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  • richardmitnick 3:13 pm on July 16, 2015 Permalink | Reply
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    From ESO: “Paranal Observatory First Choice to Host World’s Largest Array of Gamma-ray Telescopes” 


    European Southern Observatory

    16 July 2015
    Richard Hook
    ESO Public Information Officer
    Garching bei München, Germany
    Tel: +49 89 3200 6655
    Cell: +49 151 1537 3591
    Email: rhook@eso.org

    Temp 0

    On 15 and 16 July 2015, the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Resource Board decided to enter into detailed contract negotiations for hosting the CTA’s southern hemisphere array within the grounds of the Paranal Observatory, one of ESO’s sites in Chile. Similar negotiations for a northern site on La Palma are also starting.

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    CTA Array

    The CTA project is an initiative to build the next generation of ground-based instruments designed for the detection of very high energy gamma-rays. Gamma rays are emitted by the hottest and most powerful objects in the Universe — such as supermassive black holes, supernovae and possibly remnants of the Big Bang. The array will provide valuable deeper insights into the high-energy Universe.

    Although gamma rays don’t make it to the Earth’s surface, the CTA’s mirrors and high-speed cameras will capture short-lived flashes of the characteristic eerie blue Cherenkov radiation that is produced when the gamma rays interact with the Earth’s atmosphere. Pinpointing the source of this radiation will allow each gamma ray to be traced back to its cosmic source.

    The CTA Resource Board is composed of representatives of ministries and funding agencies from Austria, Brazil, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Namibia, the Netherlands, Japan, Poland, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland and the and the United Kingdom. After months of negotiations and careful consideration of extensive studies of the environmental conditions, simulations of the science performance and assessments of construction and operation costs the Board has decided to start contract negotiations with ESO. The Namibian and Mexican sites will be kept as viable alternatives.

    In order for the CTA to maximise its coverage of the night sky, the array will consist of about 100 telescopes on the Chile site in the southern hemisphere and about 20 telescopes at the northern site.

    The Chile site for the CTA is less than ten kilometres southeast of the location of the Very Large Telescope, within the grounds of ESO’s Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert. This is considered one of the driest and most isolated regions on Earth — an astronomical paradise. In addition to the ideal conditions for year-round observation, installing the CTA at the Paranal Observatory offers the CTA the opportunity to take advantage of the existing infrastructure (roads, accommodation, water, electricity, etc.) and access to established facilities and processes for the construction and operation of the telescope array.

    Currently in its pre-construction phase, determination of the array sites is a critical factor in the CTA construction project.

    More Information

    The CTA aims to build the world’s largest and most sensitive high-energy gamma-ray telescope array. Over 1000 scientists and engineers from five continents, 31 countries (Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Namibia, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and Ukraine) and over 170 research institutes participate in the CTA project. The CTA will serve as an open facility to a wide astrophysics community and provide a deep insight into the non-thermal, high-energy Universe. The CTA will detect high-energy radiation with unprecedented accuracy and approximately ten times the sensitivity of current instruments, providing novel insights into some of the most extreme and violent events in the Universe.

    See the full article here.

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    ESO is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It is supported by 16 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world’s most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and two survey telescopes. VISTA works in the infrared and is the world’s largest survey telescope and the VLT Survey Telescope is the largest telescope designed to exclusively survey the skies in visible light. ESO is a major partner in ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. And on Cerro Armazones, close to Paranal, ESO is building the 39-metre European Extremely Large Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become “the world’s biggest eye on the sky”.

    ESO LaSilla
    LaSilla

    ESO VLT Interferometer
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    VLT Survey Telescope

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  • richardmitnick 8:30 am on March 27, 2015 Permalink | Reply
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    From DESY: “Negotiations for CTA northern site to start” 

    DESY
    DESY

    2015/03/26
    No Writer Credit

    Cherenkov Telescope Array
    Proposed Cherenkov Telescope Array for hunting Gamma Rays

    On 26 March 2015, the partner countries of Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) have decided to start negotiations for the location of the telescope array in the northern hemisphere. At a meeting in Heidelberg representatives of ministries and funding agencies have decided to begin negotiations with Spain for a possible location on La Palma and Mexico for one in San Pedro Mártir. Another candidate site in Arizona (USA) is considered as a possible back-up site.

