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  • richardmitnick 8:52 am on August 13, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CERN, Romania becomes CERN Member State   

    From CERN: “Romania becomes CERN Member State” 

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    CERN

    Aug 12, 2016

    Romania has become the 22nd Member State of CERN, having acceded to the Organization’s founding convention, which is deposited with UNESCO, on 17 July. The accession crowns a period of co-operation that stretches back 25 years. “This is a very special moment for Romania and its relationship with CERN,” says ambassador Adrian Vierita, Romania’s permanent representative to the United Nations in Geneva.

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    Bilateral discussions between the Romanian government and CERN began in 1991. Aspiring to become a Member State and therefore to contribute fully to the governance of the laboratory, Romania submitted its formal application to join CERN in April 2008.

    Today, Romania has around 100 visiting scientists at CERN and a particularly strong presence in the LHC experiments ATLAS, ALICE and LHCb, in addition to the DIRAC, n_TOF and NA62 experiments. “The accession of Romania to full CERN membership underlines the importance of European research collaboration in the quest to understand nature at its most fundamental level,” says the president of CERN Council, Sijbrand de Jong. “United, we can do so much more than as individual countries.” The Romanian flag will be raised alongside 21 others at the CERN entrance on 5 September.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 3:00 pm on August 10, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CERN, Magnetic monopoles, MoEDAL closes in on search for magnetic particle,   

    From CERN: “MoEDAL closes in on search for magnetic particle” 

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    CERN

    10 Aug 2016
    Harriet Jarlett

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    The MoEDAL experiment is searching for magnetic monopoles, which could, in theory, carry either a North or a South pole. (Image: Daniel Dominguez/ CERN)

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    Magnetic monopoles and dipoles (Image: CERN)

    The Monopole & Exotics Detector at the LHC, nicknamed the MoEDAL experiment at CERN has narrowed the window of where to search for a hypothetical particle, the magnetic monopole, says a new paper published today in the journal JHEP.

    In the last decades, experiments have been trying to find evidence for magnetic monopoles at accelerators, including at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. Such particles were first predicted by physicist Paul Dirac in the 1930s but have never been observed so far.

    “Today MoEDAL celebrates the release of its first physics result and joins the other LHC experiments at the discovery frontier,” says spokesperson of the MoEDAL experiment, James Pinfold.

    The paper published today is based on an analysis of data collected during the LHC’s first run, when the trapping detector was still a prototype. Although showing no evidence for trapped monopoles, the results have allowed the MoEDAL collaboration to place new mass limits, assuming a simple production mode of these hypothetical particles. You can read more in the press release here.

    What is a magnetic monopole?

    Just as electricity comes with two charges, positive and negative, so magnetism comes with two poles, North and South. The difference is that while it’s easy to isolate a positive or negative electric charge, nobody has ever seen a solitary magnetic charge, or monopole. If you take a bar magnet and cut it in half, you end up with two smaller bar magnets, each with a North and South pole. Yet theory suggests that magnetism could be a property of elementary particles. So just as electrons carry negative electric charge and protons carry positive charge, so magnetic monopoles could in theory carry a North or a South pole.

    If monopoles exist, they are believed to be very massive. As the LHC produces collisions at unprecedented energy, physicists may be able to observe such particles if they are light enough to be in the LHC’s reach. For instance, high-energy photon–photon interactions could produce pairs of North and South monopoles. Monopoles could manifest their presence via their magnetic charge and through their very high ionizing power, estimated to be about 4700 times higher than that of the protons. The MoEDAL experiment at the LHC is designed specifically to look at these effects.

    How does MoEDAL work?

    MoEDAL is composed of a largely passive detector, installed next to the LHCb experiment. As monopoles would be highly ionizing, they would leave tracks in plastic detectors (NTDs) that are examined by a microscope afterwards. Monopoles would also lose their energy very quickly and could therefore be slowed down by another device consisting of 0.8 tonnes of aluminium detectors that act as a trap. A trapped monopole would signal its presence afterwards, when a magnetometer ‘scans’ the detectors for a magnetic charge. Additionally, MoEDAL includes an array of TimePix silicon pixel detectors used to monitor the experiment’s environment in real-time.

    The results published today provide a clear demonstration of the power of the MoEDAL detector, as the LHC delivers data at higher energy. The MoEDAL collaboration is now actively working on the analysis of data obtained with the full detector – including plastic NTDs and trapping detectors – in 2015, with the exciting possibility of revolutionary discoveries in a number of new physics scenarios.


