi technology; development of the first commercially successful polymer banknote; the invention of the insect repellent in Aerogard and the introduction of a series of biological controls into Australia, such as the introduction of myxomatosis and rabbit calicivirus for the control of rabbit populations.

    Research and focus areas

    Research Business Units

    As at 2019, CSIRO’s research areas are identified as “Impact science” and organized into the following Business Units:

    Agriculture and Food
    Health and Biosecurity
    Data 61
    Energy
    Land and Water
    Manufacturing
    Mineral Resources
    Oceans and Atmosphere

    National Facilities

    CSIRO manages national research facilities and scientific infrastructure on behalf of the nation to assist with the delivery of research. The national facilities and specialized laboratories are available to both international and Australian users from industry and research. As at 2019, the following National Facilities are listed:

    Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL)
    Australia Telescope National Facility – radio telescopes in the Facility include the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the Parkes Observatory, Mopra Radio Telescope Observatory and the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder.

    STCA CSIRO Australia Compact Array (AU), six radio telescopes at the Paul Wild Observatory, is an array of six 22-m antennas located about twenty five kilometres (16 mi) west of the town of Narrabri in Australia.

    CSIRO-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (AU) Parkes Observatory [Murriyang, the traditional Indigenous name], located 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes, New South Wales, Australia, 414.80m above sea level.

    NASA Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex, AU, Deep Space Network. Credit: The National Aeronautics and Space Agency

    CSIRO Canberra campus

    ESA DSA 1, hosts a 35-metre deep-space antenna with transmission and reception in both S- and X-band and is located 140 kilometres north of Perth, Western Australia, near the town of New Norcia

    CSIRO-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (AU)CSIRO R/V Investigator.

    UK Space NovaSAR-1 satellite (UK) synthetic aperture radar satellite.

    CSIRO Pawsey Supercomputing Centre AU)

    Magnus Cray XC40 supercomputer at Pawsey Supercomputer Centre Perth Australia

    Galaxy Cray XC30 Series Supercomputer at at Pawsey Supercomputer Centre Perth Australia

    Pausey Supercomputer CSIRO Zeus SGI Linux cluster

    Others not shown

    SKA

    SKA- Square Kilometer Array

    Australia Telescope National Facility – radio telescopes included in the Facility include the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the Parkes Observatory, Mopra Radio Telescope Observatory and the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder.

    Haystack Observatory EDGES telescope in a radio quiet zone at the Inyarrimanha Ilgari Bundara Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO), on the traditional lands of the Wajarri peoples.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:58 pm on January 19, 2023 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Research reveals new links behind climate change in Australia", A more southerly “ITCZ” position meant warmer ocean temperatures and more cyclones near the cave site in northwestern Australia–and hence making landfall further south in Western Australia.”, A team of scientists combined stalagmites and climate model simulations to reveal links between monsoon rains and tropical cyclones in Australia., , “ITCZ”: Intertropical Convergence Zone-a belt of rising air that forms the center of monsoon rainfall in tropical regions around the world., , Climate Change, , Cyclones and monsoons varied in tandem at a really fine scale., , Links between monsoon rains and tropical cyclones in Australia, , Some years the ITCZ stays closer to the equator and when it does the Australian tropics receive less monsoon rainfall., Stalagmites from a cave in the Australian tropics, Stalagmites were dated using the small amounts of radioactive isotopes they contain., The ITCZ roughly parallels the equator and migrates back and forth between the northern and southern hemispheres tracking summer heating of the Earth’s surface., The southern portions of Australia where most Australians live and where most of their farmland is located appear to be particularly at risk of suffering increased droughts due to this phenomenon., The stalagmites and modern cyclone tracks and climate model simulations agreed beautifully., The study also shows the power of combining geologic records of past climate with climate model simulations., , There’s a lot of atmospheric disturbance in the ITCZ and as a result a lot of tropical cyclones form there., This work is an illustration of how the climate system is composed of lots of interlocking pieces., When the tropics got more rainfall from the monsoons the subtropics got more rainfall from tropical cyclones.   

    From The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: “Research reveals new links behind climate change in Australia” 

    From The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    1.11.23

    1
    Cape Range cave in Northwestern Australia. Changes in the isotopic composition of the stalagmites in Cape Range and the Kimberley region in northern Australia reflect rainfall over Australia from tropical cyclones and the monsoon. (Photo by Darren Brooks /Australian Speleological Federation, Perth, Australia)

    A team of scientists, including those from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), have combined stalagmites and climate model simulations to reveal links between monsoon rains and tropical cyclones in Australia.

    This work, which was supported by the National Science Foundation, was published today in the journal Science Advances [below].

    WHOI Assoc. Scientist Caroline Ummenhofer and MIT-WHOI Joint Program student Theo Carr co-authored the study, along with lead author Rhawn Denniston, professor of Geology at Cornell College and WHOI adjunct scientist, and colleagues from Iowa State University and the University of New Mexico.

    The team reconstructed changes in monsoon rainfall over the last 1,500 years using the chemistry of stalagmites from a cave in the Australian tropics. The stalagmites were dated using the small amounts of radioactive isotopes they contain, and variations in monsoon rainfall were determined from changes in the stalagmites’ isotopes of oxygen.

    The resulting record turned out to be strikingly similar to a previously published record of tropical cyclone activity from much further south in the Australian subtropics: when the tropics got more rainfall from the monsoon, the subtropics got more rainfall from tropical cyclones.

    “That didn’t make any sense to me at first because what happens in the tropics with the monsoon should be distinct from what happens with cyclone activity in the subtropics,” Denniston said. “The only thing I could think of that would connect the two is the ITCZ.”

    The “ITCZ”, or Intertropical Convergence Zone, is a belt of rising air that forms the center of monsoon rainfall in tropical regions around the world. The ITCZ roughly parallels the equator and migrates back and forth between the northern and southern hemispheres tracking summer heating of the Earth’s surface.

    “We compared the tropical cyclone tracks during years that had the ITCZ in a more southerly position with those years when it was located further north,” Ummenhofer added. “We were struck by how different both surface ocean temperatures and actual hurricane tracks over the Indian Ocean were during these two sets of years. A more southerly ITCZ position meant warmer ocean temperatures and more cyclones near the cave site in northwestern Australia–and hence making landfall further south in Western Australia.”

    “There’s a lot of atmospheric disturbance in the ITCZ and as a result a lot of tropical cyclones form there,” Denniston continued. “The connection we made was that while the ITCZ moves into the southern hemispheres at the start of the austral summer each December, it doesn’t always park itself in the exact same place. When you look at it over hundreds and thousands of years, like we did using our stalagmite records, larger scale patterns are evident; some years the ITCZ stays closer to the equator and when it does the Australian tropics receive less monsoon rainfall. Other times the ITCZ migrates much further south, increasing monsoon rainfall across tropical regions. We wondered if in those years when the ITCZ was further south if cyclones were forming further south as well, causing more of them to pass over the subtropics, delivering more rain there.”

