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  • richardmitnick 12:39 pm on November 27, 2015 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CERN HL-LHC, , , ,   

    From CERN: “Test racetrack dipole magnet produces record 16 tesla field” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    27 Nov 2015
    Harriet Kim Jarlett

    1
    The Racetrack Model Coil test magnet (Image: CERN)

    A new world record has been broken by the CERN magnet group when their racetrack test magnet produced a 16.2 tesla (16.2T) peak field – nearly twice that produced by the current LHC dipoles and the highest ever for a dipole magnet of this configuration.

    The Racetrack Model Coil (RMC) is one of several demonstration test magnets being built by the group to understand and develop new technologies, which are vital for future accelerators.

    The shorter magnets are just 1 to 2 metres in length, compared to the 5-7 metre long ones needed for the High-Luminosity LHC.

    The tests are needed to prove the feasibility of creating magnetic fields of up to 16 tesla, which are built into the designs of future accelerators.

    “The present LHC dipoles have a nominal field of 8.3T and we are designing accelerators which need magnets to produce a field of around 16T – almost twice as much,” says Juan Carlos Perez, an engineer at CERN and the project leader for the RMC.

    High-field magnets are crucial to building higher energy particle accelerators. High magnetic fields are needed to steer a beam in its orbit – in the case of dipoles – or to squeeze the beams before they collide within the experiments, which is the case for high-gradient quadrupoles.

    The LHC uses niobium-titanium superconducting magnets to both bend and focus proton beams as they race around the LHC. But the RMC uses a different superconducting material, niobium-tin, which can reach much higher magnetic fields, despite its brittle nature.

    The world record is a step forward in the demonstration of the technology for the High-Luminosity LHC project, and a major milestone for the Future Circular Collider design study.

    “It is an excellent result, although we should not forget that this is a relatively small magnet, a technology demonstrator with no bore through the centre for the beam,” says Luca Bottura, Head of CERN’s Magnet Group. “There is still a way to go before 16 Tesla magnets can be used in an accelerator. Still, this is a very important step towards them.”

    The RMC is also using wires and cables of the same class as those being used to build FRESCA2, a 13T dipole magnet with a 100mm aperture that will be used to upgrade the CERN cable test facility FRESCA. FRESCA2 coils are currently under construction and will be ready for testing by summer 2016.

    Such fields are only possible thanks to new materials and technologies, and also close relationships between several physics communities. The team worked closely with other European and overseas research and development programmes to break the technology barriers.

    Learn more about the technologies and the Racetrack Model Coil read this month’s Accelerating News.

    See the full article here.

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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New

    LHC

    CERN LHC New
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
  • richardmitnick 9:02 pm on November 13, 2015 Permalink | Reply
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    From CERN: “High Luminosity LHC moves forward” 

    Cern New Bloc

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    CERN

    Nov 13, 2015

    CERN HL-LHC bloc

    October 2015 was a turning point for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, marking the end of the European-funded HiLumi LHC Design Study activities, and the transition to the construction phase, which is also reflected in the redesigned logo that was recently presented.

    So far, the LHC has only delivered 10% of the total planned number of collisions. To extend its discovery potential even further, the LHC will go through the HL-LHC major upgrade around 2025, which will increase the luminosity by a factor of 10 beyond the original design value (from 300 to 3000 fb–1). The HL-LHC machine will provide more accurate measurements and will enable the scientific community to study new phenomena discovered by the LHC, as well as new rare processes. The HiLumi upgrade programme relies on a number of key innovative technologies, such as cutting-edge 12 Tesla superconducting magnets, very compact and ultra-precise superconducting cavities for beam rotation, and 100 m-long high-power superconducting links with zero energy dissipation. In addition, the higher luminosities will make new demands on vacuum, cryogenics and machine protection, and will require new concepts for collimation and beam diagnostics, advanced modelling for the intense beam and novel schemes of beam crossing to maximise the physics output of these collisions.