    What are magnetic monopoles? James Pinfold explains (Video: Noemi Caraban/CERN)

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 5:10 am on July 26, 2016 Permalink | Reply
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    From CERN: “New furnace a step towards future collider development” 

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    26 Jul 2016
    Harriet Jarlett
    Panagiotis Charitos

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    The new furnace is currently being installed and tested (Image: Friedrich Lackner/CERN)

    A new furnace arrived at CERN’s Large Magnet Facility last month and is currently being installed and tested.

    The furnace completes the equipment required for the production of superconducting coils, which are needed for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade and future circular colliders.

    Superconducting accelerator magnets are key for reaching higher energies and luminosities in particle accelerators.

    The HL-LHC upgrade aims for magnetic fields up to 11T for the dipole magnets while the Future Circular Collider study explores using magnets with a field of 16 Tesla, almost double the 8.3 Tesla of the superconducting magnets used in the LHC.

    To reach these goals new superconducting materials are needed.

    “Nb3Sn has been chosen for the next generation of superconducting magnets. The field achieved with this material can reach up to 16T. The production of such coils is complex as we must first wind the coils and then perform the heat treatment that allows the tin and niobium to react and turn into the superconducting Nb3Sn compound.” explains Friedrich Lackner, a project engineer who supervises the coil production for HL-LHC.

    Once the material has undergone this heat treatment it becomes very brittle, which is why this process is performed after the winding process — the opposite to magnets in the LHC.

    The new 32-metre-long furnace, called GL010000, will allow the heat treatment of coils with a length up to 11m and can reach temperatures up to 900°C providing a sufficient margin for future challenges.

    This treatment involves a two week long process during which the coils are raised to different temperature plateaus up to 665°C. A special feature of this oven is that it is able to raise the coils to such high temperatures completely uniformly throughout the entire oven, making sure one part doesn’t heat more or less than another.

    The installation of the new furnace at CERN’s Large Magnet Facility (LMF) will help scientists researching and developing the new materials needed for future colliders to understand the superconductor development based on this Nb3Sn alloy, and will allow CERN to lead the production of superconducting coils and the development of high-field magnets.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 12:23 pm on June 28, 2016 Permalink | Reply
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    From CERN: “Vacuum chambers full of ideas for the Swedish synchrotron” 

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    27 Jun 2016
    Corinne Pralavorio

    CERN’s Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group has contributed to the development of vacuum chambers for the MAX IV synchrotron, which has just been officially opened in Sweden.

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    A section of the new 3 GeV MAXIV synchrotron at the time of installation. In the centre of the magnets you can see the vacuum chamber developed in collaboration with CERN. (Photo: Marek Grabski, MAX IV Vacuum group)

    On 21 June, the King and the Prime Minister of Sweden officially opened MAX IV, a brand-new synchrotron in Lund, Sweden. The summer solstice, the longest day of the year, was deliberately chosen for the ceremony: MAX IV, a cutting-edge synchrotron, will deliver the brightest X-rays ever produced to more than 2000 users.

    Some 1500 kilometres away, a team at CERN followed the opening ceremony with a touch of pride. The Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group in the Technology department (TE-VSC) participated in the construction of this new synchrotron. Its contribution lies at the very heart of the accelerator, in its vacuum chambers. The group developed the coating for most of the vacuum chambers in the larger of the two rings, which has a circumference of 528 metres and operates at an energy of 3 GeV.

    The CERN group was brought in to develop the coating for the vacuum chambers using NEG (Non-Evaporable Getter) material. A thin, micrometric layer of NEG ensures a high-grade vacuum: it traps residual gas molecules and limits the release of molecules generated by the bombardment of photons. The technology was developed at CERN in the late 1990s for the LHC: six kilometres of vacuum chambers in the LHC, i.e. those at ambient temperature, are coated with NEG material. CERN’s expertise in the field is therefore unique and recognised worldwide.

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    Prototype of the surface treatment process, developed at CERN, to coat the vacuum chambers of the MAX IV synchrotron. (Photo: Pedro Costa Pinto/CERN)

    “The MAX IV design was very demanding, as the cross-section of the vacuum chambers is very small, just 2.4 centimetres compared to 8 cm at the LHC,” explains Paolo Chiggiato, TE-VSC group leader. “In addition, some parts were geometrically complex.” Synchrotron light is extracted to experimental areas every 26 metres. At the extraction point, the chamber comprises two tubes that gradually diverge.

