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  • richardmitnick 1:49 pm on June 19, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN, , HL-LHC, , ,   

    From CERN: “Major work starts to boost the luminosity of the LHC” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    From CERN

    1
    Civil works have begun on the ATLAS and CMS sites to build new underground structures for the High-Luminosity LHC. (Image: Julien Ordan / CERN)

    CERN map

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is officially entering a new stage. Today, a ground-breaking ceremony at CERN celebrates the start of the civil-engineering work for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC): a new milestone in CERN’s history. By 2026 this major upgrade will have considerably improved the performance of the LHC, by increasing the number of collisions in the large experiments and thus boosting the probability of the discovery of new physics phenomena.

    The LHC started colliding particles in 2010. Inside the 27-km LHC ring, bunches of protons travel at almost the speed of light and collide at four interaction points. These collisions generate new particles, which are measured by detectors surrounding the interaction points. By analysing these collisions, physicists from all over the world are deepening our understanding of the laws of nature.

    While the LHC is able to produce up to 1 billion proton-proton collisions per second, the HL-LHC will increase this number, referred to by physicists as “luminosity”, by a factor of between five and seven, allowing about 10 times more data to be accumulated between 2026 and 2036. This means that physicists will be able to investigate rare phenomena and make more accurate measurements. For example, the LHC allowed physicists to unearth the Higgs boson in 2012, thereby making great progress in understanding how particles acquire their mass. The HL-LHC upgrade will allow the Higgs boson’s properties to be defined more accurately, and to measure with increased precision how it is produced, how it decays and how it interacts with other particles. In addition, scenarios beyond the Standard Model will be investigated, including supersymmetry (SUSY), theories about extra dimensions and quark substructure (compositeness).

    “The High-Luminosity LHC will extend the LHC’s reach beyond its initial mission, bringing new opportunities for discovery, measuring the properties of particles such as the Higgs boson with greater precision, and exploring the fundamental constituents of the universe ever more profoundly,” said CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti.

    The HL-LHC project started as an international endeavour involving 29 institutes from 13 countries. It began in November 2011 and two years later was identified as one of the main priorities of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, before the project was formally approved by the CERN Council in June 2016. After successful prototyping, many new hardware elements will be constructed and installed in the years to come. Overall, more than 1.2 km of the current machine will need to be replaced with many new high-technology components such as magnets, collimators and radiofrequency cavities.

    2
    Prototype of a quadrupole magnet for the High-Luminosity LHC. (Image: Robert Hradil, Monika Majer/ProStudio22.ch)

    FNAL magnets such as this one, which is mounted on a test stand at Fermilab, for the High-Luminosity LHC Photo Reidar Hahn

    The secret to increasing the collision rate is to squeeze the particle beam at the interaction points so that the probability of proton-proton collisions increases. To achieve this, the HL-LHC requires about 130 new magnets, in particular 24 new superconducting focusing quadrupoles to focus the beam and four superconducting dipoles. Both the quadrupoles and dipoles reach a field of about 11.5 tesla, as compared to the 8.3 tesla dipoles currently in use in the LHC. Sixteen brand-new “crab cavities” will also be installed to maximise the overlap of the proton bunches at the collision points. Their function is to tilt the bunches so that they appear to move sideways – just like a crab.

    FNAL Crab cavities for the HL-LHC

    CERN crab cavities that will be used in the HL-LHC

    Another key ingredient in increasing the overall luminosity in the LHC is to enhance the machine’s availability and efficiency. For this, the HL-LHC project includes the relocation of some equipment to make it more accessible for maintenance. The power converters of the magnets will thus be moved into separate galleries, connected by new innovative superconducting cables capable of carrying up to 100 kA with almost zero energy dissipation.

    “Audacity underpins the history of CERN and the High-Luminosity LHC writes a new chapter, building a bridge to the future,” said CERN’s Director for Accelerators and Technology, Frédérick Bordry. “It will allow new research and with its new innovative technologies, it is also a window to the accelerators of the future and to new applications for society.”

    To allow all these improvements to be carried out, major civil-engineering work at two main sites is needed, in Switzerland and in France. This includes the construction of new buildings, shafts, caverns and underground galleries. Tunnels and underground halls will house new cryogenic equipment, the electrical power supply systems and various plants for electricity, cooling and ventilation.

    During the civil engineering work, the LHC will continue to operate, with two long technical stop periods that will allow preparations and installations to be made for high luminosity alongside yearly regular maintenance activities. After completion of this major upgrade, the LHC is expected to produce data in high-luminosity mode from 2026 onwards. By pushing the frontiers of accelerator and detector technology, it will also pave the way for future higher-energy accelerators.


    The LHC will receive a major upgrade and transform into the High-Luminosity LHC over the coming years. But what does this mean and how will its goals be achieved? Find out in this video featuring several people involved in the project. (Video: Polar Media/CERN.)

