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  • richardmitnick 9:08 pm on February 15, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Caltech, , LIGO Receives New Funding to Search for More Extreme Cosmic Events   

    From Caltech: “LIGO Receives New Funding to Search for More Extreme Cosmic Events” 

    Caltech Logo

    From Caltech

    02/14/2019

    Whitney Clavin
    (626) 395-1856
    wclavin@caltech.edu

    1
    Engineers installing Advanced LIGO upgrades.
    Credit: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab

    Grants from the U.S., United Kingdom, and Australia will fund next-generation improvements to LIGO.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) is awarding Caltech and MIT $20.4 million to upgrade the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), an NSF-funded project that made history in 2015 after making the first direct detection of ripples in space and time, called gravitational waves.


    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo Hanford, WA, USA installation


    Caltech/MIT Advanced aLigo detector installation Livingston, LA, USA

    Cornell SXS, the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) project


    Gravitational waves. Credit: MPI for Gravitational Physics/W.Benger-Zib

    ESA/eLISA the future of gravitational wave research

    The investment is part of a joint international effort in collaboration with UK Research and Innovation and the Australian Research Council, which are contributing additional funds. While LIGO is scheduled to turn back on this spring, in its third run of the “Advanced LIGO” phase, the new funding will go toward “Advanced LIGO Plus.” Advanced LIGO Plus is expected to commence operations in 2024 and to increase the volume of deep space the observatory can survey by as much as seven times.

    “I’m extremely excited about the future prospects that the Advanced LIGO Plus upgrade affords gravitational-wave astrophysics,” said Caltech’s David Reitze, executive director of LIGO. “With it we expect to detect gravitational waves from black hole mergers on a daily basis, greatly increasing our understanding of this dark sector of the universe. Gravitational-wave observations of neutron star collisions, now very rare, will become much more frequent, allowing us to more deeply probe the structure of their exotic interiors.”

    Since LIGO’s first detection of gravitational waves from the violent collision of two black holes, it has observed nine additional black hole mergers and one collision of two dense, dead stars called neutron stars. The neutron star merger gave off not just gravitational waves but light waves, detected by dozens of telescopes in space and on the ground. The observations confirmed that heavy elements in our universe, such as platinum and gold, are created in neutron star smashups like this one.

    “This award ensures that NSF’s LIGO, which made the first historic detection of gravitational waves in 2015, will continue to lead in gravitational-wave science for the next decade,” said Anne Kinney, assistant director for NSF’s Mathematical and Physical Sciences Directorate, in a statement. “With improvements to the detectors—which include techniques from quantum mechanics that refine laser light and new mirror coating technology—the twin LIGO observatories will significantly increase the number and strength of their detections. Advanced LIGO Plus will reveal gravity at its strongest and matter at its densest in some of the most extreme environments in the cosmos. These detections may reveal secrets from inside supernovae and teach us about extreme physics from the first seconds after the universe’s birth.”

    Michael Zucker, the Advanced LIGO Plus leader and co-principal investigator, and a scientist at the LIGO Laboratory, operated by Caltech and MIT, said, “I’m thrilled that NSF, UK Research, and Innovation and the Australian Research Council are joining forces to make this key investment possible. Advanced LIGO has altered the course of astrophysics with 11 confirmed gravitational-wave events over the last three years. Advanced LIGO Plus can expand LIGO’s horizons enough to capture this many events each week, and it will enable powerful new probes of extreme nuclear matter as well as Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity.”

    LIGO is funded by NSF and operated by Caltech and MIT, which conceived of LIGO and led the Initial and Advanced LIGO projects. Financial support for the Advanced LIGO project was led by the NSF, with Germany (Max Planck Society), the U.K. (Science and Technology Facilities Council), and Australia (Australian Research Council-OzGrav) making significant commitments and contributions to the project.

    More than 1,200 scientists from around the world participate in the effort through the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, which includes the GEO Collaboration. A list of additional partners is available at https://my.ligo.org/census.php. LIGO partners with the European Virgo gravitational-wave detector and its collaboration, consisting of more than 300 physicists and engineers belonging to 28 different European research groups.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private research university located in Pasadena, California, United States. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphases on science and engineering. Its 124-acre (50 ha) primary campus is located approximately 11 mi (18 km) northeast of downtown Los Angeles. “The mission of the California Institute of Technology is to expand human knowledge and benefit society through research integrated with education. We investigate the most challenging, fundamental problems in science and technology in a singularly collegial, interdisciplinary atmosphere, while educating outstanding students to become creative members of society.”

    Caltech campus


    Caltech campus

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  • richardmitnick 12:58 pm on January 31, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A new test for understanding the specific difficulties faced by people with autism, , Autism and Theory of Mind, Autism is not one thing, Caltech   

    From Caltech: “Autism and Theory of Mind” 

    Caltech Logo

    From Caltech

    01/24/2019

    Emily Velasco
    626-395-6487
    evelasco@caltech.edu

    1
    Credit: iStock

    A new test for understanding the specific difficulties faced by people with autism.

    Suppose you are helping your friend search for their missing phone and while they are looking around another room, you find it behind some cushions. When they return, you seize the opportunity to play a prank on them and pretend the phone is still missing. You are able to envision this prank because you know that their understanding of the world is separate from what you know to be true. This is an example of theory of mind: the ability to understand other people’s beliefs, preferences, and intentions as distinct from one’s own.

    Theory of mind is complex and involves multiple neural processes. A team of researchers has now developed a new test to examine these components and has found that people with autism—a group known to have trouble understanding the thoughts, plans, and point of view of others—have disproportionate difficulties in one particular process. The work may lead to a better understanding of autism itself.

    A paper describing the work appears in the February 4 issue of the journal Current Biology. The study was designed by Damian Stanley (senior and corresponding author), an assistant professor at Adelphi University and visiting associate in psychology at Caltech. The work was conducted in the laboratory of Ralph Adolphs (PhD ’93), Bren Professor of Psychology, Neuroscience, and Biology; and director and Allen V. C. Davis and Lenabelle Davis Leadership Chair of the Caltech Brain Imaging Center, a center of the Tianqiao and Chrissy Chen Institute for Neuroscience at Caltech. Graduate student Isabelle Rosenthal is the paper’s first author and Cendri Hutcherson, a faculty member at the University of Toronto at Scarborough, is a co-author.

    “Autism is not one thing,” says Adolphs. “Our task allows researchers to quantitatively deconstruct the components of theory of mind, to see where different people have trouble, and this may reveal to us subtypes of autism.”

    A classic test of theory of mind, often demonstrated in children, involves a closed box of Band-Aids. When asked what is in the box, a child will respond, “Band-Aids.” The box is then opened to reveal that it contains crayons, not Band-Aids. The child is then asked, “If someone else were to come in and see the closed box, what would they think is inside?”

    Children under age 4 will often answer, “crayons,” because they have not yet developed theory of mind. In other words, the child will assume that others will know what the child knows—that the box contains crayons, not Band-Aids. Older children who have theory of mind will reason that another person would see the box’s exterior and wrongly conclude, as they did, that it contains Band-Aids.

    This test is broad and easy. Nearly all high-functioning adults with autism (the population studied by Adolphs and Stanley) have no difficulty passing it, but that unfortunately means that the test reveals little about the constituent processes required for theory of mind and specific points of impairment in individuals taking the test.

    The new test developed by Adolphs and Stanley’s team is much more complex. In the new test, a participant learns about a person who is playing a particular game. The player—let’s call her Sally—has some money and must decide whether to donate it to one of three charities or keep it for herself. Sally has some preferences about which charities she likes and which she does not. She is also switching back and forth between two “environments,” a “reversal” environment in which her actions mostly have the opposite effect (i.e., donating money actually means she gets to keep it), and a “normal” environment, where things mostly go as expected. Sally does not know for sure which environment she is in, so she has to keep track of what happens to her decisions and take this into account when deciding about donating her money.

    The individual actually taking the test watches what Sally does and must learn from her decisions to make inferences about her beliefs and preferences in order to predict her future actions. Does Sally believe she is in a normal or a reversal world? Which charities does she like? Which does she dislike? What will she do?

    While this task is complex and difficult, adults with and without autism can understand it once it has been thoroughly explained and practiced. However, people with autism who took the test failed at one particular part: they could track Sally’s beliefs about the environment and make logical conclusions about her behavior, but they could not learn which charities Sally intended to donate to and when she would keep the money for herself.

    “This task gives us the ability to deconstruct these different components of theory of mind and see that it’s not basic learning or the logical reasoning component that’s impaired in people with autism. What seems to break down is actually the specific ability to take into account someone’s beliefs when you’re interpreting their actions,” says Stanley. “This more detailed understanding of how theory of mind can be impaired, in turn, gives us more purchase on how we could develop treatments in the future.”

    “This test is very valuable because in reality people learn over time about others’ changing beliefs from watching what they do,” says Rosenthal. “So the task, although complex, in fact tries to approximate what happens in the real world—which is, after all, what we’re ultimately interested in explaining.”