    “I appreciate that we have successfully chosen the northern candidate sites with whom we would like to start negotiations as soon as possible,” said Beatrix Vierkorn-Rudolph from the German Federal Ministry of Research and Education, chair of the CTA Resource Board, after the decision of the voting members representing Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Poland, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland and the UK. After negotiations, the Board will select the final site in November 2015. In regards to the southern hemisphere site, negotiations with the candidates Namibia and Chile are progressing and are expected to end in August 2015. Christian Stegmann from DESY added: “I’m very much looking forward to the final site decisions later this year; scientists worldwide are eager to see CTA advancing towards implementation.”

    Currently in its pre-construction phase, determining the northern and southern hemisphere sites will be a critical step towards the realization of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. “I’m looking forward to converging on final designs for the telescope arrays now that negotiations will start with specific locations in mind,” said Christopher Townsley, CTA project manager. Following the site selection, the project will move forward with construction of the first telescopes on site planned for 2016.

    See the full article here.

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    DESY is one of the world’s leading accelerator centres. Researchers use the large-scale facilities at DESY to explore the microcosm in all its variety – from the interactions of tiny elementary particles and the behaviour of new types of nanomaterials to biomolecular processes that are essential to life. The accelerators and detectors that DESY develops and builds are unique research tools. The facilities generate the world’s most intense X-ray light, accelerate particles to record energies and open completely new windows onto the universe. 
That makes DESY not only a magnet for more than 3000 guest researchers from over 40 countries every year, but also a coveted partner for national and international cooperations. Committed young researchers find an exciting interdisciplinary setting at DESY. The research centre offers specialized training for a large number of professions. DESY cooperates with industry and business to promote new technologies that will benefit society and encourage innovations. This also benefits the metropolitan regions of the two DESY locations, Hamburg and Zeuthen near Berlin.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:45 pm on January 23, 2015 Permalink | Reply
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    From phys.org: “Three extremely luminous gamma-ray sources discovered in Milky Way’s satellite galaxy” 

    physdotorg
    phys.org

    Jan 23, 2015
    Thomas Zoufal

    1
    Optical image of the Milky Way and a multi-wavelength (optical, Hα) zoom into the Large Magellanic Cloud with superimposed H.E.S.S. sky maps. Credit: Milky Way image: © H.E.S.S. Collaboration, optical: SkyView, A. Mellinger

    Once again, the High Energy Stereoscopic System, H.E.S.S., has demonstrated its excellent capabilities. In the Large Magellanic Cloud, it discovered most luminous very high-energy gamma-ray sources: three objects of different type, namely the most powerful pulsar wind nebula, the most powerful supernova remnant, and a shell of 270 light years in diameter blown by multiple stars, and supernovae – a so-called superbubble.

    High Energy Stereoscopic System
    H.E.S.S.

    lmc
    The Large Magellanic Cloud

    This is the first time that stellar-type gamma-ray sources are detected in an external galaxy, at these gamma-ray energies. The superbubble represents a new source class in very high-energy gamma rays.

    Very high-energy gamma rays are the best tracers of cosmic accelerators such as supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae – end-products of massive stars. There, charged particles are accelerated to extreme velocities. When these particles encounter light or gas in and around the cosmic accelerators, they emit gamma rays. Very high-energy gamma rays can be measured on Earth by observing the Cherenkov light emitted from the particle showers produced by incident gamma rays high up in the atmosphere using large telescopes with fast cameras.

    The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is a dwarf satellite galaxy of our Milky Way, located about 170.000 light years away and showing us its face. New, massive stars are formed at a high rate in the LMC, and it harbors numerous massive stellar clusters. The LMC’s supernova rate relative to its stellar mass is five times that of our Galaxy. The youngest supernova remnant in the local group of galaxies, SN 1987A, is also a member of the LMC. Therefore, the H.E.S.S. scientists dedicated significant observation to searching for very high-energy gamma rays from this cosmic object.

