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  • richardmitnick 3:19 pm on November 16, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Carnegie du Pont telescope, Carnegie Institution For Science, ,   

    From SDSS: “Next Generation Astronomical Survey to Map the Entire Sky” 

    SDSS Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, NM, USA, Altitude 2,788 meters (9,147 ft)

    Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    November 16, 2017

    Juna Kollmeier,
    SDSS-V Survey Director,
    Carnegie Institution for Science
    jak@carnegiescience.edu,
    +1 626 304 0220

    Gail Zasowski
    SDSS-V Scientific Spokesperson, University of Utah
    gail.zasowski@gmail.com,
    +1 801 581 6901

    Jordan Raddick,
    SDSS Public Information Officer, Johns Hopkins University
    raddick@jhu.edu,
    +1 443 570 7105

    1
    This artist’s impression shows a cutaway view of the parts of the Universe that SDSS-V will study.
    SDSS-V will study millions of stars to create a map of the entire Milky Way. Farther out, the survey will get the most detailed view yet of the largest nearby galaxies like Andromeda in the Northern Hemisphere and the Large Magellanic Cloud in the Southern hemisphere. Even farther out, the survey will measure quasars, bright points of light powered by matter falling into giant black holes. Image Credit: Artist’s Conception of SDSS-V: Image by Robin Dienel/Carnegie Institution for Science/SDSS

    The next generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-V), directed by Juna Kollmeier of the Carnegie Institution for Science, will move forward with mapping the entire sky following a $16 million grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. The grant will kickstart a groundbreaking all-sky spectroscopic survey for a next wave of discovery, anticipated to start in 2020.

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has been one of the most-successful and influential surveys in the history of astronomy, creating the most-detailed three-dimensional maps of the universe ever made, with deep multi-color images of one third of the sky, and spectra for more than three million astronomical objects.

    “For more than 20 years, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has defined excellence in astronomy,” says Paul L. Joskow, President of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. “SDSS-V continues that august tradition by combining cutting-edge research, international collaboration, technological innovation, and cost-effective grassroots governance. The Sloan Foundation is proud to be a core supporter of SDSS-V.”

    Under Kollmeier’s leadership, the survey’s fifth generation will build off the earlier SDSS incarnations, but will break new ground by pioneering all-sky observations, and by monitoring over time the changes in a million objects.

    “With observations in both hemispheres, no part of the sky will be hidden from SDSS-V,” she said.

    In the tradition of previous Sloan Surveys, SDSS-V is committed to making its data publicly available in a format that is helpful to a broad range of users, from the youngest students to both amateur and professional astronomers.

    “SDSS-V is proof that great science knows no borders and stands out for its commitment to diversity,” says Dr. Evan S. Michelson, Program Director at the Sloan Foundation. “It will create unparalleled opportunities for all scientists to participate in answering some of the most exciting questions in astronomy. We are thrilled to be supporting Juna Kollmeier, her team at the Carnegie Institution for Science, and the entire SDSS Collaboration.”

    “SDSS has long been a great example of hundreds of astronomers of all ages, from many continents, working together on a big project. We’re excited to continue that tradition!” adds Gail Zasowski, a professor at the University of Utah and the SDSS-V Spokesperson.

    The survey operates out of both Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico, home of the survey’s original 2.5-meter telescope, and Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory in Chile, where it uses Carnegie’s du Pont telescope.

    Carnegie Las Campanas Dupont telescope interior,


    Carnegie Las Campanas Dupont telescope, Atacama Desert, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high approximately 100 kilometres (62 mi) northeast of the city of La Serena,Chile

    “I am delighted to see SDSS-V move forward and to see Carnegie’s collaboration with the survey expand,” said Carnegie Observatories Director John Mulchaey.

    SDSS-V will make use of both optical and infrared spectroscopy, to observe not only in two hemispheres, but also at two wavelengths of light.

    It will take advantage of the recently installed second APOGEE spectrograph on Carnegie’s du Pont telescope. Both it and its twin on Apache Point penetrate the dust in our galaxy that confounds optical spectrographs to obtain high-resolution spectra for hundreds of stars at infrared wavelengths. In the optical wavelengths, the survey’s twin BOSS spectrographs can each obtain simultaneous spectra for 500 stars and quasars. What’s more, a newly envisioned pair of Integral Field Unit spectrographs can each obtain nearly 2,000 spectra contiguously across objects in the sky.

    SDSS-V will consist of three projects, each mapping different components of the universe: The Milky Way Mapper, the Black Hole Mapper and the Local Volume Mapper. The first Mapper focuses on the formation of the Milky Way and its stars and planets. The second will study the formation, growth, and ultimate sizes of the supermassive black holes that lurk at the centers of galaxies. The Local Volume Mapper will create the first complete spectroscopic maps of the most-iconic nearby galaxies.

    “These data will enable scientists to study the chemical composition of galaxies and the interactions between stars, gas, and supernova explosions in unprecedented detail,” explained D. Michael Crenshaw, Chair of ARC’s Board of Governors and Georgia State University’s Department of Physics and Astronomy.

    “By surveying the sky rapidly and repeatedly like no spectroscopic survey has done before, SDSS-V will not only vastly improve the data to answer known unknown questions, but it can—perhaps more importantly—venture into astrophysical terra incognita.” said Hans-Walter Rix, the SDSS-V project scientist and director at the Max Planck Institute of Astronomy.

    The project’s fifth generation is building its consortium, but already has support from 18 institutions including the Carnegie Institution for Science, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, University of Utah, the Israeli Centers of Research Excellence, the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics at Peking University, Harvard University, Ohio State University, Penn State University, Georgia State University, University of Wisconsin, Caltech, New Mexico State University, the Space Telescope Science Institute, University Washington, Vanderbilt University, University of Warwick, Leibniz Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, KULeuven, Monash University, and Yale University, with additional partnership agreements underway.