    Funding was provided by the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private research university located in Pasadena, California, United States. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphases on science and engineering. Its 124-acre (50 ha) primary campus is located approximately 11 mi (18 km) northeast of downtown Los Angeles. “The mission of the California Institute of Technology is to expand human knowledge and benefit society through research integrated with education. We investigate the most challenging, fundamental problems in science and technology in a singularly collegial, interdisciplinary atmosphere, while educating outstanding students to become creative members of society.”

    Caltech campus


    Caltech campus

     
  • richardmitnick 1:31 pm on January 24, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "When Black Holes Collide", , , , , Caltech, ,   

    From Caltech: “When Black Holes Collide” 

    Caltech Logo

    From Caltech

    01/24/2019

    Whitney Clavin
    (626) 395-1856
    wclavin@caltech.edu

    1
    A simulated picture of two merging black holes, each about 30 solar masses. This is approximately what a human would see if they could travel in spaceship to take a closer look at merging black holes.
    Credit: SXS, the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) project (http://www.black-holes.org)

    Physicists use supercomputers and AI to create the most accurate model yet of black hole mergers.

    One of the most cataclysmic events to occur in the cosmos involves the collision of two black holes. Formed from the deathly collapse of massive stars, black holes are incredibly compact—a person standing near a stellar-mass black hole would feel gravity about a trillion times more strongly than they would on Earth. When two objects of this extreme density spiral together and merge, a fairly common occurrence in space, they radiate more power than all the stars in the universe.

    “Imagine taking 30 suns and packing them into a region the size of Hawaii. Then take two such objects and accelerate them to half the speed of light and make them collide. This is one of the most violent events in nature,” says Vijay Varma, a graduate student at Caltech.

    In a new study in the January 11 issue of the journal Physical Review Letters, Varma and his colleagues report the most accurate computer model yet of the end stage of black hole mergers, a period when a new, more massive black hole has formed. The model, which was aided by supercomputers and machine-learning, or artificial intelligence (AI) tools, will ultimately help physicists perform more precise tests of Einstein’s general theory of relativity.

    “We can predict what’s left after a black hole merger—properties of the final black hole such as its spin and mass—with an accuracy 10 to 100 times better than what was possible before,” says co-author Davide Gerosa, an Einstein Postdoctoral Fellow in Theoretical Astrophysics at Caltech. “This is important because tests of general relativity depend on how well we can predict the end states of black hole mergers.”

    The research is related to a larger effort to study black holes with LIGO, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, which made history in 2015 by making the first direct detection of gravitational waves emitted by a black hole merger. Since then, LIGO has detected nine additional black hole mergers.

    Gravitational waves are ripples in space and time, first predicted by Einstein more than 100 years ago. Gravity itself, according to general relativity, is a warping of the fabric of spacetime. When massive objects like black holes accelerate through spacetime, they generate gravitational waves.

    One of the goals of LIGO and the thousands of scientists analyzing its data is to better understand the physics of black hole collisions—and to use these data, in turn, to assess whether Einstein’s general theory of relativity still holds true under these extreme conditions. A breakdown of the theory might open the door to new types of physics not yet imagined.

    But creating models of colossal events like black hole collisions has proved to be a daunting task. As the colliding black holes become very close to one another, just seconds before the final merger, their gravitational fields and velocities become extreme and the math becomes far too complex for standard analytical approaches.

    “When it comes to modeling these sources, one can use the pen-and-paper approach to solve Einstein’s equations during the early stages of the merger when the black holes are spiraling toward each other,” says Varma. “However, these schemes break down near the merger. Simulations using the equations of general relativity are the only means to predict the outcome of the merger process accurately.”

    That is where supercomputers help out. The team took advantage of nearly 900 black hole merger simulations previously run by the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) group using the Wheeler supercomputer at Caltech (supported by the Sherman Fairchild Foundation) and the Blue Waters supercomputer at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The simulations took 20,000 hours of computing time. The Caltech scientists’ new machine-learning program, or algorithm, learned from the simulations and helped create the final model.

    “Now that we have built the new model, you don’t need to take months,” says Varma. “The new model can give you answers about the end state of mergers in milliseconds.”

    The researchers say that their model will be of particular importance in a few years, as LIGO and other next-generation gravitational-wave detectors become more and more precise in their measurements. “Within the next few years or so, gravitational-wave detectors will have less noise,” says Gerosa. “The current models of the final black hole properties won’t be precise enough at that stage, and that’s where our new model can really help out.”

    The Physical Review Letters study, titled “High-accuracy mass, spin, and recoil predictions of generic black-hole merger remnants,” was funded by the Sherman Fairchild Foundation, the National Science Foundation, NASA, the Brinson Foundation, and Caltech. Other authors includealumnus Leo Stein (BS ’06) of the University of Mississippi and formerly a postdoctoral scholar at Caltech; François Hébert, a postdoctoral scholar at Caltech; and Hao Zhang of the University of Pennsylvania and formerly a Summer Undergraduate Research Fellow (SURF) at Caltech.


    3
    LIGO and Virgo Announce Four New Detections
    The observatories are also releasing their first catalog of gravitational-wave events
    4
    5

    On Saturday, December 1, scientists attending the Gravitational Wave Physics and Astronomy Workshop in College Park, Maryland, presented new results from the National Science Foundation’s LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) and the European- based VIRGO gravitational-wave detector regarding their searches for coalescing cosmic objects, such as pairs of black holes and pairs of neutron stars. The LIGO and Virgo collaborations have now confidently detected gravitational waves from a total of 10 stellar-mass binary black hole mergers and one merger of neutron stars, which are the dense, spherical remains of stellar explosions. Six of the black hole merger events had been reported before, while four are newly announced.

    From September 12, 2015, to January 19, 2016, during the first LIGO observing run since undergoing upgrades in a program called Advanced LIGO, gravitational waves from three binary black hole mergers were detected. The second observing run, which lasted from November 30, 2016, to August 25, 2017, yielded one binary neutron star merger and seven additional binary black hole mergers, including the four new gravitational-wave events being reported now. The new events are known as GW170729, GW170809, GW170818, and GW170823, in reference to the dates they were detected.

    All of the events are included in a new catalog, also released Saturday, with some of the events breaking records. For instance, the new event GW170729, detected in the second observing run on July 29, 2017, is the most massive and distant gravitational-wave source ever observed. In this coalescence, which happened roughly 5 billion years ago, an equivalent energy of almost five solar masses was converted into gravitational radiation.

    GW170814 was the first binary black hole merger measured by the three-detector network, and allowed for the first tests of gravitational-wave polarization (analogous to light polarization).

    The event GW170817, detected three days after GW170814, represented the first time that gravitational waves were ever observed from the merger of a binary neutron star system. What’s more, this collision was seen in gravitational waves and light, marking an exciting new chapter in multi-messenger astronomy, in which cosmic objects are observed simultaneously in different forms of radiation.

    One of the new events, GW170818, which was detected by the global network formed by the LIGO and Virgo observatories, was very precisely pinpointed in the sky. The position of the binary black holes, located 2.5 billion light-years from Earth, was identified in the sky with a precision of 39 square degrees. That makes it the next best localized gravitational-wave source after the GW170817 neutron star merger.

    Caltech’s Albert Lazzarini, Deputy Director of the LIGO Laboratory, says “The release of four additional binary black hole mergers further informs us of the nature of the population of these binary systems in the universe and better constrains the event rate for these types of events.”

    “In just one year, LIGO and VIRGO working together have dramatically advanced gravitational- wave science, and the rate of discovery suggests the most spectacular findings are yet to come,” says Denise Caldwell, Director of NSF’s Division of Physics. “The accomplishments of NSF’s LIGO and its international partners are a source of pride for the agency, and we expect even greater advances as LIGO’s sensitivity becomes better and better in the coming year.”

    “The next observing run, starting in Spring 2019, should yield many more gravitational-wave candidates, and the science the community can accomplish will grow accordingly,” says David Shoemaker, spokesperson for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and senior research scientist in MIT’s Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research. “It’s an incredibly exciting time.”

    “It is gratifying to see the new capabilities that become available through the addition of Advanced Virgo to the global network,” says Jo van den Brand of Nikhef (the Dutch National Institute for Subatomic Physics) and VU University Amsterdam, who is the spokesperson for the Virgo Collaboration. “Our greatly improved pointing precision will allow astronomers to rapidly find any other cosmic messengers emitted by the gravitational-wave sources.” The enhanced pointing capability of the LIGO-Virgo network is made possible by exploiting the time delays of the signal arrival at the different sites and the so-called antenna patterns of the interferometers.

    “The new catalog is another proof of the exemplary international collaboration of the gravitational wave community and an asset for the forthcoming runs and upgrades”, adds EGO Director Stavros Katsanevas.

    The scientific papers describing these new findings, which are being initially published on the arXiv repository of electronic preprints, present detailed information in the form of a catalog of all the gravitational wave detections and candidate events of the two observing runs as well as describing the characteristics of the merging black hole population. Most notably, we find that almost all black holes formed from stars are lighter than 45 times the mass of the Sun. Thanks to more advanced data processing and better calibration of the instruments, the accuracy of the astrophysical parameters of the previously announced events increased considerably.

