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  • richardmitnick 11:07 am on September 29, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Optimizing CLIC for reducing the electricity consumption at machine and laboratory level", , , CERN (CH) Accelerating News, Electron-positron linear colliders are currently being studied as potential future Higgs-factories., , International Linear Collider (ILC) in Japan, , , , The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) at CERN   

    From CERN (CH) Accelerating News : “Optimizing CLIC for reducing the electricity consumption at machine and laboratory level” 

    From CERN (CH) Accelerating News

    9.19.22
    Steinar Stapnes
    Alexej Grudiev

    Optimized system designs for power efficiency, high efficiency klystrons, permanent magnets, renewable power… The linear collider projects are working to address power efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of the facilities.

    1
    CLIC accelerator structures optimised for RF power efficiency under test (Image: CERN)

    Electron-positron linear colliders are currently being studied as potential future Higgs-factories. The two most mature studies are for the International Linear Collider (ILC) in Japan, and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) at CERN, Switzerland.

    Linear colliders rely on low emittance high intensity beams created in damping rings and ultimately being focussed to the nano-meter level at the collision point.

    The current volatility in energy prices underlines the importance of reducing the power needed for operating future facilities. Both linear collider projects, collaborating in many areas, have extensively studied novel design and technology solutions to address power efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of the facilities. The sustainability considerations, in addition to the more traditional cost concern and need for developing core technologies, are today primary R&D drivers for the projects. These studies have recently been summarized in a contribution [1] to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) “Conference on Accelerators for Research and Development: from good practices towards socioeconomics impact”.

    This article briefly summarized the studies performed and on-going within the CLIC collaboration. The CLIC RF technology is based on normal conducting 12 GHz accelerating structures. The initial 11.5 km stage provides collisions at 380 GeV at a luminosity of 2.3 x 1034 cm-2s-1. CLIC can be upgraded in energy and luminosity as part of a longer-term electron-positron collider programme.

    Concerning energy consumption, the CLIC power consumption has been estimated to 110 MW at 380 GeV [2]. Turning these power numbers into yearly energy consumption gives estimates around 600 GWh. As a reference CERN uses around 1.2 TWh of electricity yearly. The initial stage CLIC numbers are considerably lower than earlier estimates, which were largely based on scaling from the 3 TeV machine studied for the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) in 2012. The reduction is around a factor two, out of which a fraction is a trivial scaling going from 500 GeV in the CDR, to 380 GeV adapted for Higgs and top physics.

    To achieve the reduced numbers several dedicated studies have been conducted to control and optimise the power consumption, in parallel with studies considering the environmental impact of the facilities in a wider sense. Many of these studies are widely applicable and generally relevant for future accelerator facilities. Among the studies carried out are:

    The designs of CLIC, including key performance parameters as accelerating gradients, pulse lengths, bunch-charges and luminosities, have been optimised for cost but also increasingly focussing on reducing power consumption. The parameter sets giving the lowest cost and power for a given luminosity have been identified and retained as baseline.
    Technical developments and studies targeting reduced power consumptions at system level, primary examples are RF system design optimisation, developments of high efficiency klystrons [3], and studies of permanent magnets for damping rings and linacs [4].
    The possibility of making use of the fact that the linear colliders are single pass, i.e. the beams and hence power are needed “shot by shot”, possibly allowing to operate in daily or weekly time-windows when power is available in abundance from suppliers and costs are reduced [5]. Seasonal operation is already being used for energy cost reasons.
    Estimating the renewable power that can be made available for running the colliders by investing for example 10% of the overall construction costs in solar and wind energy capabilities [5], again profiting from the fact that single pass colliders can quickly adapt to changes in energy output from such sources.
    Technical solutions for recovering energy losses in all parts of the accelerator, to be reused for acceleration and/or for use in the local area (homes, industry) near the facility.