    To test this hypothesis, the team partnered with experts in the study of the ITCZ–Dr. Francesco Pausata and his graduate student, Roberto Ingrosso, of the University of Quebec. They examined climate data based both on observations and a climate model simulation of the last millennium to identify years when the southern hemisphere ITCZ was positioned either particularly far north or south. Next, Dr. Caroline Ummenhofer of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution compared tropical cyclone tracks over Australia during recent years.

    And finally, MIT Professor Kerry Emanuel applied a cutting-edge simulation of hurricanes to the observational and climate model data to test how changes in the location of the ITCZ impacted tropical cyclone rainfall over the Australian subtropics.

    “The stalagmites and modern cyclone tracks and climate model simulations agreed beautifully,” Denniston said. “When the ITCZ was further south, the tropics got more rainfall from the monsoon and the subtropics got more rainfall from tropical cyclones.”

    How is your research different?

    “Our study is unique in its ability to demonstrate how closely tied monsoons and tropical cyclones are to the ITCZ over long periods of time. The whole system is so noisy that we can’t make a lot of sense of it over the short record (about 40 years) of direct observations and measurements,” Denniston said. “However, by combining stalagmite records and climate model simulations, we can see how things operate over much longer time periods. What is revealed is that cyclones and monsoons varied in tandem at a really fine scale.”

    What does this mean for climate change?

    “A really important question in climate science involves the so-called ‘widening of the tropics,’ in which dry air is expanding toward higher latitudes across the subtropics. The southern portions of Australia, where most Australians live and where most of their farmland is located, appear to be particularly at risk of suffering increased droughts due to this phenomenon,” Denniston said. “One possible conclusion of our work is that the same shifts in climate that are causing central and southern Australia to become drier may also lead to more frequent rainfall events from cyclones. Australia is a drought-sensitive country and has suffered massive and extended droughts numerous times over the last 120 years. As this region’s climate is already teetering on the edge, continued drying could spell major problems for agriculture, society, and the environment. However, more regular big rainfall events from tropical cyclones could potentially help offset some of the long-term drying.”

    What does this mean for the future?

    “This work is an illustration of how the climate system is composed of lots of interlocking pieces. Changes in the ocean and atmospheric temperatures can influence the location of the ITCZ, which in turn influences the monsoon rains in the Australian tropics and the rains derived from tropical cyclones in the much drier regions further south,” Denniston said. “Our study also shows the power of combining geologic records of past climate with climate model simulations. We really need to understand all the pieces of the puzzle to prepare for the climate changes that are coming, and this approach is a great way to do it.”

    In addition to the National Science Foundation, funding for this study was provided by the WHOI Independent Research & Development Program and the James E. and Barbara V. Moltz Fellowship.

    Science Advances
    See the science paper for instructive material with images.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Mission Statement

    The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution is dedicated to advancing knowledge of the ocean and its connection with the Earth system through a sustained commitment to excellence in science, engineering, and education, and to the application of this knowledge to problems facing society.

    Vision & Mission

    The ocean is a defining feature of our planet and crucial to life on Earth, yet it remains one of the planet’s last unexplored frontiers. For this reason, WHOI scientists and engineers are committed to understanding all facets of the ocean as well as its complex connections with Earth’s atmosphere, land, ice, seafloor, and life—including humanity. This is essential not only to advance knowledge about our planet, but also to ensure society’s long-term welfare and to help guide human stewardship of the environment. WHOI researchers are also dedicated to training future generations of ocean science leaders, to providing unbiased information that informs public policy and decision-making, and to expanding public awareness about the importance of the global ocean and its resources.

    The Institution is organized into six departments, the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Ocean Research, and a marine policy center. Its shore-based facilities are located in the village of Woods Hole, Massachusetts and a mile and a half away on the Quissett Campus. The bulk of the Institution’s funding comes from grants and contracts from the National Science Foundation and other government agencies, augmented by foundations and private donations.

    WHOI scientists, engineers, and students collaborate to develop theories, test ideas, build seagoing instruments, and collect data in diverse marine environments. Ships operated by WHOI carry research scientists throughout the world’s oceans. The WHOI fleet includes two large research vessels (R/V Atlantis and R/V Neil Armstrong); the coastal craft Tioga; small research craft such as the dive-operation work boat Echo; the deep-diving human-occupied submersible Alvin; the tethered, remotely operated vehicle Jason/Medea; and autonomous underwater vehicles such as the REMUS and SeaBED.
    WHOI offers graduate and post-doctoral studies in marine science. There are several fellowship and training programs, and graduate degrees are awarded through a joint program with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. WHOI is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges . WHOI also offers public outreach programs and informal education through its Exhibit Center and summer tours. The Institution has a volunteer program and a membership program, WHOI Associate.

    On October 1, 2020, Peter B. de Menocal became the institution’s eleventh president and director.

    History

    In 1927, a National Academy of Sciences committee concluded that it was time to “consider the share of the United States of America in a worldwide program of oceanographic research.” The committee’s recommendation for establishing a permanent independent research laboratory on the East Coast to “prosecute oceanography in all its branches” led to the founding in 1930 of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

    A $2.5 million grant from the Rockefeller Foundation supported the summer work of a dozen scientists, construction of a laboratory building and commissioning of a research vessel, the 142-foot (43 m) ketch R/V Atlantis, whose profile still forms the Institution’s logo.

    WHOI grew substantially to support significant defense-related research during World War II, and later began a steady growth in staff, research fleet, and scientific stature. From 1950 to 1956, the director was Dr. Edward “Iceberg” Smith, an Arctic explorer, oceanographer and retired Coast Guard rear admiral.

    In 1977 the institution appointed the influential oceanographer John Steele as director, and he served until his retirement in 1989.

    On 1 September 1985, a joint French-American expedition led by Jean-Louis Michel of IFREMER and Robert Ballard of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution identified the location of the wreck of the RMS Titanic which sank off the coast of Newfoundland 15 April 1912.

    On 3 April 2011, within a week of resuming of the search operation for Air France Flight 447, a team led by WHOI, operating full ocean depth autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) owned by the Waitt Institute discovered, by means of sidescan sonar, a large portion of debris field from flight AF447.

    In March 2017 the institution effected an open-access policy to make its research publicly accessible online.

    The Institution has maintained a long and controversial business collaboration with the treasure hunter company Odyssey Marine. Likewise, WHOI has participated in the location of the San José galleon in Colombia for the commercial exploitation of the shipwreck by the Government of President Santos and a private company.

