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  • richardmitnick 10:37 am on April 8, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A new scientific education and outreach centre targeting the general public of all ages, , CERN, CERN Science Gateway, , , ,   

    From CERN: “CERN unveils its Science Gateway project” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event


    From CERN

    8 April, 2019

    CERN is launching a new scientific education and outreach centre. The building will be designed by world-renowned architects, Renzo Piano Building Workshop and funded through external donations, with the leading contribution coming from FCA Foundation.

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    Artistic view of the Science Gateway. (Image: RPBW)

    CERN is launching the Science Gateway, a new scientific education and outreach centre targeting the general public of all ages. The building will be designed by world-renowned architects, Renzo Piano Building Workshop. The project will be funded through external donations, with the leading contribution coming from FCA Foundation, a charitable foundation created by Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Construction is planned to start in 2020 and to be completed in 2022.

    As part of its mission to educate and engage the public in science, and to share knowledge and technology with society, CERN is launching the Science Gateway, a new facility for scientific education and outreach. The purpose of the project is to create a hub of scientific education and culture to inspire younger generations with the beauty of science. Aimed at engaging audiences of all ages, the Science Gateway will include inspirational exhibition spaces, laboratories for hands-on scientific experiments for children and students from primary to high-school level, and a large amphitheatre to host science events for experts and non-experts alike.

    With a footprint of 7000 square metres, the iconic Science Gateway building will offer a variety of spaces and activities, including exhibitions explaining the secrets of nature, from the very small (elementary particles) to the very large (the structure and evolution of the universe). The exhibitions will also feature CERN’s accelerators, experiments and computing, how scientists use them in their exploration and how CERN technologies benefit society. Hands-on experimentation will be a key ingredient in the Science Gateway’s educational programme, allowing visitors to get first-hand experience of what it’s like to be a scientist. The immersive activities available in the Science Gateway will foster critical thinking, evidence-based assessment and use of the scientific method, important tools in all walks of life.

    “The Science Gateway will enable CERN to expand significantly its education and outreach offering for the general public, in particular the younger generations. We will be able to share with everybody the fascination of exploring and learning how matter and the universe work, the advanced technologies we need to develop in order to build our ambitious instruments and their impact on society, and how science can influence our daily life,” says CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti. “I am deeply grateful to the donors for their crucial support in the fulfilment of this beautiful project.”

    The overall cost of the Science Gateway is estimated at 79 million Swiss Francs, entirely funded through donations. As of today, 57 million Swiss Francs have been already secured, allowing construction to start on schedule, thanks in particular to a very generous contribution of 45 million Swiss Francs from the FCA Foundation, which will support the project as it advances through the construction phases. Other donors include a private foundation in Geneva and Loterie Romande, which distributes its profits to public utility projects in various areas including research, culture and social welfare. CERN is looking for additional donations in order to cover the full cost of the project.

    John Elkann, Chairman of FCA and the FCA Foundation, said: “The new Science Gateway will satisfy the curiosity of 300,000 visitors every year – including many researchers and students, but also children and their families – providing them with access to tools that will help them understand the world and improve their lives, whatever career paths they eventually choose. At FCA we’re delighted to be supporting this project as part of our social responsibility which also allows us to honour the memory of Sergio Marchionne: in an open and stimulating setting, it will teach us how we can work successfully together, even though we may have diverse cultures and perspectives, to discover the answers to today’s big questions and to those of tomorrow”.

    As part of the educational portfolio of the Science Gateway, CERN and FCA Foundation will develop a programme for schools, with the advice of Fondazione Agnelli. The main goal will be to transmit concepts of science and technology in an engaging way, in order to encourage students to pursue careers in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics). According to the approach of enquiry-based learning, students will be involved in hands-on educational modules and experiments in physics. Special kits will be delivered to classes, containing all necessary materials and instructions to run modules throughout the school year. As a follow-up, classes will be invited to take part in a contest, with the winners awarded a 2-3 day visit to the Science Gateway and CERN. There will be an initial period of experimentation, with a pilot programme in Italy focusing on junior high schools and involving up to 550,000 students. After the pilot, CERN plans to extend this initiative to all its Member States.

    The Science Gateway will be hosted in a new, iconic building, designed by world-renowned architects Renzo Piano Building Workshop, on CERN’s Meyrin site adjacent to another of CERN’s iconic buildings, the Globe of Science and Innovation. The vision for the Science Gateway is inspired by the fragmentation and curiosity already intrinsic to the nature of the CERN site and buildings, so it is made up of multiple elements, embedded in a green forest and interconnected by a bridge spanning the main road leading to Geneva. “It’s a place where people will meet,” says Renzo Piano. “Kids, students, adults, teachers and scientists, everybody attracted by the exploration of the Universe, from the infinitely vast to the infinitely small. It is a bridge, in the metaphorical and real sense, and a building fed by the energy of the sun, nestling in the midst of a newly grown forest.”

    Also inspired by CERN’s unique facilities, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the world’s largest particle accelerator, the architecture of the Science Gateway celebrates the inventiveness and creativity that characterise the world of research and engineering. Architectural elements such as tubes that seem to be suspended in space evoke the cutting-edge technology underpinning the most advanced research that is furthering our understanding of the origins of the universe.

    A bridge over the Route de Meyrin will dominate the brand-new Esplanade des Particules and symbolise the inseparable link between science and society. Construction is planned to start in 2020 and be completed in 2022.

