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  • richardmitnick 4:37 pm on October 15, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Life on LEO: Plants to be Added to the Landscape Evolution Observatory at Biosphere 2", , , Chemistry, , The University of Arizona (US)   

    From The University of Arizona (US) : “Life on LEO: Plants to be Added to the Landscape Evolution Observatory at Biosphere 2” 

    From The University of Arizona (US)

    10.12.21
    Daniel Stolte

    Surprisingly little is known about how rain moves through landscapes once it’s on the ground. The University of Arizona’s Landscape Evolution Observatory is designed to provide answers. A $3.5 million grant will allow scientists to study the roles plants and microbes play in the process.

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    One of three artificial hillslopes in the Landscape Evolution Observatory. Each is equipped with 1,900 sensors and sampling devices that enable scientists to monitor water, carbon and energy cycling processes and the physical and chemical evolution of the landscape at small and large scales. Credit: Aaron Bugaj.

    The National Science Foundation (US) has awarded $3.5 million to a team led by University of Arizona researchers to study how life prevails in barren landscapes, such as those disturbed by wildfires, volcanic eruptions or mining operations.

    The research will yield new insights into the effects of a changing climate on such landscapes, and could someday even help astronauts raise crops on Mars.

    Researchers from The University of Arizona, DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (US) and California Lutheran University (US) will establish a complete ecosystem – with plants, artificial rain and sophisticated monitoring technology – on the large artificial hillslopes at the Landscape Evolution Observatory, or LEO, located inside The University of Arizona’s Biosphere 2. The experiment will offer scientists a detailed look at how emergent plant life interacts with soil, water and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to create more complex ecosystems.

    “In a nutshell, we’re getting ready to put life on LEO in the form of plants,” said Scott Saleska, a professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology who took over as LEO’s director of science earlier this year. “This grant will allow us to answer a question central to ecology: Can we predict what is going to happen when we build up an ecosystem from scratch? LEO allows us to literally watch life’s complexity build up from ground zero.”

    LEO is the world’s largest laboratory experiment in the interdisciplinary earth sciences. The experiment consists of three artificial landscapes that mimic watersheds in the natural world, each contained within elaborate steel structures housed in three adjacent bays under the glass-and-steel domes of Biosphere 2. Each hillslope is 100 feet long and 35 feet wide and blanketed with 1 million pounds of crushed basalt rock, layered 3 feet deep. Each of LEO’s hillslopes is studded with 1,900 sensors that allow scientists to observe each step in the landscapes’ evolution – from lifeless soil to living, breathing landscapes that will ultimately support complex microbial and vascular plant communities.

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    The first organisms to colonize barren landscape are microbes and less complex plants, such as these mosses growing in the Landscape Evolution Observatory, on the hillslope soils created from crushed basalt rock that originated in a volcanic eruption. Credit: Aaron Bugaj.

    Over the past five years, researchers have used LEO to gain in-depth knowledge of how landscapes evolve in the absence of plant life other than microbes and mosses. Those studies focused on the interactions between soil and water, with the water being provided through a sophisticated irrigation system that simulates various kinds of rain. The new NSF grant kicks off a new phase of the project, allowing researchers to study more complex interactions between the physical and biological components of LEO’s ecosystem, particularly between tiny microbial communities and higher plants.

    Water, Water Everywhere – But What Does it Do and Where Does it Go?

    The world faces the increasingly urgent question of how to better understand and manage complex physical-biological systems to address pressing problems such as how to restore degraded landscapes, practice sustainable ecosystem management and terraform planets beyond Earth. Terraforming is the science of transforming hostile environments into land that can grow crops.

    By adding plants with roots and vascular systems to LEO, Saleska’s team will study how plant life affects a well-established physical system and test hypotheses about the interactions between plants and microbes.

    Project co-leader Katrina Dlugosch, associate professor of ecology and evolutionary biology, selected alfalfa as the model plant organism to be planted at LEO because it has been thoroughly studied, and its genome has been sequenced and is well-known. Alfalfa also commonly enters in symbioses – or partnerships – with microbes capable of scrubbing nitrogen from the atmosphere and converting it into nutrients the plants can use.

    “Alfalfa provides one of the key features of primary succession – the process of life colonizing an environment that has very little to offer in terms of nutrients,” Dlugosch explained.

    “We think there will be a strong selection in this harsh environment on how these plants establish and maintain their partnerships with the microbes, and we are looking to understand both the ecology of that and, down the road, the biological evolution of this hillslope community as a whole,” said Malak Tfaily, assistant professor in The University of Arizona Department of Environmental Science.

    The team also will use LEO’s hillslopes as models for watershed environments in the natural world. Experiments will test how water flows through landscapes, how that affects the weathering of rock to soil, and the effects of those processes on landscapes and their biological habitability.

    “The basic question boils down to: What happens to the rain?” said Peter Troch, University of Arizona professor of hydrology and atmospheric science and a member of the project’s steering committee. “We are going to test how water is used by plants through root water uptake or contributes to aquifer recharge and streamflow.”

    Troch expects the results to inform land management practices such as water conservation measures in water-limited environments and plant selection in landscape restoration efforts.

    A key part of the project is its scalability, Saleska added. What researchers learn from studying small patches of plants growing on the LEO hillslope can be applied to full landscapes.

    The project, titled Growing a new science of landscape terraformation: The convergence of rock, fluids, and life to form complex ecosystems across scales, was selected by NSF under its Growing Convergence Research program, which aims to solve complex research problems with a focus on societal needs. In addition to experts in hydrology, geochemistry, evolutionary genomics and ecology, the LEO team will include anthropologists who study cultures of science, with the goal of breaking new ground in how researchers from historically separate disciplines can better share and integrate their ideas and insights for the benefit of the world.

    “These are extremely competitive grants, specifically created to address some of the world’s greatest challenges, and to even be considered requires a portfolio of interdisciplinary scholarship and technological capability that the university excels at bringing together,” said University of Arizona President Robert C. Robbins. “The fact that our researchers continue to attract these types of grants speaks to the unique ecosystem of talent, technology and perseverance that our faculty bring to the table.”

    Other members of the LEO project steering committee include Jon Chorover, head of the Department of Environmental Science; Jennifer Croissant, associate professor in the Department of Gender and Women’s Studies; Elizabeth “Betsy” Arnold, a professor in the School of Plant Sciences and the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; and William Riley, senior scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab in Berkeley.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    As of 2019, the The University of Arizona (US) enrolled 45,918 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including The University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, and is affiliated with two academic medical centers (Banner – University Medical Center Tucson and Banner – University Medical Center Phoenix). The University of Arizona is one of three universities governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The university is part of the Association of American Universities and is the only member from Arizona, and also part of the Universities Research Association(US). The university is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”.

    Known as the Arizona Wildcats (often shortened to “Cats”), The University of Arizona’s intercollegiate athletic teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. The University of Arizona athletes have won national titles in several sports, most notably men’s basketball, baseball, and softball. The official colors of the university and its athletic teams are cardinal red and navy blue.

    After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew. The Arizona Territory’s “Thieving Thirteenth” Legislature approved The University of Arizona in 1885 and selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university. Tucson hoped to receive the appropriation for the territory’s mental hospital, which carried a $100,000 allocation instead of the $25,000 allotted to the territory’s only university (Arizona State University(US) was also chartered in 1885, but it was created as Arizona’s normal school, and not a university). Flooding on the Salt River delayed Tucson’s legislators, and by they time they reached Prescott, back-room deals allocating the most desirable territorial institutions had been made. Tucson was largely disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize.

    With no parties willing to provide land for the new institution, the citizens of Tucson prepared to return the money to the Territorial Legislature until two gamblers and a saloon keeper decided to donate the land to build the school. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27, 1887, and classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, which is still in use today. Because there were no high schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation.

    Research

    The University of Arizona is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity”. UArizona is the fourth most awarded public university by National Aeronautics and Space Administration(US) for research. The University of Arizona was awarded over $325 million for its Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) to lead NASA’s 2007–08 mission to Mars to explore the Martian Arctic, and $800 million for its OSIRIS-REx mission, the first in U.S. history to sample an asteroid.

    The LPL’s work in the Cassini spacecraft orbit around Saturn is larger than any other university globally. The University of Arizona laboratory designed and operated the atmospheric radiation investigations and imaging on the probe. The University of Arizona operates the HiRISE camera, a part of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. While using the HiRISE camera in 2011, University of Arizona alumnus Lujendra Ojha and his team discovered proof of liquid water on the surface of Mars—a discovery confirmed by NASA in 2015. The University of Arizona receives more NASA grants annually than the next nine top NASA/JPL-Caltech(US)-funded universities combined. As of March 2016, The University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory is actively involved in ten spacecraft missions: Cassini VIMS; Grail; the HiRISE camera orbiting Mars; the Juno mission orbiting Jupiter; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Maven, which will explore Mars’ upper atmosphere and interactions with the sun; Solar Probe Plus, a historic mission into the Sun’s atmosphere for the first time; Rosetta’s VIRTIS; WISE; and OSIRIS-REx, the first U.S. sample-return mission to a near-earth asteroid, which launched on September 8, 2016.

    The University of Arizona students have been selected as Truman, Rhodes, Goldwater, and Fulbright Scholars. According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, UArizona is among the top 25 producers of Fulbright awards in the U.S.

    The University of Arizona is a member of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy(US), a consortium of institutions pursuing research in astronomy. The association operates observatories and telescopes, notably Kitt Peak National Observatory(US) just outside Tucson. Led by Roger Angel, researchers in the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab at The University of Arizona are working in concert to build the world’s most advanced telescope. Known as the Giant Magellan Telescope(CL), it will produce images 10 times sharper than those from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Telescope.

    Giant Magellan Telescope, 21 meters, to be at the NOIRLab(US) National Optical Astronomy Observatory(US) Carnegie Institution for Science’s(US) Las Campanas Observatory(CL), some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high.

    The telescope is set to be completed in 2021. GMT will ultimately cost $1 billion. Researchers from at least nine institutions are working to secure the funding for the project. The telescope will include seven 18-ton mirrors capable of providing clear images of volcanoes and riverbeds on Mars and mountains on the moon at a rate 40 times faster than the world’s current large telescopes. The mirrors of the Giant Magellan Telescope will be built at The University of Arizona and transported to a permanent mountaintop site in the Chilean Andes where the telescope will be constructed.

    Reaching Mars in March 2006, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter contained the HiRISE camera, with Principal Investigator Alfred McEwen as the lead on the project. This National Aeronautics and Space Agency (US) mission to Mars carrying the UArizona-designed camera is capturing the highest-resolution images of the planet ever seen. The journey of the orbiter was 300 million miles. In August 2007, The University of Arizona, under the charge of Scientist Peter Smith, led the Phoenix Mars Mission, the first mission completely controlled by a university. Reaching the planet’s surface in May 2008, the mission’s purpose was to improve knowledge of the Martian Arctic. The Arizona Radio Observatory(US), a part of The University of Arizona Department of Astronomy Steward Observatory(US), operates the Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham.

    The National Science Foundation(US) funded the iPlant Collaborative in 2008 with a $50 million grant. In 2013, iPlant Collaborative received a $50 million renewal grant. Rebranded in late 2015 as “CyVerse”, the collaborative cloud-based data management platform is moving beyond life sciences to provide cloud-computing access across all scientific disciplines.

    In June 2011, the university announced it would assume full ownership of the Biosphere 2 scientific research facility in Oracle, Arizona, north of Tucson, effective July 1. Biosphere 2 was constructed by private developers (funded mainly by Texas businessman and philanthropist Ed Bass) with its first closed system experiment commencing in 1991. The university had been the official management partner of the facility for research purposes since 2007.

    U Arizona mirror lab-Where else in the world can you find an astronomical observatory mirror lab under a football stadium?

    University of Arizona’s Biosphere 2, located in the Sonoran desert. An entire ecosystem under a glass dome? Visit our campus, just once, and you’ll quickly understand why the UA is a university unlike any other.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:29 pm on October 12, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New study sheds light on molecular motion", , Chemistry, ,   

    From University of Nottingham (UK) : “New study sheds light on molecular motion” 

    1

    From University of Nottingham (UK)

    11 October 2021
    Jane Icke – Media Relations Manager Science
    Email: jane.icke@nottingham.ac.uk
    Phone: 0115 7486462

    1
    Courtesy of Mònica Amabilino i Pérez.

    New research has shown how a synthetic self-made fibres can guide molecular movement that can be fuelled by light over long distances, a discovery that could pave the way for new ways to use light as a source of sustainable energy.

    Researchers from the University of Nottingham have for the first time used a path of assembled molecules liquids that travelling molecules can be propelled along by light. The research has been published today in Nature Chemistry.

    Professor David Amabilino from the School of Chemistry at the University of Nottingham is one of the lead researchers, he explains: “In living organisms, molecular motors travel along specific molecular paths, it is an essential part of cell function. We have shown that a synthetic self-made molecular fibre in a liquid behaves like a path for the movement of a molecular traveller over a distance 10,000 times its length. Light acts as the fuel to encourage the motion, while a molecular switch mixed into the system apparently propels the traveller on its way.”

    The team used interactions between oppositely charged chemical groups and created motion to this static system by introducing a switching molecule, that flaps back and forth quite quickly, into the fibres. Shining a light onto this weakens the traveller molecules interaction with the path as they move along it, which can be at some distance. If the molecule were our size, they would move the equivalent of 10 km.

    Heat is released when the switching molecules are irradiated, and that heat has a local effect that helps the traveller move, so the mechanical movement of the switch, and the heat that is released when it does, are important for making the system work.

    The technique the team used to observe these effects is a special optical microscope that allowed the simultaneous exciting of the molecules – making them move – and observation of them as they give light back out (the travelling molecules are fluorescent).

    Co-author on the study Mario Samperi adds: “The system we have prepared is very sensitive to the solvent in which the fibres are formed. In a liquid about the strength of strong whisky, the travelling molecules move along the fibres to another location, whereas when the liquid is the strength of weaker limoncello, rings of rearranged fibres are formed where the travellers have moved along and incorporated into the newly formed circular track.

    We want to be able to transport other molecules from one place to another in a controlled way, so that the travelling molecules can carry a package from one place to another, emulating nature, but using light as energy.”

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    2

    The University of Nottingham (UK) is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom. It was founded as University College Nottingham in 1881, and was granted a royal charter in 1948. The University of Nottingham belongs to the elite research intensive The Russell Group Association .

