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  • richardmitnick 11:52 am on February 7, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , CERN, Evangelia Gousiou, , , Jeny Teheran, , , , Sima Baymani,   

    From CERN and FNAL: Women in STEM- “Coding has no gender” Sima Baymani, Jeny Teheran, Evangelia Gousiou 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    5 Feb 2018
    Kate Kahle
    Lauren Biron

    1
    Sima Baymani: “You can work all over the world, because programming is the same everywhere. The choices you have are endless.”

    With 11 February marking the International Day of Women and Girls in Science, female physicists, engineers and computer scientists from CERN and from Fermilab share their experiences of building a career in science.

    Sima Baymani: “There is a lot of collaboration, and this, for me, is part of the joy of programming”


    Computer science engineer, Sima Baymani, talks about the freedom, creativity and collaboration of computer programming. (Video: Jacques Fichet/CERN)

    Computer science engineer, Sima Baymani was born in Iran before her family fled war when she was young to start a new life in Sweden. Her parents were academics, and Sima and her sisters were always encouraged to learn more about everything. Her mother, a physicist, had to restart her career in Sweden and chose to pursue database management and programming. Her enjoyment of her job, coupled with an inspiring Danish mathematics teacher, were two factors that helped lead Sima towards studying computer science.

    “In school I was interested in almost all subjects. But I can see that the IT boom in Sweden had an effect on me, and on other women, because when we started university it was one of the peaks of women studying computer science.” At university, Sima wanted to understand how computers worked, so she specialised in hardware and embedded systems. After graduation she worked as an independent consultant for 10 years before joining CERN.

    She has encountered challenges in fighting gender and ethnic stereotypes, and often felt that she had to work harder to prove herself. Yet part of her joy of programming is collaborating with colleagues to find creative solutions to complex problems and to develop new products or new functionality. “Technology is everywhere in our society; the problems and solutions you can work with creatively are endless,” she enthuses.

    Jeny Teheran: “What I love the most is to work with teams around the world.”


    Jeny Teheran shares the best parts of being a security analyst and cybersecurity researcher at Fermilab. (Video: Fermilab)

    Jeny Teheran is a security analyst and cybersecurity researcher at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. That means keeping up with and taking care of hardware and software vulnerabilities so that the experiments can carry out their science in a secure manner. It’s a fast-paced job where you have to come up with the best solution you can put in place, right in the moment.

    “I would recommend this job because it challenges you. It pushes you to be on top of your game. You have to improve your analytical skills; you have to react fast; you have to communicate better.” – Jeny Teheran

    Jeny came to Fermilab from the Caribbean coast of Colombia. She grew up in a house with few toys but lots of books, and says she has always felt close to science. With a degree in systems and computing engineering, she arrived at Fermilab four years ago as an intern to work in the offline production team for neutrino experiments. A year later, she was hired as a security analyst. “And I’m loving it,” she says.

    Evangelia Gousiou: “Nothing beats the rush you get when something that you designed works for the first time.”


    Electronics engineer, Evangelia Gousiou, talks about what led her to a career in engineering. (Video: Jacques Fichet/CERN)

    Electronics engineer, Evangelia Gousiou, began her career studying IT and Electronics in Athens, Greece, before beginning an internship at a manufacturing plant in Thailand. She came to CERN for a one-year position, and now, ten years later is still at CERN enjoying a job that is never boring.

    “Work is never repetitive, which makes it very rewarding. I usually follow a project through all its stages from conception of the architecture, to the coding and the delivery to the users of a product that I have built to be useful for them. So I see the full picture and that keeps me engaged.” – Evangelia Gousiou

    For Evangelia, to be a good electronics engineer means knowing a range of disciplines, from software to mechanics. There is also the human aspect, as she works daily with people from many different cultures.

    At school, her favourite subjects were maths and physics, as she enjoyed finding out how things worked, yet Evangelia never dreamt of being an engineer when she grew up. When the time came to choose what to study, she felt that engineering would be something interesting and future-proof, and then she got hooked and now can’t imagine doing anything else. “I would recommend engineering professions for their intellectual challenge and the empowerment that they bring,” she beams.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 2:27 pm on January 16, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CERN, , , , ,   

    From STFC: “UK builds vital component of global neutrino experiment” 


    STFC

    16 January 2018
    Becky Parker-Ellis
    becky.parker-ellis@stfc.ac.uk
    Tel: +44(0)1793 444564
    Mob: +44(0)7808 879294

    1
    The APA being prepped for shipment at Daresbury Laboratory. (Credit: STFC)

    The UK has built an essential piece of the globally-anticipated DUNE experiment, which will study the differences between neutrinos and anti-neutrinos in a bid to understand how the Universe came to be made up of matter.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    Vital components of the DUNE detectors have been constructed in the UK and have now been shipped to CERN for initial testing, marking a significant milestone for the experiment’s progress.