    About FCA Foundation
    The FCA Foundation, the charitable arm of FCA, supports charitable organizations and initiatives that help empower people, build strong, resilient communities and generate meaningful and measurable societal impacts particularly in the field of education.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA


    CERN ALPHA-g Detector

    CERN ALPHA-g Detector


    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN GBAR

    CERN GBAR

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

    CERN Proto Dune

    CERN Proto Dune

     
  • richardmitnick 3:23 pm on April 2, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Moriond 2019 feels the strong force", , , CERN, , , ,   

    From CERN: “Moriond 2019 feels the strong force” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event


    From CERN

    2 April, 2019

    Pentaquarks, charmed beauty particles and more from the Moriond conference’s second week, which is devoted to studies of the strong nuclear force.

    Last week, physicists from all over the world gathered in La Thuile, Italy, for the second week of the Rencontres de Moriond conference. This second week of the annual meeting features new and recent findings in all things related to quantum chromodynamics (QCD) – the theory of the strong force that combines quarks into composite particles called hadrons – and to high-energy particle interactions. This year, results from the main experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) included new pentaquarks, new charmed beauty particles, a more precise measurement of matter–antimatter asymmetry in strange beauty particles, and new results from heavy-ion collisions.

    Discovery of new pentaquarks

    The LHCb collaboration announced the discovery of new five-quark hadrons, or “pentaquarks”. Quarks normally aggregate into groups of twos and threes, but in recent years the LHCb team has confirmed the existence of exotic tetraquarks and pentaquarks, which are also predicted by QCD. In a 2015 study, the LHCb researchers analysed data from the decay of the three-quark particle Λb into a J/ψ particle, a proton and a charged kaon and were able to see two new pentaquarks (dubbed Pc(4450)+ and Pc(4380)+) in intermediate decay states. After analysing a sample of nine times more Λb decays than in the 2015 study, the LHCb team has now discovered a new pentaquark, Pc(4312)+ as well as a two-peak pattern in the data that shows that the previously observed Pc(4450)+ structure is in fact two particles.

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    A Bs candidate decaying to a J/psi and a phi, where the J/psi decays to two opposite-charge muons (red lines) and the phi decays to two opposite-charge kaons (blue). The event was recorded by ATLAS on 16 August 2017 from proton–proton collisions at 13 TeV. (Image: CERN)

    Charmed beauty particles in focus

    Notwithstanding significant progress over the past two decades, researchers’ understanding of the QCD processes that make up hadrons is incomplete. One way to try and understand them is through the study of the little-known charmed beauty (Bc) particle family, which consists of hadrons made up of a beauty quark and a charm antiquark (or vice-versa). In 2014, using data from the LHC’s first proton–proton collision run, the ATLAS collaboration reported [Physical Review Letters]the observation of a Bc particle called Bc(2S). A very recent analysis by the CMS collaboration of the full LHC sample from the second run, published today in Physical Review Letters and presented at the meeting, has unambiguously observed a two-peak feature in this dataset that corresponds to Bc(2S) and to another Bc particle called Bc*(2S). Meanwhile, the LHCb team, which in 2017 reported no evidence for Bc(2S) in its 2012 data, has now analysed the full 2011–2018 data sample and has also observed the Bc(2S) and Bc*(2S), lending support to the CMS result.

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    An event recorded by CMS showing a candidate for the Bc(2S*). The signature for this new particle is the presence of two pions (green lines) and a Bc meson, that decays into a pion (yellow line) plus a J/psi that itself decays to two muons (red). (Image: CERN)

    Matter–antimatter asymmetry in strange beauty particles

    The meeting’s second week also saw the announcement of a new result concerning the amount of the matter–antimatter asymmetry known as CP violation in the system of strange beauty (Bs) particles, which are made of a bottom quark and a strange quark. Bs mesons have the special feature that they oscillate rapidly into their antiparticle and back, and these oscillations can lead to CP violation when the Bs decays into combinations of particles such as a J/ψ and a ϕ. The amount of CP violation predicted by the Standard Model and observed so far in experiments is too small to account for the observed imbalance between matter and antimatter in the universe, prompting scientists to search for additional, as-yet-unknown sources of CP violation and to measure the extent of the violation from known sources more precisely. Following hot on the heels of two independent measurements of the asymmetry in the Bs system reported by ATLAS and LHCb during the meeting’s first week, a new result that combined the two measurements was reported during the second week. The combined result is the most precise measurement yet of the asymmetry in the Bs system and is consistent with the small value precisely predicted by the Standard Model.

    Heavy-ion progress

    The ALICE collaboration specialises in collisions between heavy ions such as lead nuclei, which can recreate the quark–gluon plasma (QGP) that is believed to have occurred shortly after the Big Bang. ALICE highlighted its observation that three-quark particles (baryons) containing charm quarks (Λc) are produced more often in proton–proton collisions than in electron­–positron collisions. It also showed that its first measurements of such charmed baryons in lead–lead collisions suggest an even higher production rate in these collisions, similar to what has been observed for strange-quark baryons. These observations indicate that the presence of quarks in the colliding beams affects the hadron production rate, shedding new light on the QCD processes that form baryons. The collaboration also presented the first measurement of the triangle-shaped flow of J/psi particles, which contain heavy quarks, in lead–lead collisions. This measurement shows that even heavy quarks are affected by the quarks and gluons in the QGP and retain some memory of the collisions’ initial geometry. Finally, ALICE also presented measurements of particle jets in lead–lead collisions that probe the QGP at different length scales.

