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  • richardmitnick 2:32 pm on September 25, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN HL-LHC, , , , , ,   

    From ALICE at CERN: “What the LHC upgrade brings to CERN” 

    CERN
    CERN New Masthead

    From From ALICE at CERN

    25 September 2018
    Rashmi Raniwala
    Sudhir Raniwala

    Six years after discovery, Higgs boson validates a prediction. Soon, an upgrade to Large Hadron Collider will allow CERN scientists to produce more of these particles for testing Standard Model of physics.

    FNAL magnets such as this one, which is mounted on a test stand at Fermilab, for the High-Luminosity LHC Photo Reidar Hahn

    Six years after the Higgs boson was discovered at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), particle physicists announced last week that they have observed how the elusive particle decays.

    CERN CMS Higgs Event


    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event

    The finding, presented by ATLAS and CMS collaborations, observed the Higgs boson decaying to fundamental particles known as bottom quarks.

    In 2012, the Nobel-winning discovery of the Higgs boson validated the Standard Model of physics, which also predicts that about 60% of the time a Higgs boson will decay to a pair of bottom quarks.

    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.


    Standard Model of Particle Physics from Symmetry Magazine

    According to CERN, “testing this prediction is crucial because the result will either lend support to the Standard Model — which is built upon the idea that the Higgs field endows quarks and other fundamental particles with mass — or rock its foundations and point to new physics”.

    The Higgs boson was detected by studying collisions of particles at different energies. But they last only for one zeptosecond, which is 0.000000000000000000001 seconds, so detecting and studying their properties requires an incredible amount of energy and advanced detectors. CERN announced earlier this year that it is getting a massive upgrade, which will be completed by 2026.

    Why study particles?

    Particle physics probes nature at extreme scales, to understand the fundamental constituents of matter. Just like grammar and vocabulary guide (and constrain) our communication, particles communicate with each other in accordance with certain rules which are embedded in what are known as the ‘four fundamental interactions’. The particles and three of these interactions are successfully described by a unified approach known as the Standard Model. The SM is a framework that required the existence of a particle called the Higgs boson, and one of the major aims of the LHC was to search for the Higgs boson.

    How are such tiny particles studied?

    Protons are collected in bunches, accelerated to nearly the speed of light and made to collide. Many particles emerge from such a collision, termed as an event. The emergent particles exhibit an apparently random pattern but follow underlying laws that govern part of their behaviour. Studying the patterns in the emission of these particles help us understand the properties and structure of particles.

    Initially, the LHC provided collisions at unprecedented energies allowing us to focus on studying new territories. But, it is now time to increase the discovery potential of the LHC by recording a larger number of events.

    3
    No image credit or caption

    So, what will an upgrade mean?

    After discovering the Higgs boson, it is imperative to study the properties of the newly discovered particle and its effect on all other particles. This requires a large number of Higgs bosons. The SM has its shortcomings, and there are alternative models that fill these gaps. The validity of these and other models that provide an alternative to SM can be tested by experimenting to check their predictions. Some of these predictions, including signals for “dark matter”, “supersymmetric particles” and other deep mysteries of nature are very rare, and hence difficult to observe, further necessitating the need of a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC).

    Imagine trying to find a rare variety of diamond amongst a very large number of apparently similar looking pieces. The time taken to find the coveted diamond will depend on the number of pieces provided per unit time for inspection, and the time taken in inspection. To complete this task faster, we need to increase the number of pieces provided and inspect faster. In the process, some new pieces of diamond, hitherto unobserved and unknown, may be discovered, changing our perspective about rare varieties of diamonds.

    Once upgraded, the rate of collisions will increase and so will the probability of most rare events. In addition, discerning the properties of the Higgs boson will require their copious supply. After the upgrade, the total number of Higgs bosons produced in one year may be about 5 times the number produced currently; and in the same duration, the total data recorded may be more than 20 times.

    With the proposed luminosity (a measure of the number of protons crossing per unit area per unit time) of the HL-LHC, the experiments will be able to record about 25 times more data in the same period as for LHC running. The beam in the LHC has about 2,800 bunches, each of which contains about 115 billion protons. The HL- LHC will have about 170 billion protons in each bunch, contributing to an increase in luminosity by a factor of 1.5.

    How will it be upgraded?

    The protons are kept together in the bunch using strong magnetic fields of special kinds, formed using quadrupole magnets. Focusing the bunch into a smaller size requires stronger fields, and therefore greater currents, necessitating the use of superconducting cables. Newer technologies and new material (Niobium-tin) will be used to produce the required strong magnetic fields that are 1.5 times the present fields (8-12 tesla).

    The creation of long coils for such fields is being tested. New equipment will be installed over 1.2 km of the 27-km LHC ring close to the two major experiments (ATLAS and CMS), for focusing and squeezing the bunches just before they cross.

    CERN crab cavities that will be used in the HL-LHC


    FNAL Crab cavities for the HL-LHC

    Hundred-metre cables of superconducting material (superconducting links) with the capacity to carry up to 100,000 amperes will be used to connect the power converters to the accelerator. The LHC gets the protons from an accelerator chain, which will also need to be upgraded to meet the requirements of the high luminosity.

    Since the length of each bunch is a few cm, to increase the number of collisions a slight tilt is being produced in the bunches just before the collisions to increase the effective area of overlap. This is being done using ‘crab cavities’.

    The experimental particle physics community in India has actively participated in the experiments ALICE and CMS. The HL-LHC will require an upgrade of these too. Both the design and the fabrication of the new detectors, and the ensuing data analysis will have a significant contribution from the Indian scientists.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Meet CERN in a variety of places:


    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS
    ATLAS
    CERN/ATLAS detector

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN/CMS Detector

    LHCb

    CERN/LHCb

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles


    Quantum Diaries

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  • richardmitnick 1:53 pm on September 14, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , CERN HL-LHC, , , , ,   

    From CERN: “The LHC prepares for the future” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    From CERN

    14 Sep 2018
    Corinne Pralavorio

    1
    View of the CERN Control Centre where the operators control the LHC (Image: Maximilien Brice/CERN)

    The Large Hadron Collider is stopping proton collisions for five days this week to undergo numerous tests.