    Nottingham’s main campus (University Park) with Jubilee Campus and teaching hospital (Queen’s Medical Centre) are located within the City of Nottingham, with a number of smaller campuses and sites elsewhere in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire. Outside the UK, the university has campuses in Semenyih, Malaysia, and Ningbo, China. Nottingham is organised into five constituent faculties, within which there are more than 50 schools, departments, institutes and research centres. Nottingham has about 45,500 students and 7,000 staff, and had an income of £703.6 million in 2019/20, of which £105.0 million was from research grants and contracts. The institution’s alumni have been awarded a variety of prestigious accolades, including 3 Nobel Prizes, a Fields Medal, a Turner Prize, and a Gabor Medal and Prize. The university is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities (UK), The European University Association, the The Russell Group Association, Universitas 21, Universities UK, The Virgo Consortium, and participates in the Sutton Trust Summer School programme as a member of the Sutton 30.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:52 am on October 11, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Refuting a 70-year approach to predicting material microstructure", , Carnegie Mellon University - College of Engineering (US), Chemistry, HEDM: high energy diffraction microscopy, ,   

    From Carnegie Mellon University – College of Engineering (US) : “Refuting a 70-year approach to predicting material microstructure” 

    From Carnegie Mellon University – College of Engineering (US)

    10.11.21

    Kaitlyn Landram
    Jocelyn Duffy

    Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have developed a new microscopy technique that maps material microstructure in three dimensions; results demonstrate that the conventional method for predicting materials’ properties under high temperature is ineffective.

    A 70-year-old model used to predict the microstructure of materials doesn’t work for today’s materials, say Carnegie Mellon University researchers in Science. A microscopy technique developed by Carnegie Mellon and DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US) yields evidence that contradicts the conventional model and points the way toward the use of new types of characterizations to predict properties—and therefore the safety and long-term durability—of new materials.

    If a metallurgist discovered an alloy that could drastically improve an aircraft’s performance, it could take as long as 20 years before a passenger would be able to board a plane made of that alloy. With no way to predict how a material will change when it is subjected to the stressors of processing or everyday use, researchers use trial and error to establish a material’s safety and durability. This lengthy process is a significant bottleneck to materials innovation.


    Greg Rohrer: Polycrystalline Materials.

    Gregory Rohrer and Robert Suter of Carnegie Mellon University have uncovered new information that will help materials scientists to predict how the properties of materials change in response to stressors such as elevated temperatures. Using near-field high energy diffraction microscopy (HEDM), they found that the established model for predicting a material’s microstructure and properties does not apply to polycrystalline materials, and a new model is needed.

    To the eye, most commonly used metals, alloys, and ceramics used in industrial and consumer equipment and products appear to be uniformly solid. But at the microscopic level, they are polycrystalline, made up of aggregates of grains that have different size, shapes, and crystal orientations. The grains are tied together by a network of grain boundaries that shift when exposed to stressors, changing the material’s properties.

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    The dark blue shading represents a boundary separating two grains; as the boundary moves some elements that belong to grain m become part of grain n. Credit: College of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University.

    2
    High energy diffraction microscopy images of grain boundary velocities and curvatures and computed mobilities. Velocities do not correlate with the other properties. Credit: College of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University.

    When they make a new material, scientists need to control its microstructure, which includes its grain boundaries. Materials scientists manipulate the density of grain boundaries in order to meet different needs. For example, the structure surrounding the passenger cabin in a car is made of an ultrahigh strength steel that contains more grain boundaries than the aesthetic body panels in the car’s front-end crumple zone.

    For the last 70 years, researchers have predicted materials’ behavior using a theory that says that the speed at which grain boundaries move throughout a heated material is correlated to the boundary’s shape. Rohrer and Suter have shown that this theory, formulated to describe the most ideal case, does not apply in real polycrystals.

    Polycrystals are more complicated than the ideal cases studied in the past. Rohrer, a professor of materials science and engineering, Opens in new window explained, “If one considers a single grain boundary in a crystal, it can move without interruption, like a car driving down an empty roadway. In polycrystals, each grain boundary is connected to, on average, 10 others, so it’s like that car hit traffic—it can’t move so freely anymore. Therefore, this model no longer holds.” On top of that, Rohrer and Suter found that often polycrystal grain boundaries weren’t even moving in the direction that the model would have predicted.

    HEDM, a technique that was pioneered by Suter and colleagues using the Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Photon Source (APS), was key to these discoveries. HEDM and its associated techniques allow researchers to non-destructively image thousands of crystals and measure their orientations within opaque metals and ceramics. The technique requires high energy X-rays available only at one of a few synchrotron sources around the world.

    “It’s like having 3D X-ray vision,” said Suter, a professor of physics. “Before, you couldn’t look at a material’s grains without cutting it apart. HEDM allows us to noninvasively view the grain orientations and boundaries as they evolve over time.”

    The development of HEDM began around 20 years ago and continues to this day. Suter’s group worked with scientists at APS to develop procedures for the synchronized collection of thousands of images of X-ray diffraction patterns from a material sample as it undergoes precision rotation in an intense incident beam.

    ANL DOE Argonne National Laboratory (US) Advanced Photo Source

    High performance computer codes developed by Suter’s research group convert the sets of images into three-dimensional maps of the crystalline grains that make up the material microstructure.

    Ten years ago, Suter’s group (including physics graduate students Chris Hefferan, Shiu-Fai Li, and Jon Lind) repeatedly measured a nickel sample after successive high temperature treatments resulting in the first observations of individual grain boundary motions. These motions failed to show the systematic behavior predicted by the 70-year-old theory. The point of view developed by the Carnegie Mellon researchers in the Science paper correlates grain boundary structure with systematic behaviors observed in the HEDM experimental data.

    While the current analysis is based on a single material, nickel, X-ray diffraction microscopy is being used on many materials, and Rohrer and Suter believe that many of those materials will demonstrate similar behavior to that seen in nickel. Similar applications to other material processing conditions also are being studied.

    This research was funded by the National Science Foundation’s Designing Materials to Revolutionize and Engineer the Future program (DRMEF). The team’s four-year grant was renewed for $1.8 million dollars effective October 1, 2021. Carnegie Mellon’s Kaushik Dayal, professor of civil and environmental engineering ; Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering; and David Kinderlehrer, professor of mathematical sciences, will also be involved in the next steps of research studying how and why polycrystals behave this way in different materials. Professors Carl Krill (Ulm University [Universität Ulm](DE)) and Amanda Krause (The University of Florida (US)) are also part of the collaboration.

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The College of Engineering is well-known for working on problems of both scientific and practical importance. Our acclaimed faculty focus on transformative results that will drive the intellectual and economic vitality of our community, nation and world. Our “maker” culture is ingrained in all that we do, leading to novel approaches and unprecedented results.

    Carnegie Mellon University (US) is a global research university with more than 12,000 students, 95,000 alumni, and 5,000 faculty and staff.
    CMU has been a birthplace of innovation since its founding in 1900.
    Today, we are a global leader bringing groundbreaking ideas to market and creating successful startup businesses.
    Our award-winning faculty members are renowned for working closely with students to solve major scientific, technological and societal challenges. We put a strong emphasis on creating things—from art to robots. Our students are recruited by some of the world’s most innovative companies.
    We have campuses in Pittsburgh, Qatar and Silicon Valley, and degree-granting programs around the world, including Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and Latin America.

    The university was established by Andrew Carnegie as the Carnegie Technical Schools, the university became the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1912 and began granting four-year degrees. In 1967, the Carnegie Institute of Technology merged with the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research, formerly a part of the University of Pittsburgh. Since then, the university has operated as a single institution.

    The university has seven colleges and independent schools, including the College of Engineering, College of Fine Arts, Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Mellon College of Science, Tepper School of Business, Heinz College of Information Systems and Public Policy, and the School of Computer Science. The university has its main campus located 3 miles (5 km) from Downtown Pittsburgh, and the university also has over a dozen degree-granting locations in six continents, including degree-granting campuses in Qatar and Silicon Valley.

    Past and present faculty and alumni include 20 Nobel Prize laureates, 13 Turing Award winners, 23 Members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (US), 22 Fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (US), 79 Members of the National Academies, 124 Emmy Award winners, 47 Tony Award laureates, and 10 Academy Award winners. Carnegie Mellon enrolls 14,799 students from 117 countries and employs 1,400 faculty members.
    Research

    Carnegie Mellon University is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”. For the 2006 fiscal year, the university spent $315 million on research. The primary recipients of this funding were the School of Computer Science ($100.3 million), the Software Engineering Institute ($71.7 million), the College of Engineering ($48.5 million), and the Mellon College of Science ($47.7 million). The research money comes largely from federal sources, with a federal investment of $277.6 million. The federal agencies that invest the most money are the National Science Foundation (US) and the Department of Defense (US), which contribute 26% and 23.4% of the total university research budget respectively.

    The recognition of Carnegie Mellon as one of the best research facilities in the nation has a long history—as early as the 1987 Federal budget Carnegie Mellon University was ranked as third in the amount of research dollars with $41.5 million, with only Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) and Johns Hopkins University (US) receiving more research funds from the Department of Defense.

    The Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (PSC) (US) is a joint effort between Carnegie Mellon, University of Pittsburgh (US), and Westinghouse Electric Company. Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center was founded in 1986 by its two scientific directors, Dr. Ralph Roskies of the University of Pittsburgh and Dr. Michael Levine of Carnegie Mellon. Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center is a leading partner in the TeraGrid, the National Science Foundation’s cyberinfrastructure program.
    Scarab lunar rover is being developed by the RI.

    The Robotics Institute (RI) is a division of the School of Computer Science and considered to be one of the leading centers of robotics research in the world. The Field Robotics Center (FRC) has developed a number of significant robots, including Sandstorm and H1ghlander, which finished second and third in the DARPA Grand Challenge, and Boss, which won the DARPA Urban Challenge. The Robotics Institute has partnered with a spinoff company, Astrobotic Technology Inc., to land a CMU robot on the moon by 2016 in pursuit of the Google Lunar XPrize. The robot, known as Andy, is designed to explore lunar pits, which might include entrances to caves. The RI is primarily sited at Carnegie Mellon’s main campus in Newell-Simon hall.

    The Software Engineering Institute (SEI) is a federally funded research and development center sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense and operated by Carnegie Mellon, with offices in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA; Arlington, Virginia, and Frankfurt, Germany. The SEI publishes books on software engineering for industry, government and military applications and practices. The organization is known for its Capability Maturity Model (CMM) and Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), which identify essential elements of effective system and software engineering processes and can be used to rate the level of an organization’s capability for producing quality systems. The SEI is also the home of CERT/CC, the federally funded computer security organization. The CERT Program’s primary goals are to ensure that appropriate technology and systems management practices are used to resist attacks on networked systems and to limit damage and ensure continuity of critical services subsequent to attacks, accidents, or failures.

    The Human–Computer Interaction Institute (HCII) is a division of the School of Computer Science and is considered one of the leading centers of human–computer interaction research, integrating computer science, design, social science, and learning science. Such interdisciplinary collaboration is the hallmark of research done throughout the university.

    The Language Technologies Institute (LTI) is another unit of the School of Computer Science and is famous for being one of the leading research centers in the area of language technologies. The primary research focus of the institute is on machine translation, speech recognition, speech synthesis, information retrieval, parsing and information extraction. Until 1996, the institute existed as the Center for Machine Translation that was established in 1986. From 1996 onwards, it started awarding graduate degrees and the name was changed to Language Technologies Institute.

    Carnegie Mellon is also home to the Carnegie School of management and economics. This intellectual school grew out of the Tepper School of Business in the 1950s and 1960s and focused on the intersection of behavioralism and management. Several management theories, most notably bounded rationality and the behavioral theory of the firm, were established by Carnegie School management scientists and economists.

    Carnegie Mellon also develops cross-disciplinary and university-wide institutes and initiatives to take advantage of strengths in various colleges and departments and develop solutions in critical social and technical problems. To date, these have included the Cylab Security and Privacy Institute, the Wilton E. Scott Institute for Energy Innovation, the Neuroscience Institute (formerly known as BrainHub), the Simon Initiative, and the Disruptive Healthcare Technology Institute.

    Carnegie Mellon has made a concerted effort to attract corporate research labs, offices, and partnerships to the Pittsburgh campus. Apple Inc., Intel, Google, Microsoft, Disney, Facebook, IBM, General Motors, Bombardier Inc., Yahoo!, Uber, Tata Consultancy Services, Ansys, Boeing, Robert Bosch GmbH, and the Rand Corporation have established a presence on or near campus. In collaboration with Intel, Carnegie Mellon has pioneered research into claytronics.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:18 pm on October 8, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "CCNY researchers announce photon-phonon breakthrough", Chemistry, City College of New York (US), , , , , The research also holds promise for vibrational spectroscopy—also known as infrared spectroscopy., Topological photonics-an emergent direction in photonics, Topological photons—light—has been combined with lattice vibrations also known as phonons to manipulate their propagation in a robust and controllable way.   

    From City College of New York (US) : “CCNY researchers announce photon-phonon breakthrough” 

    10.8.21

    Max Dorfman/Jay Mwamba
    p: 212.650.7580
    e: jmwamba@ccny.cuny.edu

    From City College of New York (US)

    1
    Topologically distinct photonic crystals (orange and blue) with a layer of hexagonal boron nitride on top enable coupling of topological light and lattice vibrations to form chiral half-light half-vibration excitations, which can be directionally guided along 1D channels in robust manner. Credit: Filipp Komissarenko and Sriram Guddala.

    New research by a City College of New York team has uncovered a novel way to combine two different states of matter. For one of the first times, topological photons—light—has been combined with lattice vibrations also known as phonons to manipulate their propagation in a robust and controllable way.

    The study utilized topological photonics-an emergent direction in photonics which leverages fundamental ideas of the mathematical field of topology about conserved quantities—topological invariants—that remain constant when altering parts of a geometric object under continuous deformations. One of the simplest examples of such invariants is number of holes, which, for instance, makes donut and mug equivalent from the topological point of view. The topological properties endow photons with helicity, when photons spin as they propagate, leading to unique and unexpected characteristics, such as robustness to defects and unidirectional propagation along interfaces between topologically distinct materials. Thanks to interactions with vibrations in crystals, these helical photons can then be used to channel infrared light along with vibrations.

