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  • richardmitnick 1:25 pm on February 9, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "CLOUD at CERN reveals the role of iodine acids in atmospheric aerosol formation", , CERN (CH), , CLOUD collaboration at CERN shows that aerosol particles made of iodic acid can form extremely rapidly in the marine boundary layer., Iodic acid may be the main driver in pristine marine regions., Marine boundary layer – the portion of the atmosphere that is in direct contact with the ocean., , The ocean surface sea ice and exposed seaweed are major sources of atmospheric iodine.   

    From CERN (CH): “CLOUD at CERN reveals the role of iodine acids in atmospheric aerosol formation” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event


    From CERN (CH)

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD Experiment

    5 February, 2021

    The results suggest a new mechanism that could accelerate the loss of Arctic sea ice.

    3
    Simulation of the marine atmosphere in the CLOUD chamber. Iodine emitted from the sea and ice is converted by ozone and sunlight into iodic acid and other compounds. These form new particles and increase clouds, warming the polar climate. Cosmic rays strongly enhance the particle formation rates. Credit: Helen Cawley.

    In a paper published on 5 February 2021 in the journal Science, the CLOUD collaboration at CERN shows that aerosol particles made of iodic acid can form extremely rapidly in the marine boundary layer – the portion of the atmosphere that is in direct contact with the ocean. Aerosol particles in the atmosphere affect the climate, both directly and indirectly, but how new aerosol particles form and influence clouds and climate remains relatively poorly understood. This is particularly true of particles that form over the vast ocean.

    “Iodic acid particles have been observed previously in certain coastal regions, but we did not know until now how important they may be globally,” says CLOUD spokesperson Jasper Kirkby. “Although most atmospheric particles form from sulfuric acid, our study shows that iodic acid may be the main driver in pristine marine regions.”

    CLOUD is a one-of-a-kind experiment. It’s the world’s first laboratory experiment to achieve the technical performance required to measure the formation and growth of aerosol particles from a mixture of vapours under precisely controlled atmospheric conditions. In addition, the experiment is able to study how ions produced by high-energy particles called cosmic rays affect aerosol particle formation, using either the steady flux of natural cosmic rays that rains down on the CLOUD chamber or – to simulate higher altitudes – a beam of particles from the CERN Proton Synchrotron.

    CERN Proton Synchrotron

    In its new study, the CLOUD team has investigated how aerosol particles form from vapours originating from molecular iodine under marine-boundary-layer conditions. They found that the particle formation and growth is driven by iodic acid (HIO3), and that iodous acid (HIO2) plays a key role in the initial steps of the formation of neutral particles – those with no electrical charge.

    In addition, the researchers found that the iodic acid particles form extremely rapidly – even more rapidly than sulfuric acid-ammonia particles at similar acid concentrations. They also found that ions from cosmic rays originating from our galaxy accelerate the particle formation rate to the maximum possible, which is limited only by how frequently molecules collide.

    “Iodic acid particle formation is likely to be particularly important in pristine marine regions where sulfuric acid and ammonia concentrations are extremely low,” says Kirkby. “Indeed, frequent new-particle formation over the pack ice in the High Arctic has recently been reported, driven by iodic acid with little contribution from sulfuric acid.”

    The results have important ramifications. The ocean surface, sea ice and exposed seaweed are major sources of atmospheric iodine, and global iodine emissions at high latitudes have increased threefold during the past seven decades and are likely to continue to increase in the future as sea ice becomes thinner.

    “In polar regions, aerosols and clouds have a warming effect because they absorb infrared radiation otherwise lost to space and then radiate it back down to the surface. Increased iodic acid aerosol and cloud-seed formation could therefore provide a previously unaccounted positive feedback that accelerates the loss of sea ice in the Arctic,” explains Kirkby.


    CLOUD experiment: Why is it important for our understanding of climate?

    CLOUD Collaboration
    Aerodyne Research Inc., California Institute of Technology, Carnegie Mellon University, CERN (CH), The Cyprus Institute (CY), Finnish Meteorological Institute (FI), Goethe Univ. Frankfurt, Helsinki Institute of Physics (FI), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (DE), Lebedev Physical Institute (RU), Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (DE), Max Planck Institute for Chemistry (DE), Paul Scherrer Institute (CH), Univ. Beira Interior (PT), Univ. Colorado Boulder, Univ. Eastern Finland (FI), Univ. Helsinki (FI), Univ. Innsbruck (AT), Univ. Leeds (UK), Univ. Lisbon (PT), Univ. Stockholm (SE), Univ. Tartu (EE), Univ. Vienna AT)

    See the full article here.