    For other results, check out the conference page.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA


    CERN ALPHA-g Detector

    CERN ALPHA-g Detector


    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN GBAR

    CERN GBAR

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

    CERN Proto Dune

    CERN Proto Dune

     
  • richardmitnick 5:12 pm on March 25, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Serbia joins CERN as its 23rd Member State", CERN   

    From CERN: “Serbia joins CERN as its 23rd Member State” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event


    From CERN

    24 March, 2019

    1
    Visit of Ana Brnabić, Prime Minister of the Republic of Serbia, with Mladen Šarčević, Minister of Education, Science and Technological Development (Image: CERN)

    Today, CERN welcomes Serbia as its 23rd Member State, following receipt of formal notification from UNESCO that Serbia has acceded to the CERN Convention.

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    Today, CERN welcomes Serbia as its 23rd Member State, following receipt of formal notification from UNESCO that Serbia has acceded to the CERN Convention.

    “Investing in scientific research is important for the development of our economy and CERN is one of the most important scientific institutions today. I am immensely proud that Serbia has become a fully-fledged CERN Member State. This will bring new possibilities for our scientists and industry to work in cooperation with CERN and fellow CERN Member States,” said Ana Brnabić, Prime Minister of Serbia.

    “Serbia has a longstanding relationship with CERN, with the continuous involvement of Serbian scientists in CERN’s major experiments. I’m very happy to see that Serbia’s initiative to seek membership status of CERN has now converged and that we can welcome Serbia as a Member State,” said Ursula Bassler, President of the CERN Council.

    “It is a great pleasure to welcome Serbia as our 23rd Member State. The Serbian scientific community has made strong contributions to CERN’s projects for many years. Membership will strengthen the longstanding relationship between CERN and Serbia, creating opportunities for increased collaboration in scientific research, training, education, innovation and knowledge-sharing,” said Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General.

    “As a CERN Member State, Serbia is poised to further the development of science and education as our scientists, researchers, institutes and industry will be able to participate on the world stage in important scientific and technological decision-making,” said Mladen Šarčević, the Serbian Minister of Education, Science and Technological Development.

    When Serbia was a part of Yugoslavia, which was one of the 12 founding Member States of CERN in 1954, Serbian physicists and engineers took part in some of CERN’s earliest projects, at the SC, PS and SPS facilities. In the 1980s and 1990s, physicists from Serbia worked on the DELPHI experiment at CERN’s LEP collider. In 2001, CERN and Serbia concluded an International Cooperation Agreement, leading to Serbia’s participation in the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, as well as in the ACE and NA61 experiments. Serbia’s main involvement with CERN today is in the ATLAS and CMS experiments, in the ISOLDE facility, which carries out research ranging from nuclear physics to astrophysics, and on design studies for future particle colliders – FCC and CLIC – both of which are potentially new flagship projects at CERN.

    As a CERN Member State, Serbia will have voting rights in the Council, CERN’s highest decision-making authority, and will contribute to the Organization’s budget. Membership will enhance the recruitment opportunities for Serbian nationals at CERN and for Serbian industry to bid for CERN contracts.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

     
  • richardmitnick 4:25 pm on March 12, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , CERN, , LS2-the second long shutdown of CERN’s accelerator complex, , ,   

    From CERN: “LS2 Report: Rejuvenation for the Antiproton Decelerator” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    From CERN

    12 March, 2019
    Achintya Rao

    The Antiproton Decelerator will see refurbishment work that will help its experiments to trap more antimatter than before.

    CERN Antiproton Decelerator

    The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), sometimes known as the Antimatter Factory, is the world’s largest source of antimatter and has been operational since 2000. Here, antiprotons are slowed down and sent into the experiments, where they are combined with antielectrons to produce the most basic antiatom: that of antihydrogen. Over the course of the second long shutdown of CERN’s accelerator complex (LS2), the AD will receive several enhancements as well as repairs and refurbishments.

    The recently installed ELENA ring, which was commissioned over 2017 and 2018, is designed to slow down even further the antiprotons decelerated by AD to ensure that the experiments can trap up to 100 times more antiprotons than they could without it.

    CERN ELENA

    At the moment, ELENA is only connected to one of the experiments within the AD hall, the new GBAR experiment.


    CERN GBAR

    The main work being done on the AD during the next two years is to extend the beam line from ELENA to all of the existing experiments and get ELENA fully operational. The lines that took the particles from the AD to the experiments have now been fully dismantled to prepare for the new injection lines from ELENA.

    Other planned and ongoing activities involve the AD’s 84 magnets, which focus and steer the whizzing antiprotons along their racetrack. Most of these magnets were recycled from previous accelerator facilities and are much older than the AD itself. They are in need of repairs and refurbishment, which started during the previous long shutdown (LS1) and was pursued during subsequent year-end technical stops (YETS). So far, nine of the magnets have been treated, and 20 of them are scheduled for treatment during LS2. The remaining magnets will either be treated in situ or will undergo refurbishment during the next YETS and the third long shutdown (LS3).

    Removing the magnets to take them to the treatment facility is no easy task. The AD ring is encased in a large shielding tunnel made of concrete blocks. Therefore, the blocks making up the ceiling near the magnet in question have to first be removed and stored, allowing a crane to descend though the opening and extract the magnet (which weighs up to 26 tonnes), sometimes with a margin of only 1 cm. Related work is being done to consolidate other elements of the AD, such as the kicker magnets, the septa magnets and the radiofrequency cavities.

    One of the main tasks of LS2 that has already been achieved was the installation of a new cooling pump for the AD. Previously, a single set of pumps were operated, connected to both the AD itself and to its experiments. This meant that the pumping system was operational year round next to the AD ring, producing a constant noise at over 100 decibels in some places. The new dedicated pump allows the main pumping group to be turned off without affecting the experiments’ cooling systems, saving money and improving working conditions for those who need to be in close proximity to the AD over the shutdown period. It also provides much-needed redundancy to the cooling circuits.