    DUNE (the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment) is a flagship international experiment run by the United States Department of Energy’s Fermilab [FNAL] that involves over 1,000 scientists from 31 countries. Various elements of the experiment are under construction across the world, with the UK taking a major role in contributing essential expertise and components to the experiment and facility.

    Using a particle accelerator, an intense beam of neutrinos will be fired 800 miles through the earth from Fermilab in Chicago to the DUNE experiment in South Dakota. There the incoming beam will be studied using DUNE’s liquid-argon detector.

    The DUNE project aims to advance our understanding of the origin and structure of the universe. One aspect of study is the behaviour of particles called neutrinos and their antimatter counterparts, antineutrinos. This could provide insight as to why we live in a matter-dominated universe and inform the debate on why the universe survived the Big Bang.

    A UK team has just completed their first prototype Anode Plane Assembly (APA), the largest component of the DUNE detector, to be used in the protoDUNE detector at CERN.

    2
    First APA (Anode Plane Assembly) ready to be installed in the protoDUNE-SP detector Photograph: Ordan, Julien Marius

    CERN Proto DUNE Maximillian Brice

    The APA, which was built at the Science and Technology Facilities Council’s (STFC) Daresbury Laboratory, is the first such anode plane to ever have been built in the UK.

    The APAs are large rectangular steel frames covered with approximately 4000 wires that are used to read the signal from particle tracks generated inside the liquid-argon detector. At 2.3m by 6.3m, the impressive frames are roughly as large as five full-size pool tables led side-by-side.

    Dr Justin Evans of the University of Manchester, who is leading the protoDUNE APA-construction project in the UK, said: “This shipment marks the culmination of a year of very hard work by the team, which has members from STFC Daresbury and the Universities of Manchester, Liverpool, Sheffield and Lancaster. Constructing this anode plane has required relentless attention to detail, and huge dedication to addressing the challenges of building something for the first time. This is a major milestone on our way to doing exciting physics with the protoDUNE and DUNE detectors.”

    These prototype frames were funded through an STFC grant. The 150 APAs that the UK will produce for the large-scale DUNE detector will be paid for as part of the £65million investment by the UK in the UK-US Science and Technology agreement, which was announced in September last year.

    Mechanical engineer Alan Grant has led the organisation of the project on behalf of STFC’s Daresbury Laboratory. He said: “This is an exciting milestone for the UK’s contribution to the DUNE project.

    “The planes are a vital part of the liquid-argon detectors and are one of the biggest component contributions the UK is making to DUNE, so it is thrilling to have the first one ready for shipping and testing.

    “We have a busy few years ahead of us at the Daresbury Laboratory as we are planning to build 150 panels for one of DUNE’s modules, but we are looking forward to meeting the challenge.”

    3
    The ProtoDUNE core installation team members at CERN, in front of the truck from Daresbury. (Credit: University of Liverpool)

    The UK’s first complete APA began the long journey to CERN by road on Friday (January 12), and arrived in Geneva today (January 16). Once successfully tested on the protoDUNE experiment at CERN, a full set of panels will be created and eventually be installed one-mile underground at Fermilab’s Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) in the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota.

    This is the first such plane to be delivered by the UK to CERN for testing, with the second and third panels set to be shipped in spring. It is expected to take two to three years to produce the full 150 APAs for one module.

    Professor Alfons Weber, of STFC and Oxford University, is the overall Principal Investigator of DUNE UK. He said: “We in the UK are gearing up to deliver several major components for the DUNE experiment and the LBNF facility, which also include the data acquisition system, accelerator components and the neutrino production target. These prototype APAs, which will be installed and tested at CERN, are one of the first major deliveries that will make this exciting experiment a reality.”

    The DUNE APA consortium is led by Professor Stefan Söldner-Rembold of the University of Manchester, with contributions from several other North West universities including Liverpool, Sheffield and Lancaster.

    Professor Söldner-Rembold said: “Each one of the four final DUNE modules will contain 17,000 tons of liquid argon. For a single module, 150 APAs will need to be built which represents a major construction challenge. We are working with UK industry to prepare this large construction project. The wires are kept under tension and we need to ensure that none of the wires will break during several decades of detector operation as the inside of the detector will not be accessible. The planes will now undergo rigorous testing to make sure they are up for the job.

    “Physicists across the world are excited to see what DUNE will be capable of, as unlocking the secrets of the neutrino will help us understand more about the structure of the Universe.