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  • richardmitnick 10:23 am on January 26, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , CERN (CH), , The Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment (BASE) at CERN’s Antimatter Factory has set new limits on how easily axion-like particles could turn into photons.   

    From CERN (CH): “BASE opens up new possibilities in the search for cold dark matter” 

    Cern New Bloc

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    From CERN (CH)

    26 January, 2021

    The Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment (BASE) at CERN’s Antimatter Factory has set new limits on how easily axion-like particles could turn into photons.

    BASE: Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment

    CERN BASE experiment

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    Jack Devlin, physicist, adjusts the sensitivity of the antiproton beam monitor of the BASE experiment. Credit: CERN.

    The Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment (BASE) at CERN’s Antimatter Factory has set new limits on the existence of axion-like particles, and how easily those in a narrow mass range around 2.97 neV could turn into photons, the particles of light. BASE’s new result, published by Physical Review Letters, describes this pioneering method and opens up new experimental possibilities in the search for cold dark matter.

    Axions, or axion-like particles, are candidates for cold dark matter. From astrophysical observations, we believe that around 27% of the matter-energy content of the universe is made up of dark matter. These unknown particles feel the force of gravity, but they barely respond to the other fundamental forces, if they experience them at all. The best accepted theory of fundamental forces and particles, called the Standard Model of particle physics, does not contain any particles that have the right properties to be cold dark matter. The result reported by BASE investigates this hypothetical dark-matter background present throughout the universe.

    Since the Standard Model leaves many questions unanswered, physicists have proposed theories that go beyond it, some of which explain the nature of dark matter. Among such theories are those that suggest the existence of axions or axion-like particles. These theories need to be tested, and many experiments have been set up around the world to look for these particles, including at CERN. For the first time, BASE has turned the tools developed to detect single antiprotons, the antimatter equivalent of a proton, to the search for dark matter. This is especially significant as BASE was not designed for such studies.

    “BASE has extremely sensitive detection systems to study the properties of single trapped antiprotons. These detectors can also be used to search for signals of particles other than those produced by antiprotons in traps. In this work, we used one of our detectors as an antenna to search for a new type of axion-like particles,” says Jack Devlin, a CERN research fellow working on the experiment.

    Compared to the large detectors installed in the Large Hadron Collider, BASE is a small experiment. It is connected to CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator, which supplies it with antiprotons. BASE captures and suspends these particles in a Penning trap, a device that combines electric and strong magnetic fields. To avoid collisions with ordinary matter, the trap is operated at 5 kelvins (around -268 degrees Celsius), a temperature at which exceedingly low pressures, similar to those in deep space, are reached. In this extremely well-isolated environment, clouds of trapped antiprotons can exist for years at a time. By carefully adjusting the electric fields, the physicists at BASE can isolate individual antiprotons and move them to a separate part of the experiment. In this region, very sensitive superconducting resonant detectors can pick up the tiny electrical currents generated by single antiprotons as they move around the trap.

    In the work published by Physical Review Letters, the BASE team looked for unexpected electrical signals in their sensitive antiproton detectors. At the heart of each detector is a small, approximately 4 cm in diameter, donut-shaped coil of superconducting wire, which looks similar to the inductors you often find in ordinary electronics. However, the BASE detectors are superconducting and have almost no electrical resistance, and all the surrounding components are carefully chosen so that they do not cause electrical losses. This makes the BASE detectors extremely sensitive to small electric fields. The detectors are located in the Penning trap’s strong magnetic field; axions from the dark-matter background would interact with this magnetic field and turn into photons, which can then be detected.

    Physicists used the antiproton as a quantum sensor to calibrate the background noise on their detector. They then began to search for narrow frequency signatures inconsistent with detector noise, however faint, which could hint at those induced by axion-like particles and their possible interactions with photons. Nothing was found at the frequencies that were recorded, which means that BASE succeeded in setting new upper limits for the possible interactions between photons and axion-like particle with certain masses.

    With this study, BASE opens up possibilities for other Penning trap experiments to participate in the search for dark matter. Since BASE was not built to look for these signals, several changes could be made to increase the sensitivity and bandwidth of the experiment and improve the probability of finding an axion-like particle in the future.

