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  • richardmitnick 11:29 am on September 21, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Andrew Peterson, Brown awarded $3.5M to speed up atomic-scale computer simulations, Brown University, Computational power is growing rapidly which lets us perform larger and more realistic simulations, Different simulations often have the same sets of calculations underlying them- so finding what can be re-used saves a lot of time and money, ,   

    From Brown University: “Brown awarded $3.5M to speed up atomic-scale computer simulations” 

    Brown University
    From Brown University

    September 20, 2018
    Kevin Stacey
    kevin_stacey@brown.edu
    401-863-3766

    1
    Andrew Peterson. No photo credit.

    With a new grant from the U.S. Department of Energy, a Brown University-led research team will use machine learning to speed up atom-level simulations of chemical reactions and the properties of materials.

    “Simulations provide insights into materials and chemical processes that we can’t readily get from experiments,” said Andrew Peterson, an associate professor in Brown’s School of Engineering who will lead the work.

    “Computational power is growing rapidly, which lets us perform larger and more realistic simulations. But as the size of the simulations grows, the time involved in running them can grow exponentially. This paradox means that even with the growth in computational power, our field still cannot perform truly large-scale simulations. Our goal is to speed those simulations up dramatically — ideally by orders of magnitude — using machine learning.”

    The grant provides $3.5 million dollars for the work over four years. Peterson will work with two Brown colleagues — Franklin Goldsmith, assistant professor of engineering, and Brenda Rubenstein, assistant professor of chemistry — as well as researchers from Carnegie Mellon, Georgia Tech and MIT.

    The idea behind the work is that different simulations often have the same sets of calculations underlying them. Peterson and his colleagues aim to use machine learning to find those underlying similarities and fast-forward through them.

    “What we’re doing is taking the results of calculations from prior simulations and using them to predict the outcome of calculations that haven’t been done yet,” Peterson said. “If we can eliminate the need to do similar calculations over and over again, we can speed things up dramatically, potentially by orders of magnitude.”

    The team will focus their work initially on simulations of electrocatalysis — the kinds of chemical reactions that are important in devices like fuel cells and batteries. These are complex, often multi-step reactions that are fertile ground for simulation-driven research, Peterson says.

    Atomic-scale simulations have demonstrated usefulness in Peterson’s own work in the design of new catalysts. In a recent example, Peterson worked with Brown chemist Shouheng Sun on a gold nanoparticle catalyst that can perform a reaction necessary for converting carbon dioxide into useful forms of carbon. Peterson’s simulations showed it was the sharp edges of the oddly shaped catalyst that were particularly active for the desired reaction.

    “That led us to change the geometry of the catalyst to a nanowire — something that’s basically all edges — to maximize its reactivity,” Peterson said. “We might have eventually tried a nanowire by trial and error, but because of the computational insights we were able to get there much more quickly.”

    The researchers will use a software package that Peterson’s research group developed previously as a starting point. The software, called AMP (Atomistic Machine-learning Package) is open-source and already widely used in the simulation community, Peterson says.

    The Department of Energy grant will bring atomic-scale simulations — and the insights they produce — to bear on ever larger and more complex simulations. And while the work under the grant will focus on electrocatalysis, the tools the team develops should be widely applicable to other types of material and chemical simulations.

    Peterson is hopeful that the investment that the federal government is making in machine learning will be repaid by making better use of valuable computing resources.

    “Modern supercomputers cost millions of dollars to build, and simulation time on them is precious,” Peterson said. “If we’re able to free up time on those machines for additional simulations to be run, that translates into vastly increased return-on-investment for those machines. It’s real money.”

    See the full article here .

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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Welcome to Brown

    Brown U Robinson Hall
    Located in historic Providence, Rhode Island and founded in 1764, Brown University is the seventh-oldest college in the United States. Brown is an independent, coeducational Ivy League institution comprising undergraduate and graduate programs, plus the Alpert Medical School, School of Public Health, School of Engineering, and the School of Professional Studies.

    With its talented and motivated student body and accomplished faculty, Brown is a leading research university that maintains a particular commitment to exceptional undergraduate instruction.