    By the end of LS2, the AD hall will look very different from what it does today, but the changes are not merely superficial. They will ensure that CERN’s antimatter factory continues to operate with high efficiency and help explore the mysteries surrounding elusive antimatter.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

     
  • richardmitnick 10:26 am on March 5, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Although the protons in the particle beams will be bent by magnets around the LHC the light very weakly interacting particles will continue along a straight line and their “decay products” can be , Astrophysical evidence shows that dark matter makes up about 27% of the universe but it has never been observed and studied in a laboratory, CERN, designed to look for light and weakly interacting particles at the LHC, FASER experiment, FASER will search for a suite of hypothesised particles including so-called “dark photons” particles which are associated with dark matter- neutralinos and others, FASER will therefore be located along the beam trajectory 480 metres downstream from the interaction point within ATLAS, Physics Beyond Collider (PBC) study under whose aegis FASER operates, Some of these sought-after particles are associated with dark matter, The collaboration of 16 institutes that is building the detector and will carry out the experiments is supported by the Heising-Simons Foundation and the Simons Foundation, The detector’s total length is under 5 metres and its core cylindrical structure has a radius of 10 centimetres, The exotic particles would escape the existing detectors along the current beam lines and remain undetected, The experiment will be installed during the ongoing Long Shutdown 2 and start taking data from LHC’s Run 3 between 2021 and 2023., The four main LHC detectors are not suited for detecting the light and weakly interacting particles that might be produced parallel to the beam line, The potential new particles would be very collimated with the beam spreading out very little therefore allowing a relatively small and inexpensive detector to perform highly sensitive searches   

    From CERN- “FASER: CERN approves new experiment to look for long-lived, exotic particles” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event


    From CERN

    5 March, 2019
    Cristina Agrigoroae

    The experiment, which will complement existing searches for dark matter at the LHC, will be operational in 2021.

    CERN FASER experiment schematic


    A 3D picture of the planned FASER detector as seen in the TI12 tunnel. The detector is precisely aligned with the collision axis in ATLAS, 480 m away from the collision point (Image: FASER/CERN)

    Today, the CERN Research Board approved a new experiment designed to look for light and weakly interacting particles at the LHC. FASER, or the Forward Search Experiment, will complement CERN’s ongoing physics programme, extending its discovery potential to several new particles. Some of these sought-after particles are associated with dark matter, which is a hypothesised kind of matter that does not interact with the electromagnetic force and consequently cannot be directly detected using emitted light. Astrophysical evidence shows that dark matter makes up about 27% of the universe, but it has never been observed and studied in a laboratory.

    With an expanding interest in undiscovered particles, particularly long-lived particles and dark matter, new experiments have been proposed to expand the scientific potential of CERN’s accelerator complex and infrastructure as part of the Physics Beyond Collider (PBC) study, under whose aegis FASER operates. “This novel experiment helps diversify the physics programme of colliders such as the LHC, and allows us to address unanswered questions in particle physics from a different perspective,” explains Mike Lamont, co-coordinator of the PBC study group.

    The four main LHC detectors are not suited for detecting the light and weakly interacting particles that might be produced parallel to the beam line. They may travel hundreds of metres without interacting with any material before transforming into known and detectable particles, such as electrons and positrons. The exotic particles would escape the existing detectors along the current beam lines and remain undetected. FASER will therefore be located along the beam trajectory 480 metres downstream from the interaction point within ATLAS. Although the protons in the particle beams will be bent by magnets around the LHC, the light, very weakly interacting particles will continue along a straight line and their “decay products” can be spotted by FASER. The potential new particles would be very collimated with the beam, spreading out very little, therefore allowing a relatively small and inexpensive detector to perform highly sensitive searches.

    The detector’s total length is under 5 metres and its core cylindrical structure has a radius of 10 centimetres. It will be installed in a side tunnel along an unused transfer line which links the LHC to its injector, the Super Proton Synchrotron. To allow FASER to be constructed in a quick and affordable way, it will use spare detector parts kindly donated from the ATLAS and LHCb experiments. The collaboration of 16 institutes that is building the detector and will carry out the experiments is supported by the Heising-Simons Foundation and the Simons Foundation.

    FASER will search for a suite of hypothesised particles including so-called “dark photons”, particles which are associated with dark matter, neutralinos and others. The experiment will be installed during the ongoing Long Shutdown 2 and start taking data from LHC’s Run 3 between 2021 and 2023.

    “It is very exciting to have FASER approved for installation at CERN. It is amazing how the collaboration has come together so quickly and we are looking forward to recording our first data when the LHC starts up again in 2021,” says Jamie Boyd, co-spokesperson of the FASER experiment.

    “FASER is a neat physics proposal that addresses a particular aspect in the search for physics beyond the Standard Model and I am pleased to see it being implemented so efficiently,” adds Eckhard Elsen, CERN’s Director for Research and Computing.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

     
  • richardmitnick 5:12 pm on March 4, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: CERN, Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee OM KBE FRS FR Eng FRSA FBCS (born 8 June 1955) also known as TimBL is an English engineer and computer scientist best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web, Web@30 event at CERN will kick off celebrations around the world,   

    From CERN- “Web@30: The 30-year anniversary of an invention that changed the world” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event


    From CERN

    4 March 2019
    CERN

    1
    Sir Tim Berners-Lee

    Thirty years ago, a young computer expert working at CERN combined ideas about accessing information with a desire for broad connectivity and openness. His proposal became the World Wide Web. CERN is celebrating the 30th anniversary of this revolutionary invention with a special day on 12 March.