    Fermilab is leading the U.S. contribution to the HL-LHC, in addition to building new components for the upgraded detector for the CMS experiment. The main innovation contributed by the United States for the HL-LHC is a novel new type of accelerator cavity that uses a breakthrough superconducting technology.

    Fermilab is also contributing to the design and construction of superconducting magnets that will focus the particle beam much more tightly than the magnets currently in use in the LHC. Fermilab scientists and engineers have also partnered with other CMS collaborators on new designs for tracking modules in the CMS detector, enabling it to respond more quickly to the increased number of collisions in the HL-LHC.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

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  • richardmitnick 3:11 pm on June 12, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Big data and social media, CERN   

    From CERN: “Big data and social media” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    From CERN

    12 Jun 2018
    Kate Kahle

    1
    Vint Cerf’s slides included this visualisation of inbound traffic on the NSFNET T1 backbone in September 1991 (purple for zero bytes to white for 100 billion bytes). (Image: Donna Cox and Robert Patterson, Merit Network, Inc., NCSA and NSF)

    “It’s not a surprise that networking produces social effects” stated Vint Cerf when he spoke at CERN on 6 June. As an American Internet pioneer, often referred to as one of the fathers of the Internet, Cerf shared his thoughts on big data and social media, as well as acknowledging the birth of the World Wide Web at CERN. His talk not only looked back at the history of the Internet but also at its future and the challenges ahead.

    He recounted the pre-Internet days of 1969, when, as a graduate student, he wrote software for the ARPANET project. After the project’s success, he and Robert Kahn worked on the Internet design before publishing a paper in 1974. The team they assembled built a fully distributed system with no central control that was international from the beginning.

    He reminisced too about the early days of email, developed on the ARPANET in 1971 as an experiment that instantly caught on. Rather than decreasing travel budgets, it did the opposite; projects became bigger and more international, and people travelled from further afield to attend meetings. Mailing lists quickly sprang up from “Sci-fi lovers” to the “Yum-Yum” reviews of local restaurants. It was clear that the technological development had social characteristics.

    Indeed from early email, to web pages, to today’s social media, people have wanted to share knowledge and feel that it was useful to others. This quest for positive feedback, however, runs into issues when sharing personal information. Now, with the prevalence of e-commerce and the Internet of things, the amount of information that companies have about a person over time becomes concerning, hence the recent EU data protection changes to protect people’s privacy.

    2
    Vint Cerf presents “Big data and social media on the Internet” in CERN’s main auditorium on 6 June. Many empty seats. (Image: Julien Ordan/CERN)

    People need to be aware of both the benefits and the hazards of being online. Misinformation, whether malicious or unintentional, has entered the system and the challenge is to distinguish good and bad quality content. Now more than ever, thinking critically is important. Yet it takes time and effort.

    “Everyone, especially young people, should think critically about the information they encounter. Where did this come from? Is there any corroborating evidence? What was the motivation for putting this information into the system? Could there possibly have been some ulterior motive in placing that information into a social-networking environment or on a webpage?” – Vint Cerf

    In the age of big data, there are challenges ahead not only in processing such vast quantities of information but also in digital preservation. The digital content created today may not be readable in 50 years’ time. The media may not be available, the reader may no longer exist, or even if it does, the software may be unmaintained and no longer run on the then available hardware. To preserve digital information means building emulators and keeping software updated among other things. Perhaps making programmers feel an ethical responsibility for the code that they produce could help them to fix and update the code, avoiding bugs and vulnerabilities.

    Though his talk focused on the technical challenges, he acknowledged that there are also legal and business challenges of big data and social media. Yet despite highlighting the risks, Cerf’s presentation was both entertaining and optimistic. As he leapt nimbly around the auditorium for the questions and answers, microphone in hand, he provided the audience not only with a feast of anecdotes but also food for thought for the Internet of tomorrow.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

     
  • richardmitnick 2:06 pm on May 22, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CERN, , Opera collaboration at Gran Sasso,   

    From CERN: OPERA presents its final results on neutrino oscillations 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    From CERN

    OPERA at Gran Sasso (Image: INFN)

    Gran Sasso LABORATORI NAZIONALI del GRAN SASSO, located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy

    22 May 2018
    Achintya Rao

    The OPERA experiment, located at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), was designed to conclusively prove that muon-neutrinos can convert to tau-neutrinos, through a process called neutrino oscillation, whose discovery was awarded the 2015 Nobel Physics Prize. In a paper published today in the journal Physical Review Letters, the OPERA collaboration reports the observation of a total of 10 candidate events for a muon to tau-neutrino conversion, in what are the very final results of the experiment. This demonstrates unambiguously that muon neutrinos oscillate into tau neutrinos on their way from CERN, where muon neutrinos were produced, to the Gran Sasso Laboratory 730 km away, where OPERA detected the ten tau neutrino candidates.

    Today the OPERA collaboration has also made their data public through the CERN Open Data Portal. By releasing the data into the public domain, researchers outside the OPERA Collaboration have the opportunity to conduct novel research with them. The datasets provided come with rich context information to help interpret the data, also for educational use. A visualiser enables users to see the different events and download them. This is the first non-LHC data release through the CERN Open Data portal, a service launched in 2014.