    In 2019, iDefense reported that China’s hackers had launched cyberattacks on dozens of academic institutions in an attempt to gain information on technology being developed for the United States Navy. Some of the targets included the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The attacks have been underway since at least April 2017.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:55 pm on December 17, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "NASA launches international mission to survey Earth's water", , Climate Change, CNES-The National Centre for Space Studies [Centre national d'études spatiales](FR), , , NASA JPL-Caltech/ CNES SWOT [Surface Water and Ocean Topography] spacecraft, Observing nearly all the water on our planet's surface, , Precisely determining the height of the water's surface, SWOT will cover the entire Earth's surface between 78 degrees south and 78 degrees north latitude at least once every 21 days., , The SWOT mission will provide is a significantly clearer picture of Earth's freshwater bodies-more than 95% of the world's lakes larger than 15 acres and rivers wider than 330 feet., Warming seas and extreme weather and more severe wildfires—these are only some of the consequences humanity is facing due to climate change.   

    From The National Aeronautics and Space Administration And CNES-The National Centre for Space Studies [Centre national d’études spatiales](FR) Via “phys.org” : “NASA launches international mission to survey Earth’s water” 

    From The National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    And

    CNES The National Centre for Space Studies [Centre national d’études spatiales](FR)

    Via

    “phys.org”

    12.16.22

    A satellite built for NASA and the French space agency Center National d’Études Spatiales (CNES) to observe nearly all the water on our planet’s surface lifted off on its way to low-Earth orbit at 3:46 a.m. PST on Friday. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) spacecraft also has contributions from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and the UK Space Agency.

    The SWOT spacecraft launched atop a SpaceX rocket from Space Launch Complex 4E at Vandenberg Space Force Base in California with a prime mission of three years. The satellite will measure the height of water in freshwater bodies and the ocean on more than 90% of Earth’s surface. This information will provide insights into how the ocean influences climate change; how a warming world affects lakes, rivers, and reservoirs; and how communities can better prepare for disasters, such as floods.

    After SWOT separated from the second stage of a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket, ground controllers successfully acquired the satellite’s signal. Initial telemetry reports showed the spacecraft in good health. SWOT will now undergo a series of checks and calibrations before it starts collecting science data in about six months.

    “Warming seas and extreme weather and more severe wildfires—these are only some of the consequences humanity is facing due to climate change,” said NASA Administrator Bill Nelson. “The climate crisis requires an all-hands-on-deck approach, and SWOT is the realization of a long-standing international partnership that will ultimately better equip communities so that they can face these challenges.”

    SWOT will cover the entire Earth’s surface between 78 degrees south and 78 degrees north latitude at least once every 21 days, sending back about one terabyte of unprocessed data per day. The scientific heart of the spacecraft is an innovative instrument called the Ka-band radar interferometer (KaRIn), which marks a major technological advance. KaRIn bounces radar pulses off the water’s surface and receives the return signal using two antennas on either side of the spacecraft. This arrangement—one signal, two antennas—will enable engineers to precisely determine the height of the water’s surface across two swaths at a time, each of them 30 miles (50 kilometers) wide.

    “We’re eager to see SWOT in action,” said Karen St. Germain, NASA Earth Science Division director. “This satellite embodies how we are improving life on Earth through science and technological innovations. The data that innovation will provide is essential to better understanding how Earth’s air, water, and ecosystems interact—and how people can thrive on our changing planet.”

    Among the many benefits the SWOT mission will provide is a significantly clearer picture of Earth’s freshwater bodies. It will provide data on more than 95% of the world’s lakes larger than 15 acres (62,500 square meters) and rivers wider than 330 feet (100 meters) across. Currently, freshwater researchers have reliable measurements for only a few thousand lakes around the world. SWOT will push that number into the millions.

    Along the coast, SWOT will provide information on sea level, filling in observational gaps in areas that don’t have tide gauges or other instruments that measure sea surface height. Over time, that data can help researchers better track sea level rise, which will directly impact communities and coastal ecosystems.

    Such an ambitious mission is possible because of NASA’s long-standing commitment to working with agencies around the world to study Earth and its climate. NASA and CNES have built upon a decades-long relationship that started in the 1980s to monitor Earth’s oceans. This collaboration pioneered the use of a space-based instrument called an altimeter to study sea level with the launch of the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite in 1992.

    “This mission marks the continuity of 30 years of collaboration between NASA and CNES in altimetry,” said Caroline Laurent, CNES Orbital Systems and Applications director. “It shows how international collaboration can be achieved through a breakthrough mission that will help us better understand climate change and its effects around the world.”

    SWOT measurements will also help researchers, policymakers, and resource managers better assess and plan for things, including floods and droughts. By providing information on where the water is—where it’s coming from and where it’s going—researchers can improve flood projections for rivers and monitor drought effects on lakes and reservoirs.

    “SWOT will provide vital information, given the urgent challenges posed by climate change and sea level rise,” said Laurie Leshin, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory director. JPL developed the KaRIn instrument and manages the U.S. portion of the mission. “That SWOT will fill gaps in our knowledge and inform future action is the direct result of commitment, innovation, and collaboration going back many years. We’re excited to get SWOT science underway.”

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation’s civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research.

    President Dwight D. Eisenhower established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958 with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, disestablishing NASA’s predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958.

    Since that time, most U.S. space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo moon-landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle. Currently, NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Commercial Crew vehicles. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program (LSP) which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. Most recently, NASA announced a new Space Launch System that it said would take the agency’s astronauts farther into space than ever before and lay the cornerstone for future human space exploration efforts by the U.S.

    NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System, advancing heliophysics through the efforts of the Science Mission Directorate’s Heliophysics Research Program, exploring bodies throughout the Solar System with advanced robotic missions such as New Horizons, and researching astrophysics topics, such as the Big Bang, through the Great Observatories [Hubble, Chandra,
    Spitzer and associated programs, and now the NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope. NASA shares data with various national and international organizations such as from the [JAXA]Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:30 am on December 15, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "University of Arizona president launches commission to fortify the future of agriculture and food production", , , Climate Change, , , Food Production in a Drying Climate, , The university-led commission is tasked with identifying solutions to food and economic insecurity.   

    From The University of Arizona: “University of Arizona president launches commission to fortify the future of agriculture and food production” 

    From The University of Arizona

    12.8.22

    The university-led commission is tasked with identifying solutions to food and economic insecurity.

    1
    Arizona ranked second in the nation in lettuce production, providing 30 percent of the country’s total production in 2022, after California. Credit: Faith Schwartz.

    The University of Arizona President Robert C. Robbins is forming the Presidential Advisory Commission on the Future of Agriculture and Food Production in a Drying Climate to address challenges to agricultural production and food and economic security in the state and around the world.