    In March 1989, while working at CERN, Sir Tim Berners-Lee wrote his first proposal for an internet-based hypertext system to link and access information across different computers. In November 1990, this “web of information nodes in which the user can browse at will” was formalised as a proposal, “WorldWideWeb: Proposal for a HyperText Project”, by Berners-Lee, together with a CERN colleague, Robert Cailliau. By Christmas that year, Berners-Lee had implemented key components, namely html, http and URL, and created the first Web server, browser and editor (WorldWideWeb).

    On 30 April 1993, CERN released the latest version of the WWW software into the public domain and made it freely available for anyone to use and improve. This decision encouraged the use of the Web, and society to benefit from it: half of the world’s population is now online, and close to 2 billion websites exist. Openness has been endemic to CERN’s culture ever since its Convention was signed in 1953. CERN promotes the distribution and open sharing of software, technology, publications and data, through initiatives such as open source software, open hardware, open access publishing and the CERN Open Data Portal.

    “It is a great honour and a source of pride for CERN to host an event to mark the 30th anniversary of Tim Berners-Lee’s proposal for what would become the World Wide Web, and I am delighted that Sir Tim will be with us on the day,” said CERN Director-General, Fabiola Gianotti. “The Web’s invention has transformed our world, and continues to show how fundamental research fuels innovation. CERN’s culture of openness was a key factor in the Laboratory’s decision in 1993 to make the web available free to everybody, a key step in its development and subsequent spread.”

    On the morning of 12 March, the Web@30 event at CERN will kick off celebrations around the world. Sir Tim Berners-Lee, Robert Cailliau and other Web pioneers and experts will share their views on the challenges and opportunities brought by the Web. The event will be opened by Fabiola Gianotti, CERN’s Director-General, and is being organised by CERN in collaboration with two organisations founded by Berners-Lee: the World Wide Web Foundation and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).

    As part of a project to preserve some of the digital assets associated with the birth of the Web, CERN organised a hackathon (11-15 February 2019) to recreate the first browser (WorldWideWeb) using current technology. Previously, CERN promoted the restoration of the first ever website and the line-mode browser.

    We have a limited number of seats available for the media; interested journalists should RSVP (press@cern.ch) by 6 March 2019. The event will be broadcast by EBU, webcast and streamed live on CERN Facebook and YouTube channels. Some of the speakers and current members of CERN’s IT department – home to the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) – are available for interviews prior to the event. For more information, please contact press@cern.ch.

    To request interviews with Web Foundation spokespeople: press@webfoundation.org

    Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee, OM KBE FRS FREng FRSA FBCS (born 8 June 1955), also known as TimBL, is an English engineer and computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web. He is currently a professor of computer science at the University of Oxford and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He made a proposal for an information management system in March 1989, and he implemented the first successful communication between a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) client and server via the internet in mid-November the same year.

    Berners-Lee is the director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), which oversees the continued development of the Web. He is also the founder of the World Wide Web Foundation and is a senior researcher and holder of the 3Com founders chair at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL). He is a director of the Web Science Research Initiative (WSRI), and a member of the advisory board of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence. In 2011, he was named as a member of the board of trustees of the Ford Foundation. He is a founder and president of the Open Data Institute.

    In 2004, Berners-Lee was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for his pioneering work. In April 2009, he was elected a foreign associate of the United States National Academy of Sciences. Named in Time magazine’s list of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century, Berners-Lee has received a number of other accolades for his invention. He was honoured as the “Inventor of the World Wide Web” during the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, in which he appeared in person, working with a vintage NeXT Computer at the London Olympic Stadium. He tweeted “This is for everyone”, which instantly was spelled out in LCD lights attached to the chairs of the 80,000 people in the audience. Berners-Lee received the 2016 Turing Award “for inventing the World Wide Web, the first web browser, and the fundamental protocols and algorithms allowing the Web to scale”.

    Berners-Lee is currently an Advisor at social network MeWe.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

     
  • richardmitnick 1:05 pm on February 23, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: CERN, ,   

    From CERN: ‘CERN’s world-first browser reborn: Now you can browse like it’s 1990″ 

    Sir Tim Berners-Lee’s WorldWideWeb browser is recreated as an app.

    February 20, 2019
    Liam Tung

    A team at Switzerland-based research center CERN has rebuilt WorldWideWeb, the world’s first browser created in 1990 for its researchers.

    Earlier this month a group of developers and designers convened at CERN, or The European Organization for Nuclear Research, to rebuild WorldWideWeb in celebration of its 30th anniversary.

    The WorldWideWeb browser was built by Sir Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 on a NeXT machine, following his March 1989 proposal for a ‘Mesh’ or global hypertext system for CERN that he would later call the World Wide Web.

    The system aimed to address information loss that came with a high turnover and CERN’s constantly changing technology. This was an acute problem at CERN that Berners-Lee predicted the world would also face within the next decade.

    NeXTcube first webserver used at CERN by Sir Tim Berners-Lee to build the World Wide Lab

    Besides the browser, Berners-Lee developed ‘httpd’, the first hypertext server software for serving up early webpages.

    2

    The WorldWideWeb browser simulator is now available online to view in a modern browser. For anyone curious to know how to use it, the developers have provided written instructions and a video demo.

    Opening a webpage in the browser involves selecting ‘Document’ from the menu, then selecting ‘Open from full document reference’, and typing in a URL such as http://w3c.org. Once inside a document, navigation requires double-clicking links.

    The team who rebuilt Berners-Lee’s WorldWideWeb browser documented the five days they spent on the project. A key goal was to get the browser running on a NeXT cube machine they borrowed from CERN’s museum.