    The implications of this work are broad, in particular allowing researchers to advance Raman spectroscopy, which is used to determine vibrational modes of molecules. The research also holds promise for vibrational spectroscopy—also known as infrared spectroscopy—which measures the interaction of infrared radiation with matter through absorption, emission, or reflection. This can then be utilized to study and identify and characterize chemical substances.

    “We coupled helical photons with lattice vibrations in hexagonal boron nitride, creating a new hybrid matter referred to as phonon-polaritons,” said Alexander Khanikaev, lead author and physicist with affiliation in CCNY’s Grove School of Engineering. “It is half light and half vibrations. Since infrared light and lattice vibrations are associated with heat, we created new channels for propagation of light and heat together. Typically, lattice vibrations are very hard to control, and guiding them around defects and sharp corners was impossible before.”

    The new methodology can also implement directional radiative heat transfer, a form of energy transfer during which heat is dissipated through electromagnetic waves.

    “We can create channels of arbitrary shape for this form of hybrid light and matter excitations to be guided along within a two-dimensional material we created,” added Dr. Sriram Guddala, postdoctoral researcher in Prof. Khanikaev’s group and the first author of the manuscript. “This method also allows us to switch the direction of propagation of vibrations along these channels, forward or backward, simply by switching polarizations handedness of the incident laser beam. Interestingly, as the phonon-polaritons propagate, the vibrations also rotate along with the electric field. This is an entirely novel way of guiding and rotating lattice vibrations, which also makes them helical.”

    The study appears in the journal Science.

    See the full article here.

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    WE’RE THE ORIGINAL –
    AND WE’RE STILL MEETING THE NEED.

    Since 1847, The City College of New York (US) has provided a high quality and affordable education to generations of New Yorkers in a wide variety of disciplines. CCNY embraces its role at the forefront of social change.

    Located in the heart of New York City, CCNY is home to such important ‘firsts’ as: The first college explicitly founded on the ideal of educating the ‘whole people’, the first documentary film program in the U.S., the first intercollegiate lacrosse game played in the U.S., first student government in the nation, and the longest running Alumni Association in the U.S.

    It is ranked #1 by The Chronicle of Higher Education out of 369 selective public colleges in the United States on the overall mobility index. This measure reflects both access and outcomes, representing the likelihood that a student at CCNY can move up two or more income quintiles. In addition, the Center for world University Rankings places CCNY in the top 1.2% of universities worldwide in terms of academic excellence. More than 16,000 students pursue undergraduate and graduate degrees in eight professional schools and divisions, driven by significant funded research, creativity and scholarship. CCNY is as diverse, dynamic and visionary as New York City itself.

    Outstanding programs in architecture, engineering, education and the liberal arts and sciences prepare our students for the future, and produce outstanding leaders in every field.Whether they are drawn to the traditional, like philosophy or sociology, or emerging fields like sonic arts or biomedical engineering, our baccalaureate graduates go on to graduate programs at Stanford, Columbia or MIT – or they stay right here in one of our 50 master’s programs or our doctoral programs in engineering, the laboratory sciences, and psychology.

    Nowhere else in the city do undergraduates have so many opportunities to conduct research with professors and publish and present their findings.In our science, engineering and social science programs, more than 300 undergrads work alongside senior researchers in funded projects. Leading CUNY in funded research, we house a number of research centers, and soon two new advanced research centers will rise on South Campus.Nearly all of our full-time faculty hold PhDs or – like our architecture faculty, maintain professional practices.Art professors exhibit their work, film professors make films, and music professors perform in venues around the country.

    The campus is alive with student activity. City College fields 16 varsity teams that compete in NCAA Division III – and students work out in an equipment rich fitness center and socialize in more than 100 student clubs. And our students come from around the corner and world, representing more than 150 nationalities. City College is an integral part of the civic, urban and artistic energy of New York and inseparable from its history. We are the City that built this city.

     
  • richardmitnick 7:59 am on October 8, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "‘High risk’ project uses quantum science to unlock new chemical reactions", , , By changing temperatures or introducing catalysts chemists can manipulate how—or whether—electrons are shared., Chemistry, Chemistry professor Todd Krauss and his fellow researchers want to use light to facilitate previously impossible chemical reactions., Krauss hopes to alter the spatial properties of electrons and as a result change the way molecules bond., Krauss’s project calls for putting molecules in an optical cavity and using those discrete packets to change the energy states of electrons in the molecule., Molecules form through chemical bonding—the sharing of orbiting electrons., , , QuEST: Quantum Electrodynamics for Selective Transformations, The University of Rochester (US)   

    From The University of Rochester (US): “‘High risk’ project uses quantum science to unlock new chemical reactions” 

    From The University of Rochester (US)

    October 7, 2021

    Peter Iglinski
    585.273.4726
    peter.iglinski@rochester.edu

    1
    Chemistry professor Todd Krauss and his fellow researchers want to use light to facilitate previously impossible chemical reactions. If successful, he says, “it could be a paradigm shift in the field of chemistry.” Photo: J. Adam Fenster/ University of Rochester.

    Rochester scientists have secured national funding for a multi-institutional research effort that could alter the basic rules of chemistry.

    University of Rochester chemist Todd Krauss will lead a multi-institution effort to transform the field of chemistry, thanks to a $1.8 million dollar grant from The National Science Foundation (US). Chemists have long understood the tools they have available in order to create new molecules, such as changing the reaction temperature or using a catalyst—or doing both. Now, Krauss and his fellow researchers want to use light to facilitate previously impossible chemical reactions—in essence, by turning light into a catalyst.

    “This is a high-risk proposal,” says Krauss, a professor of chemistry and of optics at Rochester. “Will we be able to get enough molecules to strongly interact with the light to make a difference? If we do, it could be a paradigm shift in the field of chemistry.”

    Quantum principles applied to chemistry

    According to the principles of quantum science—which deals with the fundamental nature of atoms and subatomic particles—light is made up of small, discrete packets of energy. Krauss’s project calls for putting molecules in an optical cavity and using those discrete packets to change the energy states of electrons in the molecule. When that’s done, the molecules behave differently, opening the door for new bonding possibilities and ,thus, new chemistry.

    Molecules form through chemical bonding—the sharing of orbiting electrons. By changing temperatures or introducing catalysts chemists can manipulate how—or whether—electrons are shared. These interactions follow basic rules. For example, carbon-chlorine bonds are broken more easily than carbon-hydrogen bonds. Here, the team aims to use the application of quantum principles in order to change these basic rules to allow different bonds to break and reform.

    Krauss hopes to alter the spatial properties of electrons and as a result change the way molecules bond.

    “We can potentially move electrons uphill from one molecule to another—something that has been classically forbidden,” says Krauss. “Most electrons have spherical orbits. If we can move some of those electrons into non-spherical orbits, they’ll behave differently. Doing that would allow us to create new molecules.”

    QuEST for better medications, greener energy, new materials

    According to Krauss, this work represents a new way of developing chemical reactions—one with many potential benefits to society. “In theory, that could lead to new applications in fuel production, pharmaceuticals, and the manufacturing of plastics,” he says.

    The University of Rochester has a long tradition of quantum science with respect to strongly coupling light and atoms—defining the field of quantum optics for decades—dating back to the pioneering work of Leonard Mandel and Emil Wolf more than five decades ago. In QuEST, the team will build on that tradition by exploring how to strongly couple light with molecules in order to manipulate chemical reactions, pushing quantum optics into new and uncharted territory.

    Under the terms of the grant, Krauss will direct the NSF Phase I Chemical Innovation Center for Quantum Electrodynamics for Selective Transformations (QuEST). The QuEST research team includes fellow University of Rochester chemistry professors Pengfei Huo and William Jones, as well as optics professor Nick Vamivakas. Joining them on are Jillian Dempsey at The University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill (US), Nicolas Large and Zachary Tonzetich from The University of Texas–San Antonio (US), Teri Odom from Northwestern University (US), and Daniel Weix from The University of Wisconsin–Madison .

    “This is a three-year seed grant,” explains Krauss. “After a couple of years, we’ll compete for a Phase II grant—$20 million dollars over four years—to continue the research.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The The University of Rochester (US) is a private research university in Rochester, New York. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees.

    The University of Rochester (US) enrolls approximately 6,800 undergraduates and 5,000 graduate students. Its 158 buildings house over 200 academic majors. According to the National Science Foundation (US), Rochester spent $370 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 68th in the nation. The university is the 7th largest employer in the Finger lakes region of New York.

    The College of Arts, Sciences, and Engineering is home to departments and divisions of note. The Institute of Optics was founded in 1929 through a grant from Eastman Kodak and Bausch and Lomb as the first educational program in the US devoted exclusively to optics and awards approximately half of all optics degrees nationwide and is widely regarded as the premier optics program in the nation and among the best in the world.

    The Departments of Political Science and Economics have made a significant and consistent impact on positivist social science since the 1960s and historically rank in the top 5 in their fields. The Department of Chemistry is noted for its contributions to synthetic organic chemistry, including the first lab based synthesis of morphine. The Rossell Hope Robbins Library serves as the university’s resource for Old and Middle English texts and expertise. The university is also home to Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics, a Department of Energy (US) supported national laboratory.

    The University of Rochester’s Eastman School of Music (US) ranks first among undergraduate music schools in the U.S. The Sibley Music Library at Eastman is the largest academic music library in North America and holds the third largest collection in the United States.

    In its history university alumni and faculty have earned 13 Nobel Prizes; 13 Pulitzer Prizes; 45 Grammy Awards; 20 Guggenheim Awards; 5 National Academy of Sciences; 4 National Academy of Engineering; 3 Rhodes Scholarships; 3 National Academy of Inventors; and 1 National Academy of Inventors Hall of Fame.

    History

    Early history

    The University of Rochester traces its origins to The First Baptist Church of Hamilton (New York) which was founded in 1796. The church established the Baptist Education Society of the State of New York later renamed the Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution in 1817. This institution gave birth to both Colgate University(US) and the University of Rochester. Its function was to train clergy in the Baptist tradition. When it aspired to grant higher degrees it created a collegiate division separate from the theological division.

    The collegiate division was granted a charter by the State of New York in 1846 after which its name was changed to Madison University. John Wilder and the Baptist Education Society urged that the new university be moved to Rochester, New York. However, legal action prevented the move. In response, dissenting faculty, students, and trustees defected and departed for Rochester, where they sought a new charter for a new university.

    Madison University was eventually renamed as Colgate University (US).

    Founding

    Asahel C. Kendrick- professor of Greek- was among the faculty that departed Madison University for Rochester. Kendrick served as acting president while a national search was conducted. He reprised this role until 1853 when Martin Brewer Anderson of the Newton Theological Seminary in Massachusetts was selected to fill the inaugural posting.

    The University of Rochester’s new charter was awarded by the Regents of the State of New York on January 31, 1850. The charter stipulated that the university have $100,000 in endowment within five years upon which the charter would be reaffirmed. An initial gift of $10,000 was pledged by John Wilder which helped catalyze significant gifts from individuals and institutions.

    Classes began that November with approximately 60 students enrolled including 28 transfers from Madison. From 1850 to 1862 the university was housed in the old United States Hotel in downtown Rochester on Buffalo Street near Elizabeth Street- today West Main Street near the I-490 overpass. On a February 1851 visit Ralph Waldo Emerson said of the university:

    “They had bought a hotel, once a railroad terminus depot, for $8,500, turned the dining room into a chapel by putting up a pulpit on one side, made the barroom into a Pythologian Society’s Hall, & the chambers into Recitation rooms, Libraries, & professors’ apartments, all for $700 a year. They had brought an omnibus load of professors down from Madison bag and baggage… called in a painter and sent him up the ladder to paint the title “University of Rochester” on the wall, and they had runners on the road to catch students. And they are confident of graduating a class of ten by the time green peas are ripe.”

    For the next 10 years the college expanded its scope and secured its future through an expanding endowment; student body; and faculty. In parallel a gift of 8 acres of farmland from local businessman and Congressman Azariah Boody secured the first campus of the university upon which Anderson Hall was constructed and dedicated in 1862. Over the next sixty years this Prince Street Campus grew by a further 17 acres and was developed to include fraternities houses; dormitories; and academic buildings including Anderson Hall; Sibley Library; Eastman and Carnegie Laboratories the Memorial Art Gallery and Cutler Union.

    Twentieth century

    Coeducation

    The first female students were admitted in 1900- the result of an effort led by Susan B. Anthony and Helen Barrett Montgomery. During the 1890s a number of women took classes and labs at the university as “visitors” but were not officially enrolled nor were their records included in the college register. President David Jayne Hill allowed the first woman- Helen E. Wilkinson- to enroll as a normal student although she was not allowed to matriculate or to pursue a degree. Thirty-three women enrolled among the first class in 1900 and Ella S. Wilcoxen was the first to receive a degree in 1901. The first female member of the faculty was Elizabeth Denio who retired as Professor Emeritus in 1917. Male students moved to River Campus upon its completion in 1930 while the female students remained on the Prince Street campus until 1955.

    Expansion

    Major growth occurred under the leadership of Benjamin Rush Rhees over his 1900-1935 tenure. During this period George Eastman became a major donor giving more than $50 million to the university during his life. Under the patronage of Eastman the Eastman School of Music (US) was created in 1921. In 1925 at the behest of the General Education Board and with significant support for John D. Rockefeller George Eastman and Henry A. Strong’s family medical and dental schools were created. The university award its first Ph.D that same year.

    During World War II University of Rochester was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. In 1942, the university was invited to join the Association of American Universities(US) as an affiliate member and it was made a full member by 1944. Between 1946 and 1947 in infamous uranium experiments researchers at the university injected uranium-234 and uranium-235 into six people to study how much uranium their kidneys could tolerate before becoming damaged.

    In 1955 the separate colleges for men and women were merged into The College on the River Campus. In 1958 three new schools were created in engineering; business administration and education. The Graduate School of Management was named after William E. Simon- former Secretary of the Treasury in 1986. He committed significant funds to the school because of his belief in the school’s free market philosophy and grounding in economic analysis.

    Financial decline and name change controversy

    Following the princely gifts given throughout his life George Eastman left the entirety of his estate to the university after his death by suicide. The total of these gifts surpassed $100 million before inflation and as such Rochester enjoyed a privileged position amongst the most well endowed universities. During the expansion years between 1936 and 1976 the University of Rochester’s financial position ranked third, near Harvard University’s(US) endowment and the University of Texas (US) System’s Permanent University Fund. Due to a decline in the value of large investments and a lack of portfolio diversity the university’s place dropped to the top 25 by the end of the 1980s. At the same time the preeminence of the city of Rochester’s major employers began to decline.