    Brown’s vibrant, diverse community consists of 6,000 undergraduates, 2,000 graduate students, 400 medical school students, more than 5,000 summer, visiting and online students, and nearly 700 faculty members. Brown students come from all 50 states and more than 100 countries.

    Undergraduates pursue bachelor’s degrees in more than 70 concentrations, ranging from Egyptology to cognitive neuroscience. Anything’s possible at Brown—the university’s commitment to undergraduate freedom means students must take responsibility as architects of their courses of study.

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  • richardmitnick 3:07 pm on August 31, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Brown University, , Ethnobotany, Rhode Island School of Design, Rhode Island’s flora, RISD’s Edna Lawrence Nature Lab, ,   

    From University of Rhode Island: “Plant life: RISD SURFs visualize flora of RI salt marshes” 

    From University of Rhode Island

    8.30.18
    Shaun Kirby

    1
    Nadia Lahlaf and Shannon Kingsley show the plant pressing and visuals they produced during the SURF program this summer at RISD’s Edna Lawrence Nature Lab.

    When Shannon Kingsley and Nadia Lahlaf first arrived at the Rhode Island School of Design’s Nature Lab in May, their goal was clear: produce a tangible product highlighting how climate change has affected plant life in Rhode Island’s salt marshes since the 1950s.

    Getting there, however, was a road left wide-open by mentors Dr. Timothy Whitfeld, assistant professor of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology at Brown, and the Nature Lab’s Jennifer Bissonnette and Lucia Monge.

    “They told us from the start that it was up to us to find our own direction and decide what kind of concrete thing we would be producing,” explains Lahlaf, a fourth year student from Billerica, Mass. earning a dual degree in Computer Science and Illustration from Brown and RISD. “Every day we had a different thing on the agenda, and our experiences were about finding what was interesting to us and then figuring out how to convey the information about salt marsh ecology that seemed important.”

    Kingsley, a sophomore studying English and Ethnobotany at Brown, and Lahlaf some days collected plant specimens from salt marshes at Tillinghast Place, a RISD satellite campus located alongside the Providence River.

    On others, they were examining plant species at Brown’s Herbarium or pressing plant leaves and taking highly detailed images with the Nature Lab’s “macro pod,” a camera which takes nearly 65 images of an item over time and compresses them into one to create the highest resolution possible.

    After about six weeks, the SURF students had to decide upon the medium through which they would showcase their research: an illustrated book detailing specific plant species and how they had been impacted by climate changes in Narragansett Bay.

    “As an Ethnobotany major, I have taken a lot of classes about the history of science and people’s uses of plants for medicine and religious rituals,” says Kingsley, a North Attleboro, Mass. native, about her interest in the SURF project. “We can learn a lot by combining humanities and sciences.”

    2
    Nadia Lahlaf, a dual degree student in Computer Science and Illustration from Brown and RISD, explains their project at the 11th annual SURF Conference on July 27.

    Both SURFs were able to explore their educational interests through creating the booklet. While Kingsley took charge of writing compelling, scientifically accurate copy about Rhode Island’s flora, Lahlaf put her creative juices to work by organizing the book’s plant images and developing salt marsh illustrations.

    “We have different strengths and backgrounds, and the biggest challenge was finding our own direction,” emphasizes Lahlaf. “I really enjoy the problem solving aspect of computer science, and drawing and painting are things I have done since I was little.”

    “I love to read and write, it is really as simple as that,” adds Kingsley.

    Although Kingsley Lahlaf are unsure of what they will do after graduation, the SURFs have produced an informative and visually compelling product, the fruit of a successful 10-week partnership.

    “We did everything collaboratively, which was an awesome experience,” says Lahlaf as Kingsley laughs in agreement.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Rhode Island is a diverse and dynamic community whose members are connected by a common quest for knowledge.

    As a major research university defined by innovation and big thinking, URI offers its undergraduate, graduate, and professional students distinctive educational opportunities designed to meet the global challenges of today’s world and the rapidly evolving needs of tomorrow. That’s why we’re here.