    “It’s wonderful to see the scope and breadth of the next phase of this amazing survey take shape,” said Mike Blanton of New York University, the current SDSS Director and chair of the SDSS-V Steering Committee.

    See the full article here.

    See also the blog post and Carnegie Institution full article here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Stem Education Coalition

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has created the most detailed three-dimensional maps of the Universe ever made, with deep multi-color images of one third of the sky, and spectra for more than three million astronomical objects. Learn and explore all phases and surveys—past, present, and future—of the SDSS.

    The SDSS began regular survey operations in 2000, after a decade of design and construction. It has progressed through several phases, SDSS-I (2000-2005), SDSS-II (2005-2008), SDSS-III (2008-2014), and SDSS-IV (2014-). Each of these phases has involved multiple surveys with interlocking science goals. The three surveys that comprise SDSS-IV are eBOSS, APOGEE-2, and MaNGA, described at the links below. You can find more about the surveys of SDSS I-III by following the Prior Surveys link.

    Funding for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, and the Participating Institutions. SDSS- IV acknowledges support and resources from the Center for High-Performance Computing at the University of Utah. The SDSS web site is http://www.sdss.org.

    SDSS-IV is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS Collaboration including the Brazilian Participation Group, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Mellon University, the Chilean Participation Group, the French Participation Group, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, The Johns Hopkins University, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU) / University of Tokyo, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Leibniz Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA Heidelberg), Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik (MPA Garching), Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), National Astronomical Observatory of China, New Mexico State University, New York University, University of Notre Dame, Observatório Nacional / MCTI, The Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, United Kingdom Participation Group, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, University of Arizona, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Oxford, University of Portsmouth, University of Utah, University of Virginia, University of Washington, University of Wisconsin, Vanderbilt University, and Yale University.

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  • richardmitnick 2:55 pm on November 16, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Carnegie Institution For Science, Carnegie Las Campanas Dupont telescope, ,   

    From Carnegie: “Next Generation Astronomical Survey To Map the Entire Sky” 

    Carnegie Institution for Science
    Carnegie Institution for Science

    November 16, 2017
    No writer credit found

    The next generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-V), directed by Carnegie’s Juna Kollmeier, will move forward with mapping the entire sky following a $16 million grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. The grant will kickstart a groundbreaking all-sky spectroscopic survey for a next wave of discovery, anticipated to start in 2020.

    2
    This artist’s impression shows a cutaway view of the parts of the Universe that SDSS-V will study. SDSS-V will study millions of stars to create a map of the entire Milky Way. Farther out, the survey will get the most detailed view yet of the largest nearby galaxies like Andromeda in the Northern hemisphere and the Large Magellanic Cloud in the Southern hemisphere. Even farther out, the survey will measure quasars, bright points of light powered by matter falling into giant black holes.Artist’s Conception of SDSS-V by Robin Dienel/Carnegie Institution for Science/SDSS

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has been one of the most-successful and influential surveys in the history of astronomy, creating the most-detailed three-dimensional maps of the universe ever made, with deep multi-color images of one third of the sky, and spectra for more than three million astronomical objects.

    “For more than 20 years, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has defined excellence in astronomy,” says Paul L. Joskow, President of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

    SDSS Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, NM, USA, Altitude2,788 meters (9,147 ft)

    “SDSS-V continues that august tradition by combining cutting-edge research, international collaboration, technological innovation, and cost-effective grassroots governance. The Sloan Foundation is proud to be a core supporter of SDSS-V.”

    Under Kollmeier’s leadership, the survey’s fifth generation will build off the earlier SDSS incarnations, but will break new ground by pioneering all-sky observations, and by monitoring over time the changes in a million objects.

    “With observations in both hemispheres, no part of the sky will be hidden from SDSS-V,” she said. In the tradition of previous Sloan Surveys, SDSS-V is committed to making its data publicly available in a format that is helpful to a broad range of users, from the youngest students to both amateur and professional astronomers. “SDSS-V is proof that great science knows no borders and stands out for its commitment to diversity,” says Dr. Evan S. Michelson, Program Director at the Sloan Foundation. “It will create unparalleled opportunities for all scientists to participate in answering some of the most-exciting questions in astronomy. We are thrilled to be supporting Juna Kollmeier, her team at the Carnegie Institution for Science, and the entire SDSS Collaboration.”

    “SDSS has long been a great example of hundreds of astronomers of all ages, from many continents, working together on a big project. We’re excited to continue that tradition!” adds Gail Zasowski, a professor at the University of Utah and the SDSS-V Spokesperson.

    The survey operates out of both Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico, home of the survey’s original 2.5-meter telescope, and Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory in Chile, where it uses Carnegie’s du Pont telescope.

    “I am delighted to see SDSS-V move forward and to see Carnegie’s collaboration with the survey expand,” said Carnegie Observatories Director John Mulchaey.

    “Las Campanas Observatory will channel its best resources to enable outstanding science from SDSS-V,” added the observatory’s Director Leopoldo Infante.

    SDSS-V will make use of both optical and infrared spectroscopy, to observe not only in two hemispheres, but also at two wavelengths of light. It will take advantage of the recently installed second APOGEE spectrograph on Carnegie’s du Pont telescope.

    Carnegie Las Campanas Dupont telescope interior[caption id="attachment_37385" align="alignnone" width="513"] Carnegie Las Campanas Dupont telescope, Atacama Desert, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high approximately 100 kilometres (62 mi) northeast of the city of La Serena,Chile

    , [/caption]

    Both it and its twin on Apache Point penetrate the dust in our galaxy that confounds optical spectrographs to obtain high-resolution spectra for hundreds of stars at infrared wavelengths. In the optical wavelengths, the survey’s twin BOSS spectrographs can each obtain simultaneous spectra for 500 stars and quasars. What’s more, a newly envisioned pair of Integral Field Unit spectrographs can each obtain nearly 2,000 spectra contiguously across objects in the sky.