    “With this new technique, we’ve combined two previously unrelated branches of experimental physics: axion physics and high-precision Penning trap physics. Our laboratory experiment is complementary to astrophysics experiments and especially sensitive in the low axion-mass range. With a purpose-built instrument we would be able to broaden the landscape of axion searches using Penning trap techniques,” says BASE spokesperson Stefan Ulmer.

    FOR MORE INFORMATION

    Other Axion search experiments based at CERN

    CAST: home.cern/science/experiments/cast
    NA64: na64.web.cern.ch/
    MADMAX: madmax.mpp.mpg.de/
    IAXO: iaxo.web.cern.ch/content/home-international-axion-observatory
    RADES: cds.cern.ch/record/2307579

    See the full article here.


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  • richardmitnick 4:10 pm on December 23, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Recreating Big Bang matter on Earth", , , , CERN (CH), , , , , ,   

    From CERN (CH): “Recreating Big Bang matter on Earth” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event


    From CERN (CH)

    13 NOVEMBER, 2020 [Just now in social media]
    Ana Lopes

    Our fifth story in the LHC Physics at Ten series looks at how the LHC has recreated and greatly advanced our knowledge of the state of matter that is believed to have existed shortly after the Big Bang.

    1
    Recreating Big Bang matter on Earth at CERN’s LHC.

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    Illustration of the history of the universe. About one microsecond (μs) from the Big Bang, protons formed from the quark–gluon plasma. Credit: BICEP2 Collaboration/CERN/NASA.

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN usually collides protons together. It is these proton–proton collisions that led to the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

    CERN CMS Higgs Event May 27, 2012.


    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event
    June 12, 2012.

    But the world’s biggest accelerator was also designed to smash together heavy ions, primarily the nuclei of lead atoms, and it does so every year for about one month. And for at least two good reasons. First, heavy-ion collisions at the LHC recreate in laboratory conditions the plasma of quarks and gluons that is thought to have existed shortly after the Big Bang. Second, the collisions can be used to test and study, at the highest manmade temperatures and densities, fundamental predictions of quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong force that binds quarks and gluons together into protons and neutrons and ultimately all atomic nuclei.

    The LHC wasn’t the first machine to recreate Big Bang matter: back in 2000, experiments at the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN found compelling evidence of the quark–gluon plasma.

    The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), CERN’s second-largest accelerator. (Image: Julien Ordan/CERN).

    About five years later, experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the US started an era of detailed investigation of the quark–gluon plasma.

    BNL/RHIC.

    However, in the 10 years since it achieved collisions at higher energies than its predecessors, the LHC has taken studies of the quark–gluon plasma to incredible new heights. By producing a hotter, denser and longer-lived quark–gluon plasma as well as a larger number and assortment of particles with which to probe its properties and effects, the LHC has allowed physicists to study the quark–gluon plasma with an unprecedented level of detail. What’s more, the machine has delivered some surprising results along the way, stimulating new theoretical studies of this state of matter.

    Heavy collision course

    When heavy nuclei smash into one another in the LHC, the hundreds of protons and neutrons that make up the nuclei release a large fraction of their energy into a tiny volume, creating a fireball of quarks and gluons.

    3
    First proton-lead collision test at the LHC successful | Symmetry Magazine

    These tiny bits of quark–gluon plasma only exist for fleeting moments, with the individual quarks and gluons, collectively known as partons, quickly forming composite particles and antiparticles that fly out in all directions. By studying the zoo of particles produced in the collisions – before, during and after the plasma is created – researchers can study the plasma from the moment it is produced to the moment it cools down and gives way to a state in which composite particles called hadrons can form. However, the plasma cannot be observed directly. Its presence and properties are deduced from the experimental signatures it leaves on the particles that are produced in the collisions and their comparison with theoretical models.

    Such studies can be divided into two distinct categories. The first kind of study investigates the thousands of particles that emerge from a heavy-ion collision collectively, providing information about the global, macroscopic properties of the quark-gluon plasma. The second kind focuses on various types of particle with large mass or momentum, which are produced more rarely and offer a window into the inner, microscopic workings of the medium.

    At the LHC, these studies are conducted by the collaborations behind all four main LHC experiments: ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. Although ALICE was initially specifically designed to investigate the quark–gluon plasma, the other three experiments have also since joined this investigation.

    Global properties

    The LHC has delivered data that has enabled researchers to derive with higher precision than previously achieved several global properties of the medium.