    The University of Rhode Island, commonly referred to as URI, is the flagship public research as well as the land grant and sea grant university for the state of Rhode Island. Its main campus is located in the village of Kingston in southern Rhode Island. Additionally, smaller campuses include the Feinstein Campus in Providence, the Rhode Island Nursing Education Center in Providence, the Narragansett Bay Campus in Narragansett, and the W. Alton Jones Campus in West Greenwich.

    The university offers bachelor’s degrees, master’s degrees, and doctoral degrees in 80 undergraduate and 49 graduate areas of study through eight academic colleges. These colleges include Arts and Sciences, Business Administration, Education and Professional Studies, Engineering, Health Sciences, Environment and Life Sciences, Nursing and Pharmacy. Another college, University College for Academic Success, serves primarily as an advising college for all incoming undergraduates and follows them through their first two years of enrollment at URI.

    The University enrolled about 13,600 undergraduate and 3,000 graduate students in Fall 2015.[2] U.S. News & World Report classifies URI as a tier 1 national university, ranking it tied for 161st in the U.S.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:16 pm on July 18, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Brown University, , , Meenakshi Narain, , , ,   

    From Brown University: Women in STEM- “Brown physicist elected to represent U.S. in Large Hadron Collider experiment” Meenakshi Narain 

    Brown University
    From Brown University

    July 18, 2018
    Kevin Stacey
    kevin_stacey@brown.edu
    401-863-3766

    1
    Meenakshi Narain

    Meenakshi Narain will lead the collaboration board for U.S. institutions participating the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider, an experiment pushing the frontiers of modern particle physics.

    Brown University physics professor Meenakshi Narain has been tapped to chair the collaboration board of U.S. institutions in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, one of two large-scale experiments happening at the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator headquartered in Geneva.

    CERN CMS Higgs Event


    CERN/CMS Detector

    The CMS experiment is an international collaboration of 4,000 particle physicists, engineers, computer scientists, technicians and students from approximately 200 institutes and universities around the world. With more than 1,200 participants, the U.S. CMS collaboration is the largest national group in the global experiment. As collaboration board chair, Narain will represent U.S. institutions within the broader collaboration, as well as with U.S. funding agencies. The board also plays a key role in shaping the vision and direction of the U.S. collaboration.

    “I’m honored that my colleagues from the 50 U.S. institutions that collaborate with the CMS Experiment have chosen me to represent them,” Narain said. “I see this position as an opportunity to help U.S. CMS to become a more inclusive community and to enable all young scientists to contribute to their full potential to CMS and find rewarding career opportunities in academia and industry.”

    Narain and other Brown physicists working with the CMS experiment played key roles in the discovery in 2012 of the Higgs Boson, which at the time was the final missing piece in the Standard Model of particle physics. After the Higgs, the CMS experiment has been searching for particles beyond the Standard Model, including a potential candidate particle for dark matter, the mysterious stuff thought to account for a majority of matter in the universe.

    Narain says part of her job is to maintain the research synergy created by the numerous U.S. scientists and institutions involved in the collaboration as they analyze data from the collider’s latest run. At the same time, the experiment must also prepare for the next stage of the Large Hadron Collider program slated to start around 2026. The next stage involves beam intensities five times higher the current level and 10 times more data than has been acquired to date. That will require parts of the CMS detector to be rebuilt.

    “We need the resources to maintain the detector during the current run as well as to start building the upgrades,” Narain said. “I will work with funding agencies to communicate what we’ll need to both maintain our involvement in the data analysis and play a leading role in the upgrade of the detector.”

    Narain says that as the first woman to chair the collaboration board, she plans to work toward cultivating more diversity in what is currently the largest physics collaboration in the U.S.

    “With this comes the opportunity to promote women and other underrepresented minorities to have the opportunity to develop their careers to their fullest potential,” she said. “I hope that I will be able to improve our community in the U.S. and in CMS in general to be more inclusive during my two-year term.”