    SDSS-V will consist of three projects, each mapping different components of the universe: The Milky Way Mapper, the Black Hole Mapper and the Local Volume Mapper. The first Mapper focuses on the formation of the Milky Way and its stars and planets. The second will study the formation, growth, and ultimate sizes of the supermassive black holes that lurk at the centers of galaxies. The Local Volume Mapper will create the first complete spectroscopic maps of the most-iconic nearby galaxies.

    “These data will enable scientists to study the chemical composition of galaxies and the interactions between stars, gas, and supernova explosions in unprecedented detail,” explained D. Michael Crenshaw, Chair of ARC’s Board of Governors and Georgia State University’s Department of Physics and Astronomy.

    “By surveying the sky rapidly and repeatedly like no spectroscopic survey has done before, SDSS-V will not only vastly improve the data to answer known unknown questions, but it can—perhaps more importantly—venture into astrophysical terra incognita.” said Hans-Walter Rix, the SDSS-V project scientist and director at the Max Planck Institute of Astronomy.

    The project’s fifth generation is building its consortium, but already has support from 18 institutions including the Carnegie Institution for Science, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, University of Utah, the Israeli Centers of Research Excellence, the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics at Peking University, Harvard University, Ohio State University, Penn State University, Georgia State University, University of Wisconsin, Caltech, New Mexico State University, the Space Telescope Science Institute, University Washington, Vanderbilt University, University of Warwick, Leibniz Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, KULeuven, Monash University, and Yale University, with additional partnership agreements underway.

    “It’s wonderful to see the scope and breadth of the next phase of this amazing survey take shape,” said Mike Blanton of New York University, the current SDSS Director and chair of the SDSS-V Steering Committee.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Carnegie Institution of Washington Bldg

    Andrew Carnegie established a unique organization dedicated to scientific discovery “to encourage, in the broadest and most liberal manner, investigation, research, and discovery and the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind…” The philosophy was and is to devote the institution’s resources to “exceptional” individuals so that they can explore the most intriguing scientific questions in an atmosphere of complete freedom. Carnegie and his trustees realized that flexibility and freedom were essential to the institution’s success and that tradition is the foundation of the institution today as it supports research in the Earth, space, and life sciences.

    6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.
    6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory, Chile

     
  • richardmitnick 12:45 pm on November 3, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Carnegie Institution For Science, , , Giant Magellan Telescope Organization Casts Fifth Mirror, GMT-Giant Magellan Telescope, University of Arizona's Richard F. Caris Mirror Laboratory the facility known for creating the world’s largest mirrors for astronomy   

    From Giant Magellan Telescope via CfA: “Giant Magellan Telescope Organization Casts Fifth Mirror” 

    Giant Magellan Telescope, to be at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s Las Campanas Observatory, to be built some 115 km (71 mi) north-northeast of La Serena, Chile, over 2,500 m (8,200 ft) high

    Giant Magellan Telescope

    Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics


    Center For Astrophysics

    1
    The last piece of glass is placed into the mold for GMT mirror 5. No image credit.

    “The Giant Magellan Telescope Organization (GMTO) today announced that it has initiated the casting of the fifth of seven mirrors that will form the heart of the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). The mirror is being cast at the University of Arizona’s Richard F. Caris Mirror Laboratory, the facility known for creating the world’s largest mirrors for astronomy. The nearly 25-meter diameter GMT will be sited in the Chilean Andes and will be used to study planets around other stars and to look back to the time when the first galaxies formed. The process of “casting” the giant mirror involves melting nearly 20 tons of glass in a spinning furnace. Once cooled, the glass disk will be polished to its final shape using state-of-the-art technology.

    The GMT will combine the light from seven of these 8.4-meter mirrors to create a telescope with an effective aperture 24.5 meters in diameter (80 feet). With its unique design, the GMT will produce images that are 10 times sharper than those from the Hubble Space Telescope in the infrared region of the spectrum.

    Harvard University and the Smithsonian Institution are both members of the GMT project. Other members include Astronomy Australia Ltd., the Australian National University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, the São Paulo Research Foundation, the University of Texas at Austin, Texas A&M University, the University of Arizona, and the University of Chicago. The GMT primary mirrors are made at the University of Arizona’s (UA) Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in Tucson.

    ‘We are thrilled to be casting the Giant Magellan Telescope’s fifth mirror,’ said Dr. Robert N. Shelton, President of GMTO. ‘The Giant Magellan Telescope project will enable breakthrough discoveries in astronomy, and perhaps entirely new fields of study.’ ”

    Each of GMT’s light-weighted mirrors is a marvel of engineering. The mirrors begin as pristine blocks of custom manufactured low-expansion E6 glass from the Ohara Corporation of Japan. Precisely 17,481 kg of these glass blocks have been placed by hand into a custom-built furnace pre-loaded with a hexagonal mold. At the peak of the lengthy casting process, in which the giant furnace spins at up to five revolutions per minute, the glass is heated to 1165°C (2129°F) for about four hours until it liquefies and flows into the mold. The casting process continues as the glass is carefully cooled for three months while the furnace spins at a slower rate. The glass then undergoes an extended period of shaping and polishing. The result of this high-precision process is a mirror that is polished to an accuracy of one twentieth of a wavelength of light, or less than one thousandth of the width of a human hair.

    “Casting the mirrors for the Giant Magellan Telescope is a huge undertaking, and we are very proud of the UA’s leading role creating this new resource for scientific discovery. The GMT partnership and Caris Mirror Lab are outstanding examples of how we can tackle complex challenges with innovative solutions,” said UA President Robert C. Robbins. “The University of Arizona has such an amazing tradition of excellence in space exploration, and I have been constantly impressed by the things our faculty, staff, and students in astronomy and space sciences can accomplish.”