    From design to construction

    The green light for the beginning of this new HL-LHC phase, marked by main hardware prototyping and industrialisation, was given with the approval of the first version of the Technical Design Report – the document that describes in detail how the LHC upgrade programme will be carried out. This happened at the 5th Joint HiLumi LHC-LARP Annual Meeting, which took place at CERN from 26 to 30 October and saw the participation of more than 200 experts from all over the world to discuss the results and achievements of the HiLumi LHC Design Study. In the final stage of the more than four-year-long design phase, an international board of independent experts worked on an in-depth cost-and-schedule review. As a result, the total cost of the project – amounting to CHF 950 million – will be included in the CERN budget until 2026.

    2
    New technologies

    In addition to the project management work-package (WP), a total of 17 WPs involving more than 200 researchers and engineers addressed the technological and technical challenges related to the upgrade. During the 48 months of the HiLumi Design Study, the accelerator-physics and performance team defined the parameter sets and machine optics that would allow HiLumi LHC to reach the very ambitious performance target of an integrated luminosity of 250 fb–1 per year. The study of the beam–beam effects confirmed the feasibility of the nominal scenario based on the baseline β* levelling mechanism, providing sufficient operational margin for operation with the new ATS (Achromatic Telescopic Scheme) at the nominal levelling luminosity of 5 × 1034 cm–2s–1, with the possibility to reach up to 50% more. The magnet design activity, focusing on the design of the insertion magnets, launched the hardware fabrication of short models of the Nb3Sn quadrupoles’ triplet (QXF), separation dipole, two-in-one large aperture quadrupole and 11 T dipole for Dispersion Suppressor collimators. Single short coils in the mirror configuration have already been successfully tested for the triplet. The first model of the QXF triplet containing two CERN and two LARP coils was assembled in the US in the summer, and is being tested this autumn, while a short model of the 11 T dipole fabricated at CERN reached 12 T. To protect the magnets from the higher beam currents, the collimation team focused on the design and verification of the new generation of collimators. The team presented a complete technical solution for the collimation in and around the insertions in HL-LHC, providing improved flexibility against optics changes. The crab-cavities activity finalised and launched the manufacturing of the crab-cavity interfaces, including the helium vessels and the cryo-module assembly. All cavity parts stamped in the US will be assembled and surface processed in the US, in addition to electron-beam welding and testing. Last but not least, as part of their efforts to develop a superconducting transmission line, the cold powering activity hit a world-record current of 20 kA at 24 K in a 40 m-long MgB2 electrical transmission line. The team has finalised the development and launched the procurement of the first MgB2 PIT round wires. This is an important achievement that will enable the start of large cabling activity in industry, as required for the production of a prototype cold-powering system for the HL-LHC.

    In addition to the technological challenges, the HL-LHC project has also seen an important expansion of the civil-engineering and technical infrastructure at P1 (ATLAS) and P5 (CMS), with new tunnels and underground halls needed to house the new cryogenic equipment, the electrical power supply and various plants for electricity, cooling and ventilation.
    A winning combination

    Such an extensive technical, technological and civil endeavour would not be possible without collaboration with industry. To address the specific technical and procurement challenges, the HL-LHC project is working in close collaboration with leading companies in the field of superconductivity, cryogenics, electrical power engineering and high-precision mechanics. To enhance the co-operation with industry on the production of key technologies that are not yet considered by commercial partners due to their novelty and low production demand, the newly launched QUACO project, recently funded by the EU, is bringing together several research infrastructures with similar technical requirements in magnet development to act as a single buyer group.

    See the full article here.

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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New

    LHC

    CERN LHC New
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

     
  • richardmitnick 12:22 am on October 30, 2015 Permalink | Reply
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    From Symmetry: “Next up: A turbocharged LHC” 

    Symmetry

    10/29/15
    Sarah Charley

    1
    Maximilien Brice, CERN

    Even though the Large Hadron Collider is at the peak of its performance, currently smashing protons at a record-breaking energy, physicists are already planning for its next iteration, which will make its debut in 2025.

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles
    LHC at CERN

    Today, scientists and engineers from more than a dozen institutions around the world met in Geneva to discuss the beginning of construction for the High-Luminosity LHC.

    2

    “About halfway through the construction of the LHC, scientists in the United States started developing new magnet and accelerator technologies for the HL-LHC,” says Peter Wanderer, head of the Superconducting Magnet Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. “This meeting gives us the chance to integrate our work and progress with the efforts at CERN and other organizations involved in the luminosity upgrade.”