    “As a rapidly drying climate threatens food and agriculture systems around the globe, Arizona’s agriculture industry will need innovative solutions to continue producing food and other goods year-round for the state and beyond,” Robbins said. “From leveraging transformative agricultural practices to enhanced data tools for rapid analysis of challenges and changes within agricultural and food production, research-based solutions will be critical. Our ability to be agile and resilient in the face of this challenge affects not only agricultural production and food security, but also the economic vitality of our rural communities.”

    The commission will include The University of Arizona faculty and staff and will consult both internal and external experts and stakeholders. They will provide Robbins with a set of recommendations on concrete steps the university can take to help make Arizona a global leader in creating and applying transformational technologies and climate-resilient sustainable agricultural and food production practices, in partnership with the desert agriculture industry.

    The commission aims to:

    Summarize the threats of drought and climate change to Arizona’s agricultural production systems, with an emphasis on food and a robust agriculture economy.
    Conduct a comprehensive and constructive review of the expertise and resources that can be brought to bear on the problem.
    Provide recommended actions for The University of Arizona to address the issue and turn the threats into opportunities.
    Identify stakeholders who will support and grow these efforts on an ongoing basis.

    “With the mandates of our land-grant mission, and hundreds of expert researchers and a multitude of world-renowned programs that can be brought to bear to address this challenge, The University of Arizona is uniquely positioned to address this critical problem for Arizona’s agricultural production system and, by extension, for other arid regions around the world,” Robbins said. “I am very excited about this initiative and its potential.”

    Paul Brierley, executive director of The University of Arizona Yuma Center of Excellence for Desert Agriculture, will serve as commission chair.

    The efforts of the commission are expected to grow rapidly as it engages internal and external stakeholders in focus groups, discussions and workshops. This week, Robbins invited the following faculty and staff to join the commission:

    Joaquin Ruiz, vice president for Global Environmental Futures and director of Biosphere 2 [below]
    Parker Antin, associate vice president for research for the Division of Agriculture, Life and Veterinary Sciences, and Cooperative Extension
    Kim Patten, assistant vice president for Research Development
    Sharon Megdal, director of the Water Resources Research Center
    Sharon Collinge, director of the Arizona Institute for Resilient Environments and Societies
    Jim Buizer, senior strategy adviser to the senior vice president for Research, Innovation and Impact
    Laura Condon, associate professor in the Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences
    Luisa Ikner, assistant professor in the Department of Environmental Science

    “Drought, climate change and a burgeoning world population threaten the agricultural industry, food production and security and the livelihoods of many. Solutions we explore through this important commission will be applicable not only in Arizona, but in many other drying, increasingly arid and underserved regions around the world,” said Elizabeth “Betsy” Cantwell, senior vice president for research and innovation at The University of Arizona. “The resulting innovations will help people and our communities become resilient and learn to thrive in the face of climate change.”

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    As of 2019, The University of Arizona enrolled 45,918 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including The University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, and is affiliated with two academic medical centers (Banner – University Medical Center Tucson and Banner – University Medical Center Phoenix). The University of Arizona is one of three universities governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The university is part of the Association of American Universities and is the only member from Arizona, and also part of the Universities Research Association . The university is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”.

    Known as the Arizona Wildcats (often shortened to “Cats”), The University of Arizona’s intercollegiate athletic teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. The University of Arizona athletes have won national titles in several sports, most notably men’s basketball, baseball, and softball. The official colors of the university and its athletic teams are cardinal red and navy blue.

    After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew. The Arizona Territory’s “Thieving Thirteenth” Legislature approved The University of Arizona in 1885 and selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university. Tucson hoped to receive the appropriation for the territory’s mental hospital, which carried a $100,000 allocation instead of the $25,000 allotted to the territory’s only university. (Arizona State University was also chartered in 1885, but it was created as Arizona’s normal school, and not a university). Flooding on the Salt River delayed Tucson’s legislators, and by the time they reached Prescott, back-room deals allocating the most desirable territorial institutions had been made. Tucson was largely disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize.

    With no parties willing to provide land for the new institution, the citizens of Tucson prepared to return the money to the Territorial Legislature until two gamblers and a saloon keeper decided to donate the land to build the school. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27, 1887, and classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, which is still in use today. Because there were no high schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation.

    Research

    The University of Arizona is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. UArizona is the fourth most awarded public university by National Aeronautics and Space Administration for research. The University of Arizona was awarded over $325 million for its Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) to lead NASA’s 2007–08 mission to Mars to explore the Martian Arctic, and $800 million for its OSIRIS-REx mission, the first in U.S. history to sample an asteroid.

    National Aeronautics Space Agency OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft.

    The LPL’s work in the Cassini spacecraft orbit around Saturn is larger than any other university globally.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration/European Space Agency [La Agencia Espacial Europea][Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganization](EU)/ASI Italian Space Agency [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana](IT) Cassini Spacecraft.

    The University of Arizona laboratory designed and operated the atmospheric radiation investigations and imaging on the probe. The University of Arizona operates the HiRISE camera, a part of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    U Arizona NASA Mars Reconnaisance HiRISE Camera.

    NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    While using the HiRISE camera in 2011, University of Arizona alumnus Lujendra Ojha and his team discovered proof of liquid water on the surface of Mars—a discovery confirmed by NASA in 2015. The University of Arizona receives more NASA grants annually than the next nine top NASA/JPL-Caltech-funded universities combined. As of March 2016, The University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory is actively involved in ten spacecraft missions: Cassini VIMS; Grail; the HiRISE camera orbiting Mars; the Juno mission orbiting Jupiter; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Maven, which will explore Mars’ upper atmosphere and interactions with the sun; Solar Probe Plus, a historic mission into the Sun’s atmosphere for the first time; Rosetta’s VIRTIS; WISE; and OSIRIS-REx, the first U.S. sample-return mission to a near-earth asteroid, which launched on September 8, 2016.

    3
    NASA – GRAIL Flying in Formation (Artist’s Concept). Credit: NASA.
    National Aeronautics Space Agency Juno at Jupiter.

    NASA/Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    NASA/Mars MAVEN

    NASA Parker Solar Probe Plus named to honor Pioneering Physicist Eugene Parker. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab.
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Wise /NEOWISE Telescope.

    The University of Arizona students have been selected as Truman, Rhodes, Goldwater, and Fulbright Scholars. According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, UArizona is among the top 25 producers of Fulbright awards in the U.S.

    The University of Arizona is a member of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy , a consortium of institutions pursuing research in astronomy. The association operates observatories and telescopes, notably Kitt Peak National Observatory just outside Tucson.

    National Science Foundation NOIRLab National Optical Astronomy Observatory Kitt Peak National Observatory on Kitt Peak of the Quinlan Mountains in the Arizona-Sonoran Desert on the Tohono O’odham Nation, 88 kilometers (55 mi) west-southwest of Tucson, Arizona, Altitude 2,096 m (6,877 ft), annotated.