    LHC

    CERN map


    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    Accelerator specialists need to test the LHC when it is not in production mode and there are only several weeks left in which they can do it. At the end of the year, CERN’s accelerators will be shut down for a major two-year upgrade programme that will result in a renovated accelerator complex using more intense beams and higher energy. Scientists are conducting research to prepare for this new stage and the next, the High-Luminosity LHC.

    “We have many requests from CERN’s teams because these periods of machine development allow components to be tested in real conditions and the results of simulations to be checked,” says Jan Uythoven, the head of the machine development programme. No fewer than twenty-four tests are scheduled for what will be this year’s third testing period.

    One of the major areas of research focuses on beam stability : perturbations are systematically tracked and corrected by the LHC operators. When instabilities arise, the operators stop the beams and dump them. “To keep high-intensity beams stable, we have to improve the fine-tuning of the LHC,” Jan Uythoven adds. Extensive research is therefore being carried out to better understand these instabilities, with operators causing them deliberately in order to study how the beams behave.

    The operators are also testing new optics for the High-Luminosity LHC or, in other words, a new way of adjusting the magnets to increase the beam concentration at the collision points. Another subject of the study concerns the heat generated by more intense future beams, which raises the temperature in the magnet’s core to the limit of what is needed to maintain the superconducting state. Lastly, tests are also being carried out on new components. In particular, innovative collimators were implemented at the start of the year. Collimators are protective items of equipment that stop the particles that deviate from the trajectory to prevent them from damaging the accelerator.

    After this five-day test period, the LHC will stop running completely for a technical stop lasting another five days, during which teams will carry out repairs and maintenance. The technical stop will be followed by five weeks of proton collisions before the next period of machine development and the lead-ion run.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

    CERN Proto Dune

    CERN Proto Dune

     
  • richardmitnick 11:52 am on June 19, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN HL-LHC, Halina Abramowicz, , , , ,   

    From Symmetry: Women in STEM-“Q&A: Planning Europe’s physics future” Halina Abramowicz 

    Symmetry Mag
    From Symmetry

    06/13/18
    Lauren Biron

    1
    Artwork by Sandbox Studio, Chicago

    Halina Abramowicz leads the group effort to decide the future of European particle physics.

    Physics projects are getting bigger, more global, more collaborative and more advanced than ever—with long lead times for complex physics machines. That translates into more international planning to set the course for the future.

    In 2014, the United States particle physics community set its priorities for the coming years using recommendations from the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel, or P5.

    FNAL Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel -P5

    In 2020, the European community will refresh its vision with the European Strategy Update for Particle Physics.

    The first European strategy launched in 2006 and was revisited in 2013. In 2019, teams will gather input through planning meetings in preparation for the next refresh.

    Halina Abramowicz, a physicist who works on the ATLAS experiment at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider and the FCAL research and development collaboration through Tel Aviv University, is the chair of the massive undertaking. During a visit to Fermilab to provide US-based scientists with an overview of the process, she sat down with Symmetry writer Lauren Biron to discuss the future of physics in Europe.

    LB:What do you hope to achieve with the next European Strategy Update for Particle Physics?
    HA: Europe is a very good example of the fact that particle physics is very international, because of the size of the infrastructure that we need to progress, and because of the financial constraints.

    The community of physicists working on particle physics is very large; Europe has probably about 10,000 physicists. They have different interests, different expertise, and somehow, we have to make sure to have a very balanced program, such that the community is satisfied, and that at the same time it remains attractive, dynamic, and pushing the science forward. We have to take into account the interests of various national programs, universities, existing smaller laboratories, CERN, and make sure that there is a complementarity, a spread of activities—because that’s the way to keep the field attractive, that is, to be able to answer more questions faster.

    LB: How do you decide when to revisit the European plan for particle physics?
    HA: Once the Higgs was discovered, it became clear that it was time to revisit the strategy, and the first update happened in 2013. The recommendation was to vigorously pursue the preparations for the high-luminosity upgrade of the [Large Hadron Collider].

    The high-luminosity LHC program was formally approved by the CERN Council in September 2016. By the end of 2018, the LHC experiments will have collected almost a factor of 10 more data. It will be a good time to reflect on the latest results, to think about mid-term plans, to discuss what are the different options to consider next and their possible timelines, and to ponder what would make sense as we look into the long-term future.

    CERN HL-LHC map

    Machines, Projects and Experiments operating at CERN LHC and CLIC at three levels of power

    The other aspect which is very important is the fact that the process is called “strategy,” rather than “roadmap,” because it is a discussion not only of the scientific goals and associated projects, but also of how to achieve them. The strategy basically is about everything that the community should be doing in order to achieve the roadmap.

    LB: What’s the difference between a strategy and a roadmap?
    HA: The roadmap is about prioritizing the scientific goals and about the way to address them, while the strategy covers also all the different aspects to consider in order to make the program a success. For example, outreach is part of the strategy. We have to make sure we are doing something that society knows about and is interested in. Education: making sure we share our knowledge in a way which is understandable. Detector developments. Technology transfer. Work with industry. Making sure the byproducts of our activities can also be used for society. It’s a much wider view.

    LB: What is your role in this process?
    HA: The role of the secretary of the strategy is to organize the process and to chair the discussions so that there is an orderly process. At this stage, we have one year to prepare all the elements of the process that are needed—i.e. to collect the input. In the near future we will have to nominate people for the physics preparatory group that will help us organize the open symposium, which is basically the equivalent of a town-hall meeting.

    The hope is that if it’s well organized and we can reach a consensus, especially on the most important aspects, the outcome will come from the community. We have to make sure through interaction with the European community and the worldwide community that we aren’t forgetting anything. The more inputs we have, the better. It is very important that the process be open.