    Narain joined the Brown faculty in 2007 and has worked at the Large Hadron Collider together with the Brown team that includes professors David Cutts, Ulrich Heintz and Greg Landsberg. She was also a member of the DZero experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, where she played a prominent role in the discoveries of the top quark and the anti-top quark, two fundamental constituents of matter. She is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the author of more than 500 journal articles.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Welcome to Brown

    Brown U Robinson Hall
    Located in historic Providence, Rhode Island and founded in 1764, Brown University is the seventh-oldest college in the United States. Brown is an independent, coeducational Ivy League institution comprising undergraduate and graduate programs, plus the Alpert Medical School, School of Public Health, School of Engineering, and the School of Professional Studies.

    With its talented and motivated student body and accomplished faculty, Brown is a leading research university that maintains a particular commitment to exceptional undergraduate instruction.

    Brown’s vibrant, diverse community consists of 6,000 undergraduates, 2,000 graduate students, 400 medical school students, more than 5,000 summer, visiting and online students, and nearly 700 faculty members. Brown students come from all 50 states and more than 100 countries.

    Undergraduates pursue bachelor’s degrees in more than 70 concentrations, ranging from Egyptology to cognitive neuroscience. Anything’s possible at Brown—the university’s commitment to undergraduate freedom means students must take responsibility as architects of their courses of study.

     
  • richardmitnick 6:38 pm on June 5, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A regular quantum computer — one without non-Abelian anyons — would require error correction, Abelian anyons behave more or less like conventional fermions, Brown University, But an even more powerful computational platform would come from what’s known as parafermions which have been theorized but not yet shown to exist. Perhaps their existence could also be proven with , Eliminate error correction which is a major stumbling block in the development of quantum computers, For one useful quantum bit of information you need multiple additional quantum bits to correct errors that arise from random fluctuations in the system, Non-Abelian anyons are for lack of a better way of saying it completely insane. They have very strange properties that could be used in quantum computing or more specifically for what’s known as top, Non-Abelian anyons- quantum quasi-particles that retain a “memory” of their relative positions in the past, , Quantum Hall liquid, This work suggests that a particular entity known as a Majorana particle is at work in the particular system that we studied. And that suggests that a Majorana-based quantum computer is possible., topological quantum computing — which requires the presence of non-Abelian anyons — is unique in that it doesn’t need error correction to make the quantum bits useful,   

    From Brown University: “New research hints at ‘insane’ particles useful in quantum computing” 

    Brown University
    From Brown University

    June 5, 2018
    Kevin Stacey
    kevin_stacey@brown.edu

    1
    Quantum heat. An image of the experimental setup used to produce evidence of strange quasi-particles called non-Abelian anyons.
    A new measurement of heat conduction in an exotic state of matter points to the presence of strange particles that could be useful in quantum computers.

    In a paper published this week in the journal Nature, a research team including a Brown University physicist has characterized how heat is conducted in a matter state known as a quantum Hall liquid, in which electrons are confined to two dimensions. The findings suggest the presence of non-Abelian anyons, quantum quasi-particles that retain a “memory” of their relative positions in the past. Theorists have suggested that the ability of these particles to retain information could be useful in developing ultra-fast quantum computing systems that don’t require error correction, which is a major stumbling block in the development of quantum computers.

    The research was led by an experimental group at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel.

    Weizmann Institute Campus


    Dmitri Feldman, a professor of physics at Brown, was part of the research group. He discussed the findings in an interview.

    Q: Could you explain more about what you and your colleagues found?

    A: We were looking at thermal conductance — which simply means the flow of heat from a higher temperature to a lower temperature — in what’s known as a 5/2 quantum Hall liquid. Quantum Hall liquids are not ‘liquids’ in the conventional sense of the word. The term refers to the behavior of electrons inside certain materials when the electrons become confined in two dimensions in a strong magnetic field.

    What we found was that the quantized heat conductance — meaning a fundamental unit of conductance — in this system is fractional. In other words, the value was not an integer, and that has interesting implications for what’s happening in the system. When the quantum thermal conductance is not an integer, it means that quasi-particles known as non-Abelian anyons are present in this system.

    Q: Can you explain more about non-Abelian anyons?

    A: In the Standard Model of particle physics, there are only two categories of particles: fermions and bosons.