    “Although neutrinos are the second most abundant particle in the Universe, they are enormously difficult to catch as they have very nearly no mass, are not charged and rarely interact with other particles. This is why DUNE is such an exciting experiment and why we are celebrating this milestone in its construction.”

    Christos Touramanis, from the University of Liverpool and co-spokesperson for the protoDUNE project, said: “ProtoDUNE is the first CERN experiment which is a prototype for an experiment at Fermilab, a demonstration of global strategy and coordination in modern particle physics. We in the UK have been instrumental in setting up protoDUNE and in addition to my role we provide leadership in the data acquisition sub-project, and of course anode planes.”

    DUNE will also watch for neutrinos produced when a star explodes, which could reveal the formation of neutron stars and black holes, and will investigate whether protons live forever or eventually decay, bringing us closer to fulfilling Einstein’s dream of a grand unified theory.

    See the full article here .

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    STFC Hartree Centre

    Helping build a globally competitive, knowledge-based UK economy

    We are a world-leading multi-disciplinary science organisation, and our goal is to deliver economic, societal, scientific and international benefits to the UK and its people – and more broadly to the world. Our strength comes from our distinct but interrelated functions:

    Universities: we support university-based research, innovation and skills development in astronomy, particle physics, nuclear physics, and space science
    Scientific Facilities: we provide access to world-leading, large-scale facilities across a range of physical and life sciences, enabling research, innovation and skills training in these areas
    National Campuses: we work with partners to build National Science and Innovation Campuses based around our National Laboratories to promote academic and industrial collaboration and translation of our research to market through direct interaction with industry
    Inspiring and Involving: we help ensure a future pipeline of skilled and enthusiastic young people by using the excitement of our sciences to encourage wider take-up of STEM subjects in school and future life (science, technology, engineering and mathematics)

    We support an academic community of around 1,700 in particle physics, nuclear physics, and astronomy including space science, who work at more than 50 universities and research institutes in the UK, Europe, Japan and the United States, including a rolling cohort of more than 900 PhD students.

    STFC-funded universities produce physics postgraduates with outstanding high-end scientific, analytic and technical skills who on graduation enjoy almost full employment. Roughly half of our PhD students continue in research, sustaining national capability and creating the bedrock of the UK’s scientific excellence. The remainder – much valued for their numerical, problem solving and project management skills – choose equally important industrial, commercial or government careers.

    Our large-scale scientific facilities in the UK and Europe are used by more than 3,500 users each year, carrying out more than 2,000 experiments and generating around 900 publications. The facilities provide a range of research techniques using neutrons, muons, lasers and x-rays, and high performance computing and complex analysis of large data sets.

    They are used by scientists across a huge variety of science disciplines ranging from the physical and heritage sciences to medicine, biosciences, the environment, energy, and more. These facilities provide a massive productivity boost for UK science, as well as unique capabilities for UK industry.

    Our two Campuses are based around our Rutherford Appleton Laboratory at Harwell in Oxfordshire, and our Daresbury Laboratory in Cheshire – each of which offers a different cluster of technological expertise that underpins and ties together diverse research fields.

    The combination of access to world-class research facilities and scientists, office and laboratory space, business support, and an environment which encourages innovation has proven a compelling combination, attracting start-ups, SMEs and large blue chips such as IBM and Unilever.

    We think our science is awesome – and we know students, teachers and parents think so too. That’s why we run an extensive Public Engagement and science communication programme, ranging from loans to schools of Moon Rocks, funding support for academics to inspire more young people, embedding public engagement in our funded grant programme, and running a series of lectures, travelling exhibitions and visits to our sites across the year.

    Ninety per cent of physics undergraduates say that they were attracted to the course by our sciences, and applications for physics courses are up – despite an overall decline in university enrolment.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:56 pm on January 8, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN, , Lithuania becomes Associate Member State of CERN, , ,   

    From CERN: “Lithuania becomes Associate Member State of CERN” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    8 Jan 2018
    Harriet Kim Jarlett

    1
    CERN Director General, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Lithuania and the President of the Republic of Lithuania at the signing of the agreement (Image: Robertas Dačkus/Office of the President of the Republic of Lithuania).

    Today, the Republic of Lithuania became an Associate Member State of CERN. This follows official notification to CERN that the Republic of Lithuania has completed its internal approval procedures, as required for the entry into force of the Agreement, signed in June 2017, granting that status to the country.

    Lithuania’s relationship with CERN dates back to 2004, when an International Cooperation Agreement was signed between the Organization and the government of the Republic of Lithuania setting priorities for the further development of scientific and technical cooperation between CERN and Lithuania in high-energy physics. One year later, in 2005, a Protocol to this Agreement was signed, paving the way for the participation of Lithuanian universities and scientific institutions in high-energy particle physics experiments at CERN.