    In response the University commissioned a study to determine if the name of the institution should be changed to “Eastman University” or “Eastman Rochester University”. The study concluded a name change could be beneficial because the use of a place name in the title led respondents to incorrectly believe it was a public university, and because the name “Rochester” connoted a “cold and distant outpost.” Reports of the latter conclusion led to controversy and criticism in the Rochester community. Ultimately, the name “University of Rochester” was retained.

    Renaissance Plan

    In 1995 University of Rochester president Thomas H. Jackson announced the launch of a “Renaissance Plan” for The College that reduced enrollment from 4,500 to 3,600 creating a more selective admissions process. The plan also revised the undergraduate curriculum significantly creating the current system with only one required course and only a few distribution requirements known as clusters. Part of this plan called for the end of graduate doctoral studies in chemical engineering; comparative literature; linguistics; and mathematics the last of which was met by national outcry. The plan was largely scrapped and mathematics exists as a graduate course of study to this day.

    Twenty-first century

    Meliora Challenge

    Shortly after taking office university president Joel Seligman commenced the private phase of the “Meliora Challenge”- a $1.2 billion capital campaign- in 2005. The campaign reached its goal in 2015- a year before the campaign was slated to conclude. In 2016, the university announced the Meliora Challenge had exceeded its goal and surpassed $1.36 billion. These funds were allocated to support over 100 new endowed faculty positions and nearly 400 new scholarships.

    The Mangelsdorf Years

    On December 17, 2018 the University of Rochester announced that Sarah C. Mangelsdorf would succeed Richard Feldman as President of the University. Her term started in July 2019 with a formal inauguration following in October during Meliora Weekend. Mangelsdorf is the first woman to serve as President of the University and the first person with a degree in psychology to be appointed to Rochester’s highest office.

    In 2019 students from China mobilized by the Chinese Students and Scholars Association (CSSA) defaced murals in the University’s access tunnels which had expressed support for the 2019 Hong Kong Protests, condemned the oppression of the Uighurs, and advocated for Taiwanese independence. The act was widely seen as a continuation of overseas censorship of Chinese issues. In response a large group of students recreated the original murals. There have also been calls for Chinese government run CSSA to be banned from campus.

    Research

    Rochester is a member of the Association of American Universities (US) and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”.

    Rochester had a research expenditure of $370 million in 2018.

    In 2008 Rochester ranked 44th nationally in research spending but this ranking has declined gradually to 68 in 2018.

    Some of the major research centers include the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, a laser-based nuclear fusion facility, and the extensive research facilities at the University of Rochester Medical Center.

    Recently the university has also engaged in a series of new initiatives to expand its programs in biomedical engineering and optics including the construction of the new $37 million Robert B. Goergen Hall for Biomedical Engineering and Optics on the River Campus.

    Other new research initiatives include a cancer stem cell program and a Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute. UR also has the ninth highest technology revenue among U.S. higher education institutions with $46 million being paid for commercial rights to university technology and research in 2009. Notable patents include Zoloft and Gardasil. WeBWorK, a web-based system for checking homework and providing immediate feedback for students was developed by University of Rochester professors Gage and Pizer. The system is now in use at over 800 universities and colleges as well as several secondary and primary schools. Rochester scientists work in diverse areas. For example, physicists developed a technique for etching metal surfaces such as platinum; titanium; and brass with powerful lasers enabling self-cleaning surfaces that repel water droplets and will not rust if tilted at a 4 degree angle; and medical researchers are exploring how brains rid themselves of toxic waste during sleep.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:07 am on October 7, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "An easier and greener way to build molecules wins the chemistry Nobel Prize", , , Asymmetric organocatalysis, Chemistry   

    From Science News (US) : “An easier and greener way to build molecules wins the chemistry Nobel Prize” 

    From Science News (US)

    10.6.21

    Jonathan Lambert

    1
    Many chemical reactions produce two versions of a molecule that are mirror, or asymmetrical, images of one another, such as these illustrations of a molecule called limonene. Often, chemists want to make just one.
    ©Johan Jarnestad/The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

    Making molecules is hard work. Atoms must be stitched together into specific arrangements through a series of chemical reactions that are often slow, convoluted and wasteful. The 2021 Nobel Prize in chemistry recognizes two scientists who developed a tool at the turn of the century that revolutionized how chemists construct new molecules, making the process faster and more environmentally friendly.

    Chemists Benjamin List of the MPG Institute for Coal Research [MPG Institut für Kohlenforschung](DE)in Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany and David MacMillan of Princeton University(US) were awarded the prize for independently developing organic catalysts that speed up chemical reactions necessary for constructing specific molecules, a process called asymmetric organocatalysis. The two will share the prize of 10 million Swedish kroner (more than $1.1 million), the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (SE) announced October 6 in a news conference in Stockholm.

    “This is a fitting recognition of very important work,” says H.N. Cheng, president of The American Chemical Society (US).

    “We can think of chemists as magicians having magic wands in the lab,” Cheng says. “We wave the wand and a reaction goes on.” These Nobel laureates gave chemists “a new wand,” that’s drastically more efficient and less wasteful, he says.

    Making new drugs or designing novel materials often requires building new molecules from simpler chemical building blocks. But these chemical building blocks can’t just be thrown together. Instead, they must be carefully combined in precise arrangements through a series of chemical reactions. Many chemical reactions produce two versions of a molecule that are mirror images of one another, and often those two versions can have very different effects. For example, thalidomide, a drug prescribed in the 1950s and ‘60s for morning sickness, caused birth defects in more than 10,000 babies because of one mirror image of this molecule (SN: 12/24/94). Consequently, building these asymmetric molecules and controlling which version of a molecule gets produced is extremely important, especially for drug development.

    Chemical reactions can be coaxed along by catalysts — molecular workhorses that accelerate chemical reactions without being transformed by them. Historically, chemists have known about two kinds of catalysts: enzymes and metal complexes. Enzymes are big, clunky proteins that have been honed by evolution to perform very specific chemical actions in the body, but they can be difficult to use on a large scale in the lab. Metals, such as platinum or cobalt, can kick-start some reactions too, but many only work in airless, waterless environments that are difficult to achieve in manufacturing contexts (SN: 2/21/17). Additionally, many metal catalysts are also toxic to the environment and expensive to procure.

    For much of the history of chemistry, these were the only tools available to chemists who wanted to make new molecules. “But in the year 2000, everything changed,” Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede, a chemist at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden and a member of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry, said during the news conference.

    Benjamin List, then at The Scripps Research Institute (US) in La Jolla, Calif., was studying the aldol reaction, which links two molecules together through carbon bonds. In organisms, such reactions are crucial for converting food into energy, and depend on a large and complex enzyme called aldolase A. Only a small part of the enzyme actually catalyzes the reaction, however, and List discovered that a single amino acid — proline — could do the work of this big clunky protein while also producing one version of the final product much more often than the other.

    “When I did this experiment, I didn’t know what would happen and I thought maybe it’s a stupid idea,” List said during the news conference. “When I saw it work, I did feel it could be something big.”

    Unbeknown to List, MacMillan was also looking for alternative organic catalysts around the same time. MacMillan, then at The University of California-Berkeley (US), focused on another chemical reaction, the Diels-Alder reaction, which forms rings of carbon atoms (SN: 11/18/50). It’s an important reaction, used today to make products as different as rubber and pharmaceuticals, but was very slow and relied on finicky metal catalysts that wouldn’t work when wet. MacMillan designed small organic molecules that mimicked the catalytic action of metals in a simpler way, while also favoring the production of one of two possible mirror images of the final product. He coined this new kind of catalysis “asymmetric organocatalysis.”

    List’s and MacMillan’s discoveries set off an explosion of research into finding more organocatalysts over the next two decades, work that’s aided drug discovery among other uses.

    About 35 percent of the world’s gross domestic product depends on catalysis, Peter Somfai, a chemist at Lund University in Sweden and a member of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry, said during the news conference. “We now have a new powerful tool available for making organic molecules,” one that can be drastically more efficient and greener than previous methods.

    Somfai highlighted this leap forward in efficiency using the neurotoxin strychnine. The molecule itself isn’t useful for chemists, but its complicated structure makes it a good benchmark for comparing different synthesis methodologies. Previously, chemists relied on an extremely wasteful process of 29 different reactions where just 0.0009 percent of the initial material became strychnine. Using organocatalysis, strychnine can now be synthesized in just 12 steps, and the whole process is 7,000 times more efficient, Somfai said. And because this extra efficiency is gained without using toxic metals, organocatalysis is a more environmentally friendly way of synthesizing chemicals.

    If building new molecules is like playing chess, organocatalysis has “completely changed the game,” Somfai said. “It’s like adding a new chess piece that can move in different ways.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 12:26 pm on October 6, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Lasers to Probe Origin of Life on a Frigid Moon and Take the Space-Time Pulse of Star-Shattering Collisions Built in Goddard Lab", , Chemistry, European Space Agency’s (ESA) Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), , , NASA’s Dragonfly mission to Titan.   

    From NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (US) : “Lasers to Probe Origin of Life on a Frigid Moon and Take the Space-Time Pulse of Star-Shattering Collisions Built in Goddard Lab” 

    NASA Goddard Banner

    From NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (US)

    Oct 6, 2021

    William Steigerwald
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
    William.A.Steigerwald@nasa.gov

    On Saturn’s giant moon Titan, liquid methane and other hydrocarbons rain down, carving rivers, lakes and seas in a landscape of frozen water. The complex chemistry on this icy world could be analogous to the period when life first emerged on Earth, or it might yield an entirely new type of life. And even farther – light-years away in deep space, a black hole shreds the ultra-dense core of a dead star, warping the fabric of space itself and sending waves of space-time flying across the universe.

    At the Space Laser Assembly Cleanroom (SLAC) at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, the Laser and Electro-Optics Branch is building lasers for NASA’s Dragonfly mission to Titan and the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), which will measure waves in space-time caused by massive collisions.

    Goddard’s SLAC is a center of expertise for the art and science of building lasers for advanced instruments to explore exotic and extreme environments such as those investigated by Dragonfly and LISA.

    1
    This is the Dragonfly Mass Spectrometer (DraMS) Laser: THANOS (Throttled Hydrocarbon Analysis by Nanosecond Optical Source) engineering model. This laser is a NASA Goddard Code 554 in-house design that is currently being built and tested in the SLAC optical lab space. Credits:Matt Mullin/NASA.

    Lasers are difficult — they don’t “want” to work, says Barry Coyle, physicist at NASA Goddard.

    “Everything has to perfect,” Coyle said.

    That’s why assembling them in one place is so critical to efficiency — both in production and cost. This is the idea behind the SLAC, and it was conceived shortly after the launch of ICESat-1.

    ICESat-1 housed the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System, which was produced at a joint University of Maryland and Goddard facility. Although the laser worked well, Coyle said, producing space-flight laser systems outside of NASA could be expensive and inefficient.

    Coyle said he and others realized these expenses could be reduced if lasers were produced at an in-house laboratory. Additionally, time and energy could be saved.

    Pamela Millar, head of the Earth Science Technology Office, was the Remote Sensing branch head at the time and lead the effort to secure the funding for the SLAC, Coyle said. Ever since, the lab has been churning out lasers.

    Currently, the Goddard team is developing an ultraviolet (UV) laser in the SLAC — the Dragonfly Mass Spectrometer (DraMS) laser — for the Dragonfly mission. The mission involves a rotorcraft lander designed for multiple stops across the surface of Titan. The lander, being designed and built at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, will carry a full suite of instruments to sample materials and develop further knowledge of the moon’s surface composition and other properties.

    2
    This is the SLAC thermal vacuum chamber which is used to do environmental testing on space-flight class laser systems. The ICESAT-2 and GEDI lidar mission made use of this chamber for qualification and risk reduction testing. The flight and engineering model Dragonfly Mass Spectrometer (DraMS) Lasers as well as the engineering model LISA laser will be tested here next. Credit: Matt Mullin/NASA.

    Goddard laser engineer Matt Mullin is currently working on the DraMS laser, where his day-to-day work involves building or aligning hardware, building the laser, or running testing on subcomponents.

    “Basically, the UV laser beam will be focused down into a sample cup, which holds some of Titan’s surface materials. The beam will desorb molecular compounds from the sample and excite ions (atoms and molecules with a net electric charge) to be ingested into the mass spectrometer which the scientists can use to detect what that sample is comprised of,” he said.

    The laser is exciting because it is flying on a New Frontiers mission, Mullin said. The New Frontiers program is a NASA initiative that aims to fund missions that will explore parts of the solar system that are considered high priorities in planetary science.

    “We’ve sent a probe to Titan in the past, but this instrument and this mission is destined to solve a lot of the mysteries involved with this really interesting moon following on previous exploration,” Mullin said. “And to see if this moon could potentially harbor any form of life would be very interesting.”

    However, extremely cold temperatures and methane in Titan’s atmosphere and on its surface pose obstacles.

    “How do you get a laser there and how do you get it to work there?” Coyle said. “Those are the two challenges.”

    It is critical that the instrument is as small as possible and that the weight and energy consumption is minimized. On top of that, lasers need the perfect conditions to work properly.

    “You’re like balancing an egg on its end, it always wants to not work. You’re harnessing photons (particles of light) to do what you want — that’s very hard,” Coyle said.

    This is why the SLAC helps. Without SLAC, producing the laser would involve a lot of moving between buildings with separate teams working on it.

    “It helps having a central location where we can do the optics bonding, the cleaning assembly, all the infrastructure here — it’s great,” Coyle said.

    In addition to its work on Dragonfly, NASA-designed lasers, contributions to the ESA-led LISA mission, will be built in the lab. LISA will be the first space-based observatory of space-time waves, called gravitational waves. ESA looks to test Einstein’s theory of gravity by measuring gravitational waves in space generated by extremely violent events like black hole collisions.

    “The SLAC is a perfect place for us to build the LISA lasers,” Anthony Yu, the product development lead for the LISA laser, said. “The LISA lasers have many stringent requirements and we need to set up in-situ test stations to verify the laser performance during the build process. The SLAC allows us to set up specialized test stations for testing the laser real-time and also when it undergoes thermal vacuum cycling tests after it is assembled.”

    Paul Stysley, Goddard’s associate branch head of laser and electro-optics, and product development lead for the DraMS laser, said the heart and soul of SLAC is in the way it streamlines the technology development and production of lasers.