    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    Standard Model of Particle Physics from Symmetry Magazine

    That’s all there is in the world we experience on a daily basis. But in two-dimensional systems like quantum Hall liquids, there can be other types of particles known as anyons. Generally speaking, there are two types of anyons: Abelian anyons and non-Abelian anyons. Abelian anyons behave more or less like conventional fermions, but non-Abelian anyons are, for lack of a better way of saying it, completely insane. They have very strange properties that could be used in quantum computing, or more specifically, for what’s known as topological quantum memory.

    Q: What’s the connection between non-Abelian anyons and quantum computing?

    A: A regular quantum computer — one without non-Abelian anyons — would require error correction. For one useful quantum bit of information, you need multiple additional quantum bits to correct errors that arise from random fluctuations in the system. That’s extremely demanding and a big problem in quantum computing. But topological quantum computing — which requires the presence of non-Abelian anyons — is unique in that it doesn’t need error correction to make the quantum bits useful. That’s because in a non-Abelian system, you can produce states that are completely indistinguishable locally, but globally the states are completely different. So you can have random perturbations of these local quantum numbers, but it won’t change the global quantum numbers, which means the information is safe.

    Q: Where does this line of research go from here?

    A: This work suggests that a particular entity known as a Majorana particle is at work in the particular system that we studied. And that suggests that a Majorana-based quantum computer is possible. But an even more powerful computational platform would come from what’s known as parafermions, which have been theorized but not yet shown to exist. Perhaps their existence could also be proven with similar experimental tools in the future.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition
    Welcome to Brown

    Brown U Robinson Hall
    Located in historic Providence, Rhode Island and founded in 1764, Brown University is the seventh-oldest college in the United States. Brown is an independent, coeducational Ivy League institution comprising undergraduate and graduate programs, plus the Alpert Medical School, School of Public Health, School of Engineering, and the School of Professional Studies.

    With its talented and motivated student body and accomplished faculty, Brown is a leading research university that maintains a particular commitment to exceptional undergraduate instruction.

    Brown’s vibrant, diverse community consists of 6,000 undergraduates, 2,000 graduate students, 400 medical school students, more than 5,000 summer, visiting and online students, and nearly 700 faculty members. Brown students come from all 50 states and more than 100 countries.

    Undergraduates pursue bachelor’s degrees in more than 70 concentrations, ranging from Egyptology to cognitive neuroscience. Anything’s possible at Brown—the university’s commitment to undergraduate freedom means students must take responsibility as architects of their courses of study.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:15 pm on April 28, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Brown University, , Experiments using a high-powered projectile cannon show how impacts by water-rich asteroids can deliver surprising amounts of water to planetary bodies, The findings could have significant implications for understanding the presence of water on Earth, The origin and transportation of water and volatiles is one of the big questions in planetary science, Water delivered to Earth by steroids?   

    From Brown University: “Projectile cannon experiments show how asteroids can deliver water” 

    Brown University
    Brown University

    April 25, 2018
    Kevin Stacey
    kevin_stacey@brown.edu
    401-863-3766

    1
    Special delivery. Experiments using a high-powered projectile cannon suggest that asteroids can deliver surprising amounts of water when they smash into planetary bodies.
    Schultz Lab / Brown University

    New research shows that a surprising amount of water survives simulated asteroid impacts, a finding that may help explain how asteroids deposit water throughout the solar system.

    Experiments using a high-powered projectile cannon show how impacts by water-rich asteroids can deliver surprising amounts of water to planetary bodies. The research, by scientists from Brown University, could shed light on how water got to the early Earth and help account for some trace water detections on the Moon and elsewhere.

    “The origin and transportation of water and volatiles is one of the big questions in planetary science,” said Terik Daly, a postdoctoral researcher at Johns Hopkins University who led the research while completing his Ph.D. at Brown. “These experiments reveal a mechanism by which asteroids could deliver water to moons, planets and other asteroids. It’s a process that started while the solar system was forming and continues to operate today.”

    The research is published in Science Advances.