    Luminosity describes the rate of particle collisions. By increasing the number and density of protons in the LHC, and by manipulating the orientation of the proton bunches when they collide, physicists can maximize the number of proton collisions per second.

    “The LHC already delivers proton collisions at the highest energy and the highest luminosity ever achieved by an accelerator,” says Director General of CERN, Rolf Heuer. “Yet the LHC has only delivered 1 percent of the total planned number of collisions.”

    Currently, the LHC collides 600 million protons every second. The planned upgrades will increase this rate by at least a factor of five.

    The amount of data the HL-LHC will be able to generate in just a few years would take two decades to collect with the existing LHC, says Roger Rusack of the University of Minnesota, who works on the CMS experiment at the LHC. “It’s an exciting, challenging and interesting project for the US and the global physics community.”

    CERN CMS Detector
    CMS

    More data will allow scientist to continue to push the limits of human knowledge and search for physics beyond the Standard Model—the best model physicists have to describe the fundamental particles and forces that make up everything around us.

    2
    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    Many scientists hope that this new data will shed light on dark matter or help them look for evidence of Supersymmetry.

    The High-Luminosity LHC will also enable physicists to study the Higgs boson in more detail.

    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event
    Higgs Event at ATLAS

    CERN ATLAS New
    ATLAS at CERN

    Higgs bosons are produced roughly once in every 10 billion collisions in the LHC. That equals about one Higgs every 17 seconds. Between 2011 and 2012, the LHC generated 1.2 million Higgs bosons. With these upgrades, the LHC will produce 15 million Higgs bosons every year.

    Among the upgrades are stronger beam-squeezing magnets and new superconducting radio-frequency cavities, which will flip the orientation of groups of protons to ensure the greatest number of collisions possible.

    “We’ve had to innovate in many fields, inventing brand new technology for the magnets, the optics of the accelerator, superconducting radio-frequency and the superconducting links,” says Lucio Rossi, head of the High-Luminosity LHC project.

    Scientists on LHC experiments are also designing and building new detector components that will optimize their experiments for future runs of the LHC.

    The University of Minnesota, for example, is working with many other US groups on a new calorimeter to record the energy, direction and time of particles produced during collisions in the CMS detector, Rusack says. “Time is short and we still have a lot to do before these new systems are ready for the huge influx of collisions in 2025.”

    See the full article here .

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    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 11:14 am on July 28, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From CERN: “Next-generation magnets: Small, but powerful” 

    CERN New Masthead
    CERN

    27 Aug 2012
    Cian O’Luanaigh

    The size of the magnets on a particle accelerator is crucial: it determines the final circumference and power. This spring, Fermilab unveiled a 10.4 Tesla magnet that is shorter than the 8 Tesla magnets currently installed in the LHC.

    men
    Members of the CERN-Fermilab team wind the magnet coil (Image: CERN)

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) represents the future of CERN’s flagship accelerator. From around 2020, this major upgrade to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will allow a substantial increase in the rate of collisions compared to today. The project poses various technical challenges, some of which appear to be close to being resolved.

    The success of the HL-LHC hinges on two essential conditions: the installation of more powerful magnets to guide the beams, and the addition of extra collimators – devices that narrow particle beams – to mitigate the increase in radiation. To add collimators to the LHC’s 27-kilometre ring – already full to bursting point – the current magnets need to be replaced with shorter but more powerful magnets. Fermilab’s engineers have been working on the project in collaboration with CERN. “The idea originated from a proposal made by Lucio Rossi, the head of CERN’s Magnets, Superconductors and Cryostats group, in 2010,” says Giorgio Apollinari, head of Fermilab’s Technical Division. “He suggested replacing a few of the LHC’s 8 Tesla dipole magnets with shorter 11 Tesla magnets. His idea aligned well with the goals of Fermilab’s R&D programme for projects including the muon collider, so we decided to collaborate.”

    It was not long before the decision started to pay off. In spring 2012, only 20 months after the research had begun, Fermilab unveiled a 10.4 Tesla, 2-metre prototype magnet. An 11-metre magnet should see the light of day after several more development phases; that’s 3 metres shorter than the existing LHC magnets. “We achieved this using niobium-tin (Nb3Sn) instead of niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti), which was the material used in the manufacture of the superconducting cables of the LHC magnets in the 1990s,” says Apollinari.