    The CERN group began its involvement in the project in 2014 and developed the chemical surface treatment method used for almost all the vacuum chambers in the large ring of MAX IV. Treatment of the cylindrically symmetrical vacuum chambers was carried out by a European firm and a European institute, to which CERN had already transferred the technology in the past. The most complex chambers, around 120 in total, were treated at CERN. Two benches for sputtering, the coating technique used, were developed at CERN. “These benches are equipped with a wire whose material is deposited onto the surface of the chamber. For the MAX IV chambers, the wire had a diameter of 0.5 millimetres and its alignment was critical,” explains Mauro Taborelli, leader of the Surfaces, Chemistry and Coatings section in the TE-VSC group. “The procedure was all the more complicated because the extraction chambers, in which the photons are extracted, have a tiny vertical aperture, of around 1 millimetre,” confirms Pedro Costa Pinto, leader of the team responsible for the vacuum deposition process.

    The vacuum chambers were delivered in 2014 and 2015. “It’s essential for us to participate in these types of project, which require lots of ingenuity, to be able to maintain and build on our know-how,” says Paolo Chiggiato. “By developing our expertise in this way, we will be ready for new projects at CERN.”

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 10:47 am on June 1, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CERN, Mary K Gaillard,   

    From CERN: “One woman’s journey in physics” Mary K Gaillard – Women in Science 

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    30 May 2016.
    Kristin Kaltenhauser
    James Gillies

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    Mary K Gaillard (left) during the presentation of her book, discussing the role of women in the fundamental physics field with Valerie Gibson.

    Mary K Gaillard began her career at the CNRS institute in France in the 1960’s, at a time when women physicists in research institutes could be counted on the fingers of one hand. She first came to CERN with her husband in the late 1960’s and stayed as a scientific visitor for many years, while still employed by the CNRS. In 1981, she joined the physics faculty at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB), becoming the first woman to hold a tenured position in the faculty.

    Gaillard not only made major contributions to the Standard Model of particle physics, such as the prediction of the mass of the charm quark and to the famous paper coining the term penguin diagram (link is external), she was also the first to address gender imbalance at CERN: for International Women’s Day in 1980, she published a report on women in scientific careers at CERN, an essay surveying the way in which women in scientific careers at CERN viewed their professional situation. This report was an important resource for a working group set up in the 1990s to study the situation of women at CERN. On this group’s recommendation, CERN established its Equal Opportunities programme, which has now grown into today’s Diversity Office.

    Closing the circle, the Diversity Office, together with the CERN Library and the Theory Department invited Gaillard to deliver a Theory seminar on quantum effects on supergravity theories, and to give some insight into the genesis of her book and her journey in physics. “Her frank autobiography, A Singularly Unfeminine Profession, is an honest, revelatory account of her many discoveries, made as she battled gender bias and faced the demands of raising three children,” said Valerie Gibson, Head of High Energy Physics and Fellow of Trinity College Cambridge in her review of the book in Nature .

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    Professor Gibson complemented Gaillard’s presentation with her own experiences and views on the challenges facing women making a career in physics.

    The conclusion of both women is that the situation has improved at CERN, as well as in academia in general, but there is still a long way to go, especially when it comes to women in senior positions and leadership roles. From one solitary female member of the faculty at UCB when Gaillard took up her post in 1981, the number has risen to five. Meanwhile, the number of young women completing physics PhD programmes climbed though the 60s, 70s and 80s to around 16%, where it has since levelled off.

    Gender stereotypes are all around us, and as Gaillard points out, “There seems to be a problem, starting with very young children.” As with any problem, the first step towards a solution is acknowledging that the problem exists, and Mary K Gaillard’s presentation served as a timely reminder that while progress has been made, there’s still much to do in particle physics, as in many areas of society.

    The book can be borrowed from the CERN library (link is external), bought at the CERN library (bldg. 52, 1st floor) or accessed online on the publisher’s website (World Scientific (link is external)) (free of charge for anyone with a CERN account).

    Watch the recording of the book presentation here.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 6:39 am on May 20, 2016 Permalink | Reply
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    From CERN: “In Theory: Is theoretical physics in crisis?” 