    The first year we debate the physics goals and try to organize the community around a possible plan. Then comes the process that is maybe a little shorter than a year, during which the constraints related to funding and interests of various national communities have to be integrated. I’m of course also hoping that we will get, as an input to the strategy discussions, some national roadmaps. It’s the role of the chair to keep this process flowing.

    LB: Can you tell us a little about your background and how you came to serve as the chair for European Strategy Update?
    HA: That’s a good question. I really don’t know. I did my PhD in 1978; I was one of the youngest PhDs of Warsaw University, thus I’ve spent 40 years in the field. That means that I have participated in at least five large experiments and at least two or three smaller projects. I have a very broad view—not necessarily a deep view—but a broad view of what’s happening.

    LB: There are major particle physics projects going on around the world, like DUNE in the US and Belle II in Japan. How much will the panel look beyond Europe to coordinate activities, and how will it incorporate feedback from scientists on those projects?

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    KEK Belle 2 detector, in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan

    HA: This is one of the issues that was very much discussed during my visit. We shouldn’t try to organize the whole world—in fact, a little bit of competition is very healthy. And complementarity is also very important.

    At the physics-level discussions, we’ll make sure that we have representatives from the United States and other countries so we are provided with all the information. As I was discussing with many people here, if there are ideas, experiments or existing collaborations which already include European partners, then of course, there is no issue [because the European partners will provide input to the strategy].

    LB: How do you see Europe working with Asia, in particular China, which has ambitions for a major collider?
    HA: Collaboration is very important, and at the global level we have to find the right balance between competition, which is stimulating, and complementarity. So we’re very much hoping to have one representative from China in the physics preparatory group, because China seems to have ambitions to realize some of the projects which have been discussed. And I’m not talking only about the equivalent of [the Future Circular Collider]; they are also thinking about an [electron-positron] circular collider, and there are also other projects that could potentially be realized in China. I also think that if the Chinese community decides on one of these projects, it may need contributions from around the world. Funding is an important aspect for any future project, but it is also important to reach a critical mass of expertise, especially for large research infrastructures.

    LB: This is a huge effort. What are some of the benefits and challenges of meeting with physicists from across Europe to come up with a single plan?
    HA: The benefits are obvious. The more input we have, the fuller the picture we have, and the more likely we are to converge on something that satisfies maybe not everybody, but at least the majority—which I think is very important for a good feeling in the community.

    The challenges are also obvious. On one hand, we rely very much on individuals and their creative ideas. These are usually the people who also happen to be the big pushers and tend to generate most controversies. So we will have to find a balance to keep the process interesting but constructive. There is no doubt that there will be passionate and exciting discussions that will need to happen; this is part of the process. There would be no point in only discussing issues on which we all agree.

    The various physics communities, in the ideal situation, get organized. We have the neutrino community, [electron-positron collider] community, precision measurements community, the axion community—and here you can see all kinds of divisions. But if these communities can get organized and come up with what one could call their own white paper, or what I would call a 10-page proposal, of how various projects could be lined up, and what would be the advantages or disadvantages of such an approach, then the job will be very easy.

    LB: And that input is what you’re aiming to get by December 2018?
    HA: Yes, yes.

    LB: How far does the strategy look out?
    HA: It doesn’t have an end date. This is why one of the requests for the input is for people to estimate the time scale—how much time would be needed to prepare and to realize the project. This will allow us to build a timeline.

    We have at present a large project that is approved: the high-luminosity LHC. This will keep an important part of our community busy for the next 10 to 20 years. But will the entire community remain fully committed for the whole duration of the program if there are no major discoveries?

    I’m not sure that we can be fed intellectually by one project. I think we need more than one. There’s a diversity program—diversity in the sense of trying to maximize the physics output by asking questions which can be answered with the existing facilities. Maybe this is the time to pause and diversify while waiting for the next big step.

    LB: Do you see any particular topics that you think are likely to come up in the discussion?
    HA: There are many questions on the table. For example, should we go for a proton-proton or an [electron-positron] program? There are, for instance, voices advocating for a dedicated Higgs factory, which would allow us to make measurements of the Higgs properties to a precision that would be extremely hard to achieve at the LHC. So we will have to discuss if the next machine should be an [electron-positron] machine and check whether it is realistic and on what time scale.

    One of the subjects that I’m pretty sure will come up as well is about pushing the accelerating technologies. Are we getting to the limit of what we can do with the existing technologies, and is it time to think about something else?

    To learn more about the European Strategy Update for Particle Physics, watch Abramowicz’s colloquium at Fermilab.

    See the full article here .


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    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 5:07 pm on June 15, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN HL-LHC, ,   

    From Fermilab: “Fermilab develops forefront accelerator components for the High-Luminosity LHC” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermilab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    June 14, 2018
    Jordan Rice

    A groundbreaking ceremony will be held tomorrow to celebrate the start of civil engineering work for a major upgrade to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. When complete, the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will produce five to seven times more proton-proton collisions than the currently operating LHC, powering new discoveries about our universe.

    CERN CMS Tracker for HL-LHC

    For the last decade, scientists, engineers and technicians from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory have been working with partners around the world to conduct R&D on new accelerator components that would make operations at the HL-LHC possible. The U.S. research was conducted via the LHC Accelerator Research Program, or LARP. Now the research turns into reality, as construction of the new components begins.

    The primary components contributed by the United States for the HL-LHC construction are powerful superconducting magnets and superconducting deflecting cavities, called crab cavities of a novel compact design never before used in an accelerator.

    1
    Fermilab is developing magnets such as this one, which is mounted on a test stand at Fermilab, for the High-Luminosity LHC. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    “This is a truly major milestone for the whole U.S. accelerator community,” said Fermilab scientist Giorgio Apollinari, who leads the DOE Office of Science-funded U.S. HL-LHC Accelerator Upgrade Project (AUP). “More than 10 years of research work funded by DOE under LARP have gone into developing these cutting-edge magnets and crab cavities and in demonstrating their technical feasibility for the intended application at HL-LHC. We now look forward with much anticipation to shipping the first components to CERN and seeing them operate as part of the world’s foremost particle collider.”