    Lithuania has contributed to the CMS experiment since 2007 when a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed marking the beginning of Lithuanian scientists’ involvement in the CMS collaboration. Lithuania has also played an important role in database development at CERN for CMS data mining and data quality analysis. Lithuania actively promoted the BalticGrid in 2005.

    In addition to its involvement in the CMS experiment, Lithuania is part of two collaborations that aim to develop detector technologies to address the challenging upgrades needed for the High-Luminosity LHC.

    Since 2004, CERN and Lithuania have also successfully collaborated on many educational activities aimed at strengthening the Lithuanian particle physics community. Lithuania has been participating in the CERN Summer Student programme and 53 Lithuanian teachers have taken part in CERN’s high-school teachers programme.

    The associate membership of Lithuania strengthens the long-term partnership between CERN and the Lithuanian scientific community. Associate Membership allows Lithuania to take part in meetings of the CERN Council and its committees (Finance Committee and Scientific Policy Committee). It also makes Lithuanian scientists eligible for staff appointments. Finally, Lithuanian industry is henceforth entitled to bid for CERN contracts, thus opening up opportunities for industrial collaboration in areas of advanced technology.

    See the full article here.

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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

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    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

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  • richardmitnick 6:41 pm on November 30, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: CERN, , SKA signs Big Data cooperation agreement with CERN   

    From SKA: “SKA signs Big Data cooperation agreement with CERN” 


    SKA

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    14 July 2017 [Just now in social media.]

    William Garnier
    Director of Communications, Outreach and Education
    SKA Organisation
    Mob: +447814908932
    Email: w.garnier@skatelescope.org

    Arnaud Marsollier
    Head of Press
    CERN
    Email: Arnaud.Marsollier@cern.ch

    1
    Dr. Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General, and Prof. Philip Diamond, SKA Director-General, signing a cooperation agreement between the two organisations on Big Data. © 2017 CERN

    SKA Organisation and CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, yesterday signed an agreement formalising their growing collaboration in the area of extreme-scale computing.

    The agreement establishes a framework for collaborative projects that addresses joint challenges in approaching Exascale* computing and data storage, and comes as the LHC will generate even more data in the coming decade and SKA is preparing to collect a vast amount of scientific data as well.

    Around the world, countries are engaged in efforts to cope with a leap in the demands of Information and Communication Technology. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project, the world’s largest radio telescope when built, and CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the world’s largest particle accelerator, famous for discovering the Higgs Boson, will contribute in driving the required technological developments.

    LHC

    CERN/LHC Map

    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    “The signature of this collaboration agreement between two of the largest producers of science data on the planet shows that we are really entering a new era of science worldwide”, said Prof. Philip Diamond, SKA Director-General. “Both CERN and SKA are and will be pushing the limits of what is possible technologically, and by working together and with industry, we are ensuring that we are ready to make the most of this upcoming data and computing surge.”

    “The LHC computing demands are tackled by the Worldwide LHC computing grid which employs more than half a million computing cores around the globe interconnected by a powerful network. As our demands increase with the planned intensity upgrade of the LHC we want to expand this concept by using common ideas and infrastructure, into a scientific cloud. SKA will be an ideal partner in this endeavour.” said Prof. Eckhard Elsen, CERN Director of Research and Computing.

    CERN and SKA have identified the acquisition, storage, management, distribution, and analysis of scientific data as particularly burning topics to meet the technological challenges.

    In the case of the SKA, it is expected that phase 1 of the project – representing approximately 10% of the whole SKA – will generate around 300 PB (petabytes) of data products every year. This is ten times more than today’s biggest science experiments.

    CERN has just surpassed the 200 PB limit for raw data collected by the experiments at the LHC over the past seven years. A layered (tiered) system provides for data storage in the remote centres. The High-Luminosity LHC is estimated to exceed this level every year.

    “This in itself will be a challenge for both CERN and SKA given the step change in the amounts of data we will have to handle in the next 5-10 years”, explains Miles Deegan, High-Performance Computing Specialist for the SKA. “Transferring an average dataset will take days on the SKA’s ultra-fast fibre optic networks, which are 300 times faster than your average broadband connection, so storing or even downloading this data at home or even at your local university is clearly impractical.”

    As is already the case at CERN, SKA data will also be analysed by scientific collaborations distributed across the planet. There will be common computational and storage resource needs by both institutions and their respective researchers, with a shared challenge of taking this volume of data and turning them into science that can be published, understood, explained, reproduced, preserved and presented.