    “If we listen to two different musical instruments with closed eyes, we can distinguish between the instruments even when they are playing the same note. The reason is that a note comes with a set of overtones that give the instrument a unique distinct sound. This is but one example of how simple but powerful overtones are in identifying material properties. Heavy-ion physicists have learnt how to make use of “overtones” in their study of the quark–gluon plasma. The initial stage of a heavy-ion collision produces ripples in the plasma that travel through the medium and excite overtones. Such overtones can be measured by analysing the collective flow of particles that fly out of the plasma and reach the detectors. While previous measurements had revealed only first indications of these overtones, the LHC experiments have mapped them out in detail. Combined with other strides in precision, these data have been used by theorists to characterise the plasma’s properties, such as its temperature, energy density and frictional resistance, which is smaller than that of any other known fluid,” explains Wiedemann.

    These findings have then been supported in multiple ways. For instance, the ALICE collaboration estimated the temperature of the plasma by studying photons that are emitted by the hot fireball. The estimated temperature, about 300 MeV (1 MeV is about 10^10 kelvin), is above the predicted temperature necessary for the plasma to be created (about 160 MeV), and is about 40% higher than the one obtained by the RHIC collider.

    Another example is the estimation of the energy density of the plasma in the initial stage of the collisions. ALICE and CMS obtained a value in the range 12–14 GeV per cubic femtometre (1 femtometre is 10-15 metres), about 2–3 times higher than that determined by RHIC, and again above the predicted energy density needed for the plasma to form (about 1 GeV/fm^3).

    5
    Particle trajectories and energy deposition in the ALICE detector during the last lead–lead collisions of the second LHC run. Credit: CERN)

    Inner workings

    The LHC has supplied not just more particles but also more varied types of particle with which to probe the quark–gluon plasma.

    “Together with state-of-the-art particle detectors that cover more area around the collision points as well as sophisticated methods of identifying and tracking particles, this broad palette has offered unprecedented insight into the inner workings and effects of the quark–gluon plasma.”

    To give a few examples, soon after the LHC started, ATLAS and CMS made the first direct observation of the phenomenon of jet quenching, in which jets of particles formed in the collisions lose energy as they cross the quark–gluon plasma medium. The collaborations found a striking imbalance in the energies of pairs of jets, with one jet almost completely absorbed by the medium.

    Another example concerns heavy quarks. Such particles are excellent probes of the quark–gluon plasma because they are produced in the initial stages of a heavy-ion collision and therefore experience the entire evolution of the plasma. The ALICE collaboration has more recently shown that heavy quarks “feel” the shape and size of the quark–gluon plasma, indicating that even the heaviest quarks move with the medium, which is mostly made of light quarks and gluons.

    The LHC experiments, in particular ALICE and CMS, have also significantly improved our understanding of the hierarchical “melting” in the plasma of bound states of a heavy quark and its antiquark, called quarkonia. The more weakly bound the states are, the more easily they will melt, and as a result the less abundant they will be. CMS was the first to observe this so-called hierarchical suppression for bottomonium states, which consist of a bottom quark and its antiquark. And ALICE revealed that, while the most common form of charmonium states, which are composed of a charm quark and its antiquark, is highly suppressed due to the effect of the plasma, it is also regenerated by the recombination of charm quarks and antiquarks. This recombination phenomenon, observed for the first time at the LHC, provides an important testing ground for theoretical models and phenomenology, which forms a link between the theoretical models and experimental data.

    Surprises in smaller systems

    The LHC data have also revealed unexpected results. For example, the ALICE collaboration showed that the enhanced production of strange hadrons (particles containing at least one strange quark), which is traditionally viewed as a signature of the quark-gluon plasma, arises gradually in proton–proton and proton–lead collisions as the number of particles produced in the collisions, or “multiplicity”, increases.

    Another case in point is the gradual onset of a flow-like feature with the shape of a ridge with increasing multiplicity, which was first observed by CMS in proton–proton and proton–lead collisions. This result was further supported by ALICE and ATLAS observations of the emergence of double-ridge features in proton–lead collisions.

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    As the number of particles produced in proton–proton collisions increases (blue lines), the more particles containing at least one strange quark are measured (orange to red squares in the graph). Credit: CERN)

    “The LHC data have killed the long-held view that proton–proton collisions produce free-streaming sets of particles while heavy-ion collisions produce a fully developed quark–gluon plasma. And they tell us that in the small proton–proton collision systems there are more physical mechanisms at work than traditionally thought. The new challenge is to understand, within the theory of the strong force, how quark–gluon plasma-like properties emerge gradually with the size of the collision system.”