    With its casting this weekend, the fifth GMT mirror joins three additional GMT mirrors at various stages of production in the Mirror Lab. Polishing of mirror 2’s front surface is well underway; coarse grinding will begin on the front of the third mirror shortly and mirror number 4, the central mirror, will soon be ready for coarse grinding following mirror 3. The first GMT mirror was completed several years ago and was moved to a storage location in Tucson this September, awaiting the next stage of its journey to Chile. The glass for mirror 6 has been delivered to Tucson and mirror seven’s glass is on order from the Ohara factory in Japan.

    In time, the giant mirrors will be transported to GMT’s future home in the Chilean Andes at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s Las Campanas Observatory. This site is known for being one of the best astronomical sites on the planet with its clear, dark skies and stable airflow producing exceptionally sharp images. GMTO has broken ground in Chile and has developed the infrastructure on the site needed to support construction activities.

    “Creating the largest telescope in history is a monumental endeavor, and the GMT will be among the largest privately-funded scientific initiatives to date,” said Taft Armandroff, Professor of Astronomy and Director of the McDonald Observatory at The University of Texas at Austin, and Vice-Chair of the GMTO Corporation Board of Directors. “With this next milestone, and with the leadership, technical, financial and scientific prowess of the members of the GMTO partnership, we continue on the path to the completion of this great observatory.”

    Received via email from CfA.

    See the full article from GMT here.

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Center for Astrophysics combines the resources and research facilities of the Harvard College Observatory and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under a single director to pursue studies of those basic physical processes that determine the nature and evolution of the universe. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, founded in 1890. The Harvard College Observatory (HCO), founded in 1839, is a research institution of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, and provides facilities and substantial other support for teaching activities of the Department of Astronomy.

    The Giant Magellan Telescope will be one of the next class of super giant earth-based telescopes that promises to revolutionize our view and understanding of the universe. It will be operational in about 10 years and will be located in Chile.

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a ground-based extremely large telescope under construction, planned for completion in 2025.
    The location of the telescope is Las Campanas Observatory.

    Organizations

    The project is US-led in partnership with Australia, Brazil, and Korea, with Chile as the host country.[4] The following organizations are members of the consortium developing the telescope.[27]

    Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington
    University of Chicago
    Harvard University
    Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
    Texas A&M University
    University of Arizona
    University of Texas at Austin
    Australian National University
    Astronomy Australia Limited
    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (한국천문연구원)
    University of São Paulo

    The GMT has a unique design that offers several advantages. It is a segmented mirror telescope that employs seven of today’s largest stiff monolith mirrors as segments. Six off-axis 8.4 meter or 27-foot segments surround a central on-axis segment, forming a single optical surface with an aperture of 24.5 meters, or 80 feet in diameter. The GMT will have a resolving power 10 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope. The GMT project is the work of a distinguished international consortium of leading universities and science institutions.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:25 am on August 3, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Carnegie Institution For Science, , Our Solar System’s 'shocking' origin   

    From Carnegie: “Our Solar System’s ‘shocking’ origin” 

    Carnegie Institution for Science
    Carnegie Institution for Science

    August 03, 2017
    No writer credit

    According to one longstanding theory, our Solar System’s formation was triggered by a shock wave from an exploding supernova. The shock wave injected material from the exploding star into a neighboring cloud of dust and gas, causing it to collapse in on itself and form the Sun and its surrounding planets.

    New work from Carnegie’s Alan Boss offers fresh evidence supporting this theory, modeling the Solar System’s formation beyond the initial cloud collapse and into the intermediate stages of star formation. It is published by The Astrophysical Journal.

    One very important constraint for testing theories of Solar System formation is meteorite chemistry. Meteorites retain a record of the elements, isotopes, and compounds that existed in the system’s earliest days. One type, called carbonaceous chondrites, includes some of the most-primitive known samples.

    An interesting component of chondrites’ makeup is something called short-lived radioactive isotopes. Isotopes are versions of elements with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. Sometimes, as is the case with radioactive isotopes, the number of neutrons present in the nucleus can make the isotope unstable. To gain stability, the isotope releases energetic particles, which alters its number of protons and neutrons, transmuting it into another element.

    Some isotopes that existed when the Solar System formed are radioactive and have decay rates that caused them to become extinct within tens to hundreds of million years. The fact that these isotopes still existed when chondrites formed is shown by the abundances of their stable decay products—also called daughter isotopes—found in some primitive chondrites. Measuring the amount of these daughter isotopes can tell scientists when, and possibly how, the chondrites formed.

    A recent analysis of chondrites by Carnegie’s Myriam Telus was concerned with iron-60, a short-lived radioactive isotope that decays into nickel-60. It is only created in significant amounts by nuclear reactions inside certain kinds of stars, including supernovae or what are called asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars.

    Because all the iron-60 from the Solar System’s formation has long since decayed, Telus’ research, published in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, focused on its daughter product, nickel-60. The amount of nickel-60 found in meteorite samples—particularly in comparison to the amount of stable, “ordinary” iron-56—can indicate how much iron-60 was present when the larger parent body from which the meteorite broke off was formed. There are not many options for how an excess of iron-60—which later decayed into nickel-60—could have gotten into a primitive Solar System object in the first place—one of them being a supernova.

    While her research did not find a “smoking gun,” definitively proving that the radioactive isotopes were injected by a shock wave, Telus did show that the amount of Fe-60 present in the early Solar System is consistent with a supernova origin.

    Taking this latest meteorite research into account, Boss revisited his earlier models of shock wave-triggered cloud collapse, extending his computational models beyond the initial collapse and into the intermediate stages of star formation, when the Sun was first being created, an important next step in tying together Solar System origin modeling and meteorite sample analysis.

    “My findings indicate that a supernova shock wave is still the most-plausible origin story for explaining the short lived radioactive isotopes in our Solar System,” Boss said.

    Boss dedicated his paper to the late Sandra Keiser, a long-term collaborator, who provided computational and programming support at Carnegie’s Department of Terrestrial Magnetism for more than two decades. Keiser died in March.

    1
    short-lived radioactive isotopes, such as iron-60, injected into a newly formed protoplanetary disk (seen face on with the protostar being the light purple blob in the middle) by a supernova shock wave. Image courtesy of Alan Boss.