    Looking at what the CERN-Fermilab collaboration has achieved in less than two years, it may be safe to assume that 11 Tesla magnets are not far off…

    See the full article here.

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE
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    CMS
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  • richardmitnick 1:29 pm on January 28, 2013 Permalink | Reply
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    From CERN: “Superconductivity leads the way to high luminosity” 

    CERN New Masthead

    28 Jan 2013
    Christine Sutton

    As the LHC nears the end of its first long run – from March 2010 to March 2013 – work towards the proposed first major upgrade is gathering speed. Around 2020, the LHC could extend its potential for discovery through a fivefold increase in luminosity beyond the design value, in a new configuration called the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC).

    hl
    New superconducting links developed to carry currents of up to 20,000 amperes are being tested at CERN (Image: CERN)

    A longer version of this article first appeared on the CERN Courier website.

    The HL-LHC will require a number of new high-field superconducting magnets and compact, ultra-precise superconducting radiofrequency cavities to manipulate the beams near to where they collide, as well as new 300-metre long high-power superconducting links. Superconductivity, which allows electric current to flow without losing energy, is the core technology for the LHC. The collider employs some 1700 large superconducting magnets and nearly 8000 superconducting corrector magnets, all of which are cooled by more than 100 tonnes of superfluid helium.

    The past year has seen some major developments in superconducting technologies for the HL-LHC. The plans include magnets based on niobium-tin superconductor, which can reach higher magnetic fields than the existing structures based on niobium-titanium. Such magnets have already been successfully tested in the US.
    test
    Members of the CERN-Fermilab team wind magnets for the High Luminosity LHC (Image: CERN/Fermilab)

    Prototypes for different designs of special radiofrequency cavities to rotate bunches of particles before they collide are being tested in the UK and US as well as at CERN. To relocate equipment away from the LHC tunnel, new superconducting links developed to carry currents of up to 20,000 amperes are being tested at CERN.

    The HL-LHC project, which could be approved by CERN Council in June in the context of the updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, would yield up to ten times as many collisions per year as occurred in 2012.

    See the current article here.

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New

    LHC

    CERN LHC New

    LHC particles

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  • richardmitnick 11:29 am on August 28, 2012 Permalink | Reply
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    From CERN Bulletin via Fermilab Today: “Small but powerful” 

    The first notice I had of this article was in today’s Fermilab Today. It has as of yet not shown up in Cern Bulletin RSS feeds, although it is listed on the main Cern Bulletin page.

    27 August 2012
    Anaïs Schaeffer

    “Magnet size is crucial to an accelerator as it determines the final circumference and power. This spring, Fermilab unveiled a 10.4 Tesla magnet that is shorter than the 8 Tesla magnets currently installed in the LHC. These new magnets will be a valuable asset to the HL-LHC, the next step of the LHC machine.

    The HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) represents the future of CERN’s flagship accelerator. From around 2020, this major upgrade will allow a substantial increase in the rate of collisions compared to today. The project poses various technical challenges, some of which appear to be close to being resolved.

    mag
    An 11 T magnet ready for cryogenic testing. No image credit

    The success of the HL-LHC hinges on two essential conditions: the installation of more powerful magnets to guide the beams, and the addition of extra collimators to mitigate the increase in radiation. However, one of the key questions is how to insert additional collimators in a 27 km ring already full to bursting. The answer is to replace the current magnets by shorter but more powerful magnets, which is what Fermilab’s engineers have been working on in collaboration with CERN. ‘The idea originated from a proposal made by Lucio Rossi, the head of CERN’s Magnets, Superconductors and Cryostats group, in 2010,’ explains Giorgio Apollinari, head of Fermilab’s Technical Division. ‘During a discussion he suggested replacing a few of the LHC’s 8 Tesla dipole magnets with shorter 11 Tesla magnets. His idea aligned well with the goals of Fermilab’s R&D programme for projects including the muon collider, so we decided to collaborate.”

    See the full article at CERN Bulletin here.

    See the article in Fermilab Today here.

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

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