    The developers used the NeXT computer’s NeXTSTEP operating system to replicate the fonts used in the WordWideWeb browser, which were Helvetica, Courier, and Ohlfs.

    Part of the WorldWideWeb site includes a neat infographic of the web’s development since 1989 and key developments leading up to it, covering browsers, new HTML formats, key milestone websites, computers, networks, and formats.

    As noted by the WordWideWeb team, Berners-Lee’s browser was also designed to be an editor.

    “At its heart, WorldWideWeb is a word processor …but with links. And just as you can use a word processor purely for reading documents, the real fun comes when you write your own. Especially when you throw hyperlinks into the mix,” they explain.

    “Today it’s hard to imagine that web browsers might also be used to create webpages. It turned out that people were quite happy to write HTML by hand — something that Tim Berners-Lee and colleagues never expected.

    “They thought that some kind of user interface would be needed for making web pages and links. That’s what the WorldWideWeb browser provided. You could open a document in one window and ‘mark’ it. Then, in a document in another window, you could create a link to the marked page.”

    3
    The WorldWideWeb browser simulator is now available online to view in a modern browser.
    Image: CERN

     
  • richardmitnick 9:26 am on January 29, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , CERN,   

    From CERN: “Colliders join the hunt for dark energy” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    From CERN

    24 January 2019

    1
    Dark analysis

    It is 20 years since the discovery that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, yet physicists still know precious little about the underlying cause. In a classical universe with no quantum effects, the cosmic acceleration can be explained by a constant that appears in Einstein’s equations of general relativity, albeit one with a vanishingly small value. But clearly our universe obeys quantum mechanics, and the ability of particles to fluctuate in and out of existence at all points in space leads to a prediction for Einstein’s cosmological constant that is 120 orders of magnitude larger than observed. “It implies that at least one, and likely both, of general relativity and quantum mechanics must be fundamentally modified,” says Clare Burrage, a theorist at the University of Nottingham in the UK.

    With no clear alternative theory available, all attempts to explain the cosmic acceleration introduce a new entity called dark energy (DE) that makes up 70% of the total mass-energy content of the universe.

    Dark energy depiction. Image: Volker Springle/Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics/SP)

    It is not clear whether DE is due to a new scalar particle or a modification of gravity, or whether it is constant or dynamic. It’s not even clear whether it interacts with other fundamental particles or not, says Burrage. Since DE affects the expansion of space–time, however, its effects are imprinted on astronomical observables such as the cosmic microwave background and the growth rate of galaxies, and the main approach to detecting DE involves looking for possible deviations from general relativity on cosmological scales.

    Unique environment

    Collider experiments offer a unique environment in which to search for the direct production of DE particles, since they are sensitive to a multitude of signatures and therefore to a wider array of possible DE interactions with matter. Like other signals of new physics, DE (if accessible at small scales) could manifest itself in high-energy particle collisions either through direct production or via modifications of electroweak observables induced by virtual DE particles.

    Last year, the ATLAS collaboration at the LHC [below]carried out a first collider search for light scalar particles that could contribute to the accelerating expansion of the universe. The results demonstrate the ability of collider experiments to access new regions of parameter space and provide complementary information to cosmological probes.

    Unlike dark matter, for which there exists many new-physics models to guide searches at collider experiments, few such frameworks exist that describe the interaction between DE and Standard Model (SM) particles.

    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    However, theorists have made progress by allowing the properties of the prospective DE particle and the strength of the force that it transmits to vary with the environment. This effective-field-theory approach integrates out the unknown microscopic dynamics of the DE interactions.

    The new ATLAS search was motivated by a 2016 model by Philippe Brax of the Université Paris-Saclay, Burrage, Christoph Englert of the University of Glasgow, and Michael Spannowsky of Durham University. The model provides the most general framework for describing DE theories with a scalar field and contains as subsets many well-known specific DE models – such as quintessence, galileon, chameleon and symmetron. It extends the SM lagrangian with a set of higher dimensional operators encoding the different couplings between DE and SM particles. These operators are suppressed by a characteristic energy scale, and the goal of experiments is to pinpoint this energy for the different DE–SM couplings. Two representative operators predict that DE couples preferentially to either very massive particles like the top quark (“conformal” coupling) or to final states with high-momentum transfers, such as those involving high-energy jets (“disformal” coupling).

    Signatures

    “In a big class of these operators the DE particle cannot decay inside the detector, therefore leaving a missing energy signature,” explains Spyridon Argyropoulos of the University of Iowa, who is a member of the ATLAS team that carried out the analysis. “Two possible signatures for the detection of DE are therefore the production of a pair of top-anti­top quarks or the production of high-energy jets, associated with large missing energy. Such signatures are similar to the ones expected by the production of supersymmetric top quarks (“stops”), where the missing energy would be due to the neutralinos from the stop decays or from the production of SM particles in association with dark-matter particles, which also leave a missing energy signature in the detector.”

    The ATLAS analysis, which was based on 13 TeV LHC data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb–1, re-interprets the result of recent ATLAS searches for stop quarks and dark matter produced in association with jets. No significant excess over the predicted background was observed, setting the most stringent constraints on the suppression scale of conformal and disformal couplings of DE to normal matter in the context of an effective field theory of DE. The results show that the characteristic energy scale must be higher than approximately 300 GeV for the conformal coupling and above 1.2 TeV for the disformal coupling.