    In many cases the studies mentioned are still on-going and further work is needed. For CLIC these studies will be included in the planned Project Readiness Report for the next European Strategy Update. Among the studies planned is an analysis of the start to end environmental impact including carbon footprints for CLIC. While one can expect that energy production in a decade or two are largely carbon free reducing the operational impact, the evaluation of raw materials, and their processing, being used for the civil engineering and accelerator will need to be carefully analysed. Decommission will also be considered. The power and energy use of CLIC at 1.5 and 3 TeV will be revised, including the saving mentioned above. Current estimates date back to the CDR in 2012 and are by now outdated and too high.

    As mentioned initially many of these studies are equally applicable to ILC and many will be done together with ILC. As ILC is a green field installation there are interesting possibilities to address sustainability from the very start for the facility.
    ___________________________________________________________
    [1] List B. et al, Sustainability studies for Linear Colliders: https://conferences.iaea.org/event/264/contributions/21011/.

    [2] The CLIC project, Snowmass White Paper, https://arxiv.org/abs/2203.09186.

    [3] Cai J. and Syratchev I., Modelling and Technical Design Study of Two-Stage Multibeam Klystron for CLIC, doi: 10.1109/TED.2020.3000191.

    [4] Shepherd B., Permanent Magnets for Accelerators, https://jacow.org/ipac2020/papers/moviro05.pdf.

    [5] Fraunhofer CLIC power/energy study: https://edms.cern.ch/document/2065162/1.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    CERN (CH) Accelerating News is a quarterly online publication for the accelerator community.
    ISSN: 2296-6536

    The publication showcases news and results from the biggest accelerator research and development projects such as ARIES, HL-LHC, TIARA, FCC study, EuroCirCol, EUPRAXIA, EASITrain as well as interesting stories on other accelerator applications. The newsletter also collects upcoming accelerator research conferences and events.

    Accelerating News is published 4 times a year, in mid March, mid June, mid September and mid December.

    You can read Accelerating News via the homepage http://www.acceleratingnews.eu or by email.

    To subscribe to Accelerating News, enter your email in the “Subscribe to our newsletter” box in the footer.

    History

    Accelerating News evolved from the EuCARD quarterly project newsletter (see past issues), which was first published in June 2009 to a subscription list of approximately 200. Initiated by EuCARD and in collaboration with additional FP7 co-funded projects, the first edition of Accelerating News was published in April 2012 to an initial distribution list of about 800 subscribers. Currently more than 1750 members receive the quarterly issues.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:38 am on September 29, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "The miniature accelerator:: dream or reality?", , , CERN (CH) Accelerating News, , , , , To look into the atomic and subatomic structure of materials and cells future industry will need ever-smaller accelerators.   

    From CERN (CH) Accelerating News : “The miniature accelerator:: dream or reality?” 

    From CERN (CH) Accelerating News

    9.26.22
    Maurizio Vretenar

    To look into the atomic and subatomic structure of materials and cells future industry will need ever-smaller accelerators.

    1
    The radio-frequency quadrupole of the MACHINA project under development (Image: CERN)

    Already now the large majority of the almost 40,000 particle accelerators in operation worldwide are used in industry and medicine, and this number is rapidly increasing [1]. Accelerator applications are progressing fast, and particle accelerators have the potential to become a crucial tool in the ongoing 4th industrial revolution, making accessible to industry and medicine processes that allow a direct interaction with the atomic and subatomic structure of materials and cells. But to succeed, this “industrial revolution” needs small accelerators that can easily fit in a medical or industrial environment, easy to operate with moderate energy requirements and minimum radiation concerns. In short, what is needed are “miniature accelerators”, for the moment still a technological dream although several accelerator teams are heading in this direction. Every technology starts from a dream, but how far are we from realizing it?

    The first important consideration is that size is not all. The basic parameters of an accelerator can be divided in two categories, those defining the “performance” for the final users (type of particle, energy, beam current, beam brightness, reliability) and those defining the “impact” on the operating environment (mains power, power efficiency, radiation emission and activation, dimensions, weight, construction and operation costs). The real challenge for the miniature accelerator consists in maximizing the first set of parameters, minimising the second one. Every “miniature” device must provide a minimum performance that will make the system attractive to its potential users.