    In the LHC, superconducting quadrupole magnets focus the beams into collision at four points around the 27-kilometer ring. In the HL-LHC, these focusing magnets must be more powerful to focus the stream of particles much tighter than in the LHC. Fermilab, in collaboration with DOE’s Brookhaven and Lawrence Berkeley national laboratories, developed the basic technology for these new magnets through LARP. The final design was completed in collaboration with CERN for application in the HL-LHC upgrade.

    These new magnets are made of a niobium-tin alloy that allows the magnets to reach the desired high magnetic field of 12 tesla. This powerful field is created by running a very high electric current through coils of superconducting wire, which conduct electricity without resistance when cooled to almost absolute zero. Fermilab is the lead U.S. laboratory for this project and is fabricating half of the coils and conducting the final assembly and testing of 11 full cryoassembly magnet structures before shipping them to CERN. The U.S. in total is delivering half of the quadrupole magnets for the upgrade, while CERN is completing the other half.

    “These are the next generation of superconducting magnets for accelerators,” said Fermilab’s Ruben Carcagno, the deputy project manager for the HL-LHC AUP. “This is the first time that this new technology will be deployed in a working machine. So it’s a big step.”

    2
    Fermilab is developing and constructing cavities like this one for the future HL-LHC. The cavity proper is the structure situated between the four rods. Photo: Leonardo Ristori

    In addition to the magnets, the United States will deliver half of the crab cavities to CERN for the HL-LHC, while CERN completes the remaining cavities. The cavities to be produced in the United States are of a radio-frequency dipole (RFD) design and are the product of more than 10 years of research through LARP by Old Dominion University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, with contributions from Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and U.S. industry. Fermilab will be responsible for fabricating and testing the RFD cavities before delivering them to CERN. These novel cavities will kick or tilt the beams just before they pass through each other to maximize the beam overlap and therefore the possibility of proton collisions.

    Once it’s up and running, the HL-LHC will produce up to 15 million Higgs bosons per year, compared to the 4 million produced during the LHC’s 2015-2017 run. The higher luminosity will mean big changes for the LHC experiments as well, and the ATLAS and CMS detectors are undergoing major upgrades of their own. Learn more about Fermilab’s contributions to the HL-LHC upgrades to the CMS detector.

    See the full article here .


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    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

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    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

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    FNAL Holometer

     
  • richardmitnick 4:17 pm on April 16, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN HL-LHC, , LARP-US LHC Accelerator Research Program, , ,   

    From CERN: “LHC luminosity upgrade project moving to next phase” [2015. Really? So what is new here?] 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    29 Oct 2015 [Really?]

    1
    29 October 2015. This week more than 230 scientists and engineers from around the world met at CERN1 to discuss the High-Luminosity LHC – a major upgrade to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that will increase the accelerator’s discovery potential from 2025.

    After a four year long design study the project is now moving into its second phase, which will see the development of industrial prototypes for various parts of the accelerator.

    Luminosity is a crucial indicator of performance for an accelerator. It is proportional to the number of particles colliding within a defined amount of time. Since discoveries in particle physics rely on statistics, the greater the number of collisions, the more chances physicists have to see a particle or process that they have not seen before.

    The High-Luminosity LHC will increase the luminosity by a factor of 10, delivering 10 times more collisions than the LHC would do over the same period of time.

    It will therefore provide more accurate measurements of fundamental particles and enable physicists to observe rare processes that occur below the current sensitivity level of the LHC. With this upgrade, the LHC will continue to push the limits of human knowledge, enabling physicists to explore beyond the Standard Model and Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism.

    “The LHC already delivers proton collisions at the highest energy ever,” said CERN Director General Rolf Heuer. “The High-Luminosity LHC will produce collisions 10 times more rapidly, increasing our discovery potential and transforming the LHC into a machine for precision studies: the natural next step for the high energy frontier.”

    The increase in luminosity will mean physicists will be able to study new phenomena discovered by the LHC, such as the Higgs boson, in more detail. The High-Luminosity LHC will produce 15 million Higgs bosons per year compared to the 1.2 million in total created at the LHC between 2011 and 2012.

    Upgrading the LHC will be a challenging procedure and relies on several breakthrough technologies currently under development.

    “We have to innovate in many fields, developing cutting-edge technologies for magnets, the optics of the accelerator, superconducting radiofrequency cavities, and superconducting links,” explained Lucio Rossi, Head of the High-Luminosity LHC project.

    Some 1.2 km of the LHC will be replaced by these new technologies, which include cutting-edge 12 Tesla superconducting quadrupole magnets built using a superconducting compound of niobium and tin [built by whom?*]. These will strongly focus the beam to increase the probability of collisions occurring and will be installed at each side of the ATLAS and CMS experiments.

    There are also brand new superconducting radiofrequency cavities, called “crab cavities” [built by whom?*], which will be used to orientate the beam before the collision to increase the length of the area where the beams overlap. New electrical transfer lines, based on high temperature superconductors, will be able to carry currents of record intensities to the accelerator, up to 100,000 amps, over 100 metres.

    “The High-Luminosity LHC will use pioneering technologies – such as high field niobium-tin magnets [built by whom?] – for the first time,” said Frédérick Bordry, CERN Director for Accelerators and Technology. “This will not only increase the discovery potential of the LHC but also serve as a proof of concept for future accelerators.”

    All these technologies have been explored since 2011 in the framework of the HiLumi LHC Design Study – partly financed by the European Commission’s FP7 programme. HiLumi LHC brought together a large number of laboratories from CERN’s member states, as well as from Russia, Japan and the US. American institutes participated in the project with the support of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Some 200 scientists from 20 countries collaborated on this first successful phase.