    There are three kinds of neutrinos in nature: electron, muon and tau neutrinos. They can be distinguished by the property that, when interacting with matter, they typically convert into the electrically charged lepton carrying their name: electron, muon and tau leptons. It is these leptons that are seen by detectors, such as the OPERA detector, unique in its capability of observing all three. Experiments carried out around the turn of the millennium showed that muon neutrinos, after travelling long distances, create fewer muons than expected, when interacting with a detector. This suggested that muon neutrinos were oscillating into other types of neutrinos. Since there was no change in the number of detected electrons, physicists suggested that muon neutrinos were primarily oscillating into tau neutrinos. This has now been unambiguously confirmed by OPERA, through the direct observation of tau neutrinos appearing hundreds of kilometres away from the muon neutrino source. The clarification of the oscillation patterns of neutrinos sheds light on some of the properties of these mysterious particles, such as their mass.

    The OPERA collaboration observed the first tau-lepton event (evidence of muon-neutrino oscillation) in 2010, followed by four additional events reported between 2012 and 2015, when the discovery of tau neutrino appearance was first assessed. Thanks to a new analysis strategy applied to the full data sample collected between 2008 and 2012 – the period of neutrino production – a total of 10 candidate events have now been identified, with an extremely high level of significance.

    “We have analysed everything with a completely new strategy, taking into account the peculiar features of the events,” said Giovanni De Lellis Spokesperson for the OPERA collaboration. “We also report the first direct observation of the tau neutrino lepton number, the parameter that discriminates neutrinos from their antimatter counterpart, antineutrinos. It is extremely gratifying to see today that our legacy results largely exceed the level of confidence we had envisaged in the experiment proposal.”

    Beyond the contribution of the experiment to a better understanding of the way neutrinos behave, the development of new technologies is also part of the legacy of OPERA. The collaboration was the first to develop fully automated, high-speed readout technologies with sub-micrometric accuracy, which pioneered the large-scale use of the so-called nuclear emulsion films to record particle tracks. Nuclear emulsion technology finds applications in a wide range of other scientific areas from dark matter search to volcano and glacier investigation. It is also applied to optimise the hadron therapy for cancer treatment and was recently used to map out the interior of the Great Pyramid, one of the oldest and largest monuments on Earth, built during the dynasty of the pharaoh Khufu, also known as Cheops.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.
    stem
    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

     
  • richardmitnick 9:52 pm on April 29, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , CERN, , , , , , , ,   

    From Symmetry : “Putting the puzzle together” 

    Symmetry Mag
    Symmetry

    [While this article was written for a journal specializing in Physics, everything in it is true for all Basic and Applied Science. Soemwhere in my archives is an article from Natural History Magazine by Stephen Jay Gould in which he states that many new scientific ideas arise out of the existence of the devices built by technicians for the last experimental project. So it will be with the HL-LHC and the ILC.]

    11/21/17 [in social media today]
    Ali Sundermier

    1
    Photos by Fermilab and CERN

    Successful physics collaborations rely on cooperation between people from many different disciplines.

    So, you want to start a physics experiment. Maybe you want to follow hints of an as yet unseen particle. Or maybe you want to learn something new about a mysterious process in the universe. Either way, your next step is to find people who can help you.

    In large science collaborations, such as the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider; the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE); and Fermilab’s NOvA, hundreds to thousands of people spread out across many institutions and countries keep things operating smoothly. Whether they’re senior scientists, engineers, technicians or administrators, each of them has an important role to play.

    CERN/ATLAS detector

    CERN CMS detector

    LHC

    CERN/LHC Map

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford



    SURF building in Lead SD USA

    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector


    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    Think of it like a jigsaw puzzle: This list will give you an idea about how their work fits together to create the big picture.

    Dreaming up the experiment

    Many particle physics experiments begin with a fundamental question. Why do objects have mass? Or, why is the universe made of matter?

    When scientists encounter these big, seemingly inscrutable questions, part of their job is to identify possible ways to answer them. A large part of this is breaking down the big questions into a program of smaller, answerable questions.

    In the case of the LHC, scientists who wondered about things such as undiscovered particles and the origin of mass designed a 27-kilometer particle collider and four giant detectors to learn more.

    Each scientist in a collaboration brings their own unique perspective and skill set to the table, whether it’s providing an understanding of the physics or offering expertise in operations or detector design.


    CERN/ALICE Detector

    CERN/LHCb detector

    (ATLAS and CMS detectors are depicted above.]

    Perfecting the design

    Once scientists have an idea about the experiment they want to do and the approach they want to take, it’s the job of the engineers to turn the concepts into pieces of hardware that can be built, function and meet the experiment’s requirements.

    For example, engineers might have to figure out how the experiment should be supported mechanically or how to connect all the electrical systems and make signals available in a detector.