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    20 May 2016
    Harriet Jarlett

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    “The way physics develops is often a lot less logical than the theories it leads to — you cannot plan discoveries. Especially in theoretical physics.” Gian Giudice, Head of CERN’s Theory Department (Image: Sophia Bennett/ CERN)

    Over the past decade physicists have explored new corners of our world, and in doing so have answered some of the biggest questions of the past century.

    When researchers discovered the Higgs boson in 2012, it was a huge moment of achievement.

    CERN CMS Higgs Event
    CERN CMS Higgs Event

    It showed theorists had been right to look towards the Standard Model for answers about our Universe.

    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.
    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    But then the particle acted just like the theorist’s said it would, it obeyed every rule they predicted. If it had acted just slightly differently it would have raised many questions about the theory, and our universe. Instead, it raised few questions and gave no new clues about to where to look next.

    In other words, the theorists had done too good a job.

    “We are struggling to find clear indications that can point us in the right direction. Some people see in this state of crisis a source of frustration. I see a source of excitement because new ideas have always thrived in moments of crisis.” – Gian Giudice, head of the Theory Department at CERN.

    Before these discoveries, physicists were standing on the edge of a metaphorical flat Earth, suspecting it was round but not knowing for sure. Finding both the Higgs boson, and evidence of gravitational waves has brought scientists closer than ever to understanding two of the great theories of our time – the Standard Model and the theory of relativity.

    Now the future of theoretical physics is at a critical point – they proved their own theories, so what is there to do now?

    So what next?

    “Taking unexplained data, trying to fit it to the ideas of the universe […] – that’s the spirit of theoretical physics” – Gian Giudice

    In an earlier article in this series [link to series is below], we spoke about how experimental physicists and theoretical physicists must work together. Their symbiotic relationship – with theorists telling experimentalists where to look, and experimentalists asking theorists for explanations of unusual findings – is necessary, if we are to keep making discoveries.

    Just four years ago, in 2012, physicists still held a genuine uncertainty about whether the lynchpin of the Standard Model, the Higgs boson existed at all. Now, there’s much less uncertainty.

    “We are still in an uncertain period, previously we were uncertain as to how the Standard Model could be completed. Now we know it is pretty much complete so we can focus on the questions beyond it, dark matter, the future of the universe, the beginning of the universe, little things like that,” says John Ellis, a theoretical physicist from Kings College, London who began working at CERN since 1973.

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    Michelangelo Mangano moved to the US to work at Princeton just as String Theory was made popular. “After the first big explosion of interest, there’s always a period of slowing down, because all the easier stuff has been done. And you’re struggling with more complex issues,” he explains. “This is something that today’s young theorists are finding as they struggle to make waves in fields like the Standard Model. Unexpected findings from the LHC could reignite their enthusiasm and help younger researchers to feel like they can have an impact.” (Image: Maximillien Brice/CERN)

    With the discovery of the Higgs, there’s been a shift in this relationship, with theoreticians not necessarily leading the way. Instead, experiments look for data to try and give more evidence to the already proposed theories, and if something new is thrown up theorists scramble to explain and make sense of it.

    “It’s like when you go mushroom hunting,” says Michelangelo Mangano, a theoretical physicist who works closely with experimental physicists. “You spend all your energy looking, and at the end of the day you may not find anything. Here it’s the same, there is a lots of wasted energy because it doesn’t lead to much, but by exploring all corners of the field occasionally you find a little gold nugget, a perfect mushroom.”

    At the end of last year, both the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN found their mushroom, an intriguing, albeit very small, bump in the data.

    This little, unexpected bump could be the door to a whole host of new physics, because it could be a new particle. After the discovery of the Higgs most of the holes in the Standard Model had been sewn up, but many physicists were optimistic about finding new anomalies.

    “What happens in the future largely depends on what the LHC finds in its second run,” Ellis explains. “So if it turns out that there’s no other new physics and we’re focusing on understanding the Higgs boson better, that’s a different possible future for physics than if LHC Run 2 finds a new particle we need to understand.”

    While the bump is too small for physicists to announce it conclusively, there’s been hundreds of papers published by theoretical physicists as they leap to say what it might be.

    “Taking unexplained data, trying to fit it to your ideas about the universe, revising your ideas once you get more data, and on and on until you have unravelled the story of the universe – that’s the spirit of theoretical physics,” expresses Giudice.