    Reference to Person:
    Alan Boss

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition

    Carnegie Institution of Washington Bldg

    Andrew Carnegie established a unique organization dedicated to scientific discovery “to encourage, in the broadest and most liberal manner, investigation, research, and discovery and the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind…” The philosophy was and is to devote the institution’s resources to “exceptional” individuals so that they can explore the most intriguing scientific questions in an atmosphere of complete freedom. Carnegie and his trustees realized that flexibility and freedom were essential to the institution’s success and that tradition is the foundation of the institution today as it supports research in the Earth, space, and life sciences.

    6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.
    6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory, Chile

     
  • richardmitnick 4:35 pm on August 1, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Big data points humanity to new minerals and new deposits, Carnegie Institution For Science,   

    From Carnegie: “Big data points humanity to new minerals, new deposits” 

    Carnegie Institution for Science
    Carnegie Institution for Science

    August 01, 2017
    Reference to Person:
    Robert Hazen

    Applying big data analysis to mineralogy offers a way to predict minerals missing from those known to science, as well as where to find new deposits, according to a groundbreaking study.

    In a paper published by American Mineralogist, scientists report the first application to mineralogy of network theory (best known for analysis of e.g. the spread of disease, terrorist networks, or Facebook connections).

    The results, they say, pioneer a potential way to reveal mineral diversity and distribution worldwide, their evolution through deep time, new trends, and new deposits of valuable minerals such as gold or copper.

    Led by Shaunna Morrison of the Deep Carbon Observatory and DCO Executive Director Robert Hazen (both at the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, D.C.), the paper’s 12 authors include DCO colleagues Peter Fox and Ahmed Eleish at the Keck Foundation-sponsored Deep-Time Data Infrastructure Data Science Teams at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, in Troy NY.

    “The quest for new mineral deposits is incessant, but until recently, mineral discovery has been more a matter of luck than scientific prediction,” says Morrison. “All that may change thanks to big data.”

    Humans have collected a vast amount of information on Earth’s more than 5,200 known mineral species (each of which has a unique combination of chemical composition and atomic structure).

    Millions of mineral specimens from hundreds of thousands of localities around the world have been described and catalogued. Databases containing details of where each mineral was discovered, all of its known occurrences, and the ages of those deposits are large and growing by the week.

    Databases also record essential information on chemical compositions and a host of physical properties, including hardness, color, atomic structure, and more.

    Coupled with data on the surrounding geography, the geological setting, and coexisting minerals, Earth scientists now have access to “big data” resources ripe for analysis.

    Until recently, Earth scientists didn’t have the necessary modelling and visualization tools to capitalize on these giant stockpiles of information.

    Network analysis offers new insight into minerals, just as complex data sets offer important understanding of social media connections, city traffic patterns, and metabolic pathways, to name a few examples.

    “Big data is a big thing,” says Hazen. “You hear about it in all kinds of fields—medicine, commerce, even the U.S. National Security Agency to analyze phone records—but until recently no one had applied big data methods to mineralogy and petrology.”

    “I think this is going to expand the rate of mineral discovery in ways that we can’t even imagine now.”

    The network analysis technique enables Earth scientists to represent data from multiple variables on thousands of minerals sampled from hundreds of thousands of locations within a single graph.

    These visualizations can reveal patterns of occurrence and distribution that might otherwise be hidden within a spreadsheet.

    In other words, big data provides an intimate picture of which minerals coexist with each other, as well as what geological, physical, chemical, and (perhaps most surprising) biological characteristics are necessary for their appearance.

    From those insights it’s a relatively simple step to predict what minerals are missing from scientific lists, as well as where to go to find new deposits.

    Says Hazen: “Network analysis can provide visual clues to mineralogists regarding where to go and what to look for. This is a brand new idea in the paper and I think it will open up an entirely new direction in mineralogy.”

    Already the technique has been used to predict 145 missing carbon-bearing minerals and where to find them, leading to creation of the Deep Carbon Observatory’s Carbon Mineral Challenge. Ten have been found so far.

    The estimate came from a statistical analysis of carbon-bearing minerals known today, then extrapolating how many scientists should be looking for.

    Abellaite and parisite-(La) (photos below) are examples of new-to-science carbon-bearing minerals predicted before they were found, thanks in part to big data analysis.

    “We have used the same kinds of techniques to predict that at least 1,500 minerals of all kinds are ‘missing,’ to predict what some of them are, and where to find them,” Hazen says.

    Says Morrison: “These new approaches to data-driven discovery allow us to predict both minerals unknown to science today and the location of new deposits. Additionally, understanding how minerals have changed through geologic time, coupled with our knowledge of biology, is leading to new insights regarding the co-evolution of the geosphere and biosphere. ”

    In a test case, the researchers explored minerals containing copper, which plays critical roles in modern society (e.g., pipes, wires), as well as essential roles in biological evolution. The element is extremely sensitive to oxygen, so the nature of copper in a mineral offers a clue to the level of oxygen in the atmosphere at the time the mineral formed.

    The investigators also performed an analysis of common minerals in igneous rocks—those formed from a hot molten state. The mineral networks of igneous rocks revealed through big data recreated “Bowen’s reaction series” (based on Norman L. Bowen’s painstaking lab experiments in the early 1900s), which shows how a sequence of characteristic minerals appears as the magma cools.

    The analysis showed the exact same sequence of minerals embedded in the mineral networks.

    The researchers hope that these techniques will lead to an understanding and appreciation of previously unrecognized mineral relationships in varied mineral deposits.

    Mineral networks will also serve as effective visual tools for learning about mineralogy and petrology — the branches of science concerned with the origin, composition, structure, properties, and classification of rocks and minerals.

    Network analysis has numerous potential applications in geology, both for research and mineral exploration.

    Mining companies could use the technology to predict the locations of unknown mineral deposits based on existing data.