    Led by Roger Angel, researchers in the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab at The University of Arizona are working in concert to build the world’s most advanced telescope. Known as the Giant Magellan Telescope (CL), it will produce images 10 times sharper than those from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Telescope.

    GMT Giant Magellan Telescope(CL) 21 meters, to be at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s NOIRLab NOAO Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    GMT will ultimately cost $1 billion. Researchers from at least nine institutions are working to secure the funding for the project. The telescope will include seven 18-ton mirrors capable of providing clear images of volcanoes and riverbeds on Mars and mountains on the moon at a rate 40 times faster than the world’s current large telescopes. The mirrors of the Giant Magellan Telescope will be built at The University of Arizona and transported to a permanent mountaintop site in the Chilean Andes where the telescope will be constructed.

    Reaching Mars in March 2006, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter contained the HiRISE camera, with Principal Investigator Alfred McEwen as the lead on the project. This National Aeronautics and Space Agency mission to Mars carrying the UArizona-designed camera is capturing the highest-resolution images of the planet ever seen. The journey of the orbiter was 300 million miles. In August 2007, The University of Arizona, under the charge of Scientist Peter Smith, led the Phoenix Mars Mission, the first mission completely controlled by a university. Reaching the planet’s surface in May 2008, the mission’s purpose was to improve knowledge of the Martian Arctic. The Arizona Radio Observatory , a part of The University of Arizona Department of Astronomy Steward Observatory , operates the Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham.

    University of Arizona Radio Observatory at NOAO Kitt Peak National Observatory, AZ USA, U Arizona Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory at altitude 2,096 m (6,877 ft).

    The National Science Foundation funded the iPlant Collaborative in 2008 with a $50 million grant. In 2013, iPlant Collaborative received a $50 million renewal grant. Rebranded in late 2015 as “CyVerse”, the collaborative cloud-based data management platform is moving beyond life sciences to provide cloud-computing access across all scientific disciplines.

    In June 2011, the university announced it would assume full ownership of the Biosphere 2 scientific research facility in Oracle, Arizona, north of Tucson, effective July 1. Biosphere 2 was constructed by private developers (funded mainly by Texas businessman and philanthropist Ed Bass) with its first closed system experiment commencing in 1991. The university had been the official management partner of the facility for research purposes since 2007.

    U Arizona mirror lab-Where else in the world can you find an astronomical observatory mirror lab under a football stadium?

    University of Arizona’s Biosphere 2, located in the Sonoran desert. An entire ecosystem under a glass dome? Visit our campus, just once, and you’ll quickly understand why The University of Arizona is a university unlike any other.

    University of Arizona Landscape Evolution Observatory at Biosphere 2.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:49 am on December 13, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Surveilling carbon sequestration - A smart collar to sense leaks", , California Institute of Technology is making the glitter-sized CO2 sensors., , Carbon sequestration is an active approach to mitigating climate change., Carbon sequestration is the process of capturing CO2 — a greenhouse gas that traps heat in the Earth’s atmosphere., Climate Change, CO2 sensors, CO2 would typically be stored 3000 to 12000 feet below the surface in an area that once contained oil or gas or water., , , Embedding glitter-sized CO2 sensors-about an 1/8 of an inch by an 1/8 of an inch-in the concrete surrounding the borehole., , Making sure that the CO2 remains underground long term, Sandia will be monitoring CO2 wirelessly., Sandia’s role is to make an electronic device charging the CO2 sensors and receiving information about the presence or absence of CO2 and sending that information up to operators at the surface., The communication with the CO2 sensors works like the radio-frequency identification chip in a tap-to-pay credit card. There is no power or battery., , The goal is to demonstrate the whole system — Caltech’s chips and Sandia’s smart collar — first at Sandia’s above-ground testing facility and then at UT Austin’s underground test facility., The Sandia team designed the prototype to use supercapacitors to store power rather than batteries that only last for a couple of years., The smart collar needs to work for 20 to 40 years., The University of Texas-Austin plans to embed glitter-sized CO2 sensors in the concrete surrounding the borehole., There is way too much CO2 in the atmosphere right now and it’s only getting worse.   

    From The DOE’s Sandia National Laboratories: “Surveilling carbon sequestration – A smart collar to sense leaks” 

    From The DOE’s Sandia National Laboratories

    12.13.22
    Mollie Rappe
    mrappe@sandia.gov
    505-228-6123

    1
    A smart collar to catch carbon dioxide leaks” Sandia, 12.8.22

    Sandia National Laboratories engineers are working on a device that would help ensure captured carbon dioxide stays deep underground — a critical component of carbon sequestration as part of a climate solution.

    Carbon sequestration is the process of capturing CO2 — a greenhouse gas that traps heat in the Earth’s atmosphere — from the air or where it is produced and storing it underground. However, there are some technical challenges with carbon sequestration, including making sure that the CO2 remains underground long term. Sandia’s wireless device pairs with tiny sensors to monitor for CO2 leaks and tell above-ground operators if one happens — and it lasts for decades.

    “The world is trying a whole lot of different ways to reduce the production of CO2 to mitigate climate change,” said Andrew Wright, Sandia electrical engineer and project lead. “A complementary approach is to reduce the high levels of CO2 in the atmosphere by collecting a good chunk of it and storing it deep underground. The technology we’re developing with the University of Texas at Austin aims to determine whether the CO2 stays down there. What is special about this technology is that we’ll be monitoring it wirelessly and thus won’t create another potential path for leakage like a wire or fiber.”

    Storing and sensing CO2

    In carbon sequestration, CO2 would typically be stored 3,000 to 12,000 feet below the surface in an area that once contained oil, gas or water, Wright said. A hole would be bored down through an impermeable layer of rock called cap rock that can prevent CO2 from percolating up toward the surface. Pressurized CO2 heated to around 175 degrees Fahrenheit would be pumped down this borehole. In some cases, it will be heated up to prevent it from freezing when it expands into the area, Wright said. Once the storage area is full, the borehole would be plugged, and in some cases, the trapped CO2 would react with the rock and bind permanently.

    The team, led by geoscientist David Chapman at The University of Texas-Austin , plans to embed glitter-sized CO2 sensors, about an 1/8 of an inch by an 1/8 of an inch, in the concrete surrounding the borehole, above and below the cap rock layer. Electrical engineer Axel Scherer at the California Institute of Technology is leading the group making the glitter-sized CO2 sensors. Chemist Jeff Mecham at the Research Triangle Institute is leading the group making a coating to protect the sensors from the harsh environment of concrete, while still allowing CO2 to reach the sensors.

    Sandia’s role is to make an electronic device that charges the CO2 sensors, receives information from them about the presence or absence of CO2 and sends that information up to operators at the surface. This device, called a smart collar, needs to work for 20 to 40 years, Wright said.