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    John Ellis classifies himself as a ‘scientific optimist’, who is happy to pick up whatever tools are available to him to help solve the problems that he has thought up. ‘By nature I’m an optimist so anything can happen, yes, we might not see anything beyond the Higgs boson, but lets just wait and see.’ Here he is interviewed by Harriet Jarlett (left) in his office at CERN. (Image: Sophia Bennett/CERN)

    But we’ll only know whether it’s something worthwhile with the start of the LHC this month, May 2016, when experimental physicists can start to take even more data and conclude what it is.

    Next generation of theory

    This unusual period of quiet in the world of theoretical physics means students studying physics might be more likely to go into experimental physics, where the major discoveries are seen as happening more often, and where young physicists have a chance to be the first to a discovery.

    Speaking to the Summer Students at CERN, some of whom hope to become theoretical physicists, there is the feeling that this period of uncertainty makes following theory a luxury, one that young physicists, who need to have original ideas and publish lots of papers to get ahead, can’t afford.

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    Camille Bonvin is working as a fellow in the Theory Department on cosmology to try and understand why the universe is accelerating. If gravity is described by Einstein’s theory of general relativity the expansion should be slowing, not accelerating, which means there’s something we don’t understand. Bonvin is trying to find out what that is. Bonvin thinks the best theories are simple, consistent and make sense, like general relativity. “Einstein is completely logical, and his theory makes sense. Sometimes you have the impression of taking a theory which already exists and adding one element, then another, then another, to try and make the data fit it better, but its not a fundamental theory, so for me its not extremely beautiful.” (Image: Sophia Bennett/CERN)

    Camille Bonvin, a young theoretical physicist at CERN hopes that the data bump is the key to new physics, because without new discoveries it’s hard to keep a younger generation interested: “If both the LHC and the upcoming cosmological surveys find no new physics, it will be difficult to motivate new theorists. If you don’t know where to go or what to look for, it’s hard to see in which direction your research should go and which ideas you should explore.”

    The future’s bright

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    Richard Feynman

    Richard Feynman, one of the most famous theoretical physicists once joked, “Physics is like sex. Sure, it may give some practical results, but that’s not why we do it.”

    And Gian Giudice agrees –while the field’s current uncertainty makes it more difficult for young people to make breakthroughs, it’s not the promise of glory that encourages people to follow the theory path, but just a simple passion in why our universe is the way it is.

    “It must be difficult for the new generations of young researchers to enter theoretical physics now when it is not clear where different directions are leading to,” he says. “But it’s much more interesting to play when you don’t know what’s going to happen, rather than when the rules of the game have already been settled.”

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    “It’s much more interesting to play when you don’t know what’s going to happen, rather than when the rules of the game have already been settled,” says Giudice, who took on the role of leading the department in 2016 (Image: Sophia Bennett/ CERN) (Image: Sophia Bennett/CERN)

    Giudice, who took on the role of leading the theory department in January 2016 is optimistic that the turbulence the field currently faces makes it one of the most exciting times to become a theoretical physicist.

    “It has often been said that it is difficult to make predictions; especially about the future. It couldn’t be more true today in particle physics. This is what makes the present so exciting. Looking back in the history of physics you’ll see that moments of crisis and confusion were invariably followed by great revolutionary ideas. I hope it’s about to happen again,” smiles Giudice.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 8:38 pm on April 29, 2016 Permalink | Reply
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    From Tartu: “European Organisation for Nuclear Research discusses Estonia’s potential membership” 

    U Tartu bloc

    University of Tartu

    CERN

    29.04.2016

    The delegation of the International Relations sector of the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, known as CERN, will visit Estonia on 2 and 3 May to get information about the circle of industry, research and decision makers in Estonia and establish direct contact for possible accession talks.

    In order for Estonian enterprises to be internationally more competitive, they need to produce more high-technology products with high added value. High added value means bigger salaries, bigger investments and bigger profit.

    According to Minister of Entrepreneurship Liisa Oviir, one way to achieve this, is to increase the so called institutional export to research centres, such as the European Space Agency (ESA) or CERN, which are known for their demanding and scientific technologically innovative solution orders.

    Last year, Estonia became a member of the ESA thanks to which our enterprises have received orders to develop high-technology products and services. Similarly to the ESA, CERN membership would also significantly increase the possibilities for Estonian enterprises to provide quality high-technology products and services all around the world.