    Laura Cadonati, Deputy Spokesperson for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, says “These new discoveries were only made possible through the tireless and carefully coordinated work of the detector commissioners at all three observatories, and the scientists around the world responsible for data quality and cleaning, searching for buried signals, and parameter estimation for each candidate — each a scientific specialty requiring enormous expertise and experience.”

    The Collaborations

    LIGO is funded by NSF and operated by Caltech and MIT, which conceived of LIGO and led the Initial and Advanced LIGO projects. Financial support for the Advanced LIGO project was led by the NSF with Germany (Max Planck Society), the U.K. (Science and Technology Facilities Council) and Australia (Australian Research Council-OzGrav) making significant commitments and contributions to the project. More than 1,200 scientists from around the world participate in the effort through the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, which includes the GEO Collaboration. A list of additional partners is available at https://my.ligo.org/census.php.

    The Virgo collaboration consists of more than 300 physicists and engineers belonging to 28 different European research groups: six from Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in France; 11 from the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Italy; two in the Netherlands with Nikhef; the MTA Wigner RCP in Hungary; the POLGRAW group in Poland; Spain with IFAE and the Universities of Valencia and Barcelona; two in Belgium with the Universities of Liege and Louvain; Jena University in Germany; and the European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), the laboratory hosting the Virgo detector near Pisa in Italy, funded by CNRS, INFN, and Nikhef. A list of the Virgo Collaboration can be found at http://public.virgo-gw.eu/the-virgo-collaboration/. More information is available on the Virgo website at http://www.virgo-gw.eu.

    Related Links

    Paper: “GWTC-1: A Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog of Compact Binary Mergers Observed by LIGO and Virgo during the First and Second Observing Runs”

    Paper: “Binary Black Hole Population Properties Inferred from the First and Second Observing Runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo”

    Papers available on the arXiv and the LIGO DCC, https://dcc.ligo.org/

    Media Contacts

    Valerio Boschi
    
Virgo-EGO Communication Office
    valerio.boschi@ego-gw.it; +39 050 752 463

    Antonella Varaschin
    
INFN Communications Office
    antonella.varaschin@presid.infn.it; +39 06 68400360

    Kimberly Allen

    Director of Media Relations and Deputy Director, MIT News Office
    allenkc@mit.edu; +1 617-253-2702

    Whitney Clavin

    Senior Content and Media Strategist
    Caltech Communications
    wclavin@caltech.edu; +1 626-395-1856

    John Toon

    Institute Research and Economic Development Communications
    Georgia Institute of Technology

    john.toon@comm.gatech.edu; +1 404-894-6986

    Amanda Hallberg Greenwell
    
Head, Office of Legislative and Public Affairs
    National Science Foundation
    agreenwe@nsf.gov; +1 703-292-8070

    See the full article here .

    See also “From UCSC: “Neutron stars, gravitational waves, and all the gold in the universe” here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private research university located in Pasadena, California, United States. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphases on science and engineering. Its 124-acre (50 ha) primary campus is located approximately 11 mi (18 km) northeast of downtown Los Angeles. “The mission of the California Institute of Technology is to expand human knowledge and benefit society through research integrated with education. We investigate the most challenging, fundamental problems in science and technology in a singularly collegial, interdisciplinary atmosphere, while educating outstanding students to become creative members of society.”

    Caltech campus


    Caltech campus

     
  • richardmitnick 11:21 am on January 17, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Caltech,   

    From Caltech: “Lessons from the 1994 Northridge Quake” 

    Caltech Logo

    From Caltech

    01/17/2014 [Just now in social media]

    Written by Cynthia Eller
    Contact:
    Deborah Williams-Hedges
    (626) 395-3227
    debwms@caltech.edu

    1
    A portion of the Golden State Freeway in Gavin Canyon that collapsed during the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Credit: FEMA

    Current Earthquake Research at Caltech

    Since the magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquake 20 years ago (January 17, 1994), researchers at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have learned much more about where earthquakes are likely to happen, and how danger to human life and damage to property might be mitigated when they do occur.

    “The Northridge quake really heralded the beginning of a new era in earthquake research, not only in southern California, but worldwide,” says Michael Gurnis, John E. and Hazel S. Smits Professor of Geophysics, and director of the Seismological Laboratory at Caltech.

    In the years just prior to the Northridge earthquake, Caltech launched a program called TERRAscope supported by the Whittier foundations, which placed high-quality seismic sensors near where earthquakes occur. The Northridge earthquake was, in effect, the first test of TERRAscope in which Caltech scientists could infer the distribution of an earthquake rupture on subsurface faults and directly measure the associated motion of the ground with greater accuracy. “With a modern digital seismic network, the potential of measuring ground shaking in real time presented itself,” says Gurnis. “The real time view also gave first responders detailed maps of ground shaking so that they could respond to those in need immediately after a quake,” adds Egill Hauksson, senior research associate at Caltech.

    To give us this new view of earthquakes, Caltech collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the California Geological Survey to form TriNet, through which a vastly expanded network of instrumentation was put in place across southern California. Concurrently, a new network of continuously operated GPS stations was permanently deployed by a group of geophysicists under the auspices of the Southern California Earthquake Center, funded by the USGS, NASA, NSF, and the Keck Foundation. GPS data are used to measure displacements as small as 1 millimeter per year between stations at any two locations, making it possible to track motions during, between, and after earthquakes. Similar and even larger networks of seismometers and GPS sensors have now been deployed across the United States, especially EarthScope, supported by the NSF, and in countries around the world by various respective national agencies like the networks deployed by the Japanese government.

    Initially, says Gurnis, there were not many large earthquakes to track with the new dense network of broadband seismic instruments and GPS devices. That all changed in December 2004 with the magnitude 9.3 earthquake and resulting tsunami that struck the Indian Ocean off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Quite abruptly, Caltech scientists had an enormous amount of information coming in from the instrumentation in Indonesia previously deployed by the Caltech Techtonics Observatory with support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. By the time the magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake hit northern Japan in 2011, the Seismological Laboratory at Caltech had developed greatly expanded computing power capable of ingesting massive amounts of seismic and geodetic data. Within weeks of the disaster, a team led by Caltech professor of geophysics Mark Simons using data from GPS systems installed by the Japanese had produced extensive measurements of ground motion, as well as earthquake models constrained by this data, that provided new insight into the mechanics of plate tectonics and fault ruptures.

    The Tohoku-Oki earthquake was unprecedented: scientists estimate that over 50 meters of slip on the subsurface fault occurred during the devastating earthquake. Currently, scientists at Caltech and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are prototyping new automated systems for exploiting the wealth of GPS and satellite imaging data to rapidly provide disaster assessment and situational awareness as events occur around the globe. “We are now at a juncture in time where new observational capabilities and available computational power will allow us to provide critical information with unprecedented speed and resolution,” says Simons.

    Earthquakes are notable—and, for many, particularly upsetting—because they have always come without warning. Earthquakes do in fact happen quickly and unpredictably, but not so much so that early-warning systems are impossible. In a Moore Foundation-supported collaboration with UC Berkeley, the University of Washington, and the USGS, Caltech is developing a prototype early-warning system that may provide seconds to tens of seconds of warning to people in areas about to experience ground shaking, and minutes of warning to people potentially in the path of a tsunami. Japan invested heavily in an earthquake early-warning system after the magnitude 6.9 Kobe earthquake that occurred January 17, 1995, on the one-year anniversary of the Northridge earthquake, and the system performed well during the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. “It was a major scientific and technological accomplishment,” says Gurnis. “High-speed rail trains slowed and stopped as earthquake warnings came in, and there were no derailments as a result of the quake.”

    Closer to home, Caltech professor of geophysics Robert Clayton has aided local earthquake detection by distributing wallet-sized seismometers to residents of the greater Pasadena area to keep in their homes. The seismometers are attached to a USB drive on each resident’s computer, which is to remain on at all times. The data from these seismometers serve two functions: they record seismic activity on a detailed block-by-block scale, and, in the event of a large earthquake, they can help identify areas that are hardest hit. One lesson learned in the Northridge earthquake was that serious damage can occur far from the epicenter of an earthquake. The presence of many seismometers could help first responders to find the worst-affected areas more quickly after an earthquake strikes.

    Caltech scientists have also been playing a leading role in the large multi-institutional Salton Seismic Imaging Project. The project is mapping the San Andreas fault and discovering additional faults by setting off underground explosions and underwater bursts of compressed air and then measuring the transmission of the resulting sound waves and vibrations through sediment. According to Joann Stock, professor of geology and geophysics at Caltech, knowing the geometry of faults and the composition of nearby sediments informs our understanding of the types of earthquakes that will occur in the future, and the reaction of the local sediment to ground shaking.

    In addition, Caltech scientists learned much through simulating—via both computer modeling and physical modeling techniques—how earthquakes occur and what they leave in their aftermath.