    The meeting this week marks the end of this hugely complex and collaborative design phase of the High-Luminosity LHC project. The project will now focus on the prototyping and industrialization of the technologies before the construction phase can begin.

    *Outside builders, such as BNL,FNAL,LBNL, SLAC, DESY, KEK, etc. deserve to be credited.

    See the full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

     
  • richardmitnick 2:46 pm on September 22, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , CERN HL-LHC, , , Other CERN Linacs, ,   

    From CERN Courier: “Injecting new life into the LHC” 

    CERN Courier

    Sep 22, 2017

    Malika Meddahi
    Giovanni Rumolo

    1
    Beam transfer magnets. No image credit

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most famous and powerful of all CERN’s machines, colliding intense beams of protons at an energy of 13 TeV.

    LHC

    CERN/LHC Map

    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    But its success relies on a series of smaller machines in CERN’s accelerator complex that serve it. The LHC’s proton injectors have already been providing beams with characteristics exceeding the LHC’s design specifications. This decisively contributed to the excellent performance of the 2010–2013 LHC physics operation and, since 2015, has allowed CERN to push the machine beyond its nominal beam performance.

    Built between 1959 and 1976, the CERN injector complex accelerates proton beams to a kinetic energy of 450 GeV. It does this via a succession of accelerators: a linear accelerator called Linac 2 followed by three synchrotrons – the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), the Proton Synchrotron (PS) and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS).

    2
    CERN Linac 2. No image credit

    3
    CERN The Proton Synchrotron Booster

    CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    The complex also provides the LHC with ion beams, which are first accelerated through a linear accelerator called Linac 3 [nand the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) synchrotron before being injected into the PS and the SPS.

    6
    CERN Linac 3

    5
    CERN Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) synchrotron

    The CERN injectors, besides providing beams to the LHC, also serve a large number of fixed-target experiments at CERN – including the ISOLDE radioactive-beam facility and many others.

    CERN ISOLDE

    Part of the LHC’s success lies in the flexibility of the injectors to produce various beam parameters, such as the intensity, the spacing between proton bunches and the total number of bunches in a bunch train. This was clearly illustrated in 2016 when the LHC reached peak luminosity values 40% higher than the design value of 1034 cm–2 s–1, although the number of bunches in the LHC was still about 27% below the maximum achievable. This gain was due to the production of a brighter beam with roughly the same intensity per bunch but in a beam envelope of just half the size.

    Despite the excellent performance of today’s injectors, the beams produced are not sufficient to meet the very demanding proton beam parameters specified by the high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC).

    Indeed, as of 2025, the HL-LHC aims to accumulate an integrated luminosity of around 250 fb–1 per year, to be compared with the 40 fb–1 achieved in 2016. For heavy-ion operations, the goals are just as challenging: with lead ions the objective is to obtain an integrated luminosity of 10 nb–1 during four runs starting from 2021 (compared to the 2015 achievement of less than 1 nb–1). This has demanded a significant upgrade programme that is now being implemented.

    Immense challenges

    To prepare the CERN accelerator complex for the immense challenges of the HL-LHC, the LHC Injectors Upgrade project (LIU) was launched in 2010. In addition to enabling the necessary proton and ion injector chains to deliver beams of ions and protons required for the HL-LHC, the LIU project must ensure the reliable operation and lifetime of the injectors throughout the HL-LHC era, which is expected to last until around 2035. Hence, the LIU project is also tasked with replacing ageing equipment (such as power supplies, magnets and radio-frequency cavities) and improving radioprotection measures such as shielding and ventilation. [See https://sciencesprings.wordpress.com/2017/09/21/from-cern-next-stop-the-superconducting-magnets-of-the-future/%5D

    One of the first challenges faced by the LIU team members was to define the beam-performance limitations of all the accelerators in the injector chain and identify the actions needed to overcome them by the required amount. Significant machine and simulation studies were carried out over a period of years, while functional and engineering specifications were prepared to provide clear guidelines to the equipment groups. This was followed by the production of the first hardware prototype devices and their installation in the machines for testing and, where possible, early exploitation.

    Significant progress has already been made concerning the production of ion beams. Thanks to the modifications in Linac 3 and LEIR implemented after 2015 and the intensive machine studies conducted within the LIU programme over the last three years, the excellent performance of the ion injector chain could be further improved in 2016 (figure 1). This enabled the recorded luminosity for the 2016 proton–lead run to exceed the target value by a factor of almost eight. The main remaining challenges for the ion beams will be to more than double the number of bunches in the LHC through complex RF manipulations in the SPS known as “momentum slip stacking”, as well as to guarantee continued and stable performance of the ion injector chain without constant expert monitoring.

    Along the proton injector chain, the higher-intensity beams within a comparatively small beam envelope required by the HL-LHC can only be demonstrated after the installation of all the LIU equipment during Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) in 2019–2020. The main installations feature: a new injection region, a new main power supply and RF system in the PSB; a new injection region and RF system to stabilise the future beams in the PS; an upgraded main RF system; and the shielding of vacuum flanges together with partial coating of the beam chambers in order to stabilise future beams against parasitic electromagnetic interaction and electron clouds in the SPS. Beam instrumentation, protection devices and beam dumps also need to be upgraded in all the machines to match the new beam parameters. The baseline goals of the LIU project to meet the challenging HL-LHC requirements are summarised in the panel (final page of feature).

    Execution phase

    Having defined, designed and endorsed all of the baseline items during the last seven years, the LIU project is presently in its execution phase. New hardware is being produced, installed and tested in the different machines. Civil-engineering work is proceeding for the buildings that will host the new PSB main power supply and the upgraded SPS RF equipment, and to prepare the area in which the new SPS internal beam dump will be located.

    The 86 m-long Linac 4, which will eventually replace Linac 2, is an essential component of the HL-LHC upgrade .