    “Processing such volumes of complex data to extract useful science is an exciting challenge that we face”, adds Antonio Chrysostomou, Head of Science Operations Planning for the SKA. “Our aim is to provide that processing capability through an alliance of regional centres located across the world in SKA member countries. Using cloud-based solutions, our scientific community will have access to the equivalent of today’s 35 biggest supercomputers to do the intensive processing needed to extract scientific results. In short, we need to fundamentally change how science is done.”

    “CERN has proposed the concept of the Federated Open Science Cloud with other EIROForum members. This agreement is an important step in this direction.” said Ian Bird, responsible at CERN for the World-wide LHC Computing Grid. “Essentially, we will provide a giant cloud-based, Dropbox-like, facility to science users around the world, where they will be able to not only access incredibly large files, but will also be able to do extremely intensive processing on those files to extract the science.”

    As part of the agreement, CERN and SKA will hold regular meetings to monitor progress and discuss the strategic direction of their collaboration. They will organise collaborative workshops on specific technical areas of mutual interest and propose demonstrator projects or prototypes to investigate concepts for managing and analysing Exascale data sets in a globally distributed environment. The agreement also includes the exchange of experts in the field of Big Data as well as joint publications.

    See the full article here .

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    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II


    SKA ASKAP Pathefinder Telescope

    SKA Meerkat telescope, 90 km outside the small Northern Cape town of Carnarvon, SA


    SKA Meerkat Telescope

    Murchison Widefield Array,SKA Murchison Widefield Array, Boolardy station in outback Western Australia, at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO)


    SKA Murchison Wide Field Array
    About SKA

    The Square Kilometre Array will be the world’s largest and most sensitive radio telescope. The total collecting area will be approximately one square kilometre giving 50 times the sensitivity, and 10 000 times the survey speed, of the best current-day telescopes. The SKA will be built in Southern Africa and in Australia. Thousands of receptors will extend to distances of 3 000 km from the central regions. The SKA will address fundamental unanswered questions about our Universe including how the first stars and galaxies formed after the Big Bang, how dark energy is accelerating the expansion of the Universe, the role of magnetism in the cosmos, the nature of gravity, and the search for life beyond Earth. Construction of phase one of the SKA is scheduled to start in 2016. The SKA Organisation, with its headquarters at Jodrell Bank Observatory, near Manchester, UK, was established in December 2011 as a not-for-profit company in order to formalise relationships between the international partners and centralise the leadership of the project.

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project is an international effort to build the world’s largest radio telescope, led by SKA Organisation. The SKA will conduct transformational science to improve our understanding of the Universe and the laws of fundamental physics, monitoring the sky in unprecedented detail and mapping it hundreds of times faster than any current facility.

    Already supported by 10 member countries – Australia, Canada, China, India, Italy, New Zealand, South Africa, Sweden, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom – SKA Organisation has brought together some of the world’s finest scientists, engineers and policy makers and more than 100 companies and research institutions across 20 countries in the design and development of the telescope. Construction of the SKA is set to start in 2018, with early science observations in 2020.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:17 pm on November 30, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN, DarkSide Dark Matter Experiment at INFN Gran Sasso,   

    From CERN: “A 350-metre-tall tower to purify argon” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    30 Nov 2017
    Stefania Pandolfi

    1
    On Friday, 24 November, ARIA’s top and bottom modules plus one standard module were brought to Building 180 and lined up to precisely test their alignment and interconnections. (Image: Max Brice/CERN)

    CERN is taking part in a project, called ARIA, for the construction of a 350-metre-tall distillation tower that will be used to purify liquid argon (LAr) for scientific and, in a second phase, medical use.

    The full tower, composed of 28 identical modules plus a top (condenser) and a bottom (re-boiler) special module, will be installed in a disused mine site in Sardinia, Italy. The project is led by the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) and was initiated to supply the purest argon possible to the international dark matter experiment DarkSide at INFN’s Gran Sasso National Laboratories.

    DarkSide is a dual-phase liquid-argon time-projection chamber that aims to detect the possible passage of a dark matter particle in the form of a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) when it hits the argon nuclei contained in the detector. Since this WIMP-nuclei interaction is predicted to be extremely rare, the detector must contain only the purest argon possible, so as not to accidentally produce a spurious signal.