    Computer simulations of how buildings respond during earthquakes recently allowed Caltech professors Thomas Heaton, professor of engineering seismology, and John Hall, professor of civil engineering, to estimate the decrease in building safety caused by the existence of defective welds in steel-frame structures, a problem identified after the Northridge earthquake. Researchers simulated the behavior of different 6- and 20-story building models in a variety of potential earthquake scenarios created by the Southern California Earthquake Center for the Los Angeles and San Francisco areas. The study showed that defective welds make a building significantly more susceptible to collapse and irreparable damage, and also found that stiffer, higher-strength buildings perform better than more flexible, lower-strength designs.

    Caltech professor of mechanical engineering and geophysics Nadia Lapusta recently used computer simulations of numerous earthquakes to determine what role “creeping” fault slip might play in earthquake events. It has been known for some time that, in addition to the rapid displacements that trigger earthquakes, land also slips very slowly along fault lines, a process that was thought to stop incoming earthquake rupture. Instead, Lapusta’s models show that these “stable segments” may become seismically active in an earthquake, accelerating and even strengthening its motions. Lapusta hypothesizes that this was one factor behind the severity of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Taking advantage of advances in computer modeling, Lapusta and her colleague Jean-Philippe Avouac, Earle C. Anthony Professor of Geology at Caltech, have created a comprehensive model of a fault zone, including both its earthquake activity and its behavior in seismically quiet times.

    Physical modeling of earthquakes is carried out at Caltech via collaborative efforts between the Divisions of Geological and Planetary Sciences and of Engineering and Applied Science. A series of experiments conducted by Ares Rosakis, the Theodore von Kármán Professor of Aeronautics and Mechanical Engineering, and collaborators including Lapusta and Hiroo Kanamori, the John E. and Hazel S. Smits Professor of Geophysics, Emeritus, used polymer plates to simulate land masses. Stresses were then created at various angles to the fault lines between the plates to set off earthquake-like activity. The motion in the polymer plates was measured by laser vibrometers while a high-speed camera recorded the movements in detail, yielding unprecedented data on the propagation of seismic waves. Researchers learned that strike-slip faults like the San Andreas may rupture in more than one direction (it was previously believed that these faults had a preferred direction), and that in addition to sliding along a fault, ruptures may occur in a “self-healing” pulselike manner in which a seismic wave “crawls” down a fault line. A third study drew conclusions about how faults will behave—in either a classic cracklike sliding rupture or in a pulselike rupture—depending on the angle at which compression forces strike the fault.

    “Northridge was a devastating earthquake for Los Angeles, and there was a massive amount of damage,” Gurnis says, “But in some sense, we stepped up to the plate after Northridge to determine what we could do better. And as a result we have ushered in an era of dense, high-fidelity geophysical networks on top of hazardous faults. We’ve exploited these networks to better understand how earthquakes occur, and we’ve pushed the limits such that we are now at the dawn of a new era of earthquake early warning in the United States. That’s because of Northridge.”

    See the full article here .

    Earthquake Alert

    1

    Earthquake Alert

    Earthquake Network projectEarthquake Network is a research project which aims at developing and maintaining a crowdsourced smartphone-based earthquake warning system at a global level. Smartphones made available by the population are used to detect the earthquake waves using the on-board accelerometers. When an earthquake is detected, an earthquake warning is issued in order to alert the population not yet reached by the damaging waves of the earthquake.

    The project started on January 1, 2013 with the release of the homonymous Android application Earthquake Network. The author of the research project and developer of the smartphone application is Francesco Finazzi of the University of Bergamo, Italy.

    Get the app in the Google Play store.

    3
    Smartphone network spatial distribution (green and red dots) on December 4, 2015

    Meet The Quake-Catcher Network

    QCN bloc

    Quake-Catcher Network

    The Quake-Catcher Network is a collaborative initiative for developing the world’s largest, low-cost strong-motion seismic network by utilizing sensors in and attached to internet-connected computers. With your help, the Quake-Catcher Network can provide better understanding of earthquakes, give early warning to schools, emergency response systems, and others. The Quake-Catcher Network also provides educational software designed to help teach about earthquakes and earthquake hazards.

    After almost eight years at Stanford, and a year at CalTech, the QCN project is moving to the University of Southern California Dept. of Earth Sciences. QCN will be sponsored by the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC).

    The Quake-Catcher Network is a distributed computing network that links volunteer hosted computers into a real-time motion sensing network. QCN is one of many scientific computing projects that runs on the world-renowned distributed computing platform Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC).

    The volunteer computers monitor vibrational sensors called MEMS accelerometers, and digitally transmit “triggers” to QCN’s servers whenever strong new motions are observed. QCN’s servers sift through these signals, and determine which ones represent earthquakes, and which ones represent cultural noise (like doors slamming, or trucks driving by).

    There are two categories of sensors used by QCN: 1) internal mobile device sensors, and 2) external USB sensors.

    Mobile Devices: MEMS sensors are often included in laptops, games, cell phones, and other electronic devices for hardware protection, navigation, and game control. When these devices are still and connected to QCN, QCN software monitors the internal accelerometer for strong new shaking. Unfortunately, these devices are rarely secured to the floor, so they may bounce around when a large earthquake occurs. While this is less than ideal for characterizing the regional ground shaking, many such sensors can still provide useful information about earthquake locations and magnitudes.

    USB Sensors: MEMS sensors can be mounted to the floor and connected to a desktop computer via a USB cable. These sensors have several advantages over mobile device sensors. 1) By mounting them to the floor, they measure more reliable shaking than mobile devices. 2) These sensors typically have lower noise and better resolution of 3D motion. 3) Desktops are often left on and do not move. 4) The USB sensor is physically removed from the game, phone, or laptop, so human interaction with the device doesn’t reduce the sensors’ performance. 5) USB sensors can be aligned to North, so we know what direction the horizontal “X” and “Y” axes correspond to.

    If you are a science teacher at a K-12 school, please apply for a free USB sensor and accompanying QCN software. QCN has been able to purchase sensors to donate to schools in need. If you are interested in donating to the program or requesting a sensor, click here.

    BOINC is a leader in the field(s) of Distributed Computing, Grid Computing and Citizen Cyberscience.BOINC is more properly the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing, developed at UC Berkeley.

    Earthquake safety is a responsibility shared by billions worldwide. The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) provides software so that individuals can join together to improve earthquake monitoring, earthquake awareness, and the science of earthquakes. The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) links existing networked laptops and desktops in hopes to form the worlds largest strong-motion seismic network.

    Below, the QCN Quake Catcher Network map
    QCN Quake Catcher Network map

    ShakeAlert: An Earthquake Early Warning System for the West Coast of the United States

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) along with a coalition of State and university partners is developing and testing an earthquake early warning (EEW) system called ShakeAlert for the west coast of the United States. Long term funding must be secured before the system can begin sending general public notifications, however, some limited pilot projects are active and more are being developed. The USGS has set the goal of beginning limited public notifications in 2018.

    Watch a video describing how ShakeAlert works in English or Spanish.

    The primary project partners include:

    United States Geological Survey
    California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services (CalOES)
    California Geological Survey
    California Institute of Technology
    University of California Berkeley
    University of Washington
    University of Oregon
    Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

    The Earthquake Threat

    Earthquakes pose a national challenge because more than 143 million Americans live in areas of significant seismic risk across 39 states. Most of our Nation’s earthquake risk is concentrated on the West Coast of the United States. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has estimated the average annualized loss from earthquakes, nationwide, to be $5.3 billion, with 77 percent of that figure ($4.1 billion) coming from California, Washington, and Oregon, and 66 percent ($3.5 billion) from California alone. In the next 30 years, California has a 99.7 percent chance of a magnitude 6.7 or larger earthquake and the Pacific Northwest has a 10 percent chance of a magnitude 8 to 9 megathrust earthquake on the Cascadia subduction zone.

    Part of the Solution

    Today, the technology exists to detect earthquakes, so quickly, that an alert can reach some areas before strong shaking arrives. The purpose of the ShakeAlert system is to identify and characterize an earthquake a few seconds after it begins, calculate the likely intensity of ground shaking that will result, and deliver warnings to people and infrastructure in harm’s way. This can be done by detecting the first energy to radiate from an earthquake, the P-wave energy, which rarely causes damage. Using P-wave information, we first estimate the location and the magnitude of the earthquake. Then, the anticipated ground shaking across the region to be affected is estimated and a warning is provided to local populations. The method can provide warning before the S-wave arrives, bringing the strong shaking that usually causes most of the damage.

    Studies of earthquake early warning methods in California have shown that the warning time would range from a few seconds to a few tens of seconds. ShakeAlert can give enough time to slow trains and taxiing planes, to prevent cars from entering bridges and tunnels, to move away from dangerous machines or chemicals in work environments and to take cover under a desk, or to automatically shut down and isolate industrial systems. Taking such actions before shaking starts can reduce damage and casualties during an earthquake. It can also prevent cascading failures in the aftermath of an event. For example, isolating utilities before shaking starts can reduce the number of fire initiations.