    Lighter, smaller, cheaper: Compacting the convention

    2
    Close-up of the Compact Linear Collider prototype, on which the electron FLASH design is based (Image: CERN)

    The first direction to reduce the size of our accelerators is “incremental” innovation, pushing to its limits the good old concept of radiofrequency (RF) acceleration that since almost 100 years drives the particles within our accelerators.

    In the field of proton acceleration, this translates into miniaturising the traditional “workhorses” of low-energy acceleration: the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and the cyclotron. Several developments are going on towards high-frequency compact RFQ’s [2]; while the RFQ gradient can reach some 2-3 MeV/m, the main limitation comes from the small aperture and limited cooling capability that set a limit to the average beam current. Very compact cyclotrons in most cases superconducting are also a popular trend [3]. Here the average current can be higher, and the final energy is of the order of 5 MeV/m2 – taking the surface of the accelerator as a reference instead of its length! In terms of cost, for both cases the driver is the ancillary equipment: the RF generator for the RFQ, and the cryogenic system for the superconducting cyclotron.

    For electrons instead, the driving incremental development has been the decade long R&D work done by the CLIC team to push the gradient of X-band structures. Reaching some 100 MeV/m (corresponding to some 20 MeV/m2…), X-band technology is now proposed for compact Free Electron Lasers, X-ray source, FLASH cancer treatment, etc [4].

    3
    The CompactLight planned facility allows the production of X-rays up to 16 keV within about 400 m of length, including the experimental hall: half the length of equivalent facilities (Image: CompactLight).

    Accelerators in a shoe-box?

    An alternative very popular avenue to miniaturize accelerators comes from “disruptive” innovation that might eventually completely replace RF technology with lasers that provide energy to the particles using either plasmas or dielectric structures for the energy conversion. Here the technological landscape is very wide, but the challenges to face are still huge. Much experimental work is going in the direction of proton and ion laser-based acceleration to some MeV of energy, but critical issues that remain to be solved are beam quality and reproducibility. The energy is there, but the beam is still very far from what users need. Progress with electron acceleration is more promising, with the advantage for compact accelerators of being easily single-stage, free from the difficult problem of multi-stage acceleration that has still to be solved for high-energy acceleration.

    4
    Three “accelerators on a chip” made of silicon are mounted on a clear base. A shoebox-sized particle accelerator being developed under a $13.5 million Moore Foundation grant would use a series of these “accelerators on a chip” to boost the energy of electrons (The DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory).​​​

    The way to communicate these projects is also very attractive, as for the “accelerator in a shoe-box”, aiming at accelerating electrons through a ridged silicon glass chip fed by a laser [4]. The project is producing its first results, but again the challenge is to push enough particles to be of some use through such a miniaturised structured. These developments often aim at medical application as first goal (as an accelerator in a catheter!), but if it is true that medical applications don’t need high currents, it is also true that this is the domain with the most stringent requirements in terms of beam quality and stability.

    In conclusion, accelerator science is progressing, but we are still far from having an accelerator that can fit in every small workshop and every medical ward. For the moment, dreams remain dreams, but there is some rapidly progressing reality in them. While the real “miniature” is still faraway, compact accelerators tailored to specific usages are at reach, and may benefit from some targeted R&D (additive manufacturing, high RF frequencies, solid-state RF technology) in the incremental direction, and from the fast development of powerful lasers and miniaturised chips in the disruptive direction. New accelerator applications are appearing, in particular in medicine, industry, and environment, opening new potential users and commercial markets for the new technologies that will come out of the quest for the miniature accelerator!
    __________________________________________________________________________
    [1] See for example the comprehensive study “Applications of Particle Accelerators in Europe” published by the EuCARD2 project, available at http://apae.ific.uv.es/apae/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/EuCARD_Applications-of-Accelerators-2017.pdf

    [2] See for example for small-scale accelerators for cancer treatment and to study heritage artworks.

    [3] AMIT project of CIEMAT.