    Researchers could use these tools to explain how Earth’s minerals have changed over time and incorporate data from biomarker molecules to show how cells and minerals interact.

    And ore geologists hope to use mineral network analysis to lead to valuable new deposits.

    Dr. Morrison also hopes to use network analysis to reveal the geologic history of other planets. She is a member of the NASA Mars Curiosity Rover team identifying Martian minerals through X-ray diffraction data sent back to Earth. By applying these tools to analyze sedimentary environments on Earth, she believes scientists may also start answering similar questions about Mars.

    “Minerals provide the basis for all our material wealth,” she notes, “not just precious gold and brilliant gemstones, but in the brick and steel of every home and office, in cars and planes, in bottles and cans, and in every high-tech gadget from laptops to iPhones.”

    “Minerals form the soils in which we grow our crops, they provide the gravel with which we pave our roads, and they filter the water we drink.”

    “This new tool for understanding minerals represents an important advance in a scientific field of vital interest.”

    1
    Caption: A network diagram for 403 carbon minerals reveals previously hidden patterns in their diversity and distribution. Each colored circle represents a different carbon mineral. The size and color of the circles indicates how common or rare each mineral is on Earth.

    Four examples illustrated are: (1) calcite, the commonest carbon-bearing mineral, which occurs at tens of thousands of localities; (2) malachite, a beautiful green ornamental copper carbonate mineral that is known from thousands of localities; (3) lanthanite, a carbonate of rare earth elements reported from only 14 localities around the world; and (4) the exceedingly rare calcium-zinc carbonate mineral skorpionite, which is known from only one locality in Namibia.

    The black circles represent more than 300 different regional localities at which these minerals are found. The sizes of the circles indicate how many carbon-bearing minerals are found at each locality, and the lines link mineral species and their localities.

    The distribution of minerals and localities follows a distinctive pattern with a few very common minerals and many more rare species—a distribution that has led to the prediction that more than 1500 mineral species occur on Earth but have yet to be discovered and described. The hunt is now on for these “missing” minerals.

    Image credit: Keck DTDI Project.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Carnegie Institution of Washington Bldg

    Andrew Carnegie established a unique organization dedicated to scientific discovery “to encourage, in the broadest and most liberal manner, investigation, research, and discovery and the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind…” The philosophy was and is to devote the institution’s resources to “exceptional” individuals so that they can explore the most intriguing scientific questions in an atmosphere of complete freedom. Carnegie and his trustees realized that flexibility and freedom were essential to the institution’s success and that tradition is the foundation of the institution today as it supports research in the Earth, space, and life sciences.

    6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.
    6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory, Chile

     
  • richardmitnick 3:08 pm on May 9, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Carnegie Institution For Science, , Surprise! When a brown dwarf is actually a planetary mass object   

    From Carnegie: “Surprise! When a brown dwarf is actually a planetary mass object” 

    Carnegie Institution for Science
    Carnegie Institution for Science

    May 09, 2017
    No writer credit found

    1
    An artist’s conception of SIMP J013656.5+093347, or SIMP0136 for short, which the research team determined is a planetary like member of a 200-million-year-old group of stars called Carina-Near. Image is courtesy of NASA/JPL, slightly modified by Jonathan Gagné.

    Sometimes a brown dwarf is actually a planet—or planet-like anyway. A team led by Carnegie’s Jonathan Gagné, and including researchers from the Institute for Research on Exoplanets (iREx) at Université de Montréal, the American Museum of Natural History, and University of California San Diego, discovered that what astronomers had previously thought was one of the closest brown dwarfs to our own Sun is in fact a planetary mass object.

    Their results are published by The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

    Smaller than stars, but bigger than giant planets, brown dwarfs are too small to sustain the hydrogen fusion process that fuels stars and allows them to remain hot and bright for a long time. So after formation, brown dwarfs slowly cool down and contract over time. The contraction usually ends after a few hundred million years, although the cooling is continuous.

    “This means that the temperatures of brown dwarfs can range from as hot as stars to as cool as planets, depending on how old they are,” said the AMNH’s Jackie Faherty, a co-author on this discovery.

    The team determined that a well-studied object known as SIMP J013656.5+093347, or SIMP0136 for short, is a planetary like member of a 200-million-year-old group of stars called Carina-Near.

    Groups of similarly aged stars moving together through space are considered prime regions to search for free-floating planetary like objects, because they provide the only means of age-dating these cold and isolated worlds. Knowing the age, as well as the temperature, of a free-floating object like this is necessary to determine its mass.

    Gagné and the research team were able to demonstrate that at about 13 times the mass of Jupiter, SIMP0136 is right at the boundary that separates brown dwarf-like properties, primarily the short-lived burning of deuterium in the object’s core, from planet-like properties.

    Free-floating planetary mass objects are valuable because they are very similar to gas giant exoplanets that orbit around stars, like our own Solar System’s Jupiter or Saturn, but it is comparatively much easier to study their atmospheres. Observing the atmospheres of exoplanets found within distant star systems is challenging, because dim light emitted by those orbiting exoplanets is overwhelmed by the brightness of their host stars, which blinds the instruments that astronomers use to characterize an exoplanet’s atmospheres.

    “The implication that the well-known SIMP0136 is actually more planet-like than we previously thought will help us to better understand the atmospheres of giant planets and how they evolve,” Gagné said.

    They may be easier to study in great detail, but these free-floating worlds are still extremely hard to discover unless scientists spend a lot of time observing them at the telescope, because they can be located anywhere in the sky and they are very hard to tell apart from brown dwarfs or very small stars. For this reason, researchers have confirmed only a handful of free-floating planetary like objects so far.

    Étienne Artigau, co-author and leader of the original SIMP0136 discovery, added: “This newest addition to the very select club of free-floating planetary like objects is particularly remarkable, because we had already detected fast-evolving weather patterns on the surface of SIMP0136, back when we thought it was a brown dwarf.”