    System Goal

    The USGS will issue public warnings of potentially damaging earthquakes and provide warning parameter data to government agencies and private users on a region-by-region basis, as soon as the ShakeAlert system, its products, and its parametric data meet minimum quality and reliability standards in those geographic regions. The USGS has set the goal of beginning limited public notifications in 2018. Product availability will expand geographically via ANSS regional seismic networks, such that ShakeAlert products and warnings become available for all regions with dense seismic instrumentation.

    Current Status

    The West Coast ShakeAlert system is being developed by expanding and upgrading the infrastructure of regional seismic networks that are part of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS); the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) is made up of the Southern California Seismic Network, SCSN) and the Northern California Seismic System, NCSS and the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN). This enables the USGS and ANSS to leverage their substantial investment in sensor networks, data telemetry systems, data processing centers, and software for earthquake monitoring activities residing in these network centers. The ShakeAlert system has been sending live alerts to “beta” users in California since January of 2012 and in the Pacific Northwest since February of 2015.

    In February of 2016 the USGS, along with its partners, rolled-out the next-generation ShakeAlert early warning test system in California joined by Oregon and Washington in April 2017. This West Coast-wide “production prototype” has been designed for redundant, reliable operations. The system includes geographically distributed servers, and allows for automatic fail-over if connection is lost.

    This next-generation system will not yet support public warnings but does allow selected early adopters to develop and deploy pilot implementations that take protective actions triggered by the ShakeAlert notifications in areas with sufficient sensor coverage.

    Authorities

    The USGS will develop and operate the ShakeAlert system, and issue public notifications under collaborative authorities with FEMA, as part of the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program, as enacted by the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977, 42 U.S.C. §§ 7704 SEC. 2.

    For More Information

    Robert de Groot, ShakeAlert National Coordinator for Communication, Education, and Outreach
    rdegroot@usgs.gov
    626-583-7225

    Learn more about EEW Research

    ShakeAlert Fact Sheet

    ShakeAlert Implementation Plan


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private research university located in Pasadena, California, United States. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphases on science and engineering. Its 124-acre (50 ha) primary campus is located approximately 11 mi (18 km) northeast of downtown Los Angeles. “The mission of the California Institute of Technology is to expand human knowledge and benefit society through research integrated with education. We investigate the most challenging, fundamental problems in science and technology in a singularly collegial, interdisciplinary atmosphere, while educating outstanding students to become creative members of society.”

    Caltech campus


    Caltech campus

     
  • richardmitnick 1:51 pm on January 10, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Caltech, , , , , Radio magnetars, The team looked at the magnetar named PSR J1745-2900 located in the Milky Way's galactic center using the largest of NASA's Deep Space Network radio dishes in Australia   

    From Caltech: “Magnetar Mysteries in our Galaxy and Beyond” 

    Caltech Logo

    From Caltech

    01/09/2019

    Whitney Clavin
    (626) 395-1856
    wclavin@caltech.edu

    1
    Illustration of a magnetar—a rotating neutron star with incredibly powerful magnetic fields.
    Credit: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss

    2
    The 70-meter radio dish (DSS-43) in Canberra, Australia, part of NASA’s Deep Space Network.
    Credit: NASA/DSN

    New research looks at possible links between magnetars and extragalactic radio bursts.

    In a new Caltech-led study, researchers from campus and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have analyzed pulses of radio waves coming from a magnetar—a rotating, dense, dead star with a strong magnetic field—that is located near the supermassive black hole at the heart of the Milky Way galaxy. The new research provides clues that magnetars like this one, lying in close proximity to a black hole, could perhaps be linked to the source of “fast radio bursts,” or FRBs. FRBs are high-energy blasts that originate beyond our galaxy but whose exact nature is unknown.

    “Our observations show that a radio magnetar can emit pulses with many of the same characteristics as those seen in some FRBs,” says Caltech graduate student Aaron Pearlman, who presented the results today at the 233rd meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Seattle. “Other astronomers have also proposed that magnetars near black holes could be behind FRBs, but more research is needed to confirm these suspicions.”

    The research team was led by Walid Majid, a visiting associate at Caltech and principal research scientist at JPL, which is managed by Caltech for NASA, and Tom Prince, the Ira S. Bowen Professor of Physics at Caltech. The team looked at the magnetar named PSR J1745-2900, located in the Milky Way’s galactic center, using the largest of NASA’s Deep Space Network radio dishes in Australia. PSR J1745-2900 was initially spotted by NASA’s Swift X-ray telescope, and later determined to be a magnetar by NASA’s Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), in 2013.

    NASA Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory

    NASA NuSTAR X-ray telescope

    “PSR J1745-2900 is an amazing object. It’s a fascinating magnetar, but it also has been used as a probe of the conditions near the Milky Way’s supermassive black hole,” says Fiona Harrison, the Benjamin M. Rosen Professor of Physics at Caltech and the principal investigator of NuSTAR. “It’s interesting that there could be a connection between PSR J1745-2900 and the enigmatic FRBs.”

    Magnetars are a rare subtype of a group of objects called pulsars; pulsars, in turn, belong to a class of rotating dead stars known as neutron stars. Magnetars are thought to be young pulsars that spin more slowly than ordinary pulsars and have much stronger magnetic fields, which suggests that perhaps all pulsars go through a magnetar-like phase in their lifetime.

    Women in STEM – Dame Susan Jocelyn Bell Burnell

    Dame Susan Jocelyn Bell Burnell, discovered pulsars with radio astronomy. Jocelyn Bell at the Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory, Cambridge University, taken for the Daily Herald newspaper in 1968. Denied the Nobel.

    The magnetar PSR J1745-2900 is the closest-known pulsar to the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy, separated by a distance of only 0.3 light-years, and it is the only pulsar known to be gravitationally bound to the black hole and the environment around it.

    In addition to discovering similarities between the galactic-center magnetar and FRBs, the researchers also gleaned new details about the magnetar’s radio pulses. Using one of the Deep Space Network’s largest radio antennas, the scientists were able to analyze individual pulses emitted by the star every time it rotated, a feat that is very rare in radio studies of pulsars. They found that some pulses were stretched, or broadened, by a larger amount than predicted when compared to previous measurements of the magnetar’s average pulse behavior. Moreover, this behavior varied from pulse to pulse.

    “We are seeing these changes in the individual components of each pulse on a very fast time scale. This behavior is very unusual for a magnetar,” says Pearlman. The radio components, he notes, are separated by only 30 milliseconds on average.

    One theory to explain the signal variability involves clumps of plasma moving at high speeds near the magnetar. Other scientists have proposed that such clumps might exist but, in the new study, the researchers propose that the movement of these clumps may be a possible cause of the observed signal variability. Another theory proposes that the variability is intrinsic to the magnetar itself.

    “Understanding this signal variability will help in future studies of both magnetars and pulsars at the center of our galaxy,” says Pearlman.

    In the future, Pearlman and his colleagues hope to use the Deep Space Network radio dish to solve another outstanding pulsar mystery: Why are there so few pulsars near the galactic center? Their goal is to find a non-magnetar pulsar near the galactic-center black hole.

    “Finding a stable pulsar in a close, gravitationally bound orbit with the supermassive black hole at the galactic center could prove to be the Holy Grail for testing theories of gravity,” says Pearlman. “If we find one, we can do all sorts of new, unprecedented tests of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity.”

    The new study, titled, “Pulse Morphology of the Galactic Center Magnetar PSR J1745-2900,” appeared in the October 20, 2018, issue of The Astrophysical Journal and was funded by a Research and Technology Development grant through a contract with NASA; JPL and Caltech’s President’s and Director’s Fund; the Department of Defense; and the National Science Foundation. Other authors include Jonathon Kocz of Caltech and Shinji Horiuchi of the CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) Astronomy & Space Science, Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private research university located in Pasadena, California, United States. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphases on science and engineering. Its 124-acre (50 ha) primary campus is located approximately 11 mi (18 km) northeast of downtown Los Angeles. “The mission of the California Institute of Technology is to expand human knowledge and benefit society through research integrated with education. We investigate the most challenging, fundamental problems in science and technology in a singularly collegial, interdisciplinary atmosphere, while educating outstanding students to become creative members of society.”

    Caltech campus


    Caltech campus

     
  • richardmitnick 2:56 pm on December 18, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Caltech, , Gaia 17bpi, , The star belongs to a class of fitful stars known as FU Ori's, Young Star Caught in a Fit of Growth   

    From Caltech: “Young Star Caught in a Fit of Growth” 

    Caltech Logo

    From Caltech

    12/18/2018

    Whitney Clavin
    (626) 395-1856
    wclavin@caltech.edu

    1
    This illustration shows a young star undergoing a growth spurt. Top panel: Material from the dusty and gas-rich disk (orange) plus hot gas (blue) mildly flows onto the star, creating a hot spot. Middle panel: The outburst begins—the inner disk is heated, more material flows to the star, and the disk creeps inward. Lower panel: The outburst is in full throttle, with the inner disk merging into the star and gas flowing outward (green).

    2
    The location of Gaia 17bpi, which lies in the Sagitta constellation, is indicated in the center of this image taken by NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/M. Kuhn (Caltech)

    New visible and infrared observations of young star reveal clues about how it bulks up.