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    Local Group

    3
    SN1987a before and after by David Malin Anglo-Australian Telescope

    For a total of 210 hours, the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) has observed the largest star-forming region within the LMC called Tarantula Nebula. For the first time in a galaxy outside the Milky Way, individual sources of very high-energy gamma rays could be resolved: three extremely energetic objects of different type.

    t
    This first light image of the TRAPPIST national telescope at La Silla shows the Tarantula Nebula, located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) — one of the galaxies closest to us. Also known as 30 Doradus or NGC 2070, the nebula owes its name to the arrangement of bright patches that somewhat resembles the legs of a tarantula. Taking the name of one of the biggest spiders on Earth is very fitting in view of the gigantic proportions of this celestial nebula — it measures nearly 1000 light-years across! Its proximity, the favourable inclination of the LMC, and the absence of intervening dust make this nebula one of the best laboratories to help understand the formation of massive stars better. The image was made from data obtained through three filters (B, V and R) and the field of view is about 20 arcminutes across.

    The so-called superbubble 30 Dor C is the largest known X-ray-emitting shell and appears to have been created by several supernovae and strong stellar winds. Superbubbles are broadly discussed as (complementary or alternative to individual supernova remnants) factories where the galactic cosmic rays are produced. The H.E.S.S. results demonstrate that the bubble is a source of, and filled by, highly energetic particles. The superbubble represents a new class of sources in the very high-energy regime.

    Pulsars are highly magnetized, fast rotating neutron stars that emit a wind of ultra-relativistic particles forming a nebula. The most famous one is the Crab Nebula, one of the brightest sources in the high-energy gamma-ray sky.

    c
    This is a mosaic image, one of the largest ever taken by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope of the Crab Nebula, a six-light-year-wide expanding remnant of a star’s supernova explosion. Japanese and Chinese astronomers recorded this violent event nearly 1,000 years ago in 1054, as did, almost certainly, Native Americans.

    NASA Hubble Telescope
    NASA/ESA Hubble

    The orange filaments are the tattered remains of the star and consist mostly of hydrogen. The rapidly spinning neutron star embedded in the center of the nebula is the dynamo powering the nebula’s eerie interior bluish glow. The blue light comes from electrons whirling at nearly the speed of light around magnetic field lines from the neutron star. The neutron star, like a lighthouse, ejects twin beams of radiation that appear to pulse 30 times a second due to the neutron star’s rotation. A neutron star is the crushed ultra-dense core of the exploded star.

    The Crab Nebula derived its name from its appearance in a drawing made by Irish astronomer Lord William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse in 1844, using a 36-inch telescope. When viewed by Hubble, as well as by large ground-based telescopes such as the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope, the Crab Nebula takes on a more detailed appearance that yields clues into the spectacular demise of a star, 6,500 light-years away.

    ESO VLT Interferometer
    ESO/ VLT

    The newly composed image was assembled from 24 individual Wide Field and Planetary Camera 23 exposures taken in October 1999, January 2000, and December 2000. The colors in the image indicate the different elements that were expelled during the explosion. Blue in the filaments in the outer part of the nebula represents neutral oxygen, green is singly-ionized sulfur, and red indicates doubly-ionized oxygen.

    NASA Hubble WFPC2
    WFPC2 (no longer in service)

    The pulsar PSR J0537−6910 driving the wind nebula N 157B discovered by the H.E.S.S. telescopes in the LMC is in many respects a twin of the very powerful Crab pulsar in our own Galaxy. However, its pulsar wind nebula N 157B outshines the Crab Nebula by an order of magnitude, in very high-energy gamma rays. Reasons are the lower magnetic field in N 157B and the intense starlight from neighboring star-forming regions, which both promote the generation of high-energy gamma rays.

    The supernova remnant N 132D, known as a bright object in the radio and infrared bands, appears to be one of the oldest – and strongest – supernova remnants still glowing in very high-energy gamma rays. Between 2500 and 6000 years old – an age where models predict that the supernova explosion front has slowed down and it ought no longer be efficiently accelerating particles – it still outshines the strongest supernova remnants in our Galaxy. The observations confirm suspicions raised by other H.E.S.S. observations, that supernova remnants can be much more luminous than thought before.