    2
    DarkSide experiment at INFN Gran Sasso

    ARIA has been designed to produce this extra-pure argon. Atmospheric argon contains many “impurities” such as water, oxygen, krypton and argon-39, an isotope of argon, which are all sources of unwanted signals. Argon from underground sources is already depleted from the argon-39 isotope by a factor of 1400, but this is still not enough for dark-matter research. ARIA is designed to purify underground argon by a further factor of 100, leaving only the radio-stable argon-40 isotope, by harnessing a very simple physical principle: the two isotopes have different volatility, which means that argon-39 will vaporise faster than argon-40 because it has one less nucleon in its nucleus.

    The argon gas is injected at the top of the column, where the condenser transforms it into liquid argon. The liquefied argon starts falling through a series of filters distributed along the column, where it is progressively purified. At the bottom, the boiler transforms the liquid argon back into gas and through a series of tubes brings it back to the condenser, where the process begins again. As the distillation occurs at cryogenic temperatures, the whole process takes place within a vacuum-insulated cryostat.

    ARIA’s modules are being built at Polaris, a company on the outskirts of Milan, Italy. The modules are then brought to CERN, where, one by one, they are being leak tested by the Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings (VSC) group of the Technology Department. On Friday, 24 November, the top and bottom modules plus one standard module were brought to Building 180 and lined up to precisely check their alignment, geometry and interconnection interfaces, prior to welding. After this, the three modules will be taken to Sardinia, where they will be assembled vertically, initially above ground, to start operating and to test their functionality before assembling the complete column in the mine shaft.

    ARIA is expected to be fully assembled by the end of 2018 and to start operations in 2019. Once the technique is proven, many other air components, such as oxygen-18, nitrogen-15 and carbon-13, could be distilled by applying the same process. These elements have important applications in many fields of research and technology, including diagnostic techniques for the detection of cancer.

    See the full article here.

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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
  • richardmitnick 3:06 pm on November 30, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN, , Super pure Argon Modules   

    From CERN: “How to produce the purest argon ever?” The ARIA project 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    30 Nov 2017
    Stefania Pandolfi

    1
    ARIA’s modules are being leak-tested at CERN before travelling to Sardinia, Italy. The top, bottom and one standard column module have now been lined up horizontally to test their alignment. (Image: J. Ordan/CERN)

    Producing the purest argon ever made is no mean feat, in fact it needs a column 26 metres taller than the Eiffel Tower.

    CERN is part of a project, called ARIA, to construct a 350-metre-tall distillation tower that will be used to purify liquid argon for scientific and, in a second phase, medical use.

    The full tower, composed of 28 identical modules plus a top (condenser) and a bottom (re-boiler) special module, will be installed in a disused mine site in Sardinia, Italy.

    The project is was initiated to supply the purest argon possible to the international dark matter experiment DarkSide at INFN’s Gran Sasso National Laboratories.

    3
    DarkSide Dark Matter Experiment at INFN’s Gran Sasso National Laboratories

    Gran Sasso LABORATORI NAZIONALI del GRAN SASSO, located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy

    DarkSide is a dual-phase liquid-argon time-projection chamber that aims to detect the possible passage of a dark matter particle in the form of a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) when it hits the argon nuclei contained in the detector. Since this WIMP-nuclei interaction is predicted to be extremely rare, the detector must contain only the purest argon possible, so as not to accidentally produce a spurious signal.

    ARIA has been designed to produce this extra-pure argon. Atmospheric argon contains many “impurities” such as water, oxygen, krypton and argon-39, an isotope of argon, which are all sources of unwanted signals. Argon from underground sources is already depleted from the argon-39 isotope by a factor of 1400, but this is still not enough for dark-matter research. ARIA is designed to purify underground argon by a further factor of 100.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 9:15 am on November 23, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN, First light for pioneering SESAME light source, , , ,   

    From CERN: “First light for pioneering SESAME light source” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

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    CERN

    23 Nov 2017
    Harriet Kim Jarlett

    SESAME Particle Accelerator Jordan interior


    SESAME Particle Accelerator, Jordan campus, an independent laboratory located in Allan in the Balqa governorate of Jordan

    At 10:50 yesterday morning scientists at the pioneering SESAME light source saw First Monochromatic Light through the XAFS/XRF (X-ray absorption fine structure/X-ray fluorescence) spectroscopy beamline, signalling the start of the laboratory’s experimental programme. This beamline, SESAME’s first to come on stream, delivers X-ray light that will be used to carry out research in areas ranging from solid state physics to environmental science and archaeology.

    “After years of preparation, it’s great to see light on target,” said XAFS/XRF beamline scientist Messaoud Harfouche. “We have a fantastic experimental programme ahead of us, starting with an experiment to investigate heavy metals contaminating soils in the region.”

    The initial research programme will be carried out at two beamlines, the XAFS/XRF beamline and the Infrared (IR) spectromicroscopy beamline that is scheduled to join the XAFS/XRF beamline this year. Both have specific characteristics that make them appropriate for various areas of research. A third beamline, devoted to materials science, will come on stream in 2018.