    “What makes the SLAC unique is having a centralized location to develop, build and test space-flight laser systems,” Stysley said. “A product flow and infrastructure are in place to develop, environmentally test and monitor a laser design from cradle to grave for a space-flight mission leading to significant reduction of technical risk and cost.”

    Mullin said working on Dragonfly and with the team has been amazing.

    “The real pleasure and the exciting part has been working with some of the best engineers and scientists in the world on this project,” Mullin said. “I remember watching the Discovery Channel about future exploration to outer moons like Europa or Titan, but I never really imagined that I’d be on one of the teams helping explore it.”

    See the full article here.


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    NASA/Goddard Campus

    NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (US) is home to the nation’s largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

    Named for American rocketry pioneer Dr. Robert H. Goddard, the center was established in 1959 as NASA’s first space flight complex. Goddard and its several facilities are critical in carrying out NASA’s missions of space exploration and scientific discovery.

    GSFC also operates two spaceflight tracking and data acquisition networks (the NASA Deep Space Network(US) and the Near Earth Network); develops and maintains advanced space and Earth science data information systems, and develops satellite systems for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration(US) .

    GSFC manages operations for many NASA and international missions including the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope; the Explorers Program; the Discovery Program; the Earth Observing System; INTEGRAL; MAVEN; OSIRIS-REx; the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory ; the Solar Dynamics Observatory; Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System ; Fermi; and Swift. Past missions managed by GSFC include the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, SMM, COBE, IUE, and ROSAT. Typically, unmanned Earth observation missions and observatories in Earth orbit are managed by GSFC, while unmanned planetary missions are managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California(US).

    Goddard is one of four centers built by NASA since its founding on July 29, 1958. It is NASA’s first, and oldest, space center. Its original charter was to perform five major functions on behalf of NASA: technology development and fabrication; planning; scientific research; technical operations; and project management. The center is organized into several directorates, each charged with one of these key functions.

    Until May 1, 1959, NASA’s presence in Greenbelt, MD was known as the Beltsville Space Center. It was then renamed the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), after Robert H. Goddard. Its first 157 employees transferred from the United States Navy’s Project Vanguard missile program, but continued their work at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C., while the center was under construction.

    Goddard Space Flight Center contributed to Project Mercury, America’s first manned space flight program. The Center assumed a lead role for the project in its early days and managed the first 250 employees involved in the effort, who were stationed at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. However, the size and scope of Project Mercury soon prompted NASA to build a new Manned Spacecraft Center, now the Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas. Project Mercury’s personnel and activities were transferred there in 1961.

    The Goddard network tracked many early manned and unmanned spacecraft.

    Goddard Space Flight Center remained involved in the manned space flight program, providing computer support and radar tracking of flights through a worldwide network of ground stations called the Spacecraft Tracking and Data Acquisition Network (STDN). However, the Center focused primarily on designing unmanned satellites and spacecraft for scientific research missions. Goddard pioneered several fields of spacecraft development, including modular spacecraft design, which reduced costs and made it possible to repair satellites in orbit. Goddard’s Solar Max satellite, launched in 1980, was repaired by astronauts on the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984. The Hubble Space Telescope, launched in 1990, remains in service and continues to grow in capability thanks to its modular design and multiple servicing missions by the Space Shuttle.

    Today, the center remains involved in each of NASA’s key programs. Goddard has developed more instruments for planetary exploration than any other organization, among them scientific instruments sent to every planet in the Solar System. The center’s contribution to the Earth Science Enterprise includes several spacecraft in the Earth Observing System fleet as well as EOSDIS, a science data collection, processing, and distribution system. For the manned space flight program, Goddard develops tools for use by astronauts during extra-vehicular activity, and operates the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, a spacecraft designed to study the Moon in preparation for future manned exploration.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:53 pm on October 5, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Researchers measure the breakup of a single chemical bond", AFM: atomic force microscopy, , Chemistry, , , The new study contributes to “improving our understanding and control of bond cleavage by atom manipulation.   

    From Princeton University (US) : “Researchers measure the breakup of a single chemical bond” 

    Princeton University

    From Princeton University (US)

    October 4, 2021
    By Molly Sharlach

    1
    Researchers measured the mechanical forces applied to break a bond between carbon monoxide and iron phthalocyanine, which appears as a symmetrical cross in scanning probe microscope images taken before and after the bond rupture. Credit: Pengcheng Chen et al.

    Using advanced microscopy techniques at Princeton University, researchers have recorded the breaking of a single chemical bond between a carbon atom and an iron atom on different molecules.

    The team used a high-resolution atomic force microscope (AFM) operating in a controlled environment at Princeton’s Imaging and Analysis Center. The AFM probe, whose tip ends in a single copper atom, was moved gradually closer to the iron-carbon bond until it was ruptured. The researchers measured the mechanical forces applied at the moment of breakage, which was visible in an image captured by the microscope. A team from Princeton University, The University of Texas-Austin (US) and ExxonMobil reported the results in a paper published Sept. 24 in Nature Communications.

    “It’s an incredible image — being able to actually see a single small molecule on a surface with another one bonded to it is amazing,” said coauthor Craig Arnold, the Susan Dod Brown Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and director of the Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM).

    “The fact that we could characterize that particular bond, both by pulling on it and pushing on it, allows us to understand a lot more about the nature of these kinds of bonds — their strength, how they interact — and this has all sorts of implications, particularly for catalysis, where you have a molecule on a surface and then something interacts with it and causes it to break apart,” said Arnold.

    Nan Yao, a principal investigator of the study and the director of Princeton’s Imaging and Analysis Center, noted that the experiments also revealed insights into how bond breaking affects a catalyst’s interactions with the surface on which it’s adsorbed. Improving the design of chemical catalysts has relevance for biochemistry, materials science and energy technologies, added Yao, who is also a professor of the practice and senior research scholar in PRISM.

    In the experiments, the carbon atom was part of a carbon monoxide molecule and the iron atom was from iron phthalocyanine, a common pigment and chemical catalyst. Iron phthalocyanine is structured like a symmetrical cross, with a single iron atom at the center of a complex of nitrogen- and carbon-based connected rings. The iron atom interacts with the carbon of carbon monoxide, and the iron and carbon share a pair of electrons in a type of covalent bond known as a dative bond.

    Yao and his colleagues used the atomic-scale probe tip of the AFM instrument to break the iron-carbon bond by precisely controlling the distance between the tip and the bonded molecules, down to increments of 5 picometers (5 billionths of a millimeter). The breakage occurred when the tip was 30 picometers above the molecules — a distance that corresponds to about one-sixth the width of a carbon atom. At this height, half of the iron phthalocyanine molecule became blurrier in the AFM image, indicating the rupture point of the chemical bond.

    The researchers used a type of AFM known as non-contact, in which the microscope’s tip does not directly contact the molecules being studied, but instead uses changes in the frequency of fine-scale vibrations to construct an image of the molecules’ surface.

    By measuring these frequency shifts, the researchers were also able to calculate the force needed to break the bond. A standard copper probe tip broke the iron-carbon bond with an attractive force of 150 piconewtons. With another carbon monoxide molecule attached to the tip, the bond was broken by a repulsive force of 220 piconewtons. To delve into the basis for these differences, the team used quantum simulation methods to model changes in the densities of electrons during chemical reactions.

    The work takes advantage of AFM technology first advanced in 2009 to visualize single chemical bonds. The controlled breaking of a chemical bond using an AFM system has been more challenging than similar studies on bond formation.

    “It is a great challenge to improve our understanding of how chemical reactions can be carried out by atom manipulation, that is, with a tip of a scanning probe microscope,” said Leo Gross, who leads the Atom and Molecule Manipulation research group at IBM Research in Zurich, and was the lead author of the 2009 study that first resolved the chemical structure of a molecule by AFM [Science].

    By breaking a particular bond with different tips that use two different mechanisms, the new study contributes to “improving our understanding and control of bond cleavage by atom manipulation. It adds to our toolbox for chemistry by atom manipulation and represents a step forward toward fabricating designed molecules of increasing complexity,” added Gross, who was not involved in the study.

    The experiments are acutely sensitive to external vibrations and other confounding factors. The Imaging and Analysis Center’s specialized AFM instrument is housed in a high-vacuum environment, and the materials are cooled to a temperature of 4 Kelvin, just a few degrees above absolute zero, using liquid helium. These controlled conditions yield precise measurements by ensuring that the molecules’ energy states and interactions are affected only by the experimental manipulations.

    “You need a very good, clean system because this reaction could be very complicated — with so many atoms involved, you might not know which bond you break at such a small scale,” said Yao. “The design of this system simplified the whole process and clarified the unknown” in breaking a chemical bond, he said.

    The study’s lead authors were Pengcheng Chen, an associate research scholar at PRISM, and Dingxin Fan, a Ph.D. student at The University of Texas-Austin (US). In addition to Yao, other corresponding authors were Yunlong Zhang of ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company in Annandale, New Jersey, and James R. Chelikowsky, a professor at UT Austin. Besides Arnold, other Princeton coauthors were Annabella Selloni, the David B. Jones Professor of Chemistry, and Emily Carter, the Gerhard R. Andlinger ’52 Professor in Energy and the Environment. Other coauthors from ExxonMobil were David Dankworth and Steven Rucker.

    This work was supported in part by ExxonMobil through its membership in the Princeton E-ffiliates Partnership of the Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment. Princeton University’s Imaging and Analysis Center is supported in part by the Princeton Center for Complex Materials, a National Science Foundation Materials Research Science and Engineering Center. Additional support was provided by the Welch Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy.

    See the full article here .

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    About Princeton: Overview

    Princeton University (US) is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey (US). Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, then to the current site nine years later. It was renamed Princeton University in 1896.

    Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. It offers professional degrees through the Princeton School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university also manages the DOE’s Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States.

    As of October 2020, 69 Nobel laureates, 15 Fields Medalists and 14 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 5 National Humanities Medal recipients, 215 Rhodes Scholars, 139 Gates Cambridge Scholars and 137 Marshall Scholars. Two U.S. Presidents, twelve U.S. Supreme Court Justices (three of whom currently serve on the court) and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton’s alumni body. Princeton has also graduated many prominent members of the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and the current Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

    Princeton University, founded as the College of New Jersey, was considered the successor of the “Log College” founded by the Reverend William Tennent at Neshaminy, PA in about 1726. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746 in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Its purpose was to train ministers. The college was the educational and religious capital of Scottish Presbyterian America. Unlike Harvard University (US), which was originally “intensely English” with graduates taking the side of the crown during the American Revolution, Princeton was founded to meet the religious needs of the period and many of its graduates took the American side in the war. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor Jonathan Belcher’s interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College. Belcher replied: “What a name that would be!” In 1756, the college moved its campus to Princeton, New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England.

    Following the untimely deaths of Princeton’s first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that post until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college’s focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for secular leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he tightened academic standards and solicited investment in the college. Witherspoon’s presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and particularly the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers briefly occupied Nassau Hall; American forces, led by George Washington, fired cannon on the building to rout them from it.

    In 1812, the eighth president of the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green (1812–23), helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door. The plan to extend the theological curriculum met with “enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey.” Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access.

    Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college’s sole building. The cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754. During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country’s capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires (1802 and 1855), Nassau Hall’s role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory, library, and classroom space; to classroom space exclusively; to its present role as the administrative center of the University. The class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers. Nassau Hall’s bell rang after the hall’s construction; however, the fire of 1802 melted it. The bell was then recast and melted again in the fire of 1855.

    James McCosh became the college’s president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period that had been brought about by the American Civil War. During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, and supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. McCosh Hall is named in his honor.

    In 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877.

    In 1896, the college officially changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college also underwent large expansion and officially became a university. In 1900, the Graduate School was established.

    In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, was elected the 13th president of the university. Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the United States that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest.

    In 1906, the reservoir Carnegie Lake was created by Andrew Carnegie. A collection of historical photographs of the building of the lake is housed at the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library on Princeton’s campus. On October 2, 1913, the Princeton University Graduate College was dedicated. In 1919 the School of Architecture was established. In 1933, Albert Einstein became a lifetime member of the Institute for Advanced Study with an office on the Princeton campus. While always independent of the university, the Institute for Advanced Study occupied offices in Jones Hall for 6 years, from its opening in 1933, until its own campus was finished and opened in 1939.

    Coeducation

    In 1969, Princeton University first admitted women as undergraduates. In 1887, the university actually maintained and staffed a sister college, Evelyn College for Women, in the town of Princeton on Evelyn and Nassau streets. It was closed after roughly a decade of operation. After abortive discussions with Sarah Lawrence College to relocate the women’s college to Princeton and merge it with the University in 1967, the administration decided to admit women and turned to the issue of transforming the school’s operations and facilities into a female-friendly campus. The administration had barely finished these plans in April 1969 when the admissions office began mailing out its acceptance letters. Its five-year coeducation plan provided $7.8 million for the development of new facilities that would eventually house and educate 650 women students at Princeton by 1974. Ultimately, 148 women, consisting of 100 freshmen and transfer students of other years, entered Princeton on September 6, 1969 amidst much media attention. Princeton enrolled its first female graduate student, Sabra Follett Meservey, as a PhD candidate in Turkish history in 1961. A handful of undergraduate women had studied at Princeton from 1963 on, spending their junior year there to study “critical languages” in which Princeton’s offerings surpassed those of their home institutions. They were considered regular students for their year on campus, but were not candidates for a Princeton degree.

    As a result of a 1979 lawsuit by Sally Frank, Princeton’s eating clubs were required to go coeducational in 1991, after Tiger Inn’s appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court was denied. In 1987, the university changed the gendered lyrics of “Old Nassau” to reflect the school’s co-educational student body. From 2009 to 2011, Princeton professor Nannerl O. Keohane chaired a committee on undergraduate women’s leadership at the university, appointed by President Shirley M. Tilghman.

    The main campus sits on about 500 acres (2.0 km^2) in Princeton. In 2011, the main campus was named by Travel+Leisure as one of the most beautiful in the United States. The James Forrestal Campus is split between nearby Plainsboro and South Brunswick. The University also owns some property in West Windsor Township. The campuses are situated about one hour from both New York City and Philadelphia.