    7
    CERN Linac 4

    The machine, based on newly developed technology, became operational at the end of 2016 following the successful completion of acceleration tests at its nominal energy of 160 MeV. It is presently undergoing an important reliability run that will be instrumental to reach beams with characteristics matching the requirements of the LIU project and to achieve an operational availability higher than 95%, which is an essential level for the first link in the proton injector chain. On 26 October 2016, the first 160 MeV negative hydrogen-ion beam was successfully sent to the injection test stand, which operated until the beginning of April 2017 and demonstrated the correct functioning of this new and critical CERN injection system as well as of the related diagnostics and controls.

    The PSB upgrade has mostly completed the equipment needed for the injection of negative hydrogen ions from Linac 4 into the PSB and is progressing with the 2 GeV energy upgrade of the PSB rings and extraction, with a planned installation date of 2019–2020 during LS2. On the beam-physics side, studies have mainly focused on the deployment of the new wideband RF system, commissioning of beam diagnostics and investigation of space-charge effects. During the 2016–2017 technical stop, the principal LIU-related activities were the removal of a large volume of obsolete cables and the installation of new beam instrumentation (e.g. a prototype transverse size measurement device and turn-by-turn orbit measurement systems). The unused cables, which had been individually identified and labelled beforehand, could be safely removed from the machine to allow cables for the new LIU equipment to be pulled.

    The procurement, construction, installation and testing of upgrade items for the PS is also progressing. Some hardware, such as new corrector magnets and power supplies, a newly developed beam gas-ionisation monitor and new injection vacuum chambers to remove aperture limitations, was already installed during past technical stops. Mitigating anticipated longitudinal beam instabilities in the PS is essential for achieving the LIU baseline beam parameters. This requires that the parasitic electromagnetic interaction of the beam with the multiple RF systems has to be reduced and a new feedback system has to be deployed to keep the beam stable. Beam-dynamics studies will determine the present intensity reach of the PS and identify any remaining needs to comfortably achieve the value required for the HL-LHC. Improved schemes of bunch rotation are also under investigation to better match the beam extracted from the PS to the SPS RF system and thus limit the beam losses at injection energy in the SPS.

    In the SPS, the LIU deployment in the tunnel has begun in earnest, with the re-arrangement and improvement of the extraction kicker system, the start of civil engineering for the new beam-dump system in LSS5 and the shielding of vacuum flanges in 10 half-cells together with the amorphous carbon coating of the adjacent beam chambers (to mitigate against electron-cloud effects). In a notable first, eight dipole and 10 focusing quadrupole magnet chambers were amorphous carbon coated in-situ during the 2016–2017 technical stop, proving the industrialisation of this process (figure 2). The new overground RF building needed to accommodate the power amplifiers of the upgraded main RF system has been completed, while procurement and testing of the solid-state amplifiers has also commenced. The prototyping and engineering for the LIU beam-dump is in progress with the construction and installation of a new SPS beam-dump block, which will be able to cope with the higher beam intensities of the HL-LHC and minimise radiation issues.

    Regarding diagnostics, the development of beam-size measurement devices based on flying wire, gas ionisation and synchrotron radiation, all of which are part of the LIU programme, is already providing meaningful results (figure 3) addressing the challenges of measuring the operating high-intensity and high-brightness beams with high precision. From the machine performance and beam dynamics side, measurements in 2015–2016 made with the very high intensities available from the PS meant that new regimes were probed in terms of electron-cloud instabilities, RF power and losses at injection. More studies are planned in 2017–2018 to clearly identify a path for the mitigation of the injection losses when operating with higher beam currents.

    Looking forward to LS2

    The success of LIU in delivering beams with the desired parameters is the key to achieving the HL-LHC luminosity target. Without the LIU beams, all of the other necessary HL-LHC developments – including high-field triplet magnets [see above], crab cavities and new collimators – would only allow a fraction of the desired luminosity to be delivered to experiments.

    Whenever possible, LIU installation work is taking place during CERN’s regular year-end technical stops. But the great majority of the upgrade requires an extended machine stop and therefore will have to wait until LS2 for implementation. The duration of access to the different accelerators during LS2 is being defined and careful preparation is ongoing to manage the work on site, ensure safety and level the available resources among the different machines in the CERN accelerator complex. After all of the LIU upgrades are in place, beams will be commissioned with the newly installed systems. The LIU goals in terms of beam characteristics are, by definition, uncharted territory. Reaching them will require not only a high level of expertise, but also careful optimisation and extensive beam-physics and machine-development studies in all of CERN’s accelerators.

    See the full article here .

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    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

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    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
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  • richardmitnick 8:25 pm on September 21, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: CEA-Saclay IRFU, , CERN HL-LHC, European EuCARD programme, FRESCA2, Future Circular Collider   

    From CERN: “Next stop: the superconducting magnets of the future” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    21 Sep 2017
    Corinne Pralavorio

    1
    The FRESCA2 cryostat before the insertion of the magnet. (Image: Sophia Bennett)

    The superconducting magnets of the future are under development and CERN is on the front line. To increase the energy of circular colliders, physicists are counting on ever more powerful magnets, capable of generating magnetic fields way beyond the 8 Tesla produced by the magnets in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

    Magnets generating fields of almost 12 Tesla, based on a superconducting niobium-tin compound, are already being manufactured for the High-Luminosity LHC.

    But CERN and its partners have also started work on the next generation of magnets, which will need to be capable of generating fields of 16 Tesla and more, for the colliders of the future such as those under consideration in the FCC (Future Circular Collider) study.

    2

    To achieve this goal, the performance of niobium-tin superconducting cable is being pushed to the limits.

    One of the key steps in the programme is the development of a test station capable of testing the new cables in realistic conditions, i.e. in a strong magnetic field. Such a facility, in the form of a dipole magnet with a large aperture, has been set up at CERN. The magnet, known as FRESCA2, was developed as part of a collaboration between CERN and CEA-Saclay in the framework of the European EuCARD programme.