    Researchers have discovered a young star in the midst of a rare growth spurt—a dramatic phase of stellar evolution when matter swirling around a star falls onto the star, bulking up its mass. The star belongs to a class of fitful stars known as FU Ori’s, named after the original member of the group, FU Orionis (the capital letters represent a naming scheme for variable stars, and Orionis refers to its location in the Orion constellation). Typically, these stars, which are less than a few million years old, are hidden behind thick clouds of dust and hard to observe. This new object is only the 25th member of this class found to date and one of only about a dozen caught in the act of an outburst.

    “These FU Ori events are extremely important in our current understanding of the process of star formation but have remained almost mythical because they have been so difficult to observe,” says Lynne Hillenbrand, professor of astronomy at Caltech and lead author of a new report on the findings appearing in The Astrophysical Journal. “This is actually the first time we’ve ever seen one of these events as it happens in both optical and infrared light, and these data have let us map the movement of material through the disk and onto the star.”

    The newfound star, called Gaia 17bpi, was first spotted by the European Space Agency’s Gaia satellite, which scans the sky continuously, making precise measurements of stars in visible light.

    ESA/GAIA satellite

    When Gaia spots a change in a star’s brightness, an alert goes out to the astronomy community. A graduate student at the University of Exeter and co-author of the new study, Sam Morrell, was the first to notice that the star had brightened. Other members of the team then followed up and discovered that the star’s brightening had been serendipitously captured in infrared light by NASA’s asteroid-hunting NEOWISE satellite at the same time that Gaia saw it, as well as one-and-a-half-years earlier.

    NASA Wise Telescope

    “While NEOWISE’s primary mission is detecting nearby solar system objects, it also images all of the background stars and galaxies as it sweeps around the sky every six months,” says co-author Roc Cutri, lead scientist for the NEOWISE Data Center at IPAC, an astronomy and data center at Caltech. “NEOWISE has been surveying in this way for five years now, so it is very effective for detecting changes in the brightness of objects.”

    NASA’s infrared-sensing Spitzer Space Telescope also happened to have witnessed the beginning of the star’s brightening phase twice back in 2014, giving the researchers a bonanza of infrared data.

    NASA/Spitzer Infrared Telescope

    The new findings shine light on some of the longstanding mysteries surrounding the evolution of young stars. One unanswered question is: How does a star acquire all of its mass? Stars form from collapsing balls of gas and dust. With time, a disk of material forms around the star, and the star continues to siphon material from this disk. But, according to previous observations, stars do not pull material onto themselves fast enough to reach their final masses.

    Theorists believe that FU Ori events—in which mass is dumped from the disk onto the star over a total period of about 100 years—may help solve the riddle. The scientists think that all stars undergo around 10 to 20 or so of these FU Ori events in their lifetimes but, because this stellar phase is often hidden behind dust, the data are limited. “Somebody sketched this scenario on the back of an envelope in the 1980s, and, after all this time, we still haven’t done much better at determining the event rates,” says Hillenbrand.

    The new study shows, with the most detail yet, how material moves from the midrange of a disk, in a region located around 1 astronomical unit from the star, to the star itself. (An astronomical unit is the distance between Earth and the sun.) NEOWISE and Spitzer were the first to pick up signs of the buildup of material in the middle of the disk. As the material started to accumulate in the disk, it warmed up, giving off infrared light. Then, as this material fell onto the star, it heated up even more, giving off visible light, which is what Gaia detected.

    “The material in the middle of the disk builds up in density and becomes unstable,” says Hillenbrand. “Then it drains onto the star, manifesting as an outburst.”

    The researchers used the W. M. Keck Observatory and Caltech’s Palomar Observatory to help confirm the FU Ori nature of the newfound star. Says Hillenbrand, “You can think of Gaia as discovering the initial crime scene, while Keck and Palomar pointed us to the smoking gun.”


    Keck Observatory, Maunakea, Hawaii, USA.4,207 m (13,802 ft), above sea level,


    Caltech Palomar Observatory, located in San Diego County, California, US, at 1,712 m (5,617 ft)

    The study is titled, “Gaia 17bpi: An FU Ori Type Outburst.” Other authors include: Carlos Contreras Peña and Tim Naylor of the University of Exeter; Michael Kuhn and Luisa Rebull of Caltech; Simon Hodgkin of Cambridge University; Dirk Froebrich of the University of Kent; and Amy Mainzer of JPL.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private research university located in Pasadena, California, United States. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphases on science and engineering. Its 124-acre (50 ha) primary campus is located approximately 11 mi (18 km) northeast of downtown Los Angeles. “The mission of the California Institute of Technology is to expand human knowledge and benefit society through research integrated with education. We investigate the most challenging, fundamental problems in science and technology in a singularly collegial, interdisciplinary atmosphere, while educating outstanding students to become creative members of society.”

    Caltech campus


    Caltech campus

     
  • richardmitnick 6:20 pm on November 20, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Caltech, , Exoplanet Stepping Stones, , HR 8799 c—a young giant gas planet   

    From Caltech: “Exoplanet Stepping Stones” 

    Caltech Logo

    From Caltech

    11/20/2018

    Whitney Clavin
    (626) 395-1856
    wclavin@caltech.edu

    Researchers are perfecting technology to one day look for signs of alien life.

    1
    Artwork of exoplanet HR 8799 c
    Credit: W. M. Keck Observatory/Adam Makarenko


    Keck Observatory, Maunakea, Hawaii, USA.4,207 m (13,802 ft), above sea level,

    Astronomers have gleaned some of the best data yet on the composition of a planet known as HR 8799 c—a young giant gas planet about seven times the mass of Jupiter that orbits its star every 200 years. The team used state-of-the-art instrumentation at the W. M. Keck Observatory to confirm the existence of water in the planet’s atmosphere as well as a lack of methane. While other researchers had previously made similar measurements of this planet, these new, more robust data demonstrate the power of combining high-resolution spectroscopy with a technique known as adaptive optics, which corrects for the blurring effect of Earth’s atmosphere.

    Keck Adaptive Optics

    “This type of technology is exactly what we want to use in the future to look for signs of life on an Earth-like planet. We aren’t there yet, but we are marching ahead,” says Dimitri Mawet, an associate professor of astronomy at Caltech and a research scientist at JPL, which Caltech manages for NASA. He is co-author of a new paper on the findings accepted for publication in The Astronomical Journal [link is below]. The lead author is Ji Wang, formerly a postdoctoral scholar at Caltech and now an assistant professor at The Ohio State University.

    Taking pictures of planets that orbit other stars—exoplanets—is a formidable task. Light from the host stars far outshines the planets, making them difficult to see. More than a dozen exoplanets have been directly imaged so far, including HR 8799 c and three of its planetary companions. In fact, HR 8799 is the only multiple-planet system to have its picture taken. Once an image is obtained, astronomers can use instruments, called spectrometers, to break apart the planet’s light, like a prism turning sunlight into a rainbow, thereby revealing the fingerprints of chemicals. So far, this strategy has been used to learn about the atmospheres of several giant exoplanets.

    The next step is to do the same thing but for smaller planets that are closer to their stars (the closer a planet is to its star and the smaller its size, the harder is it to see). The ultimate goal is to look for chemicals in the atmospheres of Earth-like planets that orbit in the star’s “habitable zone,” including any biosignatures that might indicate life, such as water, oxygen, and methane. Mawet’s group hopes to do just this with an instrument on the upcoming Thirty Meter Telescope, a giant telescope being planned for the late 2020s by several national and international partners, including Caltech.

    But for now, the scientists are perfecting their technique using Keck—and, in the process, learning about the compositions and dynamics of giant planets.

    “Right now, with Keck, we can already learn about the physics and dynamics of these giant exotic planets, which are nothing like our own solar system planets,” says Wang.

    In the new study, the researchers used an instrument on Keck called NIRSPEC (near-infrared cryogenic echelle spectrograph), a high-resolution spectrometer that works in infrared light.

    Keck Nirspec on Keck 2

    They coupled the instrument with adaptive optics, a method for creating crisper pictures using a guide star in the sky as a means to measure and correct the blurring turbulence of Earth’s atmosphere.

    This is the first time the technique has been demonstrated on directly imaged planets using what is known as the L-band, a type of infrared light with a wavelength of around 3.5 micrometers. This region of the electromagnetic spectrum contains many detailed chemical fingerprints.

    “The L-band has gone largely overlooked before because the sky is brighter at this wavelength,” says Mawet. “If you were an alien with eyes tuned to the L-band, you’d see an extremely bright sky. It’s hard to see exoplanets through this veil.”

    The researchers say that the addition of adaptive optics made the L-band more accessible for the study of the planet HR 8799 c. In their study, they made the most precise measurements yet of the atmospheric constituents of the planet, confirming it has water and lacks methane as previously thought.

    “We are now more certain about the lack of methane in this planet,” says Wang. “This may be due to mixing in the planet’s atmosphere. The methane, which we would expect to be there on the surface, could be diluted if the process of convection is bringing up deeper layers of the planet that don’t have methane.”