    Observed at the limits of detectability, and partially overlapping with each other, these new sources challenged the H.E.S.S. scientists. The discoveries were only possible due to the development of advanced methods of interpreting the Cherenkov images captured by the telescopes, improving in particular the precision with which gamma-ray directions can be determined.

    “Both the pulsar wind nebula and the supernova remnant, detected in the Large Magellanic Cloud by H.E.S.S., are more energetic than their most powerful relatives in the Milky Way. Obviously, the high star formation rate of the LMC causes it to breed very extreme objects”, summarizes Chia Chun Lu, a student who analyzed the LMC data as her thesis project. “Surprisingly, however, the young supernova remnant SN 1987A did not show up, in contrast to theoretical predictions. But we’ll continue the search for it,” adds her advisor Werner Hofmann, director at the MPI for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg and for many years H.E.S.S. spokesperson.

    Indeed, the new H.E.S.S. II 28 m telescope will boost performance of the H.E.S.S. telescope system, and in the more distant future the planned Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will provide even deeper and higher-resolution gamma-ray images of the LMC – in the plans for science with CTA, the satellite galaxy is already identified as a “Key Science Project” deserving special attention.

    Cherenkov Telescope Array
    CTA

    The H.E.S.S. Telescopes

    The collaboration: The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) team consists of scientists from Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Namibia, South Africa, Ireland, Armenia, Poland, Australia, Austria, the Netherlands and Sweden, supported by their respective funding agencies and institutions.

    The instrument: The results were obtained using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) telescopes in Namibia, in South-West Africa. This system of four 13 m diameter telescopes – recently complemented with the huge 28 m H.E.S.S. II telescope – is one of the most sensitive detectors of very high-energy gamma rays. These are absorbed in the atmosphere, where they create a short-lived shower of particles. The H.E.S.S. telescopes detect the faint, short flashes of bluish light which these particles emit (named Cherenkov light, lasting a few billionths of a second), collecting the light with big mirrors which reflect onto extremely sensitive cameras. Each image gives the position on the sky of a single gamma-ray photon, and the amount of light collected gives the energy of the initial gamma ray. Building up the images photon by photon allows H.E.S.S. to create maps of astronomical objects as they appear in gamma rays.

    The H.E.S.S. telescopes have been operating since late 2002; in September 2012 H.E.S.S. celebrated the first decade of operation, by which time the telescopes had recorded 9415 hours of observations, and detected 6361 million air shower events. H.E.S.S. has discovered the majority of the about 150 known cosmic objects emitting very high-energy gamma rays. In 2006, the H.E.S.S. team was awarded the Descartes Prize of the European Commission, in 2010 the Rossi Prize of the American Astronomical Society. A study performed in 2009 listed H.E.S.S. among the top 10 observatories worldwide.

    See the full article here.

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    Phys.org™ (formerly Physorg.com) is a leading web-based science, research and technology news service which covers a full range of topics. These include physics, earth science, medicine, nanotechnology, electronics, space, biology, chemistry, computer sciences, engineering, mathematics and other sciences and technologies. Launched in 2004, Phys.org’s readership has grown steadily to include 1.75 million scientists, researchers, and engineers every month. Phys.org publishes approximately 100 quality articles every day, offering some of the most comprehensive coverage of sci-tech developments world-wide. Quancast 2009 includes Phys.org in its list of the Global Top 2,000 Websites. Phys.org community members enjoy access to many personalized features such as social networking, a personal home page set-up, RSS/XML feeds, article comments and ranking, the ability to save favorite articles, a daily newsletter, and other options.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:18 pm on October 28, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From Symmetry: “Scientists mull potential gamma-ray study sites” 

    Symmetry

    October 28, 2014
    Kelen Tuttle

    An international panel is working to determine the two locations from which the Cherenkov Telescope Array will observe the gamma-ray sky.

    Cherenkov Telescope Array
    Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Somewhere in the Southern Hemisphere, about 100 state-of-the-art telescopes will dot the otherwise empty landscape for half a kilometer in every direction. Meanwhile, in the Northern Hemisphere, a swath of land a little over a third the size will house about 20 additional telescopes, every one of them pointing toward the heavens each night for a full-sky view of the most energetic—and enigmatic—processes in the universe.