    The source of Earth’s water remains something of a mystery. It was long thought that the planets of the inner solar system formed bone dry and that water was delivered later by icy comet impacts. While that idea remains a possibility, isotopic measurements have shown that Earth’s water is similar to water bound up in carbonaceous asteroids. That suggests asteroids could also have been a source for Earth’s water, but how such delivery might have worked isn’t well understood.

    “Impact models tell us that impactors should completely devolatilize at many of the impact speeds common in the solar system, meaning all the water they contain just boils off in the heat of the impact,” said Pete Schultz, co-author of the paper and a professor in Brown’s Department of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences. “But nature has a tendency to be more interesting than our models, which is why we need to do experiments.”

    2
    Hypervelocity impact experiments, like the one shown here, reveal key clues about how impacts deliver water to asteroids, moons, and planets. In this experiment, a water-rich impactor collides with a bone-dry pumice target at around 11,200 miles per hour. The target was designed to rupture partway through the experiment in order to capture materials for analysis. This high-speed video, taken at 130,000 frames per second, slows down the action, which in real time is over in less than a second.

    For the study, Daly and Schultz used marble-sized projectiles with a composition similar to carbonaceous chondrites, meteorites derived from ancient, water-rich asteroids. Using the Vertical Gun Range at the NASA Ames Research Center, the projectiles were blasted at a bone-dry target material made of pumice powder at speeds around 5 kilometers per second (more than 11,000 miles per hour). The researchers then analyzed the post-impact debris with an armada of analytical tools, looking for signs of any water trapped within it.

    They found that at impact speeds and angles common throughout the solar system, as much as 30 percent of the water indigenous in the impactor was trapped in post-impact debris. Most of that water was trapped in impact melt, rock that’s melted by the heat of the impact and then re-solidifies as it cools, and in impact breccias, rocks made of a mish-mash of impact debris welded together by the heat of the impact.

    The research gives some clues about the mechanism through which the water was retained. As parts of the impactor are destroyed by the heat of the collision, a vapor plume forms that includes water that was inside the impactor.

    “The impact melt and breccias are forming inside that plume,” Schultz said. “What we’re suggesting is that the water vapor gets ingested into the melts and breccias as they form. So even though the impactor loses its water, some of it is recaptured as the melt rapidly quenches.”

    3
    Samples of impact glasses created during an impact experiment. In impact experiments, these glasses capture surprisingly large amounts of water delivered by water-rich, asteroid-like impactors.

    The findings could have significant implications for understanding the presence of water on Earth. Carbonaceous asteroids are thought to be some of the earliest objects in the solar system — the primordial boulders from which the planets were built. As these water-rich asteroids bashed into the still-forming Earth, it’s possible that a process similar to what Daly and Schultz found enabled water to be incorporated in the planet’s formation process, they say. Such a process could also help explain the presence of water within the Moon’s mantle, as research has suggested that lunar water has an asteroid origin as well.

    The work could also explain later water activity in the solar system. Water found on the Moon’s surface in the rays of the crater Tycho could have been derived from the Tycho impactor, Schultz says. Asteroid-derived water might also account for ice deposits detected in the polar regions of Mercury.

    “The point is that this gives us a mechanism for how water can stick around after these asteroid impacts,” Schultz said. “And it shows why experiments are so important because this is something that models have missed.”

    The research was supported by NASA (NNX13AB75G), the National Science Foundation (DGE-1058262) and the NASA Rhode Island Space Grant (NNX15AI06H).

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    STEM Icon

    Stem Education Coalition
    Welcome to Brown

    Brown U Robinson Hall
    Located in historic Providence, Rhode Island and founded in 1764, Brown University is the seventh-oldest college in the United States. Brown is an independent, coeducational Ivy League institution comprising undergraduate and graduate programs, plus the Alpert Medical School, School of Public Health, School of Engineering, and the School of Professional Studies.

    With its talented and motivated student body and accomplished faculty, Brown is a leading research university that maintains a particular commitment to exceptional undergraduate instruction.

    Brown’s vibrant, diverse community consists of 6,000 undergraduates, 2,000 graduate students, 400 medical school students, more than 5,000 summer, visiting and online students, and nearly 700 faculty members. Brown students come from all 50 states and more than 100 countries.