    In a field where analyzing exoplanet atmospheres is of the utmost interest, having already seen evidence of weather patterns on an easier-to-observe free-floating object that exists away from the brightness of its host star is an exciting realization.

    Other members of the research team were: Adam Burgasser and Daniella Bardalez Gagliuffi of University of California San Diego and Sandie Bouchard, Loïc Albert, David LaFrenière, and René Doyon of iREx.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Carnegie Institution of Washington Bldg

    Andrew Carnegie established a unique organization dedicated to scientific discovery “to encourage, in the broadest and most liberal manner, investigation, research, and discovery and the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind…” The philosophy was and is to devote the institution’s resources to “exceptional” individuals so that they can explore the most intriguing scientific questions in an atmosphere of complete freedom. Carnegie and his trustees realized that flexibility and freedom were essential to the institution’s success and that tradition is the foundation of the institution today as it supports research in the Earth, space, and life sciences.

    6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.
    6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory, Chile

     
  • richardmitnick 3:01 pm on April 7, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: 'Nesting doll' minerals offer clues to Earth’s mantle dynamics, , Carnegie Institution For Science, , , Majorite mineral   

    From Carnegie: “‘Nesting doll’ minerals offer clues to Earth’s mantle dynamics” 

    Carnegie Institution for Science
    Carnegie Institution for Science

    1
    The fragment of the metamorphic rock eclogite in which the garnet that encased the ferric-iron-rich majorite sample was found in Northern China. Credit: Yingwei Fei.

    April 07, 2017
    No writer credit found
    Reference to Person:
    Yingwei Fei

    Recovered minerals that originated in the deep mantle can give scientists a rare glimpse into the dynamic processes occurring deep inside of the Earth and into the history of the planet’s mantle layer. A team led by Yingwei Fei, a Carnegie experimental petrologist, and Cheng Xu, a field geologist from Peking University, has discovered that a rare sample of the mineral majorite originated at least 235 miles below Earth’s surface. Their findings are published by Science Advances.

    Majorite is a type of garnet formed only at depths greater than 100 miles. Fascinatingly, the majorite sample Fei’s team found in Northern China was encased inside a regular garnet—like mineralogical nesting dolls. It was brought to surface in the North China Craton, one of the oldest cratonic blocks in the world. What’s more, the majorite was rich in ferric iron, an oxidized form of iron, which is highly unusual for the mineral.

    All of these uncommon factors prompted the team to investigate the majorite’s origins.

    They used several different kinds of analytical techniques to determine the chemistry and structural characteristics of this majorite formed deep inside the Earth. In order to determine the exact depth of its origin, Carnegie’s postdoc Renbiao Tao conducted high-pressure experiments that mimicked the formation conditions of natural majorite. The team pinpointed its origin to a depth of nearly 250 miles (400 kilometers), at the bottom of the soft part of the upper mantle, called the asthenosphere, which drives plate tectonics.

    It is extremely unusual that a high-pressure majorite could survive transportation from such a depth. Adding to the strange circumstances is the fact that it was later encased by a garnet that formed at a much shallower depth of about 125 miles (200 kilometers). The nesting-doll sample’s existence required two separate geological events to explain, and these events created a time capsule that the researchers could use to better understand the Earth’s deep history.

    “This two-stage formation process offers us important clues about the mantle’s evolutionary stage at the time when the majorite was first formed,” Fei explained.

    The sample’s location and depth of origin indicate that it is a relic from the end of an era of supercontinent assembly that took place about 1.8 billion years ago. Called Columbia, the supercontinent’s formation built mountain ranges that persist today.

    “More research is needed to understand how the majorite became so oxidized, or rich in ferric iron, and what this information can tell us about mantle chemistry. We are going back to the site this summer to dig deeper trenches and hope to find fresh rocks that contain more clues to the deep mantle,” Fei added.

    This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Carnegie Institution for Science, and the U.S. National Science Foundation.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Carnegie Institution of Washington Bldg

    Andrew Carnegie established a unique organization dedicated to scientific discovery “to encourage, in the broadest and most liberal manner, investigation, research, and discovery and the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind…” The philosophy was and is to devote the institution’s resources to “exceptional” individuals so that they can explore the most intriguing scientific questions in an atmosphere of complete freedom. Carnegie and his trustees realized that flexibility and freedom were essential to the institution’s success and that tradition is the foundation of the institution today as it supports research in the Earth, space, and life sciences.

    6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.
    6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory, Chile

     
  • richardmitnick 11:44 am on March 22, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Carnegie Institution For Science, , , Remnants of Earth’s Original Crust Found in Canada   

    From NOVA: “Remnants of Earth’s Original Crust Found in Canada” 

    PBS NOVA

    NOVA

    16 Mar 2017
    Annette Choi

    Two geologists studying North America’s oldest rocks have uncovered ancient minerals that are remnants of the Earth’s original crust which first formed more than 4.2 billion years ago.

    These rocks appear to preserve the signature of an early Earth that presumably took shape within the first few hundred million years of Earth’s history.

    Jonathan O’Neil and Richard Carlson uncovered the samples on a trek to the northeastern part of Canada to study the Canadian Shield formation, a large area of exposed continental crust underlying, centered on Hudson Bay, which was already known to contain some of the oldest parts of North America. O’Neil calls it the core or nucleus of the North American continent. “That spot on the shore of Hudson Bay has this older flavor to it, this older chemical signature.”

    1
    A view of 2.7 billion-year-old continental crust produced by the recycling of more than 4.2 billion-year-old rocks. Image credit: Alexandre Jean

    To O’Neil, an assistant professor of geology at the University of Ottawa, rocks are like books that allow geologists to study their compositions and to learn about the conditions in which they form. But as far as rock records go, the first billion years of the Earth’s history is almost completely unrepresented.

    “We’re missing basically all the crust that was present about 4.4 billion years ago. The question we’re after with our study is: what happened to it?” said Carlson, director of the Carnegie Institution for Science. “Part of the goal of this was simply to see how much crust was present before and see what that material was.”