    Making a smart collar

    The communication with the CO2 sensors works like the radio-frequency identification chip in a tap-to-pay credit card, Wright said. The smart collar emits energy at one radio frequency to power the CO2 sensors. The sensors collect data on the amount of CO2 around them and send that information to the smart collar at a different radio frequency.

    “There’s no power or battery in your credit card,” Wright said. “Instead, when you tap it onto the reader at the supermarket, the reader energizes the chip. The chip relays some information to the reader, and that’s what allows you to buy your groceries.”

    One of the biggest technical challenges the team had to overcome was the fact that RFID chips aren’t designed to be embedded in concrete, said Alfred Cochrane, another Sandia electrical engineer on the project.

    In order to power the sensors through concrete, the team needs to “shine” very intense radio waves of a certain frequency at the sensors. However, much of these radio waves reflect off the concrete, drowning out any information from the sensors at that frequency, Cochrane said. He suggested they try to power the sensors with one frequency and then use far less intense radio waves of a different frequency to query the sensors and receive information back from them. This worked well in their tests, he added.

    Recently, the Sandia team successfully showed the smart collar prototype powering and communicating with off-the-shelf RFID chips embedded in an inch of cement, a major component of concrete. For the smart collar to last for decades, the team designed the prototype to use supercapacitors to store power rather than batteries that only last for a couple of years. Next, the team will test the smart collar prototype with Caltech’s CO2 sensing chips.

    The Sandia team has also tested powering and communicating with their smart collar prototype through 160 feet of commercially available wired pipe. This pipe has coaxial cable, very similar to that used in cable TV, embedded within it, so that the system won’t need any other wires or cables that could introduce new escape routes for the CO2, Cochrane said.

    Later next year, the goal is to demonstrate the whole system — Caltech’s chips and Sandia’s smart collar — first at Sandia’s above-ground testing facility and then at UT Austin’s underground test facility. UT Austin geoscientist Mohsen Ahmadian is the lead for the underground testing part of the project.

    While the focus of this project is on carbon sequestration, the technology could also be used to monitor storage areas for natural gas or even hydrogen, Wright said.

    “There’s way too much CO2 in the atmosphere right now and it’s only getting worse,” Cochrane said. “Along with all the other technologies like renewable energy, carbon sequestration is an active approach to mitigating climate change. If you capture carbon from a coal-fired power plant or a cement plant and store it indefinitely, you could make those processes carbon neutral or even allow us to go carbon negative and remove more CO2 than we emit.”

    The project is funded by the Department of Energy and managed by the Office of Fossil Energy and Carbon Management and the National Energy Technology Laboratory.

    See the full article here .

    Comments are invited and will be appreciated, especially if the reader finds any errors which I can correct. Use “Reply”.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Sandia National Laboratories managed and operated by the National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International), is one of three National Nuclear Security Administration research and development laboratories in the United States. Their primary mission is to develop, engineer, and test the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons and high technology. Headquartered in Central New Mexico near the Sandia Mountains, on Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, Sandia also has a campus in Livermore, California, next to DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and a test facility in Waimea, Kauai, Hawaii.

    It is Sandia’s mission to maintain the reliability and surety of nuclear weapon systems, conduct research and development in arms control and nonproliferation technologies, and investigate methods for the disposal of the United States’ nuclear weapons program’s hazardous waste.

    Other missions include research and development in energy and environmental programs, as well as the surety of critical national infrastructures. In addition, Sandia is home to a wide variety of research including computational biology; mathematics (through its Computer Science Research Institute); materials science; alternative energy; psychology; MEMS; and cognitive science initiatives.

    Sandia formerly hosted ASCI Red, one of the world’s fastest supercomputers until its recent decommission, and now hosts ASCI Red Storm supercomputer, originally known as Thor’s Hammer.

    Sandia is also home to the Z Machine.


    The Z Machine is the largest X-ray generator in the world and is designed to test materials in conditions of extreme temperature and pressure. It is operated by Sandia National Laboratories to gather data to aid in computer modeling of nuclear guns. In December 2016, it was announced that National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, under the direction of Honeywell International, would take over the management of Sandia National Laboratories starting on May 1, 2017.


     
  • richardmitnick 8:50 am on November 17, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Tiniest Ever Ancient Seawater Pockets Revealed", Ancient seawater pockets offer a new source of clues that could help us better understand how oceans are affected by climate change., , , , Climate Change, , , Findings could open up a whole new chapter in climate science and help identify subsurface locations to safely store hydrogen for carbon-free energy., , , Pyrite crystals in the form of a framboid, Scientists use rock samples as evidence to piece together how the climate has changed over the long span of geologic time., Seawater chemistry, Seawater sealed in what is now North America for 390 million years, The climate changed and along with that change most of the creatures and the sea itself disappeared leaving behind only fossil remains embedded in sediments that eventually became the pyrite rock., , Trapped for millennia the tiniest liquid remnants of an ancient inland sea have now been revealed.   

    From The DOE’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: “Tiniest Ever Ancient Seawater Pockets Revealed” 

    From The DOE’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    11.17.22
    Karyn Hede

    1
    Pyrite crystals in the form of a framboid—derived from the French word for raspberry—because people think they look like raspberries under the microscope. Ancient seawater pockets trapped in an iron pyrite framboid, shown here, offer a new source of clues to climate change in vanished oceans and our own. (Photo courtesy of Daniel Gregory | University of Toronto; color added by Cortland Johnson | Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    Findings could open up a whole new chapter in climate science and help identify subsurface locations to safely store hydrogen for carbon-free energy.

    Trapped for millennia, the tiniest liquid remnants of an ancient inland sea have now been revealed. The surprising discovery of seawater sealed in what is now North America for 390 million years opens up a new avenue for understanding how oceans change and adapt with the changing climate. The method may also be useful in understanding how hydrogen can be safely stored underground and transported for use as a carbon-free fuel source.

    “We discovered we can actually dig out information from these mineral features that could help inform geologic studies, such as the seawater chemistry from ancient times,” said Sandra Taylor, first author of the study and a scientist at the Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

    Taylor worked with PNNL colleagues Daniel Perea, John Cliff, and Libor Kovarik to perform the analyses in collaboration with geochemists Daniel Gregory of the University of Toronto and Timothy Lyons of the University of California, Riverside. The research team reported their discovery in the December 2022 issue of Earth and Planetary Science Letters [below].


    What can ancient seawater teach us about climate change?
    Ancient seawater pockets offer a new source of clues that could help us better understand how oceans are affected by climate change. A collaborative research team discovered nanoscale seawater pockets hidden in iron pyrite from upstate New York. This technique could open up a whole new chapter in climate science and potentially help identify subsurface locations to safely store hydrogen for carbon-free energy.