    The search for DE at colliders is only at the beginning, says Argyropoulos. “The limits on the disformal coupling are several orders of magnitudes higher than the limits obtained from other laboratory experiments and cosmological probes, proving that colliders can provide crucial information for understanding the nature of DE. More experimental signatures and more types of coupling between DE and normal matter have to be explored and more optimal search strategies could be developed.”

    With this pioneering interpretation of a collider search in terms of dark-energy models, ATLAS has become the first experiment to probe all forms of matter in the observable universe, opening a new avenue of research at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. A complementary laboratory measurement is also being pursued by CERN’s CAST experiment [below], which studies a particular incarnation of DE (chameleon) produced via interactions of DE with photons.

    But DE is not going to give up its secrets easily, cautions theoretical cosmologist Dragan Huterer at the University of Michigan in the US. “Dark energy is normally considered a very large-scale phenomenon, but you may justifiably ask how the study of small systems in a collider can say anything about DE. Perhaps it can, but in a fairly model-dependent way. If ATLAS finds a signal that departs from the SM prediction it would be very exciting. But linking it firmly to DE would require follow-up work and measurements – all of which would be very exciting to see happen.”

    LHC signatures of scalar dark energy
    https://journals.aps.org/prd/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevD.94.084054

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA


    CERN ALPHA-g Detector

    CERN ALPHA-g Detector


    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN GBAR

    CERN GBAR

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

    CERN Proto Dune

    CERN Proto Dune

     
  • richardmitnick 9:00 am on January 29, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN, ,   

    From CERN: “Solving the next mystery in astrophysics” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    From CERN

    1
    Stellar stats for FRB’s

    CSIRO/Parkes Observatory, located 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes, New South Wales, Australia

    UTMOST-Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) a radio telescope operating at 843 mhz, operated by the school of physics of U Sidney, AU

    Green Bank Radio Telescope, West Virginia, USA, now the center piece of the GBO, Green Bank Observatory, being cut loose by the NSF


    NAIC Arecibo Observatory operated by University of Central Florida, Yang Enterprises and UMET, Altitude 497 m (1,631 ft).

    Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a radio telescope array located at Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) in the Australian Mid West. ASKAP consists of 36 identical parabolic antennas, each 12 metres in diameter, working together as a single instrument with a total collecting area of approximately 4,000 square metres.

    In 2007, while studying archival data from the Parkes radio telescope in Australia, Duncan Lorimer and his student David Narkevic of West Virginia University in the US found a short, bright burst of radio waves. It turned out to be the first observation of a fast radio burst (FRB), and further studies revealed additional events in the Parkes data dating from 2001. The origin of several of these bursts, which were slightly different in nature, was later traced back to the microwave oven in the Parkes Observatory visitors centre. After discarding these events, however, a handful of real FRBs in the 2001 data remained, while more FRBs were being found in data from other radio telescopes.

    The cause of FRBs has puzzled astronomers for more than a decade. But dedicated searches under way at the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) and the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) [above], among other activities, are intensifying the search for their origin.

    CHIME Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment -A partnership between the University of British Columbia, the University of Toronto, McGill University, Yale and the National Research Council in British Columbia, at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory in Penticton, British Columbia, CA

    Recently, while still in its pre-commissioning phase, CHIME detected no less than 13 new FRBs – one of them classed as a “repeater” on account of its regular radio output – setting the field up for an exciting period of discovery.

    Dispersion

    All FRBs have one thing in common: they last for a period of several milliseconds and have a relatively broad spectrum where the radio waves with the highest frequencies arrive first followed by those with lower frequencies. This dispersion feature is characteristic of radio waves travelling through a plasma in which free electrons delay lower frequencies more than the higher ones. Measuring the amount of dispersion thus gives an indication of the number of free electrons the pulse has traversed and therefore the distance it has travelled. In the case of FRBs, the measured delay cannot be explained by signals travelling within the Milky Way alone, strongly indicating an extragalactic origin.

    The size of the emission region responsible for FRBs can be deduced from their duration. The most likely sources are compact km-sized objects such as neutron stars or black holes. Apart from their extragalactic origin and their size, not much more is known about the 70 or so FRBs that have been detected so far. Theories about their origin range from the mundane, such as pulsar or black-hole emission, to the spectacular – such as neutron stars travelling through asteroid belts or FRBs being messages from extraterrestrials.

    For one particular FRB, however, its location was precisely measured and found to coincide with a faint unknown radio source within a dwarf galaxy. This shows clearly that the FRB was extragalactic. The reason this FRB could be localised is that it was one of several to come from the same source, allowing more detailed studies and long-term observations. For a while, it was the only FRB found to do so, earning it the title “The Repeater”. But the recent detection by CHIME has now doubled the number of such sources. The detection of repeater FRBs could be seen as evidence that FRBs are not the result of a cataclysmic event, since the source must survive in order to repeat. However, another interpretation is that there are actually two classes of FRBs: those that repeat and those that come from cataclysmic events.

    Until recently the number of theories on the origin of FRBs outnumbered the number of detected FRBs, showing how difficult it is to constrain theoretical models based on the available data. Looking at the experience of a similar field – that of gamma-ray burst (GRB) research, which aims to explain bright flashes of gamma rays discovered during the 1960s – an increase in the number of detections and searches for counterparts in other wavelengths or in gravitational waves will enable quick progress. As the number of detected GRBs started to go into the thousands, the number of theories (which initially also included those with extraterrestrial origins) decreased rapidly to a handful. The start of data taking by ASKAP and the increasing sensitivity of CHIME means we can look forward to an exponential growth of the number of detected FRBs, and an exponential decrease in the number of theories on their origin.
    Further reading

    CHIME/FRB Collaboration 2019 Nature https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0867-7.