    “Establishing closer high-level contacts is one prerequisite to better understand potential incomes and costs in a longer perspective. ESA has been a very positive example so far. The next step is to see what the options are to benefit from CERN in the longer perspective,” said Oviir.

    “Estonia’s research activity in CERN has gone upwards in recent years. Long-term research in high energy physics has been improved with cooperation to UT research groups in modelling the materials required for new accelerators and contributing to the development of high speed scintillators in medical technology. Participation in CERN programmes promotes the cooperation between Estonian enterprises and researchers and increases their capacity in research and development and innovation,” explained UT Vice Rector for Research Marco Kirm.

    CERN officials will meet Minister of Entrepreneurship Liisa Oviir, employees of the Ministry of Education and Research, visit enterprises in Tallinn and Sillamäe, the University of Tartu, Tallinn University of Technology and the National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics.

    See the full article here .

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    U Tartu Campus

    UT is Estonia’s leading centre of research and training. It preserves the culture of the Estonian people and spearheads the country’s reputation in research and provision of higher education. UT belongs to the top 3% of world’s best universities.

    As Estonia’s national university, UT stresses the importance of international co-operation and partnerships with reputable research universities all over the world. The robust research potential of the university is evidenced by the fact that it is the only Baltic university that has been invited to join the Coimbra Group, a prestigious club of renowned research universities.

    UT includes nine faculties and four colleges. To support and develop the professional competence of its students and academic staff, the university has entered into bilateral co-operation agreements with 64 partner institutions in 23 countries.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:05 pm on April 6, 2016 Permalink | Reply
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    From CERN: “LINAC4 ready to go up in energy” 

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    CERN

    4.6.16
    Jennifer Toes

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    The DTL section of the LINAC4 (Image: CERN)

    The LINAC4 linear accelerator has recently achieved beam commissioning of 50MeV and is now almost ready for the next step of increasing the beam energy even further up to 100MeV. This project is part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) required for the needs of the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC).

    LINAC4 aims to replace the ageing LINAC2 linear accelerator, going from the present 50 MeV proton beam injection into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the first ring in the CERN accelerator chain, to a modern H- ion beam injection at 160 MeV, more the three times the Linac2 energy.

    “CERN is one of the few laboratories in the world that has not yet implemented H- injection” said Alessandra Lombardi, who is responsible for the beam commissioning of the LINAC4. Injecting H- at a higher energy results in a smaller emittance in the PSB.

    Following the successful commissioning of the three newly designed Drift Tube Linac (DTL) tanks in November 2015, the team began its preparations for the installation of two key accelerating sectors: the Cell Coupled Drift Tube Linac (CCDTL) and PI-Mode Structures (PIMS).

    Built in Russia by a collaboration of CERN with two Russian laboratories, VNIITF in Snezinsk and BINP in Novossibirsk, the CCDTL is the next structure to be conditioned and commissioned with beam in the LINAC4.

    “The CERN CCDTL is composed of 7 modules of 3 tanklets each and it brings the energy of the beam from 50 to 100MeV” said Lombardi.

    The main advantage of CCDTLs over standard DTLs is that their quadrupoles are external and therefore more accessible. The accessibility of these magnets makes the construction and alignment process much more straight forward.

    The PIMS was constructed as part of a CERN-Poland (NCBJ Swierk) collaboration with contributions from FZ Jülich (Germany). The PIMS was assembled and tuned at CERN will bring up the beam energy from 100MeV to its final goal of 160MeV. It is composed of 12 modules for a total length of about 25m.

    Currently, the installation and conditioning of all CCDTL tanks and of the first PIMS is being carried out before beam commissioning begins on April 11th 2016. The commissioning of the remaining PIMS tanks expected to follow in October will allow reaching the final beam energy.

    Scheduled to become operational by 2020, the LINAC4 is a crucial step towards the increase in the LHC luminosity that will allow CERN to remain at the pinnacle of high energy physics research.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 10:18 am on March 17, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CERN, Future of Particle Physics   

    From CERN: “Charting the future of CERN” Opinion 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    14 Mar 2016

    CERN Fabiola Gianotti
    Fabiola Gianotti, Director-General

    Over the next five years, key events shaping the future of particle physics will unfold. We will have results from the second run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and from other particle and astroparticle physics projects around the world. These will help us to chart the future scientific road map for our field.

    The international collaboration that is forming around the US neutrino programme will crystallise, bringing a new dimension to global collaboration in particle physics. And initiatives to host major high-energy colliders in Asia should become clear. All of this will play a role in shaping the next round of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, which will in turn shape the future of our field in Europe and at CERN.