    Ancient seas; modern tools

    Many types of minerals and gems contain small pockets of trapped liquid. Indeed, some gemstones are prized for their light-catching bubbles of liquid trapped within. What’s different in this study is that scientists were able to reveal what was inside the tiniest water pockets, using advanced microscopy and chemical analyses.

    The findings of the study confirmed that the water trapped inside the rock fit the chemistry profile of the ancient inland saltwater sea that once occupied upstate New York, where the rock originated. During the Middle Devonian period, this inland sea stretched from present day Michigan to Ontario, Canada. It harbored a coral reef to rival Australia’s Great Barrier Reef. Sea scorpions the size of a pickup truck patrolled waters that harbored now-extinct creatures like trilobites, and the earliest examples of horseshoe crabs.

    2
    Giant sea scorpions once roamed the ancient Devonian sea 400 million years ago. Now, researchers are learning more about that world. (Image by Aunt Spray | Shutterstock.com)

    But eventually the climate changed, and along with that change, most of the creatures and the sea itself disappeared, leaving behind only fossil remains embedded in sediments that eventually became the pyrite rock sample used in the current experiment.

    Clues to an ancient climate and to climate change

    Scientists use rock samples as evidence to piece together how the climate has changed over the long span of geologic time.

    “We use mineral deposits to estimate the temperature of the ancient oceans,” said Gregory, a geologist at the University of Toronto, and one of the study leaders. But there are relatively few useful examples in the geological record.

    “Salt deposits from trapped seawater [halite] are relatively rare in the rock record, so there are millions of years missing in the records and what we currently know is based on a few localities where there is halite found,” Gregory said. By contrast, pyrite is found everywhere. “Sampling with this technique could open up millions of years of the geologic record and lead to new understanding of changing climate.”

    Seawater surprise

    The research team was trying to understand another environmental issue—toxic arsenic leaching from rock—when they noticed the tiny defects. Scientists describe the appearance of these particular pyrite minerals as framboids—derived from the French word for raspberry—because they look like clusters of raspberry segments under the microscope.

    “We looked at these samples through the electron microscope first, and we saw these kind of mini bubbles or mini features within the framboid and wondered what they were,” Taylor said.

    Using the precise and sensitive detection techniques of atom probe tomography and mass spectrometry—which can detect minuscule amounts of elements or impurities in minerals—the team worked out that the bubbles indeed contained water and their salt chemistry matched that of ancient seas.

    From ancient sea to modern energy storage

    These types of studies also have the potential to provide interesting insights into how to safely store hydrogen or other gases underground.

    4
    Sandra Taylor, a PNNL chemist, loads a sample into an atom probe tomography instrument. (Photo by Eric Francavilla | Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    “Hydrogen is being explored as a low-carbon fuel source for various energy applications. This requires being able to safely retrieve and store large-amounts of hydrogen in underground geologic reservoirs. So it’s important to understand how hydrogen interacts with rocks,” said Taylor. “Atom probe tomography is one of the few techniques where you can not only measure atoms of hydrogen, but you can actually see where it goes in the mineral. This study suggests that tiny defects in minerals might be potential traps for hydrogen. So by using this technique we could figure out what’s going on at the atomic level, which would then help in evaluating and optimizing strategies for hydrogen storage in the subsurface.”

    This research was conducted at EMSL, the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a DOE Office of Science user facility at PNNL. Lyons and Gregory applied to use the facility through a competitive application process. The research was also supported by a grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

    Science paper:
    Earth and Planetary Science Letters

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The DOE’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is one of the United States Department of Energy National Laboratories, managed by the Department of Energy’s Office of Science. The main campus of the laboratory is in Richland, Washington.

    PNNL scientists conduct basic and applied research and development to strengthen U.S. scientific foundations for fundamental research and innovation; prevent and counter acts of terrorism through applied research in information analysis, cyber security, and the nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction; increase the U.S. energy capacity and reduce dependence on imported oil; and reduce the effects of human activity on the environment. PNNL has been operated by Battelle Memorial Institute since 1965.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:51 pm on November 15, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Report says forests could absorb nearly all New England’s carbon", 1. changing development practices to reduce annual rates of forest destruction, 2. designating at least 10 percent of existing forests as forever wild, 3. improving forest management, 4. replacing concrete and steel with mass timber materials in half of all new institutional buildings and multifamily homes, 5. taking actions on urban and suburban forests to increase tree canopy and forest cover in cities and suburbs, , , , Climate Change, Each of these pathways offers a way to pull more carbon out of the atmosphere., , New report shows forests have a big role to play in climate change fight., , While technological approaches exist to reduce carbon in the atmosphere none of them rival forests.   

    From “The Harvard Gazette” : “Report says forests could absorb nearly all New England’s carbon” 

    From “The Harvard Gazette”

    At

    Harvard University

    11.14.22
    Juan Siliezar

    New report shows forests have a big role to play in climate change fight.

    1
    Harvard Forest was included in a study that looks at how New England forests can be better utilized in the fight against climate change. Credit: Stephanie Mitchell/Harvard Staff Photographer.

    Study, led by Harvard ecologist, lays out five strategies to boost levels of absorption as region lowers emissions.

    A major new report suggests that with a handful of strategies New England’s 32 million acres of forests, which cover about three-quarters of the region, could eventually come close to absorbing 100 percent of all the carbon produced by the six states.

    The report, New England’s Climate Imperative, commissioned by the conservation nonprofit the Highstead Foundation and led by a Harvard ecologist, looks at how forests in the region can be better utilized in the fight against climate change.

    “Most people have learned that forest or trees in one way or another can be a help to climate, but beyond that there isn’t a lot of clarity about how significant a role they could play or what their role is,” said Jonathan Thompson, a senior ecologist at Harvard Forest who helped lead the research team. “It’s why we felt that there was a need, despite all the many climate reports that come out, for a specific estimate on this role forests could play, especially if you take different activities that are defined by state governments themselves and NGOs.”

    According to the report, the region’s forested areas already annually absorb almost 27 million tons of carbon through photosynthesis, the process by which plants synthesize food and release oxygen as a byproduct. The report lays out five steps policymakers and conservation NGOs can pursue that can lead to forests absorbing almost 360 million additional tons of carbon dioxide over 30 years. That means New England’s forests will be able to absorb virtually all the carbon produced in the region, provided the six states hit their existing emission-reduction goals.

    Thompson and collaborators from nine institutions — including the New England Forestry Foundation and the Northeast Wilderness Trust — created their recommendations after interviewing dozens of local lawmakers and conservationists on steps they hope to take or have already started taking to use trees and forests in the region to reduce carbon.