    The first building on campus was Nassau Hall, completed in 1756 and situated on the northern edge of campus facing Nassau Street. The campus expanded steadily around Nassau Hall during the early and middle 19th century. The McCosh presidency (1868–88) saw the construction of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic and Romanesque Revival styles; many of them are now gone, leaving the remaining few to appear out of place. At the end of the 19th century much of Princeton’s architecture was designed by the Cope and Stewardson firm (same architects who designed a large part of Washington University in St Louis (US) and University of Pennsylvania(US)) resulting in the Collegiate Gothic style for which it is known today. Implemented initially by William Appleton Potter and later enforced by the University’s supervising architect, Ralph Adams Cram, the Collegiate Gothic style remained the standard for all new building on the Princeton campus through 1960. A flurry of construction in the 1960s produced a number of new buildings on the south side of the main campus, many of which have been poorly received. Several prominent architects have contributed some more recent additions, including Frank Gehry (Lewis Library), I. M. Pei (Spelman Halls), Demetri Porphyrios (Whitman College, a Collegiate Gothic project), Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown (Frist Campus Center, among several others), and Rafael Viñoly (Carl Icahn Laboratory).

    A group of 20th-century sculptures scattered throughout the campus forms the Putnam Collection of Sculpture. It includes works by Alexander Calder (Five Disks: One Empty), Jacob Epstein (Albert Einstein), Henry Moore (Oval with Points), Isamu Noguchi (White Sun), and Pablo Picasso (Head of a Woman). Richard Serra’s The Hedgehog and The Fox is located between Peyton and Fine halls next to Princeton Stadium and the Lewis Library.

    At the southern edge of the campus is Carnegie Lake, an artificial lake named for Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie financed the lake’s construction in 1906 at the behest of a friend who was a Princeton alumnus. Carnegie hoped the opportunity to take up rowing would inspire Princeton students to forsake football, which he considered “not gentlemanly.” The Shea Rowing Center on the lake’s shore continues to serve as the headquarters for Princeton rowing.

    Cannon Green

    Buried in the ground at the center of the lawn south of Nassau Hall is the “Big Cannon,” which was left in Princeton by British troops as they fled following the Battle of Princeton. It remained in Princeton until the War of 1812, when it was taken to New Brunswick. In 1836 the cannon was returned to Princeton and placed at the eastern end of town. It was removed to the campus under cover of night by Princeton students in 1838 and buried in its current location in 1840.

    A second “Little Cannon” is buried in the lawn in front of nearby Whig Hall. This cannon, which may also have been captured in the Battle of Princeton, was stolen by students of Rutgers University in 1875. The theft ignited the Rutgers-Princeton Cannon War. A compromise between the presidents of Princeton and Rutgers ended the war and forced the return of the Little Cannon to Princeton. The protruding cannons are occasionally painted scarlet by Rutgers students who continue the traditional dispute.

    In years when the Princeton football team beats the teams of both Harvard University and Yale University in the same season, Princeton celebrates with a bonfire on Cannon Green. This occurred in 2012, ending a five-year drought. The next bonfire happened on November 24, 2013, and was broadcast live over the Internet.

    Landscape

    Princeton’s grounds were designed by Beatrix Farrand between 1912 and 1943. Her contributions were most recently recognized with the naming of a courtyard for her. Subsequent changes to the landscape were introduced by Quennell Rothschild & Partners in 2000. In 2005, Michael Van Valkenburgh was hired as the new consulting landscape architect for the campus. Lynden B. Miller was invited to work with him as Princeton’s consulting gardening architect, focusing on the 17 gardens that are distributed throughout the campus.

    Buildings

    Nassau Hall

    Nassau Hall is the oldest building on campus. Begun in 1754 and completed in 1756, it was the first seat of the New Jersey Legislature in 1776, was involved in the battle of Princeton in 1777, and was the seat of the Congress of the Confederation (and thus capitol of the United States) from June 30, 1783, to November 4, 1783. It now houses the office of the university president and other administrative offices, and remains the symbolic center of the campus. The front entrance is flanked by two bronze tigers, a gift of the Princeton Class of 1879. Commencement is held on the front lawn of Nassau Hall in good weather. In 1966, Nassau Hall was added to the National Register of Historic Places.

    Residential colleges

    Princeton has six undergraduate residential colleges, each housing approximately 500 freshmen, sophomores, some juniors and seniors, and a handful of junior and senior resident advisers. Each college consists of a set of dormitories, a dining hall, a variety of other amenities—such as study spaces, libraries, performance spaces, and darkrooms—and a collection of administrators and associated faculty. Two colleges, First College and Forbes College (formerly Woodrow Wilson College and Princeton Inn College, respectively), date to the 1970s; three others, Rockefeller, Mathey, and Butler Colleges, were created in 1983 following the Committee on Undergraduate Residential Life (CURL) report, which suggested the institution of residential colleges as a solution to an allegedly fragmented campus social life. The construction of Whitman College, the university’s sixth residential college, was completed in 2007.

    Rockefeller and Mathey are located in the northwest corner of the campus; Princeton brochures often feature their Collegiate Gothic architecture. Like most of Princeton’s Gothic buildings, they predate the residential college system and were fashioned into colleges from individual dormitories.

    First and Butler, located south of the center of the campus, were built in the 1960s. First served as an early experiment in the establishment of the residential college system. Butler, like Rockefeller and Mathey, consisted of a collection of ordinary dorms (called the “New New Quad”) before the addition of a dining hall made it a residential college. Widely disliked for their edgy modernist design, including “waffle ceilings,” the dormitories on the Butler Quad were demolished in 2007. Butler is now reopened as a four-year residential college, housing both under- and upperclassmen.

    Forbes is located on the site of the historic Princeton Inn, a gracious hotel overlooking the Princeton golf course. The Princeton Inn, originally constructed in 1924, played regular host to important symposia and gatherings of renowned scholars from both the university and the nearby Institute for Advanced Study for many years. Forbes currently houses nearly 500 undergraduates in its residential halls.

    In 2003, Princeton broke ground for a sixth college named Whitman College after its principal sponsor, Meg Whitman, who graduated from Princeton in 1977. The new dormitories were constructed in the Collegiate Gothic architectural style and were designed by architect Demetri Porphyrios. Construction finished in 2007, and Whitman College was inaugurated as Princeton’s sixth residential college that same year.

    The precursor of the present college system in America was originally proposed by university president Woodrow Wilson in the early 20th century. For over 800 years, however, the collegiate system had already existed in Britain at Cambridge and Oxford Universities. Wilson’s model was much closer to Yale University (US)’s present system, which features four-year colleges. Lacking the support of the trustees, the plan languished until 1968. That year, Wilson College was established to cap a series of alternatives to the eating clubs. Fierce debates raged before the present residential college system emerged. The plan was first attempted at Yale, but the administration was initially uninterested; an exasperated alumnus, Edward Harkness, finally paid to have the college system implemented at Harvard in the 1920s, leading to the oft-quoted aphorism that the college system is a Princeton idea that was executed at Harvard with funding from Yale.

    Princeton has one graduate residential college, known simply as the Graduate College, located beyond Forbes College at the outskirts of campus. The far-flung location of the GC was the spoil of a squabble between Woodrow Wilson and then-Graduate School Dean Andrew Fleming West. Wilson preferred a central location for the college; West wanted the graduate students as far as possible from the campus. Ultimately, West prevailed. The Graduate College is composed of a large Collegiate Gothic section crowned by Cleveland Tower, a local landmark that also houses a world-class carillon. The attached New Graduate College provides a modern contrast in architectural style.

    McCarter Theatre

    The Tony-award-winning McCarter Theatre was built by the Princeton Triangle Club, a student performance group, using club profits and a gift from Princeton University alumnus Thomas McCarter. Today, the Triangle Club performs its annual freshmen revue, fall show, and Reunions performances in McCarter. McCarter is also recognized as one of the leading regional theaters in the United States.

    Art Museum

    The Princeton University Art Museum was established in 1882 to give students direct, intimate, and sustained access to original works of art that complement and enrich instruction and research at the university. This continues to be a primary function, along with serving as a community resource and a destination for national and international visitors.

    Numbering over 92,000 objects, the collections range from ancient to contemporary art and concentrate geographically on the Mediterranean regions, Western Europe, China, the United States, and Latin America. There is a collection of Greek and Roman antiquities, including ceramics, marbles, bronzes, and Roman mosaics from faculty excavations in Antioch. Medieval Europe is represented by sculpture, metalwork, and stained glass. The collection of Western European paintings includes examples from the early Renaissance through the 19th century, with masterpieces by Monet, Cézanne, and Van Gogh, and features a growing collection of 20th-century and contemporary art, including iconic paintings such as Andy Warhol’s Blue Marilyn.

    One of the best features of the museums is its collection of Chinese art, with important holdings in bronzes, tomb figurines, painting, and calligraphy. Its collection of pre-Columbian art includes examples of Mayan art, and is commonly considered to be the most important collection of pre-Columbian art outside of Latin America. The museum has collections of old master prints and drawings and a comprehensive collection of over 27,000 original photographs. African art and Northwest Coast Indian art are also represented. The Museum also oversees the outdoor Putnam Collection of Sculpture.

    University Chapel

    The Princeton University Chapel is located on the north side of campus, near Nassau Street. It was built between 1924 and 1928, at a cost of $2.3 million [approximately $34.2 million in 2020 dollars]. Ralph Adams Cram, the University’s supervising architect, designed the chapel, which he viewed as the crown jewel for the Collegiate Gothic motif he had championed for the campus. At the time of its construction, it was the second largest university chapel in the world, after King’s College Chapel, Cambridge. It underwent a two-year, $10 million restoration campaign between 2000 and 2002.

    Measured on the exterior, the chapel is 277 feet (84 m) long, 76 feet (23 m) wide at its transepts, and 121 feet (37 m) high. The exterior is Pennsylvania sandstone, with Indiana limestone used for the trim. The interior is mostly limestone and Aquia Creek sandstone. The design evokes an English church of the Middle Ages. The extensive iconography, in stained glass, stonework, and wood carvings, has the common theme of connecting religion and scholarship.

    The Chapel seats almost 2,000. It hosts weekly ecumenical Christian services, daily Roman Catholic mass, and several annual special events.

    Murray-Dodge Hall

    Murray-Dodge Hall houses the Office of Religious Life (ORL), the Murray Dodge Theater, the Murray-Dodge Café, the Muslim Prayer Room and the Interfaith Prayer Room. The ORL houses the office of the Dean of Religious Life, Alison Boden, and a number of university chaplains, including the country’s first Hindu chaplain, Vineet Chander; and one of the country’s first Muslim chaplains, Sohaib Sultan.

    Sustainability

    Published in 2008, Princeton’s Sustainability Plan highlights three priority areas for the University’s Office of Sustainability: reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; conservation of resources; and research, education, and civic engagement. Princeton has committed to reducing its carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels by 2020: Energy without the purchase of offsets. The University published its first Sustainability Progress Report in November 2009. The University has adopted a green purchasing policy and recycling program that focuses on paper products, construction materials, lightbulbs, furniture, and electronics. Its dining halls have set a goal to purchase 75% sustainable food products by 2015. The student organization “Greening Princeton” seeks to encourage the University administration to adopt environmentally friendly policies on campus.

    Organization

    The Trustees of Princeton University, a 40-member board, is responsible for the overall direction of the University. It approves the operating and capital budgets, supervises the investment of the University’s endowment and oversees campus real estate and long-range physical planning. The trustees also exercise prior review and approval concerning changes in major policies, such as those in instructional programs and admission, as well as tuition and fees and the hiring of faculty members.

    With an endowment of $26.1 billion, Princeton University is among the wealthiest universities in the world. Ranked in 2010 as the third largest endowment in the United States, the university had the greatest per-student endowment in the world (over $2 million for undergraduates) in 2011. Such a significant endowment is sustained through the continued donations of its alumni and is maintained by investment advisers. Some of Princeton’s wealth is invested in its art museum, which features works by Claude Monet, Vincent van Gogh, Jackson Pollock, and Andy Warhol among other prominent artists.

    Academics

    Undergraduates fulfill general education requirements, choose among a wide variety of elective courses, and pursue departmental concentrations and interdisciplinary certificate programs. Required independent work is a hallmark of undergraduate education at Princeton. Students graduate with either the Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) or the Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.S.E.).

    The graduate school offers advanced degrees spanning the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering. Doctoral education is available in most disciplines. It emphasizes original and independent scholarship whereas master’s degree programs in architecture, engineering, finance, and public affairs and public policy prepare candidates for careers in public life and professional practice.

    The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University (US).

    Undergraduate

    Undergraduate courses in the humanities are traditionally either seminars or lectures held 2 or 3 times a week with an additional discussion seminar that is called a “precept.” To graduate, all A.B. candidates must complete a senior thesis and, in most departments, one or two extensive pieces of independent research that are known as “junior papers.” Juniors in some departments, including architecture and the creative arts, complete independent projects that differ from written research papers. A.B. candidates must also fulfill a three or four semester foreign language requirement and distribution requirements (which include, for example, classes in ethics, literature and the arts, and historical analysis) with a total of 31 classes. B.S.E. candidates follow a parallel track with an emphasis on a rigorous science and math curriculum, a computer science requirement, and at least two semesters of independent research including an optional senior thesis. All B.S.E. students must complete at least 36 classes. A.B. candidates typically have more freedom in course selection than B.S.E. candidates because of the fewer number of required classes. Nonetheless, in the spirit of a liberal arts education, both enjoy a comparatively high degree of latitude in creating a self-structured curriculum.

    Undergraduates agree to adhere to an academic integrity policy called the Honor Code, established in 1893. Under the Honor Code, faculty do not proctor examinations; instead, the students proctor one another and must report any suspected violation to an Honor Committee made up of undergraduates. The Committee investigates reported violations and holds a hearing if it is warranted. An acquittal at such a hearing results in the destruction of all records of the hearing; a conviction results in the student’s suspension or expulsion. The signed pledge required by the Honor Code is so integral to students’ academic experience that the Princeton Triangle Club performs a song about it each fall. Out-of-class exercises fall under the jurisdiction of the Faculty-Student Committee on Discipline. Undergraduates are expected to sign a pledge on their written work affirming that they have not plagiarized the work.

    Graduate

    The Graduate School has about 2,600 students in 42 academic departments and programs in social sciences; engineering; natural sciences; and humanities. These departments include the Department of Psychology; Department of History; and Department of Economics.

    In 2017–2018, it received nearly 11,000 applications for admission and accepted around 1,000 applicants. The University also awarded 319 Ph.D. degrees and 170 final master’s degrees. Princeton has no medical school, law school, business school, or school of education. (A short-lived Princeton Law School folded in 1852.) It offers professional graduate degrees in architecture; engineering; finance and public policy- the last through the Princeton School of Public and International Affairs founded in 1930 as the School of Public and International Affairs and renamed in 1948 after university president (and U.S. president) Woodrow Wilson, and most recently renamed in 2020.