    In the case of NOvA [depicted above], which investigates neutrino oscillations, scientists needed a detector that was huge and free of dense materials, which made conventional construction techniques unworkable. They had to work with engineers who could understand plastic as a building material so they could be confident about using it to build a gigantic, free-standing structure that fit the requirements.

    Keeping things running

    Technicians come in when the experimental apparatus and instrumentation are being built and often have complementary knowledge about what they’re working on. They build the hardware and coordinate the integration of components. It’s their work that, in the end, pulls everything together so the experiment functions.

    Once the experiment is built, technicians are responsible for keeping everything humming along at top performance. When physicists notice things going wrong with the detectors, the technicians usually have first eyes on it. It’s a vital task, since every second counts when it comes to collecting data.

    Doing the heavy lifting

    When designing and constructing the experiment, the scientists also recruit postdocs and grad students, who do the bulk of the data analysis.

    Grad students, who are still working on their PhDs, have to balance their own coursework with the real-world experiment, learning their way around running simulations, analyzing data and developing algorithms. They also make sure that every part of the detector is working up to par. In addition, they may work in instrumentation, developing new instruments and electronics.

    Postdocs, on the other hand, have already worked on experiments and obtained their PhDs, so they typically assume more of a leadership role in these collaborations. Part of their role is to guide the grad students in a sort of apprenticeship.

    Postdocs are often in charge of certain types of analysis or detector operations. Because they’ve worked on previous experiments, they have a tool kit and experience to draw on to solve problems when they crop up.

    Postdocs and grad students often work with technicians and engineers to ensure everything is properly built.

    Making the data accessible

    The LHC produces about 25 petabytes of data every year, or 25 billion megabytes. If the average size of an MP3 is about one megabyte per minute, then it would take almost 50,000 years to play 25 petabytes of songs. In physics collaborations, computer scientists and engineers have to organize the computing networks to ensure against bottlenecks or traffic jams when this massive amount of data is shared.

    They also maintain the software framework, which takes care of data handling and archiving. Say a scientist wants to know what happened on Feb. 27, 2015, at 3 a.m. Computing experts have to be able to go into the data catalogue and find, among the petabytes of data, where that event is stored.

    Sorting out the logistics

    One often overlooked group is the administrators.

    It’s up to the administrators to sequence all the different projects so they get the funds they need to make progress. They sort the logistics to make sure the right people are in the right places working on the right things.

    Administrators manage a group of people who are constantly coming and going. Is someone traveling to a site from a different institution? The administrators make sure that people get connected, work out itineraries and schedule where visiting scientists will live and work.

    Administrators also organize collaboration meetings, transfer money, and procure and ship equipment.

    Translating discoveries to the public

    While every single person involved in an experiment has a responsibility to effectively communicate with others, it can be challenging to communicate about research in a way that’s relatable to people from different backgrounds. That’s where the professional communicators come in.

    Communicators can translate a paper full of jargon and complicated science into a fascinating story that the rest of the world can get excited about.

    In addition to doing outreach for the public and writing press releases and pitching stories for the media, communicators offer coaching to people in a scientific collaboration on how to relay the science to a general audience, which is important for generating public interest. [Everyone involved need to remember that all of this work is publicly funded with tax dollars, except in places like China where it is virtually the same thing.]

    [One of the main reasons I started this blog was that I found out that 30% of the scientists on the LHC are USA scientists and the US press does not write about science except the rare person like Dennis Overbye of the New York Times. I had seen the PBS video Creation of the Universe by Timothy Ferris (music by Brian Eno); The PBS video The Atom Smashers, centered on but not limited to the Tevatron at Fermilab and hints of what was to come in Europe in stead of Waxahachie, Texas; and The Big Bang Machine, with (Sir) Brian Cox, all about the LHC, with a nod back to the Tevatron. Someone at Quantum Diaries put me on to the Greybook which lists every institution in the world processing data from the LHC. I collected as much of their social media as I could and that was my start. Of course by now my source list has grown considerably and my subjects have also increased.]

    Fitting the pieces

    Now that you know many of the pieces that must fall into place for a large physics collaboration to be successful, also know that none of these roles is performed in a vacuum. For an experiment to work, there must be a synergy of tasks: Each relies on the success of the others. Now go start that experiment!

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 11:58 pm on April 28, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Antiatoms sent to ALPHA - ASACUSA -BASE- AEGIS- GBARY[TUDY ANTIMAATER AND 'CREATE' ANTIATOMS, , Antiproton Decelerator, , CERN, CERN Antiproton Decelerator produces antiatoms, , , , Proton Synchrotron   

    From CERN: ” LIVE- Inside CERN’s antimatter factory” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    26 Apr 2018
    Harriet Kim Jarlett

    1
    This is the antimatter trap at AEgIS, one of the experiments studying antimatter using CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (Image: Maximilien Brice and Julien Ordan/CERN)

    For the first time, join us on Facebook for a live behind-the-scenes insight into CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator.