    These are just examples of how 10 years of the LHC have greatly advanced physicists’ knowledge of the quark–gluon plasma and thus of the early universe. And with data from the machine’s second run still being analysed and more data to come from the next run and the High-Luminosity LHC, the LHC’s successor, an even more detailed understanding of this unique state of matter is bound to emerge, perhaps with new surprises in the mix.

    “The coming decade at the LHC offers many opportunities for further exploration of the quark–gluon plasma,” says Musa. “The expected tenfold increase in the number of lead–lead collisions should both increase the precision of measurements of known probes of the medium and give us access to new probes. In addition, we plan to explore collisions between lighter nuclei, which could cast further light on the nature of the medium.”

    See the full article here.


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  • richardmitnick 1:22 pm on December 18, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Researchers set new bounds on the mass of leptoquarks", , , CERN (CH), , , , ,   

    From CERN (CH) via phys.org: “Researchers set new bounds on the mass of leptoquarks” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event


    From CERN (CH)

    via


    From phys.org

    December 18, 2020

    1
    The CMS detector Credit: CERN.

    2
    The hunt for leptoquarks is on. Credit: CERN.

    At the most fundamental level, matter is made up of two types of particles: leptons, such as the electron, and quarks, which combine to form protons, neutrons and other composite particles. Under the Standard Model of particle physics [below], both leptons and quarks fall into three generations of increasing mass. Otherwise, the two kinds of particles are distinct. But some theories that extend the Standard Model predict the existence of new particles called leptoquarks that would unify quarks and leptons by interacting with both.

    Standard Model of Particle Physics (LATHAM BOYLE AND MARDUS OF WIKIMEDIA COMMONS).

    In a new paper [Search for singly and pair-produced leptoquarks coupling to third-generation fermions in proton-proton collisions at s√= 13 TeV], the CMS collaboration reports the results of its latest search for leptoquarks that would interact with third-generation quarks and leptons (the top and bottom quarks, the tau lepton and the tau neutrino). Such third-generation leptoquarks are a possible explanation for an array of tensions with the Standard Model (or “anomalies”), which have been seen in certain transformations of particles called B mesons but have yet to be confirmed. There is therefore an additional reason for hunting down these hypothetical particles.

    The CMS team looked for third-generation leptoquarks in a data sample of proton–proton collisions that were produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at an energy of 13 TeV and were recorded by the CMS experiment between 2016 and 2018. Specifically, the team looked for pairs of leptoquarks that transform into a top or bottom quark and a tau lepton or tau neutrino, as well as for single leptoquarks that are produced together with a tau neutrino and transform into a top quark and a tau lepton.

    The CMS researchers didn’t find any indication that such leptoquarks were produced in the collisions. However, they were able to set lower bounds on their mass: they found that such leptoquarks would need to be at least 0.98–1.73 TeV in mass, depending on their intrinsic spin and the strength of their interaction with a quark and a lepton. These bounds are some of the tightest yet on third-generation leptoquarks, and they allow part of the leptoquark-mass range that could explain the B-meson anomalies to be excluded.

    The search for leptoquarks continues.

    See the full article here.


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  • richardmitnick 10:45 am on December 11, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "CERN announces new open data policy in support of open science", , , CERN (CH), , , ,   

    From CERN (CH): “CERN announces new open data policy in support of open science” 

    Cern New Bloc

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    From CERN (CH)

    11 December, 2020

    A new open data policy for scientific experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will make scientific research more reproducible, accessible, and collaborative.

    1
    Data storage solutions at the CERN data centre. Credit: CERN.

    The four main LHC collaborations (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) have unanimously endorsed a new open data policy for scientific experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which was presented to the CERN Council today. The policy commits to publicly releasing so-called level 3 scientific data, the type required to make scientific studies, collected by the LHC experiments. Data will start to be released approximately five years after collection, and the aim is for the full dataset to be publicly available by the close of the experiment concerned. The policy addresses the growing movement of open science, which aims to make scientific research more reproducible, accessible, and collaborative.

    The level 3 data released can contribute to scientific research in particle physics, as well as research in the field of scientific computing, for example to improve reconstruction or analysis methods based on machine learning techniques, an approach that requires rich data sets for training and validation.