    Libraries

    The Princeton University Library system houses over eleven million holdings including seven million bound volumes. The main university library, Firestone Library, which houses almost four million volumes, is one of the largest university libraries in the world. Additionally, it is among the largest “open stack” libraries in existence. Its collections include the autographed manuscript of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby and George F. Kennan’s Long Telegram. In addition to Firestone library, specialized libraries exist for architecture, art and archaeology, East Asian studies, engineering, music, public and international affairs, public policy and university archives, and the sciences. In an effort to expand access, these libraries also subscribe to thousands of electronic resources.

    Institutes

    High Meadows Environmental Institute

    The High Meadows Environmental Institute is an “interdisciplinary center of environmental research, education, and outreach” at the university. The institute was started in 1994. About 90 faculty members at Princeton University are affiliated with it.

    The High Meadows Environmental Institute has the following research centers:

    Carbon Mitigation Initiative (CMI): This is a 15-year-long partnership between PEI and British Petroleum with the goal of finding solutions to problems related to climate change. The Stabilization Wedge Game has been created as part of this initiative.
    Center for BioComplexity (CBC)
    Cooperative Institute for Climate Science (CICS): This is a collaboration with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration’s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory.
    Energy Systems Analysis Group
    Grand Challenges

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PPPL, was founded in 1951 as Project Matterhorn, a top secret cold war project aimed at achieving controlled nuclear fusion. Princeton astrophysics professor Lyman Spitzer became the first director of the project and remained director until the lab’s declassification in 1961 when it received its current name.

    PPPL currently houses approximately half of the graduate astrophysics department, the Princeton Program in Plasma Physics. The lab is also home to the Harold P. Furth Plasma Physics Library. The library contains all declassified Project Matterhorn documents, included the first design sketch of a stellarator by Lyman Spitzer.

    Princeton is one of five US universities to have and to operate a Department of Energy(US) national laboratory.

    Student life and culture

    University housing is guaranteed to all undergraduates for all four years. More than 98% of students live on campus in dormitories. Freshmen and sophomores must live in residential colleges, while juniors and seniors typically live in designated upperclassman dormitories. The actual dormitories are comparable, but only residential colleges have dining halls. Nonetheless, any undergraduate may purchase a meal plan and eat in a residential college dining hall. Recently, upperclassmen have been given the option of remaining in their college for all four years. Juniors and seniors also have the option of living off-campus, but high rent in the Princeton area encourages almost all students to live in university housing. Undergraduate social life revolves around the residential colleges and a number of coeducational eating clubs, which students may choose to join in the spring of their sophomore year. Eating clubs, which are not officially affiliated with the university, serve as dining halls and communal spaces for their members and also host social events throughout the academic year.

    Princeton’s six residential colleges host a variety of social events and activities, guest speakers, and trips. The residential colleges also sponsor trips to New York for undergraduates to see ballets, operas, Broadway shows, sports events, and other activities. The eating clubs, located on Prospect Avenue, are co-ed organizations for upperclassmen. Most upperclassmen eat their meals at one of the eleven eating clubs. Additionally, the clubs serve as evening and weekend social venues for members and guests. The eleven clubs are Cannon; Cap and Gown; Charter; Cloister; Colonial; Cottage; Ivy; Quadrangle; Terrace; Tiger; and Tower.

    Princeton hosts two Model United Nations conferences, PMUNC in the fall for high school students and PDI in the spring for college students. It also hosts the Princeton Invitational Speech and Debate tournament each year at the end of November. Princeton also runs Princeton Model Congress, an event that is held once a year in mid-November. The four-day conference has high school students from around the country as participants.

    Although the school’s admissions policy is need-blind, Princeton, based on the proportion of students who receive Pell Grants, was ranked as a school with little economic diversity among all national universities ranked by U.S. News & World Report. While Pell figures are widely used as a gauge of the number of low-income undergraduates on a given campus, the rankings article cautions “the proportion of students on Pell Grants isn’t a perfect measure of an institution’s efforts to achieve economic diversity,” but goes on to say that “still, many experts say that Pell figures are the best available gauge of how many low-income undergrads there are on a given campus.”

    TigerTrends is a university-based student run fashion, arts, and lifestyle magazine.

    Demographics

    Princeton has made significant progress in expanding the diversity of its student body in recent years. The 2019 freshman class was one of the most diverse in the school’s history, with 61% of students identifying as students of color. Undergraduate and master’s students were 51% male and 49% female for the 2018–19 academic year.

    The median family income of Princeton students is $186,100, with 57% of students coming from the top 10% highest-earning families and 14% from the bottom 60%.

    In 1999, 10% of the student body was Jewish, a percentage lower than those at other Ivy League schools. Sixteen percent of the student body was Jewish in 1985; the number decreased by 40% from 1985 to 1999. This decline prompted The Daily Princetonian to write a series of articles on the decline and its reasons. Caroline C. Pam of The New York Observer wrote that Princeton was “long dogged by a reputation for anti-Semitism” and that this history as well as Princeton’s elite status caused the university and its community to feel sensitivity towards the decrease of Jewish students. At the time many Jewish students at Princeton dated Jewish students at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia because they perceived Princeton as an environment where it was difficult to find romantic prospects; Pam stated that there was a theory that the dating issues were a cause of the decline in Jewish students.

    In 1981, the population of African Americans at Princeton University made up less than 10%. Bruce M. Wright was admitted into the university in 1936 as the first African American, however, his admission was a mistake and when he got to campus he was asked to leave. Three years later Wright asked the dean for an explanation on his dismissal and the dean suggested to him that “a member of your race might feel very much alone” at Princeton University.

    Traditions

    Princeton enjoys a wide variety of campus traditions, some of which, like the Clapper Theft and Nude Olympics, have faded into history:

    Arch Sings – Late-night concerts that feature one or several of Princeton’s undergraduate a cappella groups, such as the Princeton Nassoons; Princeton Tigertones; Princeton Footnotes; Princeton Roaring 20; and The Princeton Wildcats. The free concerts take place in one of the larger arches on campus. Most are held in Blair Arch or Class of 1879 Arch.

    Bonfire – Ceremonial bonfire that takes place in Cannon Green behind Nassau Hall. It is held only if Princeton beats both Harvard University and Yale University at football in the same season. The most recent bonfire was lighted on November 18, 2018.

    Bicker – Selection process for new members that is employed by selective eating clubs. Prospective members, or bickerees, are required to perform a variety of activities at the request of current members.

    Cane Spree – An athletic competition between freshmen and sophomores that is held in the fall. The event centers on cane wrestling, where a freshman and a sophomore will grapple for control of a cane. This commemorates a time in the 1870s when sophomores, angry with the freshmen who strutted around with fancy canes, stole all of the canes from the freshmen, hitting them with their own canes in the process.

    The Clapper or Clapper Theft – The act of climbing to the top of Nassau Hall to steal the bell clapper, which rings to signal the start of classes on the first day of the school year. For safety reasons, the clapper has been removed permanently.

    Class Jackets (Beer Jackets) – Each graduating class designs a Class Jacket that features its class year. The artwork is almost invariably dominated by the school colors and tiger motifs.

    Communiversity – An annual street fair with performances, arts and crafts, and other activities that attempts to foster interaction between the university community and the residents of Princeton.

    Dean’s Date – The Tuesday at the end of each semester when all written work is due. This day signals the end of reading period and the beginning of final examinations. Traditionally, undergraduates gather outside McCosh Hall before the 5:00 PM deadline to cheer on fellow students who have left their work to the very last minute.

    FitzRandolph Gates – At the end of Princeton’s graduation ceremony, the new graduates process out through the main gate of the university as a symbol of the fact that they are leaving college. According to tradition, anyone who exits campus through the FitzRandolph Gates before his or her own graduation date will not graduate.

    Holder Howl – The midnight before Dean’s Date, students from Holder Hall and elsewhere gather in the Holder courtyard and take part in a minute-long, communal primal scream to vent frustration from studying with impromptu, late night noise making.

    Houseparties – Formal parties that are held simultaneously by all of the eating clubs at the end of the spring term.

    Ivy stones – Class memorial stones placed on the exterior walls of academic buildings around the campus.

    Lawnparties – Parties that feature live bands that are held simultaneously by all of the eating clubs at the start of classes and at the conclusion of the academic year.

    Princeton Locomotive – Traditional cheer in use since the 1890s. It is commonly heard at Opening Exercises in the fall as alumni and current students welcome the freshman class, as well as the P-rade in the spring at Princeton Reunions. The cheer starts slowly and picks up speed, and includes the sounds heard at a fireworks show.

    Hip! Hip!
    Rah, Rah, Rah,
    Tiger, Tiger, Tiger,
    Sis, Sis, Sis,
    Boom, Boom, Boom, Ah!
    Princeton! Princeton! Princeton!

    Or if a class is being celebrated, the last line consists of the class year repeated three times, e.g. “Eighty-eight! Eighty-eight! Eighty-eight!”

    Newman’s Day – Students attempt to drink 24 beers in the 24 hours of April 24. According to The New York Times, “the day got its name from an apocryphal quote attributed to Paul Newman: ’24 beers in a case, 24 hours in a day. Coincidence? I think not.'” Newman had spoken out against the tradition, however.

    Nude Olympics – Annual nude and partially nude frolic in Holder Courtyard that takes place during the first snow of the winter. Started in the early 1970s, the Nude Olympics went co-educational in 1979 and gained much notoriety with the American press. For safety reasons, the administration banned the Olympics in 2000 to the chagrin of students.

    Prospect 11 – The act of drinking a beer at all 11 eating clubs in a single night.

    P-rade – Traditional parade of alumni and their families. They process through campus by class year during Reunions.

    Reunions – Massive annual gathering of alumni held the weekend before graduation.

    Athletics

    Princeton supports organized athletics at three levels: varsity intercollegiate, club intercollegiate, and intramural. It also provides “a variety of physical education and recreational programs” for members of the Princeton community. According to the athletics program’s mission statement, Princeton aims for its students who participate in athletics to be “‘student athletes’ in the fullest sense of the phrase. Most undergraduates participate in athletics at some level.

    Princeton’s colors are orange and black. The school’s athletes are known as Tigers, and the mascot is a tiger. The Princeton administration considered naming the mascot in 2007, but the effort was dropped in the face of alumni opposition.

    Varsity

    Princeton is an NCAA Division I school. Its athletic conference is the Ivy League. Princeton hosts 38 men’s and women’s varsity sports. The largest varsity sport is rowing, with almost 150 athletes.

    Princeton’s football team has a long and storied history. Princeton played against Rutgers University in the first intercollegiate football game in the U.S. on Nov 6, 1869. By a score of 6–4, Rutgers won the game, which was played by rules similar to modern rugby. Today Princeton is a member of the Football Championship Subdivision of NCAA Division I. As of the end of the 2010 season, Princeton had won 26 national football championships, more than any other school.

    Club and intramural

    In addition to varsity sports, Princeton hosts about 35 club sports teams. Princeton’s rugby team is organized as a club sport. Princeton’s sailing team is also a club sport, though it competes at the varsity level in the MAISA conference of the Inter-Collegiate Sailing Association.

    Each year, nearly 300 teams participate in intramural sports at Princeton. Intramurals are open to members of Princeton’s faculty, staff, and students, though a team representing a residential college or eating club must consist only of members of that college or club. Several leagues with differing levels of competitiveness are available.

    Songs

    Notable among a number of songs commonly played and sung at various events such as commencement, convocation, and athletic games is Princeton Cannon Song, the Princeton University fight song.

    Bob Dylan wrote Day of The Locusts (for his 1970 album New Morning) about his experience of receiving an honorary doctorate from the University. It is a reference to the negative experience he had and it mentions the Brood X cicada infestation Princeton experienced that June 1970.

    “Old Nassau”

    Old Nassau has been Princeton University’s anthem since 1859. Its words were written that year by a freshman, Harlan Page Peck, and published in the March issue of the Nassau Literary Review (the oldest student publication at Princeton and also the second oldest undergraduate literary magazine in the country). The words and music appeared together for the first time in Songs of Old Nassau, published in April 1859. Before the Langlotz tune was written, the song was sung to Auld Lang Syne’s melody, which also fits.

    However, Old Nassau does not only refer to the university’s anthem. It can also refer to Nassau Hall, the building that was built in 1756 and named after William III of the House of Orange-Nassau. When built, it was the largest college building in North America. It served briefly as the capitol of the United States when the Continental Congress convened there in the summer of 1783. By metonymy, the term can refer to the university as a whole. Finally, it can also refer to a chemical reaction that is dubbed “Old Nassau reaction” because the solution turns orange and then black.
    Princeton Shield

     
  • richardmitnick 10:09 pm on September 29, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "University of Chicago scientists create material that can both move and block heat", , Chemistry, Moving heat around where you want it to go—adding it to houses and hairdryers-removing it from car engines and refrigerators—is one of the great challenges of engineering., , Scientists stacked ultra-thin layers of crystalline sheets on top of each other-but rotate each layer slightly-creating a material with atoms that are aligned in only one direction .,   

    From University of Chicago (US): “University of Chicago scientists create material that can both move and block heat” 

    U Chicago bloc

    From University of Chicago (US)

    Sep 29, 2021
    Louise Lerner

    Unusual material could improve the reliability of electronics and other devices

    1
    Random twists between layers of crystalline sheets block heat going through the layers, but still maintain good heat flow along the sheets. Researchers measure an astonishing factor of 900 in the difference in heat flow. Image by Neuroncollective.com (Daniel Spacek, Pavel Jirak) / Chalmers University of Technology[ tekniska högskola ](SE).

    Moving heat around where you want it to go—adding it to houses and hairdryers-removing it from car engines and refrigerators—is one of the great challenges of engineering.

    All activity generates heat, because energy escapes from everything we do. But too much can wear out batteries and electronic components—like parts in an aging laptop that runs too hot to actually sit on your lap. If you can’t get rid of heat, you’ve got a problem.

    Scientists at the University of Chicago have invented a new way to funnel heat around at the microscopic level: a thermal insulator made using an innovative technique. They stack ultra-thin layers of crystalline sheets on top of each other-but rotate each layer slightly-creating a material with atoms that are aligned in one direction but not in the other.