    The L-band is also good for making measurements of a planet’s carbon-to-oxygen ratio—a tracer of where and how a planet forms. Planets form out of swirling disks of material around stars, specifically from a mix of hydrogen-, oxygen-, and carbon-rich molecules, such as water, carbon monoxide, and methane. These molecules freeze out of the planet-forming disks at different distances from the star—at boundaries called snowlines. By measuring a planet’s carbon-to-oxygen ratio, astronomers can thus learn about its origins.

    Mawet’s team is now gearing up to turn on their newest instrument at Keck, called the Keck Planet Imager and Characterizer (KPIC). The team will also use adaptive optics-aided high-resolution spectroscopy that can see planets that are fainter than HR 8799 c and closer to their stars.

    “KPIC is a springboard to our future Thirty Meter Telescope instrument,” says Mawet.

    TMT-Thirty Meter Telescope, proposed and now approved for Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level

    “For now, we are learning a great deal about the myriad ways in which planets in our universe form.”

    The Astronomical Journal study, titled, “Detecting Water in the Atmosphere of HR 8799 c with L-band High Dispersion Spectroscopy Aided By Adaptive Optics,” was funded by Caltech. Other authors include Jonathan Fortney and Callie Hood of UC Santa Cruz; Caroline Morley of Harvard University; and Björn Benneke of University of Montreal.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private research university located in Pasadena, California, United States. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphases on science and engineering. Its 124-acre (50 ha) primary campus is located approximately 11 mi (18 km) northeast of downtown Los Angeles. “The mission of the California Institute of Technology is to expand human knowledge and benefit society through research integrated with education. We investigate the most challenging, fundamental problems in science and technology in a singularly collegial, interdisciplinary atmosphere, while educating outstanding students to become creative members of society.”

    Caltech campus


    Caltech campus

     
  • richardmitnick 5:53 pm on November 12, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Caltech, , MicroED-micro-electron diffraction, , NMR-nuclear magnetic resonance, , , ,   

    From Caltech: “From Beaker to Solved 3-D Structure in Minutes” 

    Caltech Logo

    From Caltech

    11/12/2018

    Whitney Clavin
    (626) 395-1856
    wclavin@caltech.edu

    1
    Graduate student Tyler Fulton prepares samples of small molecules in a lab at Caltech. Credit: Caltech

    2
    Close-up of a powder containing small molecules like those that gave rise to 3-D structures in the new study. (The copper piece is a sample holder used with microscopes.) Credit: Caltech/Stoltz Lab

    3
    Brian Stoltz and Tyler Fulton. Credit: Caltech

    UCLA/Caltech team uncovers a new and simple way to learn the structures of small molecules.

    In a new study that one scientist called jaw-dropping, a joint UCLA/Caltech team has shown that it is possible to obtain the structures of small molecules, such as certain hormones and medications, in as little as 30 minutes. That’s hours and even days less than was possible before.

    The team used a technique called micro-electron diffraction (MicroED), which had been used in the past to learn the 3-D structures of larger molecules, specifically proteins. In this new study, the researchers show that the technique can be applied to small molecules, and that the process requires much less preparation time than expected. Unlike related techniques—some of which involve growing crystals the size of salt grains—this method, as the new study demonstrates, can work with run-of-the-mill starting samples, sometimes even powders scraped from the side of a beaker.

    “We took the lowest-brow samples you can get and obtained the highest-quality structures in barely any time,” says Caltech professor of chemistry Brian Stoltz, who is a co-author on the new study, published in the journal ACS Central Science. “When I first saw the results, my jaw hit the floor.” Initially released on the pre-print server Chemrxiv in mid-October, the article has been viewed more than 35,000 times.

    The reason the method works so well on small-molecule samples is that while the samples may appear to be simple powders, they actually contain tiny crystals, each roughly a billion times smaller than a speck of dust. Researchers knew about these hidden microcrystals before, but did not realize they could readily reveal the crystals’ molecular structures using MicroED. “I don’t think people realized how common these microcrystals are in the powdery samples,” says Stoltz. “This is like science fiction. I didn’t think this would happen in my lifetime—that you could see structures from powders.”

    4
    This movie [animated in the full article] is an example of electron diffraction (MicroED) data collection, in which electrons are fired at a nanocrystal while being continuously rotated. Data from the movie are ultimately converted to a 3-D chemical structure. Credit: UCLA/Caltech

    The results have implications for chemists wishing to determine the structures of small molecules, which are defined as those weighing less than about 900 daltons. (A dalton is about the weight of a hydrogen atom.) These tiny compounds include certain chemicals found in nature, some biological substances like hormones, and a number of therapeutic drugs. Possible applications of the MicroED structure-finding methodology include drug discovery, crime lab analysis, medical testing, and more. For instance, Stoltz says, the method might be of use in testing for the latest performance-enhancing drugs in athletes, where only trace amounts of a chemical may be present.

    “The slowest step in making new molecules is determining the structure of the product. That may no longer be the case, as this technique promises to revolutionize organic chemistry,” says Robert Grubbs, Caltech’s Victor and Elizabeth Atkins Professor of Chemistry and a winner of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, who was not involved in the research. “The last big break in structure determination before this was nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which was introduced by Jack Roberts at Caltech in the late ’60s.”

    Like other synthetic chemists, Stoltz and his team spend their time trying to figure out how to assemble chemicals in the lab from basic starting materials. Their lab focuses on such natural small molecules as the fungus-derived beta-lactam family of compounds, which are related to penicillins. To build these chemicals, they need to determine the structures of the molecules in their reactions—both the intermediate molecules and the final products—to see if they are on the right track.

    One technique for doing so is X-ray crystallography, in which a chemical sample is hit with X-rays that diffract off its atoms; the pattern of those diffracting X-rays reveals the 3-D structure of the targeted chemical. Often, this method is used to solve the structures of really big molecules, such as complex membrane proteins, but it can also be applied to small molecules. The challenge is that to perform this method a chemist must create good-sized chunks of crystal from a sample, which isn’t always easy. “I spent months once trying to get the right crystals for one of my samples,” says Stoltz.

    Another reliable method is NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), which doesn’t require crystals but does require a relatively large amount of a sample, which can be hard to amass. Also, NMR provides only indirect structural information.

    Before now, MicroED—which is similar to X-ray crystallography but uses electrons instead of X-rays—was mainly used on crystallized proteins and not on small molecules. Co-author Tamir Gonen, an electron crystallography expert at UCLA who began developing the MicroED technique for proteins while at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in Virginia, said that he only started thinking about using the method on small molecules after moving to UCLA and teaming up with Caltech.

    “Tamir had been using this technique on proteins, and just happened to mention that they can sometimes get it to work using only powdery samples of proteins,” says Hosea Nelson (PhD ’13), an assistant professor of chemistry and biochemistry at UCLA. “My mind was blown by this, that you didn’t have to grow crystals, and that’s around the time that the team started to realize that we could apply this method to a whole new class of molecules with wide-reaching implications for all types of chemistry.”

    The team tested several samples of varying qualities, without ever attempting to crystallize them, and were able to determine their structures thanks to the samples’ ample microcrystals. They succeeded in getting structures for ground-up samples of the brand-name drugs Tylenol and Advil, and they were able to identify distinct structures from a powdered mixture of four chemicals.

    The UCLA/Caltech team says it hopes this method will become routine in chemistry labs in the future.

    “In our labs, we have students and postdocs making totally new and unique molecular entities every day,” says Stoltz. “Now we have the power to rapidly figure out what they are. This is going to change synthetic chemistry.”

    The study was funded by the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Energy, a Beckman Young Investigators award, a Searle Scholars award, a Pew Scholars award, the Packard Foundation, the Sloan Foundation, the Pew Charitable Trusts, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Other co-authors include Christopher Jones,Michael Martynowycz, Johan Hattne, and Jose Rodriguez of UCLA; and Tyler Fulton of Caltech.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private research university located in Pasadena, California, United States. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphases on science and engineering. Its 124-acre (50 ha) primary campus is located approximately 11 mi (18 km) northeast of downtown Los Angeles. “The mission of the California Institute of Technology is to expand human knowledge and benefit society through research integrated with education. We investigate the most challenging, fundamental problems in science and technology in a singularly collegial, interdisciplinary atmosphere, while educating outstanding students to become creative members of society.”

    Caltech campus


    Caltech campus

     
  • richardmitnick 4:03 pm on November 5, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: 'Folded' Optical Devices Manipulate Light in a New Way, Caltech, Compact spectrometer, Metasurface optics,   

    From Caltech: “‘Folded’ Optical Devices Manipulate Light in a New Way” 

    Caltech Logo

    From Caltech

    10/30/2018

    Robert Perkins
    (626) 395-1862
    rperkins@caltech.edu

    1
    An array of 11 metasurface-based optical spectrometers, pictured here before the final fabrication step. Each spectrometer is composed of three metasurfaces that disperse and focus light with different wavelengths to different points. Credit: Faraon Lab/Caltech

    The future of optics

    The next generation of electronic devices, ranging from personal health monitors and augmented reality headsets to sensitive scientific instruments that would only be found in a laboratory, will likely incorporate components that use metasurface optics, according to Andrei Faraon, professor of applied physics in Caltech’s Division of Engineering and Applied Science. Metasurface optics manipulate light similarly to how a lens might—bending, focusing, or reflecting it—but do so in a finely controllable way using carefully designed microscopic structures on an otherwise flat surface. That makes them both compact and finely tunable, attractive qualities for electronic devices. However, engineers will need to overcome several challenges to make them widespread.