    CERN Antiproton Decelerator

    The Antiproton Decelerator (AD) is a unique machine that produces low-energy antiprotons for studies of antimatter, and “creates” antiatoms. The Decelerator produces antiproton beams and sends them to the different experiments.

    A proton beam that comes from the PS (Proton Synchrotron) is fired into a block of metal. These collisions create a multitude of secondary particles, including lots of antiprotons. These antiprotons have too much energy to be useful for making antiatoms. They also have different energies and move randomly in all directions. The job of the AD is to tame these unruly particles and turn them into a useful, low-energy beam that can be used to produce antimatter.

    Unlike the rest of CERN’s accelerator complex, which speed up particles to study them at high energies, this unique machine slows particles down. The decelerator tames these unruly particles and directs them to six different experiments, ALPHA, ASACUSA, ATRAP, BASE, AEGIS and GBAR. to study antimatter and ‘create’ antiatoms.

    The Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter in the early universe. But today, everything we see from the smallest life forms on Earth to the largest stellar objects is made almost entirely of matter. Comparatively, there is not much antimatter to be found. Something must have happened to tip the balance. One of the greatest challenges in physics is to figure out what happened to the antimatter, or why we see an asymmetry between matter and antimatter.

    We’ll find out why CERN is now the only lab in the world producing antimatter, how we create these antimatter particles and what these experiments will teach us about our Universe.

    Watch the live on Facebook:

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

     
  • richardmitnick 1:31 pm on April 24, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN, , , , , ,   

    From CERN: “Crabs settled in the tunnel” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    23 Apr 2018
    Giovanna Vandoni

    `
    CERN scientist, Giovanna Vandoni, coordinated the recent installation of crab cavities. (Image: Julien Ordan/CERN)

    The High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project aims at increasing the number of collisions in the LHC and consequently improving the precision of the experiments’ analyses. For several years, engineers, technicians and operators have been devising, designing and building the components, some of which are completely novel. Among these innovative components are the “crab cavities”, which will rotate bunches of the beams to increase the overlap between them and therefore the probability of collisions inside the experiments.

    2
    26 Sep 2017 — The two crab cavities have been put in their helium vessels and are currently being installed in their cryostat

    I have coordinated the recent installation of the cryomodule containing the first two prototype cavities in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), where they will be tested this year.

    The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), CERN’s second-largest accelerator. (Image: Julien Ordan/CERN

    Here’s the story so far in pictures. (Images from Julien Ordan and Maximilien Brice/CERN).

    4
    A January morning at 6 a.m., in heavy rain, all eyes are on the delicate operation of moving the cryomodule containing the first two crab-cavity prototypes from the SM18 hall to the SPS tunnel. The prototypes must be tested with a proton beam to validate their design and operation.

    5
    After a descent of 40 metres, the cryomodules are now in the SPS tunnel. Only another 40 metres or so to go to reach the test station. The movement of the cryomodule is monitored continuously by sensors: it must not be tilted by more than 10 degrees and acceleration must stay below 0.3 g. At the final location, a delicate lifting operation is undertaken: the cryomodule is taken up by high precision positioning jacks.

    6
    The cryomodule must be tested with a proton beam under real-life conditions, but without interfering with the operation of the SPS. It is therefore installed on a mobile transfer table, designed and fabricated by AVS Spain, allowing the crab cavities to be inserted into or removed from the beam line with almost micron-level precision.

    7
    CERN’s cryogenics team had to develop a mobile cooling unit – a first. Unlike the LHC, the SPS does not have a cryogenic infrastructure, but the crab cavities are superconductors and must therefore be cooled to 2 kelvin (-271 °C).

    8
    The last phase of the installation is the positioning of the cryomodule, which was first successfully tested above ground. In order to follow the movements of the transfer table, all of the services connected to the cryomodule must be articulated or flexible. This includes the radiofrequency power transfer lines and the vacuum chambers that connect the cryomodule to the SPS beam line. The vacuum chambers are articulated with bellows, allowing the cryomodule to be positioned in or out of the beam line without affecting the quality of the vacuum. Quite a feat of engineering. Finally, three flexible cryogenic lines transport coolant liquid and gas. Only once all of these flexible components are connected can the movement of the transfer table be tested.

    The engineer responsible for the transfer table controls its movement from above ground: the table begins to move, the two rotating parts that connect the radiofrequency power lines to the cavities slowly extend and the articulated vacuum chambers slide along their supports. But something isn’t going as planned with the cryogenic lines: they aren’t moving in the way they are supposed to. The team gets back to work to modify the vacuum chamber in which they are contained: cutting, moving and re-soldering. It’s February and only a few days to go until the SPS closes its doors…

    9
    The teams work relentlessly to resolve the problem. And finally… the cryomodule is ready for beam. SPS has now restarted and tests will take place this year.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

     
  • richardmitnick 5:35 pm on April 6, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN, , , , ,   

    From University of Toronto: “U of T staff (ethically) hack CERN, world’s largest particle physics lab” 

    U Toronto Bloc

    University of Toronto

    1
    CERN, the international lab near Geneva, is home to the Large Hadron Collider, the world’s largest particle accelerator (photo by Claudia Marcelloni/CERN).
    U of T staff (ethically) hack CERN, world’s largest particle physics lab.
    In Geneva, where U of T scientists are on the frontier of physics with world’s largest particle accelerator.