    The five strategies include:1. changing development practices to reduce annual rates of forest destruction; 2. designating at least 10 percent of existing forests as forever wild allowing more trees to grow old and accumulate and store more carbon; 3. improving forest management; 4. replacing concrete and steel with mass timber materials in half of all new institutional buildings and multifamily homes; 5. taking actions on urban and suburban forests to increase tree canopy and forest cover in cities and suburbs.

    The researchers ran the metrics on how each would contribute to reducing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere at different tiers of implementation. In the report, they break it down by state and then calculate them together.

    “Each of these pathways offers a way to pull more carbon out of the atmosphere,” Thompson said. “We think of these pathways very much as all-of-the above-type solutions. There are a lot of forests in New England, and there is a role for multiple different strategies to meet climate goals.”

    For example, if even moderately implemented, the strategies would boost the amount of carbon New England forests absorb each year from the equivalent of 14 percent of 2020-level fossil fuel emissions to 20 percent. That increase would eventually jump to 97 percent by 2050 if all individual emission reduction scenarios are met by the states.

    The researchers admit that some of their recommendations may seem contradictory, such as promoting policies that avoid deforestation and creating more wildland while also promoting an increase in construction using timber. But studies and metrics have shown that the numbers make it worthwhile.

    Timber building materials, for instance, are much less carbon-intensive than steel or concrete. They also store carbon through the life of the building. The researchers calculate that if half of six- to 12-story buildings used wooden frames, an additional 15 million U.S. tons of carbon could be stored.

    The report, which took two years to compile, seeks to inform legislators and policymakers throughout New England as they pursue state-level climate goals.

    With Earth perilously close to eclipsing the 1.5-degree Celsius increase in average annual temperatures that climate scientists say will cause irreparable harm to society and nature, the researchers note that while technological approaches exist to reduce carbon in the atmosphere, none of them rival forests. They hope lawmakers will take heed and take action.

    “In New England, nature is a major ally in our effort to address the global crises of climate, biodiversity, and human health,” said David Foster, a co-author of the report, Highstead Foundation board member, and director emeritus of Harvard Forest. “If we can conserve forest infrastructure and embrace the pathways outlined in our report, we can increase forest carbon sequestration and help all six states achieve their emissions targets.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Harvard University campus

    Harvard University is the oldest institution of higher education in the United States, established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was named after the College’s first benefactor, the young minister John Harvard of Charlestown, who upon his death in 1638 left his library and half his estate to the institution. A statue of John Harvard stands today in front of University Hall in Harvard Yard, and is perhaps the University’s bestknown landmark.

    Harvard University has 12 degree-granting Schools in addition to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. The University has grown from nine students with a single master to an enrollment of more than 20,000 degree candidates including undergraduate, graduate, and professional students. There are more than 360,000 living alumni in the U.S. and over 190 other countries.

    The Massachusetts colonial legislature, the General Court, authorized Harvard University (US)’s founding. In its early years, Harvard College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, although it has never been formally affiliated with any denomination. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard University (US) had emerged as the central cultural establishment among the Boston elite. Following the American Civil War, President Charles William Eliot’s long tenure (1869–1909) transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university; Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900. James B. Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II; he liberalized admissions after the war.

    The university is composed of ten academic faculties plus the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. Arts and Sciences offers study in a wide range of academic disciplines for undergraduates and for graduates, while the other faculties offer only graduate degrees, mostly professional. Harvard has three main campuses: the 209-acre (85 ha) Cambridge campus centered on Harvard Yard; an adjoining campus immediately across the Charles River in the Allston neighborhood of Boston; and the medical campus in Boston’s Longwood Medical Area. Harvard University’s endowment is valued at $41.9 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Endowment income helps enable the undergraduate college to admit students regardless of financial need and provide generous financial aid with no loans The Harvard Library is the world’s largest academic library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items.

    Harvard University has more alumni, faculty, and researchers who have won Nobel Prizes (161) and Fields Medals (18) than any other university in the world and more alumni who have been members of the U.S. Congress, MacArthur Fellows, Rhodes Scholars (375), and Marshall Scholars (255) than any other university in the United States. Its alumni also include eight U.S. presidents and 188 living billionaires, the most of any university. Fourteen Turing Award laureates have been Harvard affiliates. Students and alumni have also won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, and 108 Olympic medals (46 gold), and they have founded many notable companies.

    Colonial

    Harvard University was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America’s first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge(UK) who had left the school £779 and his library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650.

    A 1643 publication gave the school’s purpose as “to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust.” It trained many Puritan ministers in its early years and offered a classic curriculum based on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. Harvard University has never affiliated with any particular denomination, though many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches.

    Increase Mather served as president from 1681 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not also a clergyman, marking a turning of the college away from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence.

    19th century

    In the 19th century, Enlightenment ideas of reason and free will were widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties. When Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and President Joseph Willard died a year later, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the Hollis chair in 1805, and the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency two years later, signaling the shift from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.

    Charles William Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the favored position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. Though Eliot was the crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education but by Transcendentalist Unitarian convictions influenced by William Ellery Channing and Ralph Waldo Emerson.

    20th century

    In the 20th century, Harvard University’s reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the university’s scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new graduate schools were begun and the undergraduate college expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as the female counterpart of Harvard College, became one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States. Harvard University became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.

    The student body in the early decades of the century was predominantly “old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians.” A 1923 proposal by President A. Lawrence Lowell that Jews be limited to 15% of undergraduates was rejected, but Lowell did ban blacks from freshman dormitories.

    President James B. Conant reinvigorated creative scholarship to guarantee Harvard University (US)’s preeminence among research institutions. He saw higher education as a vehicle of opportunity for the talented rather than an entitlement for the wealthy, so Conant devised programs to identify, recruit, and support talented youth. In 1943, he asked the faculty to make a definitive statement about what general education ought to be, at the secondary as well as at the college level. The resulting Report, published in 1945, was one of the most influential manifestos in 20th century American education.

    Between 1945 and 1960, admissions were opened up to bring in a more diverse group of students. No longer drawing mostly from select New England prep schools, the undergraduate college became accessible to striving middle class students from public schools; many more Jews and Catholics were admitted, but few blacks, Hispanics, or Asians. Throughout the rest of the 20th century, Harvard became more diverse.

    Harvard University’s graduate schools began admitting women in small numbers in the late 19th century. During World War II, students at Radcliffe College (which since 1879 had been paying Harvard University professors to repeat their lectures for women) began attending Harvard University classes alongside men. Women were first admitted to the medical school in 1945. Since 1971, Harvard University has controlled essentially all aspects of undergraduate admission, instruction, and housing for Radcliffe women. In 1999, Radcliffe was formally merged into Harvard University.

    21st century

    Drew Gilpin Faust, previously the dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, became Harvard University’s first woman president on July 1, 2007. She was succeeded by Lawrence Bacow on July 1, 2018.

     
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