    The problem

    Most optical systems require more than a single metasurface to function properly. In metasurface-based optical systems, most of the total volume inside the device is just free space through which light propagates between different elements. The need for this free space makes the overall device difficult to scale down, while integrating and aligning multiple metasurfaces into a single device can be complicated and expensive.

    The invention

    To overcome this limitation, the Faraon group has introduced a technology called “folded metasurface optics,” which is a way of printing multiple types of metasurfaces onto either side of a substrate, like glass. In this way, the substrate itself becomes the propagation space for the light. As a proof of concept, the team used the technique to build a spectrometer, which is a scientific instrument for splitting light into different colors, or wavelengths, and measuring their corresponding intensities. (Spectrometers are used in a variety of fields; for example, in astronomy they are used to determine the chemical makeup of stars based on the light they emit.) The spectrometer built by Faraon’s team is 1 millimeter thick and is composed of three reflective metasurfaces placed next to each other that split and reflect light, and ultimately focus it onto a detector array. It was fabricated at the Kavli Nanoscience Institute, and its design is described in a paper published by Nature Communications on October 10.

    What it could be used for

    A compact spectrometer like the one developed by Faraon’s group has a variety of uses, including as a noninvasive blood-glucose measuring system that could be invaluable for diabetes patients. The platform uses multiple metasurface elements that are fabricated in a single step, so, in general, it provides a potential path toward complex but inexpensive optical systems.

    The details

    The paper is titled “Compact folded metasurface spectrometer.” Co-authors include Caltech graduate students MohammadSadegh Faraji-Dana (MS ’18), Ehsan Arbabi (MS ’17), Seyedeh Mahsa Kamali (MS ’17), and Hyounghan Kwon (MS ’18), and Amir Arbabi of the University of Massachusetts Amherst. This research was supported by Samsung Electronics, the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and the U.S. Department of Energy.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private research university located in Pasadena, California, United States. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphases on science and engineering. Its 124-acre (50 ha) primary campus is located approximately 11 mi (18 km) northeast of downtown Los Angeles. “The mission of the California Institute of Technology is to expand human knowledge and benefit society through research integrated with education. We investigate the most challenging, fundamental problems in science and technology in a singularly collegial, interdisciplinary atmosphere, while educating outstanding students to become creative members of society.”

    Caltech campus

     
  • richardmitnick 8:17 pm on October 18, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Caltech,   

    From Caltech: “ShakeAlert No Longer Just a Prototype” 

    Caltech Logo

    From Caltech

    Robert Perkins
    (626) 395-1862
    rperkins@caltech.edu

    1

    Government officials and Caltech scientists gathered at the Caltech Seismological Laboratory on October 17 to declare ShakeAlert—an earthquake early warning system for the three states along the West Coast—”open for business.”

    Caltech president Thomas Rosenbaum, Sonja and William Davidow Presidential Chair and professor of physics, led the midmorning press conference, which included U.S. Representative Adam Schiff; U.S. Representative Judy Chu; Tom Heaton, professor of engineering seismology; Lucy Jones, research associate in geophysics at Caltech and founder of the Dr. Lucy Jones Center for Science and Society; Doug Given, earthquake early warning coordinator for the United States Geological Survey (USGS); and Ryan Arba, seismic hazards branch chief at the California Office of Emergency Services.

    “Caltech has worked for nearly 100 years with colleagues in government and other academic institutions to leverage the insights and tools of seismology against the risks of earthquakes,” Rosenbaum said, announcing a new stage in the development of an earthquake early warning system for the West Coast. “Partner institutions can now use ShakeAlert to automatically slow trains; warn industrial sites to shut off gas lines; and warn personnel to drop, cover, and hold on.”

    Given added: “Today is important because we’re making a large change from a production prototype in pilot mode to an open-for-business operational mode. Now, the system is not yet finished, it’s not yet complete; there is a lot of work to be done. However, there is a lot of capability in the system as it exists today to the point that it can definitely be used.”

    Earthquake early warning systems like ShakeAlert consist of a network of sensors near faults that transmit signals to data-processing centers when shaking occurs. These data-processing centers use algorithms to rapidly determine the earthquake’s location, magnitude, and the fault rupture length—determining the intensity of an earthquake and sending out an alert that can provide seconds or even minutes of warning. Paired with automated responses that will shut off gas before shaking starts, ShakeAlert could be instrumental in preventing the fires that typically damage cities after a major earthquake, Jones said.

    Earthquake early warning systems do not predict earthquakes before they happen. Rather, they transmit a heads-up that an earthquake is happening; a heads-up that can arrive ahead of the seismic waves generated in the quake, potentially providing crucial time to allow individuals to take cover and for infrastructure to prepare for the quake (for example, for trains to halt operation). These warnings operate on the principle that seismic waves travel at just a few miles per second, but messages can be transmitted almost instantly. During an earthquake, several types of seismic waves radiate out from the quake’s epicenter, including compressional waves (or P-waves), transverse waves (or S-waves), and surface waves. The weak P-waves move faster than the damaging S-waves and surface waves. With an earthquake early warning system in place, those P-waves will trigger sensors that can send out a warning ahead of the arrival of the S-waves and surface waves.

    Though only half of the sensor network that ShakeAlert will need has been built out so far—primarily around major metropolitan areas—the state of California and the federal government have allocated funding that should allow the rest of California’s portion of the network to be constructed over the next two years, Given said. In addition, an upgrade to the software that processes data from the sensor networks was deployed on September 28. This new software should reduce the number of mistakes and missed alerts, making ShakeAlert more reliable, Given said.

    A key step now is for companies and institutions to help find ways to take advantage of these alerts to save lives, he said.

    “This is a wonderful milestone,” Schiff said. “We can now see the end, I hope, in two or three years where the system is fully built out and funded and in operation. And once people come to see the benefit, then the future of the system will be even brighter. Getting that kind of advance notice is going to be so meaningful in terms of making sure people get to a safe place.”

    Future iterations of the system will be able to send warnings to cell phones as well, Schiff said. Such alerts will need to be rolled out with public education to explain to individuals what to do when they receive such alerts—not to panic—and know that there could be false alarms.

    Chu, whose district includes Caltech, said, “One of the reasons that I am so proud to be a representative from this area is our science. In our district, amazing advances are happening every day that will take us to Mars or bring us a better understanding of our environment. And the ShakeAlert that we are announcing today belongs in that pantheon of history-making innovations to come out of Caltech.”

    For Heaton, one of the fathers of ShakeAlert and a scientist who has been interested in earthquake early warning since 1979, this is a day that was a long time in coming.

    “In those days, I could see that we could technically do it. But what I didn’t really understand was what was involved to get 40 million people on the West Coast to get together to try and make this system a reality. What it really takes is leadership to do that,” Heaton said.

    Earthquake early warning systems already exist in Mexico and Japan, which have experienced recent and devastating earthquakes. But it has been difficult to find the political will to spend millions of dollars developing a system for the U.S. West Coast, which is long overdue for a serious earthquake.

    ShakeAlert has been in development since 2006. In 2011, Caltech, along with UC Berkeley and the University of Washington received $6 million from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation for the research and development of the system; and in 2015, the USGS announced approximately $4 million in awards to Caltech, UC Berkeley, the University of Washington, and the University of Oregon for ShakeAlert’s expansion and improvement.

    Currently, ShakeAlert’s infrastructures consist of the California Integrated Seismic Network (400 ground-motion sensors operated by Caltech in partnership with UC Berkeley, the USGS, and the State of California), and the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (a similar regional network operated by the USGS, University of Washington, and the University of Oregon).

    Over the past few years, ShakeAlert has detected thousands of earthquakes, including two that caused damage. It began sending alerts within four seconds of the beginning of the magnitude 5.1 La Habra earthquake in 2014, and gave users in Berkeley five seconds of warning before seismological waves arrived during the magnitude 6.0 South Napa earthquake, also in 2014. Beta-test users received these alerts as a pop-up on their computers; the pop-up displayed a map of the affected region as well as the amount of time until shaking would begin, the estimated magnitude of the quake, and other data.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private research university located in Pasadena, California, United States. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphases on science and engineering. Its 124-acre (50 ha) primary campus is located approximately 11 mi (18 km) northeast of downtown Los Angeles. “The mission of the California Institute of Technology is to expand human knowledge and benefit society through research integrated with education. We investigate the most challenging, fundamental problems in science and technology in a singularly collegial, interdisciplinary atmosphere, while educating outstanding students to become creative members of society.”

    Caltech campus

     
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