    It takes 22 member states, more than 10,000 scientists and state-of-the-art technology for CERN to investigate the mysteries of the universe. But no matter how cutting-edge a system is, it can have vulnerabilities – and last year University of Toronto employees helped CERN find theirs.

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, asked for help to hack its digital infrastructure last year, organizing the White Hat Challenge. Allan Stojanovic and David Auclair from U of T’s ITS Information Security Enterprise and Architecture department, along with a group of security professionals, were more than willing to answer the call.

    Passionate advocates for information security, Stojanovic and Auclair say regular testing is essential for any organization.

    “Vulnerabilities are not created, they are discovered,” says Stojanovic. “Just because something has been working, doesn’t mean there wasn’t a flaw in it all along.”

    Their director, Mike Wiseman, supported their participation in the challenge. “This competition was an opportunity to bring experts together to exercise their skill as well as give CERN a valuable test of their infrastructure.”

    Stojanovic first heard about the challenge during a presentation at a Black Hat digital security conference. He jumped at the opportunity, immediately approaching the presenter, Stefan Lüders, CERN’s security manager.

    Stojanovic put together a group of eight industry professionals (pen testers, consultants, Computer Information Systems administrators and programmers), set goals for the test and created a ten-day timeline.

    Any penetration test involves three main stages: scoping, reconnaissance and scanning. Before the scanning stage begins, testers are not allowed to interact with the system directly, but try to learn everything they can about it.

    During the “scoping” stage, testers define what is “in scope” and specify what IP spaces and domains they can and cannot probe during the testing. The “recon” stage is exactly what it sounds like: reconnaissance. The testers try to find out everything they can about the domains that are in scope, helping guide them towards potential weaknesses.

    With scoping and recon complete, the team was able to officially begin the scanning stage. Scanning is like a huge treasure hunt, beginning with a broad search and gradually narrowing it down, burrowing deeper and deeper into the most interesting areas and letting go of the others.

    This went on for nine days. It was a gruelling process – the team would find a tiny foothold, investigate it, but nothing significant would emerge. This happened again and again.

    Finally, Stojanovic was woken up one day by a short message, “I got it!” Someone on the team had solved the puzzle – a breakthrough generated by multiple late nights of patient analysis.

    Details of the breakthrough are kept secret due to a confidentiality agreement with CERN. But after more than two weeks of work, the team revealed weaknesses in CERN’s security infrastructure and provided important recommendations on how to improve it.

    CERN’s security group was then able to roll out fixes and address the identified vulnerabilities before U of T’s formal report even hit their desks.

    Stojanovic hopes that his team’s success will encourage educators to use penetration testing as a pedagogical tool. “It’s a lot of really fantastic experience,” he says, adding that these are the hands-on skills that new security professionals are going to need in the fast-growing information security industry.

    Stojanovic hopes that other institutions, including U of T, will follow CERN’s lead in opening themselves up to testing of this nature.

    And this won’t be the last CERN will see of U of T – Lüders has already asked for round two.

    The U of T at CERN

    Working on a small piece of the world’s largest experiment, it’s easy to lose sight of the big picture.

    Kyle Cormier, a University of Toronto grad student in particle physics, is a member of U of T’s research group at CERN, the sprawling international lab on the French-Swiss border that is home to the largest particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider.

    His job? Researching a silicon microchip for a planned upgrade to the 7,000-tonne Atlas detector, one of four major experiments at the LHC. He has designed, tested and redesigned the chip to withstand extreme cold and radiation exposure – all so that it can read data from proton collisions without needing a tune-up for at least a decade.

    It may not sound glamorous, but it’s the type of precise, exacting work that led CERN researchers to the 2012 discovery of the Higgs boson, a particle that had been theorized in the 1960s.

    “If you’re on a big hike up a mountain, you’re stepping over root branches working your way up,” Cormier says.

    2
    Professor Pekka Sinervo and U of T students, including Vincent Pascuzzi, Joey Carter, Laurelle Veloce, Kyle Cormier (seated right), at CERN outside Geneva (photo by Geoffrey Vendeville)

    At first glance, CERN, a collection of low-slung concrete buildings on the outskirts of Geneva, doesn’t look like a state-of-the-art, multibillion-dollar research facility. But deep underground, the accelerator races protons around a 27-kilometre ring until they are travelling nearly the speed of light and then smashes them together. Like crash scene investigators looking for clues in rubble, scientists analyze the debris from the collisions, which send subatomic particles flying in every direction.