    CERN is first and foremost an accelerator laboratory. It is there that we have our greatest experience and concentration of expertise, and it is there that we have known our greatest successes. I believe that it is also there that CERN’s future lies. Whether or not new physics emerges at the LHC, and whether or not a new collider is built in Asia, CERN should aim to maintain its pre-eminence as an accelerator lab exploring fundamental physics.

    CERN’s top priority for the next five years is ensuring a successful LHC Run 2, and securing the financial and technical development and readiness of the High-Luminosity LHC project. This does not mean that CERN should compromise its scientific diversity. Quite the opposite: our diversity underpins our strength. CERN’s programme today is vibrant, with unique facilities such as the Antiproton Decelerator and ISOLDE, and experiments studying topics ranging from kaons to axions.

    CERN Antiproton Decelerator
    CERN Antiproton Decelerator

    CERN ISOLDE New
    ISOLDE

    This is vital to our intellectual life, and it is a programme that will evolve and develop as physics needs dictate. Furthermore, with the new neutrino platform, CERN is contributing to projects hosted outside of Europe, notably the exciting neutrino programme underway at Fermilab.

    If CERN is to retain its position as a focal point for accelerator-based physics in the decades to come, we must continue to play a leading role in global efforts to develop technologies to serve a range of possible physics scenarios. These include R&D on superconducting high-field magnets, high-gradient, high-efficiency accelerating structures, and novel acceleration technologies. In this context, AWAKE is a unique project using CERN’s high-energy, high-intensity proton beams to investigate the potential of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration for the very-long-term future.

    CERN Awake schematic
    AWAKE

    In parallel, CERN is playing a leading role in international design studies for future high-energy colliders that could succeed the LHC in the medium-to-long term. Circular options, with colliding electron–positron and proton–proton beams, are covered by the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study, while the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study offers potential technology for a linear electron–positron option reaching the multi-TeV range.

    CERN Future Circular Collider
    Future Circular Collider (FCC) study

    CERN CLIC
    CLIC

    To ensure a future programme that is compelling, and scientifically diverse, we are putting in place a study group that will investigate future opportunities other than high-energy colliders, making full use of the unique capabilities of CERN’s rich accelerator complex, while being complementary to other endeavours around the world. Along with the developments I mention above, these studies will also provide valuable input into the next update of the European Strategy, towards the end of this decade.

    Global planning in particle physics has advanced greatly over recent years, with European, US and Japanese strategies broadly aligning, and the processes that drive them becoming ever more closely linked. For particle physics to secure its long-term future, we need to continue to promote strong worldwide collaborations, develop synergies, and bring new and emerging players, for example in Asia, into the fold.

    Within that broad picture, CERN should steer a course towards a future based on accelerators. Any future accelerator facility will be an ambitious undertaking, but that should not deter us. We should not abandon our exploratory spirit just because the technical and financial challenges are intimidating. Instead, we should rise to the challenge, and develop the innovative technologies needed to make our projects technically and financially feasible.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 4:40 pm on January 15, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CERN, , ,   

    From CERN: “A year of challenges and successes” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

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    CERN

    Jan 15, 2016
    No writer credit found

    Temp 1
    LHC Page 1

    2015 was a tough year for CERN’s accelerator sector. Besides assuring delivery of beam to the extensive non-LHC facilities such as the AD, ISOLDE, nTOF and the North Area, many teams also had to work hard to bring the LHC back into business after the far-reaching efforts of the long shutdown.

    At the end of 2014 and start of 2015, the LHC was cooled down sector by sector and all magnet circuits were put through a campaign of powering tests to fully re-qualify everything. The six-month-long programme of rigorous tests involved the quench-protection system, power converters, energy extraction, UPS, interlocks, electrical quality assurance and magnet-quench behaviour. The powering-test phase eventually left all magnetic circuits fully qualified for 6.5 TeV.

    Some understandable delay was incurred during this period and three things can be highlighted. First was the decision to perform in situ tests of the consolidated splices – the so called Copper Stabilizer Continuity Measurement (CSCM) campaign. These were a success and provided confirmation of the quality work done during the shutdown.

    Second, dipole-quench re-training took some time – in particular, the dipoles of sector 45 proved a little recalcitrant and reached the target 11,080 A after some 51 training quenches.