    “Our first three beamlines already give SESAME a wide range of research options to fulfil the needs of our research community,” said SESAME Scientific Director Giorgio Paolucci, “the future for light source research in the Middle East and neighbouring countries is looking very bright!”

    First Light is an important step in the commissioning process of a new synchrotron light source, but it is nevertheless just one step on the way to full operation. The SESAME synchrotron is currently operating with a beam current of just over 80 milliamps, while the design value is 400 milliamps. Over the coming weeks and months as experiments get underway, the current will be gradually increased.

    “SESAME is a major scientific and technological addition to research and education in the Middle East and beyond,” said Director of SESAME, Khaled Toukan. “Jordan supported the project financially and politically since its inception in 2004 for the benefit of science and peace in the region. The young scientists, physicists, engineers and administrators who have built SESAME, come for the first time from this part of the world.”

    Among the subjects likely to be studied in early experiments are environmental pollution with a view to improving public health, as well as studies aimed at identifying new drugs for cancer therapy, and cultural heritage studies ranging from bioarcheology – the study of our ancestors – to investigations of ancient manuscripts.

    “On behalf of the SESAME Council, I’d like to congratulate the SESAME staff on this wonderful milestone,” said President of the Council, Rolf Heuer. “SESAME is a great addition to the region’s research infrastructure, allowing scientists from the region access to the kind of facility that they previously had to travel to Europe or the US to use.”

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 7:12 am on October 24, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CERN, , , , ,   

    From CERN: “Meet the DUNEs” 

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    CERN

    23 Oct 2017
    Sarah Charley, Symmetry

    1
    Inside one of the protoDUNE detectors, currently under construction at CERN (Image: Max Brice/CERN)

    A new duo is living in CERN’s test beam area. On the outside, they look like a pair of Rubik’s Cubes that rubbed a magic lamp and transformed into castle turrets. But on the inside, they’ve got the glamour of a disco ball.

    These 12m x 12m x 12m boxes are two prototypes for the massive detectors of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). DUNE, an international experiment hosted by Fermilab [FNAL] in the United States, will live deep underground and trap neutrinos: tiny fundamental particles that rarely interact with matter.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    “Learning more about neutrinos could help us better understand how the early Universe evolved and why the world is made of matter and not antimatter,” said Stefania Bordoni, a CERN researcher working on neutrino detector development.

    These DUNE prototypes are testing two variations of a detection technique first developed by Nobel laureate Carlo Rubbia. Each cube is a chilled thermos that will hold approximately 800 of liquid argon. When a neutrino bumps into an atom of argon, it will release a flash of light and a cascade of electrons, which will glide through the electrically charged chamber to detectors lining the walls.

    Inside their reinforced walls sits a liquid-tight metallic balloon, which can expand and contract to accommodate the changing volume of the argon as it cools from a gas to a liquid.

    Even though theses cubes are huge, they are mere miniature models of the final detectors, which will be 20 times larger and hold a total of 72 000 tonnes of liquid argon.

    In the coming months, these prototypes will be cooled down so that their testing can begin using a dedicated beam line at CERN’s SPS accelerator complex.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 8:09 pm on October 13, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Baby MIND, , CERN, , , ,   

    From CERN: “Baby MIND born at CERN now ready to move to Japan” 

    Cern New Bloc

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    CERN

    13 Oct 2017
    Stefania Pandolfi

    1
    Baby MIND under test on the T9 beamline at the Proton Synchrotron experimental hall in the East Area, summer 2017 (Image: Alain Blondel/University of Geneva)

    A member of the CERN Neutrino Platform family of neutrino detectors, Baby MIND, is now ready to be shipped from CERN to Japan in 4 containers to start the experimental endeavour it has been designed and built for. The containers are being loaded on 17 and 18 October and scheduled to arrive by mid-December.

    Baby MIND is a 75-tonne neutrino detector prototype for a Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND). Its goal is to precisely identify and track positively or negatively charged muons – the product of muon neutrinos from the (Tokai to Kamioka) beam line, interacting with matter in the WAGASCI neutrino detector, in Japan.

    T2K map, T2K Experiment, Tokai to Kamioka, Japan

    The more detailed the identification of the muon that crosses the Baby MIND detector, the more we can learn about the original neutrino, in view of contributing to a more precise understanding of the neutrino oscillations phenomenon*.

    The journey of these muon neutrinos starts from the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) in Tokai. They travel all the way to the Super-Kamiokande Detector in Kamioka, some 295 km away.