    Scientific data are considered to have different levels of complexity. Level 3 data are of the type used as input to most physics studies and will be released alongside the software and documentation needed to use the data. Its release will allow high-quality analysis by diverse groups: non-CERN scientists, scientists in other fields, educational and outreach initiatives, and the general public.

    The policy also covers the release of level 1 and level 2 datasets, of which samples are already available. Level 1 corresponds to the supporting information of results published in scientific articles, and level 2 corresponds to dedicated scientific datasets designed for educational and outreach purposes.

    In practice, scientific datasets will be released through the CERN Open Data Portal, which already hosts a comprehensive set of data related to the LHC and other experiments. Data will be available using FAIR standards, a set of data guidelines that ensure the data are findable, accessible, interoperable, and re-usable.

    “The policy provides a progressive framework for the openness and preservation of experimental data,” said Jamie Boyd, convener of the working group that formulated the policy. This strategy complements CERN’s existing Open Access policy, which mandates that all CERN research results are published in open access. It is also aligned with the recent European Strategy for Particle Physics Update announced in June 2020. The new policy could be used as a blueprint for other experiments at CERN and in other scientific organisations.

    CERN previously pioneered Open Access to scientific literature with the SCOAP3 consortium, a global partnership of libraries, funding agencies and research institutions from 46 countries and intergovernmental organisations, which is now the largest open access initiative in the world. In addition, CERN collaborates with many organisations, such as the European Commission and UNESCO, on its efforts to promote open science practices beyond particle physics.

    See the full article here.


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  • richardmitnick 9:08 am on December 1, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New schedule for CERN’s accelerators and experiments", , CERN (CH), , , ,   

    From CERN (CH): “New schedule for CERN’s accelerators and experiments” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event


    From CERN (CH)

    27 November, 2020
    Anaïs Schaeffer

    The schedule for the current long shutdown (LS2) has had to be modified due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

    1
    The new schedule for LS2 anticipates that the first test beams will circulate in the LHC at the end of September 2021, four months later than the date planned before the COVID-19 crisis. (Image: CERN)

    On 23 October, the CERN Management validated the new schedule for activities taking place during the second long shutdown (LS2), which began at the start of 2019. The schedule has had to be modified due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

    The operation of CERN’s accelerators is subject to scheduled shutdowns to allow important repair and upgrade work to take place. The present shutdown, LS2, is devoted to preparations for Run 3 of the LHC, which will have an integrated luminosity (indicator proportional to the number of collisions) equal to the two previous runs combined, and for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the successor to the LHC, which will begin operation at the end of 2027.

    The new schedule for LS2 anticipates that the first test beams will circulate in the LHC at the end of September 2021, four months later than the date planned before the COVID-19 crisis. To give the LHC’s main experiments – ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb [all below] – time to complete their own upgrade programmes, Run 3 of the LHC will begin at the start of March 2022.

    “At the end of May, after the first lockdown, activities were able to gradually restart on the CERN sites, albeit with an extra challenge: to carry out the extensive work involved in LS2 while scrupulously respecting the health and safety measures put in place to combat COVID-19,” says José Miguel Jiménez, head of CERN’s Technology department.

    Despite these difficulties, and thanks to the hard work of the LS2 teams, the activities are going well. At present, the LHC is already in its cooldown phase and the first of the accelerator’s eight sectors reached its nominal temperature (1.9 K or -271.3 °C) on 15 November. The whole machine should be “cold” by spring 2021. Next come electrical quality tests, powering tests and a long campaign of quench training for the magnets to allow them to reach their nominal magnetic field.

    As for the LHC’s injectors, they will gradually be started up as of next month. The many experiments at ISOLDE [below] and the PS-SPS complex (except for those using ion beams) will therefore be able to start taking data as of summer 2021.

    No changes have been made to the schedule beyond 2022. The third long shutdown (LS3) will begin at the start of 2025 and end in mid-2027. This is when the equipment for the HL-LHC and its experiments will be installed. The HL-LHC will generate 10 times as many collisions as its predecessor! This will allow physicists to study known mechanisms, such as the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism, in detail, and to observe possible very rare new phenomena. Accordingly, the upgrades to the LHC experiments will give them considerable potential for discovery.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN CH in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS

    CERN ATLAS Image Claudia Marcelloni CERN/ATLAS


    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC underground tunnel and tube.

    SixTrack CERN LHC particles.