    Third, after an impressive team effort co-ordinated by the machine-protection team to conceive, prototype, test and deploy the system, a small piece of metallic debris that was causing an earth fault in a dipole in sector 34 was successfully burnt away on the afternoon of Tuesday 31 March.

    First beam 2015 went around the LHC on Easter Sunday, 5 April. Initial commissioning delivered first beam at 6.5 TeV after five days and first “stable beams” after two months of careful set up and validation.

    Ramp up

    Two scrubbing runs delivered good beam conditions for around 1500 bunches per beam, after a concerted campaign to re-condition the beam vacuum. However, the electron cloud, anticipated to be more of a problem with the nominal 25 ns bunch-spacing beam, was still significant at the end of the scrubbing campaign.

    The initial 50 ns and 25 ns intensity ramp-up phase was tough going and had to contend with a number of issues, including earth faults, unidentified falling objects (UFOs), an unidentified aperture restriction in a main dipole, and radiation affecting specific electronic components in the tunnel. Although operating the machine in these conditions was challenging, the teams succeeded in colliding beams with 460 bunches and delivered some luminosity to the experiments, albeit with poor efficiency.

    The second phase of the ramp-up following the technical stop at the start of September was dominated by the electron cloud and the heat load that it generates in the beam screens of the magnets in the cold sectors. The challenge was then for cryogenics, which had to wrestle with transients and operation close to the cooling-power limits. The ramp-up in number of bunches was consequently slow but steady, culminating in a final figure for the year of 2244 bunches per beam.

    Importantly, the electron cloud generated during physics runs at 6.5 TeV serves to slowly condition the surface of the beam screen and so reduce the heat load at a given intensity. As time passed, this effect opened up a margin for the use of more bunches. Cryogenics operations were therefore kept close to the acceptable maximum heat load, and at the same time in the most effective scrubbing regime.

    The overall machine availability is a critical factor in integrated-luminosity delivery, and remained respectable with around 32% of the scheduled time spent in stable beams during the final period of proton–proton physics from September to November. By the end of the 2015 proton run, 2244 bunches per beam were giving peak luminosities of 5.2 × 1033 cm–2s–1 in ATLAS and CMS, with both being delivered an integrated luminosity of around 4 fb–1 for the year. Levelled luminosity of 3 × 1032 cm–2s–1 in LHCb and 5 × 1030 cm–2s–1 in ALICE was provided throughout the run.

    Also of note were dedicated runs at high β* for TOTEM and ALFA. These provided important data on elastic and diffractive scattering at 6.5 TeV, and interestingly a first test of the CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS), which aims to probe double-pomeron exchange.

    As is now traditional, the final four weeks of operations in 2015 were devoted to the heavy-ion programme. To make things more challenging, it was decided to include a five-day proton–proton reference run in this period. The proton–proton run was performed at a centre-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV, giving the same nucleon–nucleon collision energy as that of both the following lead–lead run and the proton–lead run that took place at the start of 2013.

    Good intensities

    Both the proton reference run and ion run demanded re-set-up and validation of the machine at new energies. Despite the time pressure, both runs went well and were counted a success. Performance with ions is strongly dependent on the beam from the injectors (source, Linac3, LEIR, PS and SPS), and extensive preparation allowed the delivery of good intensities, which open the way for delivery of a levelled design luminosity of 1 × 1027 cm–2s–1 to ALICE and more than 3 × 1027 cm–2s–1 to ATLAS and CMS. For the first time in an ion–ion run, LHCb also took data following participation in the proton–lead run. Dedicated ion machine development included crystal collimation and quench-level tests, the latter providing important input to future ion operation in the HL-LHC era.

    The travails of 2015 have opened the way for a full production run in 2016. Following initial commissioning, a short scrubbing run should re-establish the electron cloud conditions of 2015, allowing operation with 2000 bunches and more. This figure can then be incrementally increased to the nominal 2700 as conditioning progresses. Following extensive machine development campaigns in 2015, the β* will be reduced to 50 cm for the 2016 run. Nominal bunch intensity and emittance will bring the design peak luminosity of 1 × 1034 cm–2s–1 within reach. Reasonable machine availability and around 150 days of 13 TeV proton–proton physics should allow the 23 fb–1 total delivered to ATLAS and CMS in 2012 to be exceeded.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

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    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New

    LHC

    CERN LHC New
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
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