    Super-Kamiokande Detector, located under Mount Ikeno near the city of Hida, Gifu Prefecture, Japan

    On their journey, the neutrinos pass through the near detector complex building, located 280 m downstream from Tokai, where the WAGASCI + Baby MIND suite of detectors are. Baby MIND aims to measure the velocity and charge of muons produced by the neutrino interactions with matter in the WAGASCI detector. Muons precise tracking will help testing our ability to reconstruct important characteristics of their parent neutrinos. This, in turn, is important because in studying muon neutrino oscillations on their journey from Tokai to Kamioka, it is crucial to know how strongly and how often they interact with matter.

    Born from prototyping activities launched within the AIDA project, since its approval in December 2015 by the CERN Research Board, the Baby MIND collaboration – comprising CERN, University of Geneva, the Institute of Nuclear research in Moscow, the Universities of Glasgow, Kyoto, Sofia, Tokyo, Uppsala and Valencia – has been busy designing, prototyping, constructing and testing this detector. The magnet construction phase, which lasted 6 months, was completed in mid-February 2017, two weeks ahead of schedule.

    The fully assembled Baby MIND detector was tested on a beam line (link sends e-mail) at the experimental zone of the Proton Synchrotron in the East Hall during Summer 2017. These tests showed that the detector is working as expected and, therefore, ready to go.

    2
    Baby MIND under test on the T9 beamline at the Proton Synchrotron experimental hall in the East Area, summer 2017 (Image: Alain Blondel/University of Geneva)

    *Neutrino oscillations

    Neutrinos are everywhere. Each second, several billion of these particles coming from the Sun, the Earth and our galaxy, pass through our bodies. And yet, they fly past unnoticed. Indeed, despite their cosmic abundance and ubiquity, neutrinos are extremely difficult to study because they hardly interact with matter. For this reason, they are among the least understood particles in the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics.

    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    What we know is that they come in three types or ‘flavours’ – electron neutrino, muon neutrino and tau neutrino. Since their first detection in 1956, and until the late 1990s neutrinos were thought to be massless, in line with the SM predictions. However, a few years later, the Super-Kamiokande experiment in Japan and then the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Canada independently demonstrated that neutrinos can change (oscillate) from one flavour to another spontaneously.

    Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, , no longer operating

    This is only possible if neutrinos have masses, however small, and the probability of changing flavour is proportional to their difference in mass and the distance they travel. This ground-breaking discovery was awarded with the 2015 Physics Nobel Prize.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 7:57 am on October 5, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , AARNet and CERN sign MOU for developing cloud storage technologies, CERN   

    From AARnet: “AARNet and CERN sign MOU for developing cloud storage technologies” 

    aarnet-bloc

    AARNet

    AARNet and CERN sign MOU for developing cloud storage technologies

    1
    Inside CERN’s Computing Centre. Photo: CERN

    September 20, 2017

    AARNet and CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) recently signed a formal agreement which establishes a framework for ongoing collaborations to develop cloud storage technologies for the benefit of scientific and education communities globally.

    Both organisations share interests in enabling new and more efficient ways of collaborating to support international research endeavours, particularly around innovation for data storage, data transfer and data sharing.

    For the past two years, AARNet engineers have been collaborating with the CERN IT Storage Group to test distributed deployments of large-scale storage systems. The AARNet network’s capabilities for moving huge volumes of data across Australia’s vast continent is helping to inform research for advancing networking and data services for science.

    AARNet and CERN have also been collaborating to promote the creation of a community of cloud-technology adopters to share innovative solutions and operational best practices, co-organising events such as the CS3 (Cloud Services for Synchronisation and Sharing) conferences and workshops.

    Under the new agreement, the organisations will work together on developing solutions, such as the AARNet CloudStor service which is building on CERN’s EOS. The CERNBox and SWAN services will also be part of this collaboration.

    All these cloud-based services support the management of data storage, access and analysis for a range of users. EOS is a low latency heavy duty data storage infrastructure designed for the data deluge from Large Hadron Collider high energy physics experiments; CERNBox, is a cloud storage service meeting the unique needs of non-high-energy physics CERN users; SWAN, is a platform for performing interactive data analysis in the cloud via a web browser; and CloudStor is a data sharing and service with a wide range of research applications designed to meet the unique needs of the Australian research community.

    See the full article here .

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    AARNet provides critical infrastructure for driving innovation in today’s knowledge-based economy

    Australia’s Academic and Research Network (AARNet) is a national resource – a National Research and Education Network (NREN). AARNet provides unique information communications technology capabilities to enable Australian education and research institutions to collaborate with each other and their international peer communities.

     
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