    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN
    CERN AEGIS

    CERN AEgIS 1T antimatter trap stack

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA Antimatter Factory.

    CERN ALPHA-g Detector

    CERN ALPHA-g Detector

    CERN AMS

    CERN AMS.

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP


    CERN ANTIPROTON DECELERATOR

    CERN Antiproton Decelerator


    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE


    CERN BASE

    BASE: Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment

    CERN BASE experiment

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN FASER

    CERN FASER experiment schematic

    CERN GBAR

    CERN GBAR

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE Looking down into the ISOLDE experimental hall.

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA64.

    CERN NTOF

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN TOTEM.

    CERN UA9

    CERN UA9

    CERN Proto Dune

    CERN Proto Dune

     
  • richardmitnick 11:20 am on November 13, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "MADMAX and CERN’s Morpurgo magnet", , , CERN (CH), , , MADMAX-MAgnetized Disks and Mirror Axion eXperiment, , ,   

    From CERN (CH): “MADMAX and CERN’s Morpurgo magnet” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event


    From CERN (CH)

    10 November, 2020
    Thomas Hortala

    A new collaboration, MADMAX, will seize the chance to use a CERN magnet named Morpurgo to test their dark-matter prototype.

    The Morpurgo magnet located in the North Area on the Prévessin site

    MADMAX is preparing for a stopover at CERN from 2022. Mel Gibson, his artillery and quest for revenge will not be there, but instead a handful of physicists armed with an aged magnet will be searching for dark matter in CERN’s North Area (not to be confused with a post-apocalyptic wasteland).

    Indeed, the MADMAX collaboration (MAgnetized Disks and Mirror Axion eXperiment, external to CERN), humbly proposes to identify the nature of dark matter and to solve the enigma of the absence of so-called charge-parity (CP) symmetry violation in the strong sector, while detecting a particle that has eluded physicists for decades: axions.

    To do so, the collaboration has developed a brand-new concept using a booster composed of dielectric disks and mirrors. The booster acts as a resonator to amplify the photon flux that axions would produce under a magnetic field, if these axions exist. In order to validate the concept, a prototype needs to be tested under a magnetic field before the launch of the experiment, planned to be located at DESY (DE).

    Although such a magnetic field is difficult to obtain, the collaboration can rely on CERN’s assistance. On 16 September, CERN’s Research Board agreed that the MADMAX prototype could use an old magnet previously used by the ATLAS experiment. The “Morpurgo” magnet is located in the North Area and generates a field of up to 1.6 Tesla. It is one of the first superconducting magnets to be used at CERN. More than 40 years after the NA3 (North Area 3) experiment first used it in 1978, this sturdy magnet still tests ATLAS subdetectors. MADMAX physicists will jump in to mount and test their prototype during the inter-beam period, when ATLAS is not using the magnet. A solution that suits everyone: for MADMAX, a magnet that meets the prototype’s criteria is provided free of charge, and for ATLAS, the space around the magnet is reorganised and optimised, which is necessary for the installation of the prototype.

    The recycling and repurposing of equipment is common at CERN, in the spirit of pragmatism and sustainability. With successive generations of equipment, state-of-the-art accelerators go on to become injectors for their successors, and old magnets are reused for new experiments. This is the case, for example, with the CAST experiment, which uses an old LHC dipole prototype in its search for, once again, axions.

    However, allowing external researchers to use CERN equipment, as in the case of MADMAX, is far from trivial. According to Pascal Pralavorio, the MADMAX contact person at CERN, this helps to develop new ideas: “Today, particle physicists are searching for new physics in many different directions, which naturally leads to experiments based on novel concepts. To validate them, we must make the most of the equipment that’s already available, and that is what MADMAX and CERN are doing with the Morpurgo magnet.”

    CERN’s endeavours to benefit science around the world have long been visible whether through collaborations, prototyping, donating equipment and more, and this is set to continue. Although we don’t need another hero, we wish the MADMAX researchers well in their quest for axions.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN (CH) in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier (CH)

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS

    CERN ATLAS Image Claudia Marcelloni CERN/ATLAS


    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Maximilien Brice and Julien Marius Ordan.


    SixTRack CERN LHC particles

     
  • richardmitnick 3:55 pm on November 3, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "A transportable antiproton trap to unlock the secrets of antimatter", , , CERN (CH), CERN’s Antimatter Decelerator (AD), , , , , The BASE collaboration is developing a transportable antiproton trap to make higher-precision measurements of the properties of antimatter.   