    Undergraduates pursue bachelor’s degrees in more than 70 concentrations, ranging from Egyptology to cognitive neuroscience. Anything’s possible at Brown—the university’s commitment to undergraduate freedom means students must take responsibility as architects of their courses of study.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:39 am on April 23, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: $100 million gift to Brown will name Carney Institute for Brain Science which it is hoped will advance discoveries and cures, , , , Brown University,   

    From Brown University: “$100 million gift to Brown will name Carney Institute for Brain Science, advance discoveries and cures” 

    Brown University
    Brown University

    [This post is dedicated to EJM and EBM]

    April 18, 2018
    No writer credit

    Brown U Carney Institute for Brain Science

    No image credit.

    A new $100 million gift to Brown University’s brain science institute from alumnus Robert J. Carney and Nancy D. Carney will drive an ambitious agenda to quicken the pace of scientific discovery and help find cures to some of the world’s most persistent and devastating diseases, such as ALS and Alzheimer’s.

    Carney graduated in Brown’s undergraduate Class of 1961, is a long-serving Brown trustee, and is founder and chairman of Vacation Publications Inc. Previously, he was a founder of Jet Capital Corp., a financial advisory firm, and Texas Air Corp., which owned Continental Airlines and several other airlines. Nancy Doerr Carney is a former television news producer.

    The Carneys’ gift changes the name of the Brown Institute for Brain Science to the Robert J. and Nancy D. Carney Institute for Brain Science, and establishes the institute as one of the best-endowed university brain institutes in the country. Brown President Christina Paxson said the $100 million donation — one of the largest single gifts in Brown’s history — will help establish the University as a leader in devising treatments and technologies to address brain-related disease and injury.

    “This is a signal moment when scientists around the world are poised to solve some of the most important puzzles of the human brain,” Paxson said. “This extraordinarily generous gift will give Brown the resources to be at the forefront of this drive for new knowledge and therapies. We know that discoveries in brain science in the years to come will dramatically reshape human capabilities, and Brown will be a leader in this critical endeavor.”

    The gift will allow the Carney Institute to accelerate hiring of leading faculty and postdoctoral scholars in fields related to brain science, supply seed funding for high-impact new research, and also fund essential new equipment and infrastructure in technology-intensive areas of exploration.

    Core areas of research at the institute include work on brain-computer interfaces to aid patients with spinal injury and paralysis; innovative advances in computational neuroscience to address behavior and mood disorders; and research into mechanisms of cell death as part of efforts to identify therapies for neurodegenerative diseases that include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer’s.

    Carney said he is excited that he and his wife are making their gift at a time when brain science has emerged as one of the fastest growing programs at Brown, both in terms of research and student interest.

    “Nancy and I have long been impressed by the phenomenal research and education of bright young minds that we see at Brown,” Carney said. “We are excited to see the brain institute continue to grow and serve society in ways that are vitally important.”


    VIDEO: Brain Science at Brown. No video credit.

    With up to 45 labs across campus engaged in research at any given time — and 130 affiliated professors in departments ranging from neurology and neurosurgery to engineering and computer science — Brown’s brain science institute already has built a reputation for studying the brain at all scales, said Diane Lipscombe, the director of the institute since 2016 and a professor of neuroscience. From studying genes and circuits, to healthy behavior and psychiatric disorder, the institute’s faculty contribute expertise to routinely produce insights and tools to see, map, understand and fix problems in the nervous system.

    In addition, as the brain institute’s work grows in its breadth, undergraduates continue to take on key roles as researchers, reflecting a distinctive aspect of Brown’s undergraduate curriculum. About a quarter of all Brown undergraduates take Introduction to Neuroscience, demonstrating the excitement in the field.

    “This is a transformative moment that is going to catapult Brown and our brain science institute,” said Lipscombe, who is president-elect of the Society for Neuroscience, the field’s international professional organization. “We will be able to crack the neural codes, push discoveries forward and address some of the largest challenges facing humanity, at the same time training the next generation of brain scientists.”