    CERN scientists used this method to detect the Higgs boson in 2012, a particle explaining why others have mass. Now they’re digging even deeper, investigating questions such as the nature of dark matter.

    The mysterious type of matter, which makes up more than a quarter of the universe, has puzzled scientists since the first clues about its existence arose in the 1930s through astronomical observation and calculations.

    “We’re at the point where we’ve looked where the light’s brightest,” says Pekka Sinervo, a professor of experimental high energy physics at U of T. “Now we’re looking in all the dark corners that are hard to investigate.”

    3

    Researchers may still be a long way off from answering the dark matter riddle, but some breakthrough is just a matter of time, says Laurelle Veloce, who is also studying particle physics at U of T and working at CERN.

    “You just put one foot in front of the other and eventually you know someone will find something,” she says.

    The U of T research group is the largest Canadian team working on the Atlas experiment, with 17 graduate students, four postdocs and six faculty members. Over the summer, undergraduate students can take a summer course at CERN.

    Olivier Arnaez, now a U of T postdoc, spent years searching for the Higgs. When CERN researchers had gathered enough statistical evidence to confirm the discovery of a new particle, there was no eureka moment, he recalls – just relief.

    “We were happy because we knew we could sleep soon,” he says, “which didn’t happen because we then had to investigate more properties of the Higgs.” The celebrations involved litres of champagne and Nobel prizes for the theorists who proposed the Higgs mechanism decades earlier.

    Years of research at CERN haven’t been without setbacks, however. Only nine days after the first successful beam tests in 2008, a soldering error caused an accident that put the project behind schedule by more than 18 months. And last year, researchers who thought they had discovered another new particle admitted they had misinterpreted the data.

    But researchers are still hopeful and morale remains high, says Sinervo.

    “We’re trying to do things every day that nobody has ever done before,” he says.

    Engineering a microchip to work for 10 years without the need for repair, as his student Cormier is doing, is no small feat, he adds. “That’s like how you build spaceships for a moonshot.

    “We know that there is going to be some discovery over the horizon,” Sinervo says. “How far do we have to go to reach it? That’s something we don’t know.”

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    U Toronto Campus

    Established in 1827, the University of Toronto has one of the strongest research and teaching faculties in North America, presenting top students at all levels with an intellectual environment unmatched in depth and breadth on any other Canadian campus.

    Established in 1827, the University of Toronto has one of the strongest research and teaching faculties in North America, presenting top students at all levels with an intellectual environment unmatched in depth and breadth on any other Canadian campus.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:32 pm on March 23, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CERN, , , , , ,   

    From Symmetry: “Complex complexes” 

    Symmetry Mag
    Symmetry

    03/23/18
    Lauren Biron

    1
    Illustration by Fermilab

    These two-minute animations break down the accelerator systems at Fermilab and CERN.

    Curious how scientists can deliver particles to particle physics experiments? Two new animations from Fermilab and CERN will help you visualize how it works.

    This animation from the Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory shows the path particles take through the accelerator complex.

    It all starts at the proton source. The beam of particles moves through various systems such as the linear accelerator, booster and main injector. The beams can generate a variety of particles, including protons, neutrons, muons, pions and neutrinos, which are then studied in experiments and in research programs.

    You can learn about the components in even more detail here.

    Then there’s CERN’s animation, which focuses on their newest linear accelerator: Linac4. It’s scheduled to be connected to the next accelerator in the chain, the Proton Synchrotron Booster, in 2019, and should supply all of the protons at CERN starting in 2021.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 7:59 am on March 21, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN, , , , , SEEIIST-South-East Europe International Institute for Sustainable Technologies   

    From CERN: Opinion- “Shaping science in South-East Europe” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    20 Mar 2018
    Harriet Kim Jarlett

    In the autumn of 2016, at a meeting in Dubrovnik, Croatia, trustees of the World Academy of Art and Science discussed a proposal to create a large international research institute for South-East Europe. The facility would promote the development of science and technology and help mitigate tensions between countries in the region, following the CERN model of “science for peace”. A platform for internationally competitive research in South-East Europe would stimulate the education of young scientists, transfer and reverse the brain drain, and foster greater cooperation and mobility in the region.

    The South-East Europe initiative received first official support by the government of Montenegro, independent of where the final location would be, thanks to the engagement of Montenegro science minister Sanja Damjanovic, who is also a physicist with a long tradition working at CERN.

    On 25 October last year at a meeting at CERN, ministers of science or their representatives from countries in the region signed a Declaration of Intent (DOI) to establish a South-East Europe International Institute for Sustainable Technologies (SEEIIST) with the above objectives. The initial signatories were Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo*, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. Croatia agreed in principle, while Greece participated as an observer. CERN’s role was to provide a neutral and inspirational venue for the meeting.