    CHIME/FRB Collaboration 2019 Nature https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0864-x

    E F Keane 2018 Nat. Astron. 2 865.https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-018-0603-0

    D Lorimer 2018 Nat. Astron. 2 860. [Unfound]

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA


    CERN ALPHA-g Detector

    CERN ALPHA-g Detector


    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN GBAR

    CERN GBAR

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

    CERN Proto Dune

    CERN Proto Dune

     
  • richardmitnick 12:58 pm on January 15, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN, , , ,   

    From CERN: “International collaboration publishes concept design for a post-LHC future circular collider at CERN” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    From CERN

    15 January, 2019

    1
    The proposed layout of the future circular collider (Image: CERN)

    Today, the Future Circular Collider (FCC) collaboration submitted its Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for publication, a four-volume document that presents the different options for a large circular collider of the future. It showcases the great physics opportunities offered by machines of unprecedented energy and intensity and describes the technical challenges, cost and schedule for realisation.

    Over the next two years, the particle physics community will be updating the European Strategy for Particle Physics, outlining the future of the discipline beyond the horizon of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The roadmap for the future should, in particular, lead to crucial choices for research and development in the coming years, ultimately with a view to building the particle accelerator that will succeed the LHC and will be able to significantly expand our knowledge of matter and the universe. The new CDR contributes to the European Strategy. The possibility of a future circular collider will be examined during the strategy process, together with the other post-LHC collider option at CERN, the CLIC linear collider.

    The FCC study started in 2014 and stems directly from the previous update of the European Strategy, approved in May 2013, which recommended that design and feasibility studies be conducted in order for Europe “to be in a position to propose an ambitious post-LHC accelerator project at CERN by the time of the next Strategy update”. The FCC would provide electron-positron, proton-proton and ion-ion collisions at unprecedented energies and intensities, with the possibility of electron-proton and electron-ion collisions.

    “The FCC conceptual design report is a remarkable accomplishment. It shows the tremendous potential of the FCC to improve our knowledge of fundamental physics and to advance many technologies with a broad impact on society”, said CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti. “While presenting new, daunting challenges, the FCC would greatly benefit from CERN’s expertise, accelerator complex and infrastructures, which have been developed over more than half a century.”

    The discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC opened a new path for research, as the Higgs boson could be a door into new physics. Detailed studies of its properties are therefore a priority for any future high-energy physics accelerator. The different options explored by the FCC study offer unique opportunities to study the nature of the Higgs boson. In addition, experimental evidence requires physics beyond the Standard Model to account for observations such as dark matter and the domination of matter over antimatter. The search for new physics, for which a future circular collider would have a vast discovery potential, is therefore of paramount importance to making significant progress in our understanding of the universe.

    The FCC design study was a huge effort, possible only thanks to a large international collaboration. Over five years and with the strong support of the European Commission through the Horizon 2020 programme, the FCC collaboration involved more than 1300 contributors from 150 universities, research institutes and industrial partners who actively participated in the design effort and the R&D of new technologies to prepare for the sustainable deployment and efficient operation of a possible future circular collider.


    (Video: CERN)

    “The FCC’s ultimate goal is to provide a 100-kilometre superconducting proton accelerator ring, with an energy of up to 100 TeV, meaning an order of magnitude more powerful than the LHC”, said CERN Director for Accelerators and Technology, Frédérick Bordry. “The FCC timeline foresees starting with an electron-positron machine, just as LEP preceded the LHC. This would enable a rich programme to benefit the particle physics community throughout the twenty-first century.”

    Using new-generation high-field superconducting magnets, the FCC proton collider would offer a wide range of new physics opportunities. Reaching energies of 100 TeV and beyond would allow precise studies of how a Higgs particle interacts with another Higgs particle, and thorough exploration of the role of the electroweak-symmetry breaking in the history of our universe. It would also allow us to access unprecedented energy scales, looking for new massive particles, with multiple opportunities for great discoveries. In addition, it would also collide heavy ions, sustaining a rich heavy-ion physics programme to study the state of matter in the early universe.

    “Proton colliders have been the tool-of-choice for generations to venture new physics at the smallest scale. A large proton collider would present a leap forward in this exploration and decisively extend the physics programme beyond results provided by the LHC and a possible electron-positron collider.” said CERN Director for Research and Computing, Eckhard Elsen.

    A 90-to-365-GeV electron-positron machine with high luminosity could be a first step. Such a collider would be a very powerful “Higgs factory”, making it possible to detect new, rare processes and measure the known particles with precisions never achieved before. These precise measurements would provide great sensitivity to possible tiny deviations from the Standard Model expectations, which would be a sign of new physics.

    The cost of a large circular electron-positron collider would be in the 9-billion-euro range, including 5 billion euros for the civil engineering work for a 100-kilometre tunnel. This collider would serve the worldwide physics community for 15 to 20 years. The physics programme could start by 2040 at the end of the High-Luminosity LHC. The cost estimate for a superconducting proton machine that would afterwards use the same tunnel is around 15 billion euros. This machine could start operation in the late 2050s.

    The complex instruments required for particle physics inspire new concepts, innovation and groundbreaking technologies, which benefit other research disciplines and eventually find their way into many applications that have a significant impact on the knowledge economy and society. A future circular collider would offer extraordinary opportunities for industry, helping to push the limits of technology further. It would also provide exceptional training for a new generation of researchers and engineers.

    CDR to be publicly available here: https://cern.ch/fcc-cdr
    Photos: https://cds.cern.ch/ record/2653532
    Background information: https://cern.ch/fcc-cdr/webkit
    More information: https://cern.ch/fcc

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

     
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