    At the start of August, FRESCA2 reached an important milestone when it achieved its design magnetic field, generating 13.3 Tesla at the centre of a 10-centimetre aperture for 4 hours in a row – a first for a magnet with such a large aperture. By comparison, the current magnets in the LHC generate fields of around 8 Tesla at the centre of a 50-millimetre aperture. The development and performance of FRESCA2 were presented today at the EUCAS 2017 conference on superconductors and their applications.

    Testing of the cables under the influence of a strong magnetic field is a vital step. “We not only need to test the maximum current that can be carried by the cable, but also all the effects of the magnetic field. The quality of the field must be perfect,” explains Gijs De Rijk, deputy leader of the Magnets, Superconductors and Cryostats group at CERN. The precision with which the intensity of the magnetic field can be adjusted is an important feature for an accelerator. When the energy of the beams is increased, the intensity of the field that guides them must be increased gradually, without sudden spikes, or the beams could be lost. The fact that the magnets in the LHC can be adjusted with a great degree of precision, keeping their magnetic fields stable, is what allows the beams to circulate in the machine for hours at a time.

    3
    The FRESCA2 magnet before the start of the tests. (Image: Maximilien Brice/CERN)

    The two coils of FRESCA2 are formed from a superconducting cable made of niobium-tin. Their temperature is maintained at 2 degrees above absolute zero. The magnet they form is much larger than an LHC magner, measuring 1.5 metres in length and 1 metre in diameter. This allows the magnet to have a large aperture, measuring 10 centimetres, so that it can house the cables being tested, as well as sensors to observe their behaviour. FRESCA2 will also be used to test coils formed from high-temperature superconductors (an article on this subject will be published tomorrow).

    FRESCA2 is being modified so that by the end of this year it will be able to generate an even stronger field. The station will then be ready to receive the samples to be tested.

    See the CEA-Saclay IRFU (Institute of Research into the Fundamental Laws of the Universe) article.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 8:03 pm on September 21, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN HL-LHC, , , , ,   

    From CERN: “CERN openlab tackles ICT challenges of High-Luminosity LHC “ 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    21 Sep 2017
    Harriet Kim Jarlett

    1
    CERN computing centre in 2017 (Image: Robert Hradil, Monika Majer/ProStudio22.ch)

    CERN openlab has published a white paper identifying the major ICT challenges that face CERN and other ‘big science’ projects in the coming years.

    2

    CERN is home to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. The complexity of the scientific instruments at the laboratory throw up extreme ICT challenges, and make it an ideal environment for carrying out joint R&D projects and testing with industry.

    A continuing programme of upgrades to the LHC and the experiments at CERN will result in hugely increased ICT demands in the coming years. The High-Luminosity LHC, the successor to the LHC, is planned to come online in around 2026.

    By this time, the total computing capacity required by the experiments is expected to be 50-100 times greater than today, with data storage needs expected to be in the order of exabytes.

    CERN openlab works to develop and test the new ICT solutions and techniques that help to make the ground-breaking physics discoveries at CERN possible. It is a unique public-private partnership that provides a framework through which CERN can collaborate with leading ICT companies to accelerate the development of these cutting-edge technologies.

    With a new three-year phase of CERN openlab set to begin at the start of 2018, work has been carried out throughout the first half of 2017 to identify key areas for future collaboration. A series of workshops and discussions was held to discuss the ICT challenges faced by the LHC research community — and other ‘big science’ projects over the coming years. This white paper is the culmination of these investigations, and sets out specific challenges that are ripe for tackling through collaborative R&D projects with leading ICT companies.

    The white paper identifies 16 ICT ‘challenge areas’, which have been grouped into four overarching ‘R&D topics’ (data-centre technologies and infrastructures, computing performance and software, machine learning and data analytics, applications in other disciplines). Challenges identified include ensuring that data centre architectures are flexible and cost effective; using cloud computing resources in a scalable, hybrid manner; fully modernising code, in order to exploit hardware to its maximum potential; making sure large-scale platforms are in place to enable global scientific collaboration; and successfully translating the huge potential of machine learning into concrete solutions .

    “Tackling these challenges — through a public-private partnership that brings together leading experts from each of these spheres — has the potential to positively impact on a range of scientific and technological fields, as well as wider society,” says Alberto Di Meglio, head of CERN openlab.

    “With the LHC and the experiments set to undergo major upgrade work in 2019 and 2020, CERN openlab’s sixth phase offers a clear opportunity to develop ICT solutions that will already make a tangible difference for researchers when the upgraded LHC and experiments come back online in 2021,” says Maria Girone, CERN openlab CTO.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 4:03 pm on May 11, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: CERN HL-LHC, , , ,   

    From FNAL: “New U.S. and CERN agreements open pathways for future projects” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    May 11, 2017
    No writer credit found.

    1
    The CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Photo: CERN

    The U.S. Department of Energy and CERN establish contributions for next-generation experiments and scientific infrastructure located both at CERN and in the United States

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) last week signed three new agreements securing a symbiotic partnership for scientific projects based both in the United States and Europe. These new agreements, which follow from protocols signed by both agencies in 2015, outline the contributions CERN will make to the neutrino program hosted by Fermilab in the United States and the U.S. Department of Energy’s contributions to the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider upgrade program at CERN.

    LHC

    CERN/LHC Map

    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    Researchers, engineers and technicians at CERN are currently designing detector technology for the U.S. neutrino research program hosted by Fermilab.

    CERN Proto DUNE Maximillian Brice


    Surf-Dune/LBNF Caverns at Sanford


    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF


    FNAL/DUNE Near Site Layout


    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    Neutrinos are nearly massless, neutral particles that interact so rarely with other matter that trillions of them pass through our bodies each second without leaving a trace. These tiny particles could be key to a deeper understanding of our universe, but their unique properties make them very difficult to study. Using intense particle beams and sophisticated detectors, Fermilab currently operates three neutrino experiments (NOvA, MicroBooNE and MINERvA) and has three more in development, including the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) and two short-baseline experiments on the Fermilab site, one of which will make use of the Italian ICARUS detector, currently being prepared for transport from CERN.