    “Think of a partly-finished Rubik’s cube, with layers all rotated in random directions,” said Shi En Kim, a graduate student with the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering who is the first author of the study. “What that means is that within each layer of the crystal, we still have an ordered lattice of atoms, but if you move to the neighboring layer, you have no idea where the next atoms will be relative to the previous layer—the atoms are completely messy along this direction.”

    The result is a material that is extremely good at both containing heat and moving it, albeit in different directions—an unusual ability at the microscale, and one that could have very useful applications in electronics and other technology.

    “The combination of excellent heat conductivity in one direction and excellent insulation in the other direction does not exist at all in nature,” said study lead author Jiwoong Park, professor of chemistry and molecular engineering at the University of Chicago. “We hope this could open up an entirely new direction for making novel materials.”

    “Just amazingly low”

    Scientists are constantly on the search for materials with unusual properties, because they can unlock completely new capabilities for devices such as electronics, sensors, medical technology or solar cells. For example, MRI machines were made possible by the discovery of a strange material that can perfectly conduct electricity.

    Park’s group had been investigating ways to make extremely thin layers of materials, which are just a few atoms thick. Normally, the materials used for devices are made up of extremely regular, repeating lattices of atoms, which makes it very easy for electricity (and heat) to move through the material. But the scientists wondered what would happen if they instead rotated each successive layer slightly as they stacked them.

    They measured the results and found that a microscopic wall made of this material was extremely good at preventing heat from moving between compartments. “The thermal conductivity is just amazingly low—as low as air, which is still one of the best insulators we know,” said Park. “That in itself is surprising, because it’s very unusual to find that property in a material that is a dense solid—those tend to be good heat conductors.”

    But the point that was really exciting for the scientists was when they measured the material’s ability to transport heat along the wall, and found it could do so very easily.

    Those two properties in combination could be very useful. For example, making computer chips smaller and smaller results in more and more power running through a small space, creating an environment with a high “power density”—a dangerous hotspot, said Kim.

    “You’re basically baking your electronic devices at power levels as if you are putting them in a microwave oven,” she said. “One of the biggest challenges in electronics is to take care of heat at that scale, because some components of electronics are very unstable at high temperatures.

    “But if we can use a material that can both conduct heat and insulate heat at the same time in different directions, we can siphon heat away from the heat source—such as the battery—while avoiding the more fragile parts of the device.”

    That capability could open doors to experiment with materials that have been too heat-sensitive for engineers to use in electronics. In addition, creating an extreme thermal gradient—where something is very hot on one side and cool on the other—is difficult to do, particularly at such small scales, but could have many applications in technology.

    “If you think of what the windowpane did for us—being able to keep the outside and inside temperatures separate—you can get a sense of how useful this could be,” Park said.

    The scientists only tested their layering technique in one material, called molybdenum disulfide, but think this mechanism should be general across many others. “I hope this opens up a whole new direction for making exotic thermal conductors,” Kim said.

    The research used the University of Chicago Materials Research Science and Engineering Center and the Pritzker Nanofabrication Facility.

    Other coauthors were UChicago graduate students Fauzia Mujid and Preeti Poddar; postdoctoral fellows Chibeom Park (now at Samsung Electronics Semiconductor Research Center), Joonki Suh (now at UNIST) and Yu Zhong; as well as David Cahill and Akash Rai with the University of The Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (US), Paul Erhart, Fredrik Eriksson, and Erik Fransson with the Chalmers University of Technology[ tekniska högskola ](SE), and David Muller and Ariana Ray with Cornell University (US).

    Science paper:
    Nature

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Chicago Campus

    The The University of Chicago (US) is an urban research university that has driven new ways of thinking since 1890. Our commitment to free and open inquiry draws inspired scholars to our global campuses, where ideas are born that challenge and change the world.

    We empower individuals to challenge conventional thinking in pursuit of original ideas. Students in the College develop critical, analytic, and writing skills in our rigorous, interdisciplinary core curriculum. Through graduate programs, students test their ideas with University of Chicago scholars, and become the next generation of leaders in academia, industry, nonprofits, and government.

    University of Chicago research has led to such breakthroughs as discovering the link between cancer and genetics, establishing revolutionary theories of economics, and developing tools to produce reliably excellent urban schooling. We generate new insights for the benefit of present and future generations with our national and affiliated laboratories: DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory (US), DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts. The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, its main campus is located in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood. It enrolled 16,445 students in Fall 2019, including 6,286 undergraduates and 10,159 graduate students. The University of Chicago is ranked among the top universities in the world by major education publications, and it is among the most selective in the United States.

    The university is composed of one undergraduate college and five graduate research divisions, which contain all of the university’s graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees. Chicago has eight professional schools: the Law School, the Booth School of Business, the Pritzker School of Medicine, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy, the Divinity School, the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies, and the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering. The university has additional campuses and centers in London, Paris, Beijing, Delhi, and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago.

    University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including economics, law, literary criticism, mathematics, religion, sociology, and the behavioralism school of political science, establishing the Chicago schools in various fields. Chicago’s Metallurgical Laboratory produced the world’s first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Chicago Pile-1 beneath the viewing stands of the university’s Stagg Field. Advances in chemistry led to the “radiocarbon revolution” in the carbon-14 dating of ancient life and objects. The university research efforts include administration of DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory(US) and DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory(US), as well as the U Chicago Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts (MBL)(US). The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. The Barack Obama Presidential Center is expected to be housed at the university and will include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.

    The University of Chicago’s students, faculty, and staff have included 100 Nobel laureates as of 2020, giving it the fourth-most affiliated Nobel laureates of any university in the world. The university’s faculty members and alumni also include 10 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award winners, 52 MacArthur Fellows, 26 Marshall Scholars, 27 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 29 living billionaire graduates, and have won eight Olympic medals.

    The University of Chicago is enriched by the city we call home. In partnership with our neighbors, we invest in Chicago’s mid-South Side across such areas as health, education, economic growth, and the arts. Together with our medical center, we are the largest private employer on the South Side.

    In all we do, we are driven to dig deeper, push further, and ask bigger questions—and to leverage our knowledge to enrich all human life. Our diverse and creative students and alumni drive innovation, lead international conversations, and make masterpieces. Alumni and faculty, lecturers and postdocs go on to become Nobel laureates, CEOs, university presidents, attorneys general, literary giants, and astronauts.

    Research

    According to the National Science Foundation (US), University of Chicago spent $423.9 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 60th in the nation. It is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity” and is a founding member of the Association of American Universities (US) and was a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation from 1946 through June 29, 2016, when the group’s name was changed to the Big Ten Academic Alliance. The University of Chicago is not a member of the rebranded consortium, but will continue to be a collaborator.

    The university operates more than 140 research centers and institutes on campus. Among these are the Oriental Institute—a museum and research center for Near Eastern studies owned and operated by the university—and a number of National Resource Centers, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Chicago also operates or is affiliated with several research institutions apart from the university proper. The university manages Argonne National Laboratory, part of the United States Department of Energy’s national laboratory system, and co-manages DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US), a nearby particle physics laboratory, as well as a stake in the Apache Point Observatory (US) in Sunspot, New Mexico.

    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    Apache Point Observatory (US), near Sunspot, New Mexico Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft).
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    Faculty and students at the adjacent Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago collaborate with the university. In 2013, the university formed an affiliation with the formerly independent Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. Although formally unrelated, the National Opinion Research Center (US) is located on Chicago’s campus.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:20 pm on September 29, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "A bigger nursery for the solar system’s first formed solids", , Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in meteorites are the oldest dated solids that formed within the solar system., Chemistry, , Knowing where CAIs formed is crucial for understanding the distribution and evolution of planet-forming dust in the nascent solar system., This research suggests that the oldest solids in our solar system could have formed further away from the sun than previously thought.   

    From DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (US) : “A bigger nursery for the solar system’s first formed solids” 

    From DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (US)

    9.29.21
    Anne M Stark
    stark8@llnl.gov
    925-422-9799

    1
    A piece of carbonaceous chondrite that contains a large calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion similar to those used in this study. Photo by: Quinn Shollenberger/LLNL.

    By studying isotopic variations of the elements vanadium (V) and strontium (Sr), an international team of researchers including scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) found that those variations are not caused by irradiation from the sun but are produced by condensation and evaporation reactions in the early solar system. The research appears in the Sept. 29 edition of Science Advances.

    “It turns out that some of the short-lived radioactive isotopes researchers previously thought were products of irradiation from the early active sun are instead most likely inherited from our parent molecular cloud, which, in turn, tells us a significant amount about the cosmic neighborhood we grew up in,” said LLNL cosmochemist Greg Brennecka, a co-author of the paper.

    Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in meteorites are the oldest dated solids that formed within the solar system. They carry crucial information regarding the environmental conditions of the earliest stages of the protoplanetary disk before any of the planets formed. This research also suggests that the oldest solids in our solar system could have formed further away from the sun than previously thought, with far-reaching implications regarding the dynamical structure of the nascent solar system.

    “Our findings indicate that CAI formation during molecular cloud infall and disk build-up likely occurred at greater distances from the sun that we thought before, potentially up to planet-forming regions of the solar system,” said LLNL postdoc Quinn Shollenberger, a co-author of the paper.

    Astronomical observations of young stellar objects indicate that their surrounding accretionary disks are directly exposed to levels of X-ray and high-energy particle emissions that are orders of magnitude higher than observed for most main sequence stars. However, the duration and characteristics (gradual or impulsive flares) of these early stages of high stellar activity remain poorly understood.

    Anomalous abundances of short-lived radionuclides in CAIs of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites have been suggested to be fossil records of dust irradiation by solar cosmic rays at the inner edge of the protoplanetary disk. But the new research topples that theory. “Knowing where CAIs formed is crucial for us to understand the distribution and evolution of planet-forming dust in the nascent solar system,” said David Bekaert, first author of the study.

    These refractory inclusions are present in objects that formed in various parts of the solar system, and have even been found in comets that formed very far away from the sun. If CAIs originally formed very close to the sun, it tells scientists there was very vigorous and fast mixing throughout the protoplanetary disk. However, if these objects only formed in planet-forming regions further from the sun, as suggested by the recent paper, then far less radial mixing is required to have taken place.

    “Basically, it gives us a feel for how high the blender was turned on. The speed of that blender is important for understanding how material moved around the early solar system, and why the solar system is arranged the way it is (gas giants outside, terrestrial bodies inside),” Brennecka said. “This study greatly relaxes the area in which the first solids of the solar system could have formed.”

    Contributors to this work include LLNL scientist Ben Jacobsen, as well as researchers from The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (US), The University of Münster [Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster] (DE), The University of California-Los Angeles (US), Goethe University [Goethe-Universität] Frankfurt(DE), Durham University (UK) and The Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (US). The research was funded by LLNL’s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration

    DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (US) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California-Berkeley (US) in 1952. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), it is primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a partnership of the University of California, Bechtel, BWX Technologies, AECOM, and Battelle Memorial Institute in affiliation with the Texas A&M University System (US). In 2012, the laboratory had the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it.

    LLNL is self-described as “a premier research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security.” Its principal responsibility is ensuring the safety, security and reliability of the nation’s nuclear weapons through the application of advanced science, engineering and technology. The Laboratory also applies its special expertise and multidisciplinary capabilities to preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction, bolstering homeland security and solving other nationally important problems, including energy and environmental security, basic science and economic competitiveness.

    The Laboratory is located on a one-square-mile (2.6 km^2) site at the eastern edge of Livermore. It also operates a 7,000 acres (28 km2) remote experimental test site, called Site 300, situated about 15 miles (24 km) southeast of the main lab site. LLNL has an annual budget of about $1.5 billion and a staff of roughly 5,800 employees.

    LLNL was established in 1952 as the University of California Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, an offshoot of the existing UC Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. It was intended to spur innovation and provide competition to the nuclear weapon design laboratory at Los Alamos in New Mexico, home of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic weapons. Edward Teller and Ernest Lawrence, director of the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, are regarded as the co-founders of the Livermore facility.

    The new laboratory was sited at a former naval air station of World War II. It was already home to several UC Radiation Laboratory projects that were too large for its location in the Berkeley Hills above the UC campus, including one of the first experiments in the magnetic approach to confined thermonuclear reactions (i.e. fusion). About half an hour southeast of Berkeley, the Livermore site provided much greater security for classified projects than an urban university campus.

    Lawrence tapped 32-year-old Herbert York, a former graduate student of his, to run Livermore. Under York, the Lab had four main programs: Project Sherwood (the magnetic-fusion program), Project Whitney (the weapons-design program), diagnostic weapon experiments (both for the DOE’s Los Alamos National Laboratory(US) and Livermore laboratories), and a basic physics program. York and the new lab embraced the Lawrence “big science” approach, tackling challenging projects with physicists, chemists, engineers, and computational scientists working together in multidisciplinary teams. Lawrence died in August 1958 and shortly after, the university’s board of regents named both laboratories for him, as the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory.

    Historically, the DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (US) and Livermore laboratories have had very close relationships on research projects, business operations, and staff. The Livermore Lab was established initially as a branch of the Berkeley laboratory. The Livermore lab was not officially severed administratively from the Berkeley lab until 1971. To this day, in official planning documents and records, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is designated as Site 100, Lawrence Livermore National Lab as Site 200, and LLNL’s remote test location as Site 300.

    The laboratory was renamed Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) in 1971. On October 1, 2007 LLNS assumed management of LLNL from the University of California, which had exclusively managed and operated the Laboratory since its inception 55 years before. The laboratory was honored in 2012 by having the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it. The LLNS takeover of the laboratory has been controversial. In May 2013, an Alameda County jury awarded over $2.7 million to five former laboratory employees who were among 430 employees LLNS laid off during 2008.The jury found that LLNS breached a contractual obligation to terminate the employees only for “reasonable cause.” The five plaintiffs also have pending age discrimination claims against LLNS, which will be heard by a different jury in a separate trial.[6] There are 125 co-plaintiffs awaiting trial on similar claims against LLNS. The May 2008 layoff was the first layoff at the laboratory in nearly 40 years.

    On March 14, 2011, the City of Livermore officially expanded the city’s boundaries to annex LLNL and move it within the city limits. The unanimous vote by the Livermore city council expanded Livermore’s southeastern boundaries to cover 15 land parcels covering 1,057 acres (4.28 km^2) that comprise the LLNL site. The site was formerly an unincorporated area of Alameda County. The LLNL campus continues to be owned by the federal government.

    NIF National Ignition Facility located at the DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California.


    NNSA

     
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