    The signature of the DOI was followed by a scientific forum on 25–26 January at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, Italy, held under the auspices of UNESCO, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Physical Society. The forum attracted more than 100 participants ranging from scientists and engineers at universities to representatives of industry, government agencies and international organisations including ESFRI and the European Commission. Its aim was to present two scientific options for SEEIIST: a fourth-generation synchrotron light source that would offer users intense beams from infrared to X-ray wavelengths; and a state-of-the-art patient treatment facility for cancer using protons and heavy ions, also with a strong biomedical research programme. The concepts behind each proposal were worked out by two groups of international experts.

    With SEEIIST’s overarching goal to be a world-class research infrastructure, the training of scientists, engineers and technicians is essential. Whichever project is selected, it will require several years of effort, during which people will be trained for the operation of the machines and user communities will also be formed. Capacity-building and technology-transfer activities will further trigger developments for the whole region, such as the development of powerful digital networks and big-data handling.

    Reports and discussions from the ICTP forum have provided an important basis for the next steps. Representatives of IAEA declared an interest in helping with the training programme, while European Union (EU) representatives are also looking favourably at the project – potentially providing resources to support the preparation of a detailed conceptual design and eventual concrete proposal.

    The initiative is gathering momentum. On 30 January the first meeting of the SEEIIST steering committee, chaired initially by the Montenegro science minister, took place in Sofia, Bulgaria. Sofia was chosen at the invitation of Bulgaria since it currently holds the EU presidency, and the meeting was introduced by Bulgarian president Rumen Radew, who expressed strong interest in SEEIIST and promised to support the initiative. Officials have underlined that a decision between the two scientific options should be taken as soon as possible – a task that we are now working towards.

    SEEIIST wouldn’t be the first organisation to be inspired by the CERN model. The European Southern Observatory, European Molecular Biology Laboratory and the recently operational SESAME facility in Jordan – a third-generation light source governed by a council made up of representatives from eight members in the Middle East and surrounding region – each demonstrate the power of fundamental science to advance knowledge and bring people and countries together.

    Herwig Schopper is the proponent of the SEEIIST initiative. He was Director-General of CERN from 1981–1988 and first president of the SESAME Council from 2004–2008.

    This article was originally published as a viewpoint in the CERN Courier.
    More like this

    A global lab with a global mission 21 Jun 2016
    Science: a model for collaboration? 29 Feb 2016

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

     
  • richardmitnick 5:26 pm on March 7, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , CERN, ELENA, , ISOLDE, Making antimatter transportable, , , , PUMA   

    From CERN: “Making antimatter transportable” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    7 Mar 2018
    Cristina Agrigoroae

    1
    Panoramic view of the low energy beam lines in the ISOLDE hall (Image: Samuel Morier-Genoud/CERN)

    2
    ELENA ring prior to the start of first beam in 2016(Image: CERN)

    Antimatter vanishes instantly when it meets matter. But researchers have developed ways to trap it and increase its lifespan in order to use it to study matter. A new project called PUMA (antiProton Unstable Matter Annihilation) aims to trap a record one billion antiprotons at CERN’s GBAR experiment at the ELENA facility and keep them for several weeks.

    Such a long storage time would allow the trapped antiprotons to be loaded into a van and transported to the neighbouring ISOLDE ion-beam facility located a few hundred metres away. At ISOLDE, the antiprotons would then be collided with radioactive ions so that exotic nuclear phenomena could be studied.

    To trap the antiprotons for long enough for them to be transported and used at ISOLDE, PUMA plans to use a 70-cm-long “double-zone” trap inside a one-tonne superconducting solenoid magnet and keep it under an extremely high vacuum (10-17 mbar) and at cryogenic temperature (4 K). The so-called storage zone of the trap will confine the antiprotons, while the second zone will host collisions between the antiprotons and radioactive nuclei that are produced at ISOLDE but decay too rapidly to be transported and studied elsewhere.

    The project hopes to study the properties of radioactive nuclei by measuring the pion particles emitted in the collisions between the nuclei and the antiprotons. Such measurements would help determine how often the antiprotons annihilate with the nuclei’s protons or neutrons, and, therefore, their relative densities at the surface of the nucleus. The relative densities would then indicate whether the nuclei have exotic properties, such as thick neutron skins, which correspond to a significantly higher density of neutrons than protons at the nuclear surface, and extended halos of protons or neutrons around the nuclear core.

    3
    Antimatter’s journey between the ELENA and ISOLDE facilities (Image: CERN)

    Today, CERN is the only place in the world where low-energy antiprotons are produced, but “this project might lead to the democratisation of the use of antimatter”, says Alexandre Obertelli, a physicist from the Darmstadt technical university ( (link is external)TU Darmstadt (link is external)) (link is external) who is leading the project. He plans to build and develop the solenoid, trap and detector in the coming two years, with the aim of producing the first collisions at CERN in 2022.

    Obertelli was awarded an ERC Consolidator Grant from the European Research Council and the five-year PUMA project was launched in January this year. Along with researchers from RIKEN in Japan and CEA Saclay and IPN Orsay in France, he has submitted a letter of intent to CERN’s experiment committee to pave the way towards PUMA becoming a CERN-recognised experiment.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
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