    This is the plan for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Observatory, the world’s largest and most sensitive gamma-ray detector. The first of the two arrays is scheduled to begin taking data in 2016, with the other coming online in by 2020. At that point, CTA’s telescopes will observe gamma rays produced in some of the universe’s most violent events—everything from supernovas to supermassive black holes.

    Yet where exactly the telescopes will be built remains to be seen.

    Scientists representing the 29-country CTA consortium met last week to discuss the next steps toward narrowing down potential sites in the Northern Hemisphere: two in the United States (both in Arizona) and two others in Mexico and the Canary Islands. Although details from that meeting remain confidential, the CTA resource board is expected to begin negotiations with the potential host countries within the next few months. That will be the final step before the board makes its decision, says Rene Ong, co-spokesperson of CTA and a professor of physics and astronomy at UCLA.

    “Whichever site it goes to, it will be very important in that country,” Ong says. “It’s a major facility, and it will bring with it a huge amount of intellectual capital.”

    Site selection for the Southern Hemisphere is a bit further along. Last April, the CTA resource board narrowed down that list to two potential sites: one in Southern Namibia and one in Northern Chile. The board is now in the process of choosing between the sites based on factors including weather, operating costs, existing infrastructure like roads and utilities, and host country contributions. A final decision is expected soon.

    sites
    Artwork by: Sandbox Studio, Chicago

    “The consortium went through an exhaustive 3-year process of examining the potential sites, and all of the sites now being considered will deliver on the science,” says CTA Project Scientist Jim Hinton, a professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Leicester. “We’re happy that we have so many really good potential sites. If we reach an impasse with one, we can still keep moving forward with the others.”

    Scientists do not completely understand how high-energy gamma rays are created. Previous studies suggest that they stream from jets of plasma pouring out of enormous black holes, supernovae and other extreme environments, but the processes that create the rays—as well as the harsh environments where they are produced—remain mysterious.

    To reach its goal of better understanding high-energy gamma rays, CTA needs to select two sites—one in the Northern Hemisphere and one in the Southern Hemisphere—to see the widest possible swath of sky. In addition, the view from the two sites will overlap just enough to allow experimenters to better calibrate their instruments, reducing error and ensuring accurate measurements.

    With 10 times the sensitivity of previous experiments, CTA will fill in the many blank regions in our gamma-ray map of the universe. Gamma-rays with energies up to 100 gigaelectronvolts have already been mapped by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and others; CTA will cover energies up to 100,000 gigaelectronvolts. It will survey more of the sky than any previous such experiment and be significantly better at determining the origin of each gamma ray, allowing researchers to finally understand the astrophysical processes that produce these energetic rays.

    NASA Fermi Telescope
    NASA/Fermi

    CTA may also offer insight into dark matter. If a dark matter particle were to naturally decay or interact with its antimatter partner to release a flash of energy, the telescope array could theoretically detect that flash. In fact, CTA is one of very few instruments that could see such flashes with energies above 100 gigaelectronvolts.

    “I’m optimistic that we’ll see something totally new and unexpected,” Ong says. “Obviously I can’t tell you what it will be—otherwise it wouldn’t be unexpected—but history tells us that when you make a big step forward in capability, you tend to see something totally new. And that’s just what we’re doing here.”

    See the full article here.

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


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  • richardmitnick 12:04 pm on April 15, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From ESO: “ESO Site Shortlisted for Cherenkov Telescope Array” 


    European Southern Observatory

    15 April 2014
    Contacts

    Lars Lindberg Christensen
    Head of ESO ePOD
    ESO ePOD, Garching, Germany
    Tel: +49 89 3200 6761
    Cellular: +49 173 3872 621
    E-mail: lars@eso.org

    ESO’s Paranal–Armazones site in Chile has been shortlisted as one of two potential sites in the southern hemisphere for the international Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) — a large array for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy. This is an important step towards the realisation of the project and if the site is selected, this will open up a new frontier for ESO.

    cta

    On 10 April 2014 Government representatives from the 12 of the countries involved in the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project met in Munich and decided to start negotiations with the two sites — Aar in Namibia and ESO’s Paranal–Armazones site in Chile — keeping Leoncito in Argentina as a third option.