    While most of the samples are made up of a 2.7 billion-year-old granite, O’Neil said these rocks were likely formed by the recycling of a much older crust. “The Earth is very, very good at recycling itself. It constantly recycles and remelts and reworks its own crust,” O’Neil said. He and Carlson arrived at their conclusion by determining the age of the samples using isotopic dating and then adding on the estimate of how long it would have taken for the recycled bits to have originally formed.

    O’Neil and Carlson’s estimate relies on the theory that granite forms through the reprocessing of older rocks. “That is a possibility that they form that way, but that is not the only way you can form these rocks,” said Oliver Jagoutz, an associate professor of geology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. “Their interpretation really strongly depends on their assumption that that is the way these granites form.

    The nature of Earth’s first crust has largely remained a mystery because there simply aren’t very many rocks that have survived the processes that can erase their signature from the geologic record. Crust is often forced back into the Earth’s interior, which then melts it down, the geologic equivalent of sending silver jewelry back into the forge. That makes it challenging for geologists to reconstruct how the original looked.

    These new findings give geologists an insight into the evolution of the oldest elements of Earth’s outer layer and how it has come to form North America. “We’re recycling extremely, extremely old crust to form our stable continent,” O’Neil said.

    See the full article here .

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    NOVA is the highest rated science series on television and the most watched documentary series on public television. It is also one of television’s most acclaimed series, having won every major television award, most of them many times over.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:10 pm on March 16, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Carnegie Institution For Science, HD 106906b, Planetary evolution,   

    From UCLA: “Gigantic Jupiter-type planet reveals insights into how planets evolve” 

    UCLA bloc

    UCLA

    March 15, 2017
    Stuart Wolpert

    1
    HD 106906. No image credit

    2
    Simulated image of the HD 106906 stellar debris disk, showing a ring of rocky planet-forming material. Erika Nesvold/Carnegie Institution for Science

    An enormous young planet approximately 300 light-years from Earth has given astrophysicists a rare glimpse into planetary evolution.

    The planet, known as HD 106906b, was discovered in 2014 by a team of scientists from the U.S., the Netherlands and Italy. It is 11 times the mass of Jupiter and is extremely young by celestial standards — not more than 13 million years old, compared with our solar system’s 4.6 billion years.

    “This is such a young star; we have a snapshot of a baby star that just formed its planetary system — a rare peek at the final stage of planet formation,” said Smadar Naoz, a UCLA assistant professor of physics and astronomy, and a co-author of the study.

    Another of the planet’s unusual characteristics is its distance from its star. Astronomers believe that the vast majority of planets outside of our solar system exist inside a vast dusty disk of debris relatively close to the center of the solar system. But HD 106906b is far beyond its solar system’s disk — so far away that it takes 1,500 years for the planet to orbit its star. HD 106906b is currently at least 650 times as far from its star as the Earth is from our sun.

    “Our current planet formation theories do not account for a planet beyond its debris disk,” Naoz said.

    The study’s lead author is Erika Nesvold, a postdoctoral fellow at the Carnegie Institution for Science whom Naoz mentors. She wrote software called Superparticle-Method Algorithm for Collisions in Kuiper belts and debris disks, or SMACK, that allowed the researchers to create a model of the planet’s orbital path — a critical step because HD 106906b orbits so slowly that the researchers can barely see it move.

    The research, published online in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, suggests that the planet formed outside the disk, where it’s visible it today, as opposed to having been formed inside the debris disk and then having been thrust far beyond it.

    Naoz said that conclusion helps explain the shape of the debris disk. “It works perfectly,” she said.

    The planet’s orbit is elliptical; it gets much closer to the star on one side of its orbit than on the other side. And its gravity produces an elliptical shape in the disk as well. One side of the disk is closer to the star than the other side, and the dust on that side is warmer and glows brighter as a result.

    The debris disk was photographed in 2016 by American and European astronomers. According to Naoz, the disk is an analog to our solar system’s Kuiper belt — an enormous cluster of small bodies like comets and minor planets located beyond Neptune.

    The researchers don’t know if there are additional planets inside the disk, but using Nesvold’s software — which also been used to study other debris disks in the universe — they were able to re-create the shape of the disk without adding another planet into the model, as some astronomers had thought would be required.

    Debris disks are composed of gas, dust and ice, and they play a key role in the formation of planets. Typically, Naoz said, planets form after a gas cloud collapses due to its own gravity, forming a disk — where planets are created — and a star. As the gas slowly evaporates, the dust and debris rotate and collide around the young star until gravity pushes them away, forming a structure like our solar system’s Kuiper belt.

    “In our solar system, we’ve had billions of years of evolution,” said Michael Fitzgerald, UCLA associate professor of physics and astronomy, and the study’s other co-author. “We’re seeing this young system revealed to us before it has had a chance to dynamically mature.”

    Naoz said the researchers’ conclusions do not require any exotic physics or hidden planets to explain them, which is not always the case in studying other solar systems.

    “There are no assumptions; this is just physics,” she said.

    Naoz’s research was funded by a research fellowship from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Nesvold’s was supported by a Carnegie Department of Terrestrial Magnetism postdoctoral fellowship.

    See the full article here .

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    UC LA Campus

    For nearly 100 years, UCLA has been a pioneer, persevering through impossibility, turning the futile into the attainable.

    We doubt the critics, reject the status quo and see opportunity in dissatisfaction. Our campus, faculty and students are driven by optimism. It is not naïve; it is essential. And it has fueled every accomplishment, allowing us to redefine what’s possible, time after time.

    This can-do perspective has brought us 12 Nobel Prizes, 12 Rhodes Scholarships, more NCAA titles than any university and more Olympic medals than most nations. Our faculty and alumni helped create the Internet and pioneered reverse osmosis. And more than 100 companies have been created based on technology developed at UCLA.

     
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