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL/ICARUS


    INFN Gran Sasso ICARUS, since moved to FNAL

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility will provide the infrastructure needed to support DUNE both on the Fermilab site in Illinois and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. Together, LBNF/DUNE represent the first international megascience project to be built at a DOE national laboratory.


    3
    Deep science at the frontier of physics

    The first agreement, signed last week, describes CERN’s provision of the first cryostat to house the massive DUNE detectors in South Dakota, which represent a major investment by CERN to the U.S.-hosted neutrino program. This critical piece of technology ensures that the particle detectors can operate below a temperature of minus 300 degrees Celsius, allowing them to record the traces of neutrinos as they pass through.

    The agreement also formalizes CERN’s support for construction and testing of prototype DUNE detectors. Researchers at CERN are currently working in partnership with Fermilab and other DUNE collaborating institutions to build prototypes for the huge subterranean detectors which will eventually sit a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota. These detectors will capture and measure neutrinos generated by Fermilab’s neutrino beam located 800 miles away. The prototypes developed at CERN will test and refine new methods for measuring neutrinos, and engineers will later integrate this new technology into the final detector designs for DUNE.

    The agreement also lays out the framework and objectives for CERN’s participation in Fermilab’s Short Baseline Neutrino Program, which is assembling a suite of three detectors to search for a hypothesized new type of neutrino. CERN has been refurbishing the ICARUS detector that originally searched for neutrinos at INFN’s Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy and will ship it to Fermilab later this spring.

    Gran Sasso LABORATORI NAZIONALI del GRAN SASSO

    More than 1,700 scientists and engineers from DOE national laboratories and U.S. universities work on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments hosted at CERN. The LHC is the world’s most powerful particle collider, used to discover the Higgs boson in 2012 and now opening new realms of scientific discovery with higher-energy and higher-intensity beams. U.S. scientists, students, engineers and technicians contributed critical accelerator and detectors components for the original construction of the LHC and subsequent upgrades, and U.S. researchers continue to play essential roles in the international community that maintains, operates and analyzes data from the LHC experiments.

    The second agreement concerns the next phase of the LHC program, which includes an upgrade of the accelerator to increase the luminosity, a measurement of particle collisions per second. Scientists and engineers at U.S. national laboratories and universities are partnering with CERN to design powerful focusing magnets that employ state-of-the-art superconducting technology. The final magnets will be constructed by both American and European industries and then installed inside the LHC tunnel. The higher collision rate enabled by these magnets will help generate the huge amount of data scientists need in order to search and discover new particles and study extremely rare processes.

    American experts funded by DOE will also contribute to detector upgrades that will enable the ATLAS and CMS experiments to withstand the deluge of particles emanating from the LHC’s high-luminosity collisions. This work is detailed in the third agreement. These upgrades will make the detectors more robust and provide a high-resolution and three-dimensional picture of what is happening when rare particles metamorphose and decay. Fermilab will be a hub of upgrade activity for both the LHC accelerator and the CMS experiment upgrades, serving as the host DOE laboratory for the High-Luminosity LHC Accelerator Upgrade and the CMS Detector Upgrade projects.

    See the full article here .

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    FNAL Icon
    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:22 am on March 16, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN HL-LHC, , , , Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)   

    From CERN via Accelerating News: “HL-LHC project stimulates new collaboration” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    CERN

    Accelerating News

    1
    View from the LHC tunnel (Credit: CERN)

    A new multi-million-pound project between CERN, the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) and six other UK institutions has been launched to contribute to the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva. The world’s highest energy particle collider shall be upgraded to the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) in the 2020s through international collaboration.

    The challenges of this project are best tackled with input from the project partners from around the world. Several partnerships have already been established with the HL-LHC project and there is room for more potential partnerships in the future. It has now been announced that the UK will make contributions in four areas across the new HL-LHC-UK project among other contributions from UK universities.

    The full exploitation of the LHC is the highest priority in the European Strategy for Particle Physics, adopted by the CERN Council and integrated into the ESFRI Roadmap. The full HL-LHC project funding was approved by the CERN Council in June 2016. To extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade around 2025 to increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of 10 beyond the original design value (from 300 to 3,000 fb-1). This will enable scientists to look for new, very rare fundamental particles, and to measure known particles such as the Higgs boson with unprecedented accuracy.

    Upgrading the LHC calls for technology breakthroughs in areas already under study, and requires about 10 years of research to implement. HL-LHC relies on a number of key innovative technologies, representing exceptional technological challenges. Led by experts from the Cockcroft Institute, the HL-LHC-UK project has now been established to address these challenges.

    Within HL-LHC-UK, the partner institutions will perform cutting-edge research and deliver hardware for the LHC upgrade in four areas: 1) proton beam collimation to remove stray halo protons, 2) the development and test of transverse deflecting cavities (“crab cavities”), 3) new methods to diagnose the stored beams including gas jet-based beam profile monitors and, 4) novel beam position monitors, as well as sophisticated cold powering technology needed for the cryogenic systems.

    Lucio Rossi, Head of the High-Luminosity LHC project, commented: “In order to make the project a success we have to innovate in many fields, developing cutting-edge technologies for magnets, the optics of the accelerator, superconducting radiofrequency cavities, and superconducting links. We are very excited for the UK to be making key contributions and using their expertise to help deliver this upgrade.”

    The HL-LHC-UK project comprises the University of Manchester (Cockcroft Institute), Lancaster University (Cockcroft Institute), the University of Liverpool (Cockcroft Institute), the University of Huddersfield (International Institute of Accelerator Applications), Royal Holloway University of London (John Adams Institute), the University of Southampton and the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). The spokesperson is Rob Appleby (Manchester) and the project manager is Graeme Burt (Lancaster).

    More information about the High Luminosity LHC project, its technology and design as well as the challenges ahead can be found in the recently released open access HiLumi LHC book The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The New Machine for Illuminating the Mysteries of the Universe.

    See the full article here.

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