    The CTA project is an initiative to build the next generation of ground-based, very high energy gamma-ray instruments. The CTA project aims to use detection of high-energy gamma-rays to provide a deeper insight into the high-energy Universe.

    The representatives received consultation from an international Site Selection Committee as well as the CTA consortium’s extensive input on the merits of the proposed sites. The Consortium expects to close the site selection by the end of 2014.

    The spokesperson of the CTA Consortium, Professor Werner Hofmann said: “The site choice is on the critical path towards implementing CTA; this decision represents a major step forward and we appreciate very much the engagement and support of the funding agencies and the country delegates involved in the decision.”

    Gamma-rays are emitted by the hottest and most powerful objects in our Universe — such as supermassive black holes, supernovae and possibly remnants of the Big Bang. When a high-energy gamma photon hits the Earth’s atmosphere, it may produce a cascade of secondary particles and cause emission of what is known as Cherenkov radiation — a characteristic faint blue visible-light flash. This flash may last only a few billionths of a second so must be imaged with super-fast and sensitive cameras and with telescopes of enormous light gathering power.

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array is a multinational, world-wide project with which 1000 scientists and engineers from 28 countries and over 170 research institutes are involved. The CTA will provide an order-of-magnitude jump in sensitivity over current instruments, providing novel insights into some of the most extreme processes in the Universe. Most systems measuring Cherenkov radiation use only a handful of telescopes, but the CTA will consist of about 100 Cherenkov telescopes of 23-metre, 12-metre and 4-metre dish sizes located in the southern hemisphere, plus a smaller site in the northern hemisphere. An array of this size will increase the number of detected flashes, it will also cover the full energy range [3] and improve drastically upon the angular resolution [4], allowing for identification of the emitting objects at other wavelengths.

    “Although formal discussions have not yet started, the shortlisting of Paranal-Armazones as a potential site for CTA illustrates the excellence of the site and the infrastructure for the Very Large Telescope and European Extremely Large Telescope. If chosen, CTA would take advantage of ESO’s great expertise in ground-based astronomy.” said ESO’s Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. “We look forward to the discussions with CTA.”

    See the full article, with notes here.

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  • richardmitnick 11:07 am on June 27, 2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Cherenkov Telescope Array,   

    From ISGTW: “The grand vision of the Cherenkov Telescope Array” 

    June 27, 2012
    Adrian Giordani

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will consist of two arrays of telescopes in two different hemispheres, allowing full coverage of the sky. The south CTA will cover about one square kilometer (0.39 square miles) of land with around 60 telescopes that will monitor all the energy ranges in the center of the Milky Way’s galactic plane. The north CTA will cover three square kilometers (1.16 square miles) and be composed of 30 telescopes. These telescopes will be targeted at extragalactic astronomy.

    array
    An artist’s impression of the final constructed Cherenkov Telescope Array. Image courtesy G. Perez, SMM, IAC.

    ‘CTA opens a new window of essentially unexplored photon energies,’ said Giovanni Bignami, president of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF). ‘Its potential impact is enormous: part of it, we imagine, will consist in discovering thousands of new [very-high-energy photon] sources, and part of it will be surprises. It’s the surprises we like best, and it’s the surprises that will most appeal to the public at large.’

    The project represents a major global effort with research groups from Africa, Argentina, Brazil, India, Japan, Mexico, and the US. There are currently more than 27 countries, and over 1,000 scientists involved.

    What is the goal of the CTA?

    The project will be composed of a collection of Cherenkov telescopes that will scan the universe at very-high-energy gamma-rays from 100 giga-electronvolts to about 100 tera-electronvolts; energies which are one hundred billion to one hundred trillion times higher than of visible light.The CTA will also investigate cosmic processes that create particles travelling close to the speed of light.

    The CTA combines the fields of astronomy, astrophysics, and fundamental physics research. Studies will include the origin of cosmic rays and their impact on other bodies within the universe. Researchers will investigate galactic particle accelerators, black holes, extragalactic gamma rays, dark matter, and the effects of quantum gravity.”

    See the full article here.

     
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