    From CERN (CH): “A transportable antiproton trap to unlock the secrets of antimatter” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event


    From CERN (CH)

    3 November, 2020
    Ana Lopes

    The BASE collaboration is developing a transportable antiproton trap to make higher-precision measurements of the properties of antimatter.

    1
    The layout of the transportable antiproton trap that BASE is developing. The device features a first trap for injection and ejection of the antiprotons produced at CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator, and a second trap for storing the antiprotons. Credit: Christian Smorra.

    BASE: Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment

    CERN BASE experiment

    The BASE collaboration at CERN has bagged more than one first in antimatter research. For example, it made the first ever more precise measurement for antimatter than for matter, it kept antimatter stored for a record time of more than a year, and it conducted the first laboratory-based search for an interaction between antimatter and a candidate particle for dark matter called the axion. Now, the BASE team is developing a device that could take antimatter research to new heights – a transportable antiproton trap to carry antimatter produced at CERN’s Antimatter Decelerator (AD) to another facility at CERN or elsewhere, for higher-precision antimatter measurements. These measurements could uncover differences between matter and antimatter.

    CERN Antiproton Decelerator

    The Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter, yet the present-day universe is made almost entirely of matter, so something must have happened to create the imbalance. The Standard Model of particle physics predicts a certain difference between matter and antimatter, but this difference is insufficient to explain the imbalance, prompting researchers to look for other, as-yet-unseen differences between the two forms of matter.

    Standard Model of Particle Physics via http://www.plus.maths.org .

    This is exactly what the teams behind BASE and other experiments located at CERN’s AD hall are trying to do.

    BASE, in particular, investigates the properties of antiprotons, the antiparticles of protons. It first takes antiprotons produced at the AD – the only place in the world where antiprotons are created daily– and then stores them in a device called a Penning trap, which holds the particles in place with a combination of electric and magnetic fields. Next, BASE feeds the antiprotons one by one into a multi-Penning-trap set-up to measure two frequencies, from which the properties of antiprotons such as their magnetic moment can be deduced and then compared with that of protons. These frequencies are the cyclotron frequency, which describes a charged particle’s oscillation in a magnetic field, and the Larmor frequency, which describes the so-called precessional motion in the trap of the intrinsic spin of the particle.

    The BASE team has been making ever more precise measurements of these frequencies, but the precision is ultimately limited by external disturbances to the set-up’s magnetic field. “The AD hall is not the calmest of the magnetic environments,” says BASE spokesperson Stefan Ulmer. “To get an idea, my office at CERN is 200 times calmer than the AD hall” he says, smiling.

    Hence the BASE team’s proposal of making a transportable antiproton trap to take antiprotons produced at the AD to a measurement laboratory with a calmer magnetic environment. The device, called BASE-STEP and led by BASE deputy spokesperson Christian Smorra, will consist of a Penning-trap system inside the bore of a superconducting magnet that can withstand transport-related forces. In addition, it will have a liquid-helium cooling system, which allows it to be transported for several hours without the need of electrical power to keep it cool. The Penning-trap system will feature a first trap to receive and release the antiprotons produced at the AD, and a second trap to store the antiprotons.

    The overall device will be 1.9 metres long, 0.8 metres wide, 1.6 metres high and at most 1000 kg in weight. “These compact dimensions and weight mean that we could in principle load the trap into a small truck or van and transport it from the AD hall to another facility located at CERN or elsewhere, to further our understanding of antimatter,” says Smorra, who received a European Research Council Starting Grant to conduct the project.

    The BASE team has started to develop the device’s first components and expects to complete it in 2022, pending decisions and approvals. Stay tuned for more developments.

    These measurements could uncover differences between matter and antimatter.

    The Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter, yet the present-day universe is made almost entirely of matter, so something must have happened to create the imbalance. The Standard Model of particle physics predicts a certain difference between matter and antimatter, but this difference is insufficient to explain the imbalance, prompting researchers to look for other, as-yet-unseen differences between the two forms of matter. This is exactly what the teams behind BASE and other experiments located at CERN’s AD hall are trying to do.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN (CH) in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier (CH)

    CERN BASE

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS

    CERN ATLAS Image Claudia Marcelloni CERN/ATLAS


    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Maximilien Brice and Julien Marius Ordan.

    SixTRack CERN LHC particles

     
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