    [4] See for example this project to mount “accelerators on a chip” to boost the energy of electrons.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    CERN (CH) Accelerating News is a quarterly online publication for the accelerator community.
    ISSN: 2296-6536

    The publication showcases news and results from the biggest accelerator research and development projects such as ARIES, HL-LHC, TIARA, FCC study, EuroCirCol, EUPRAXIA, EASITrain as well as interesting stories on other accelerator applications. The newsletter also collects upcoming accelerator research conferences and events.

    Accelerating News is published 4 times a year, in mid March, mid June, mid September and mid December.

    You can read Accelerating News via the homepage http://www.acceleratingnews.eu or by email.

    To subscribe to Accelerating News, enter your email in the “Subscribe to our newsletter” box in the footer.

    History

    Accelerating News evolved from the EuCARD quarterly project newsletter (see past issues), which was first published in June 2009 to a subscription list of approximately 200. Initiated by EuCARD and in collaboration with additional FP7 co-funded projects, the first edition of Accelerating News was published in April 2012 to an initial distribution list of about 800 subscribers. Currently more than 1750 members receive the quarterly issues.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:06 am on May 6, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "The superconducting coils for the 11T dipoles have been delivered", , , CERN (CH) Accelerating News, , , ,   

    From CERN (CH) Accelerating News : “The superconducting coils for the 11T dipoles have been delivered” 

    From CERN (CH) Accelerating News

    28 April, 2021
    Anaïs Schaeffer (European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire)(CH) [CERN])

    35 niobium–tin superconducting coils have been manufactured as part of a fruitful collaboration with the company General Electric. They will be used in the 11 T dipoles for the HL-LHC.

    1
    Control samples fitted to the ends of the niobium–tin coils’ heat-treatment mould to check the conformity of the electrical performance. (Image: CERN).

    Starting in 2018, a team of experts from the company General Electric (GE) worked with the Magnets, Superconductors and Cryogenics (TE-MSC) group at CERN to manufacture superconducting coils for the new 11 T dipoles being developed for the HL-LHC project. In January, following three years of fruitful collaboration, the 15-strong team left the Laboratory.

    The 11 T dipoles are based on superconducting niobium–tin (Nb3Sn). They are just six metres long but, thanks to their higher field, they might be able to replace some of the main 15-metre-long LHC dipoles in strategic parts of the accelerator, notably at Point 7, freeing up space for new collimators. The plan is to install a total of four 11 T dipoles for the HL-LHC.

    “From the very beginning, we established a relationship of trust between the CERN and GE teams to ensure knowledge transfer and cross-fertilisation,” explains Arnaud Devred, leader of the Magnets, Superconductors and Cryogenics group. “We have learned from their industrial approach and their organisational structure, using production units, which has helped us to improve our quality assurance. As for GE, they have developed specific skills in the manufacture of superconducting magnets thanks to their work on the 11 T dipoles, a new technology that is still evolving.”

    A total of 35 coils have been manufactured and assembled in the Large Magnet Facility on the Meyrin site, using tools provided by CERN. They will form part of the 11 T dipoles, which may be installed in the LHC during a future technical stop.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    CERN (CH) Accelerating News is a quarterly online publication for the accelerator community.
    ISSN: 2296-6536

    The publication showcases news and results from the biggest accelerator research and development projects such as ARIES, HL-LHC, TIARA, FCC study, EuroCirCol, EUPRAXIA, EASITrain as well as interesting stories on other accelerator applications. The newsletter also collects upcoming accelerator research conferences and events.

    Accelerating News is published 4 times a year, in mid March, mid June, mid September and mid December.

    You can read Accelerating News via the homepage http://www.acceleratingnews.eu or by email.

    To subscribe to Accelerating News, enter your email in the “Subscribe to our newsletter” box in the footer.

    History

    Accelerating News evolved from the EuCARD quarterly project newsletter (see past issues), which was first published in June 2009 to a subscription list of approximately 200. Initiated by EuCARD and in collaboration with additional FP7 co-funded projects, the first edition of Accelerating News was published in April 2012 to an initial distribution list of about 800 subscribers. Currently more than 1750 members receive the quarterly issues.

     
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