    Investments like the gift from the Carneys are the “lifeblood to driving innovation and discovery,” Lipscombe said.

    The Carneys’ gift is part of Brown University’s $3-billion BrownTogether comprehensive campaign, which has raised $1.7 billion to date. In total, $148 million has been raised to support research and education in brain science. The gifts support one of the core research priorities defined in Brown’s Building on Distinction strategic plan: understanding the human brain. The study of the brain and its relationship to cognition, behavior and disease is often described as the “last frontier” in biomedical science.

    Leading in research

    The Carney Institute had its start at Brown as the Brain Science Program in 1999, later becoming the Brown Institute for Brain Science. The scope of its work has increased dramatically in recent years, and the institute now has affiliated faculty spanning 19 academic departments, including clinical departments in the Warren Alpert Medical School.

    Since 2011, core faculty members have led projects with more than $116 million in grant funding from federal and other sources. Many of the institute’s researchers have been recognized as pioneering leaders, winning top national awards in recent years. This includes faculty such as Eric Morrow, associate professor of biology and psychiatry, a 2017 winner of a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.

    3
    Faculty and Student Voices

    Brown’s brain scientists talk about the brain as ‘final frontier’

    We asked researchers at Brown what excites them about brain science, why they chose to conduct research here, and how Brown’s unique approach to collaborative problem-solving is unlocking and explaining the complexity of the brain.

    Full story here.

    The funding from the Carneys’ gift will help support what has become a signature program of Brown’s brain institute over the past decade: cutting-edge efforts to help those who have lost the ability to move and communicate through paralysis to regain those abilities. Research into brain-computer interfaces, part of the BrainGate project, uses tiny micro-electrode arrays implanted into the brain.

    “This is the area of research that said to us, ‘Look what can be done if you pull groups together from a wide range of academic disciplines within and beyond the life sciences to take an integrative approach to big, challenging questions,’” Lipscombe said. “The breakthroughs we have seen in confronting paralysis could not have happened without the integrative approach that is distinctive to the way Brown approaches brain science.”

    The study of neurodegenerative diseases and the growing research field of computational neuroscience are among the other areas in the institute that are poised for further expansion.

    “The general challenge is that, despite 20 or 30 years of focused effort by pharmaceutical companies and labs, we still don’t know why neurons die in neurodegenerative disorders,” Lipscombe said. “ALS is part of a group of disorders that takes people’s lives way too early. We need more research into the basic mechanisms that lead to cell death.”

    Computational neuroscience is an increasingly influential field that employs mathematical models to understand the brain and develops quantitative approaches to diagnosing and treating complex brain disorders.

    Scientists working in computational psychiatry at Brown are thinking about how they can use their work modeling the brain to address psychiatric disease, such as depression.

    “And when you are catalyzing innovative research in areas such as this by bringing together great faculty from different disciplines, having a pool of seed funding is critical to move from exciting ideas to research and discovery,” Lipscombe said. “From there, federal funding follows. Now we can say we have the people, resources and the new research space to support big ideas to address key problems in brain science.”

    4
    A new technology called “trans-Tango” allows scientists to exploit the connections between pairs of neurons to make discoveries in neuroscience. Developing the system required decades of work and a dedicated team of brain scientists at Brown. No image credit.

    The Carney Institute will move into expanded new quarters at 164 Angell Street early next year, after extensive renovation of the building that formerly housed Brown administrative offices. The building will give the institute state-of-the-art shared lab spaces that will further promote collaboration among teams from cognitive neuroscience, computational neuroscience and neuroengineering. These scientists are working on processes such as decoding neural signals, developing new ways to use neural signals in assistive technology, and mining neural data for more accurate predictors of psychiatric illnesses.

    The new location will be in the same building as Brown’s Data Science Initiative and directly across the street from the new home of Brown’s Jonathan M. Nelson Center for Entrepreneurship, stimulating opportunities for collective work that will support discoveries and their impact on society.

    Inspired giving

    The gift from the Carneys is one of three single gifts of $100 million to Brown in its 254-year history. Brown announced in 2004 that New York businessman Sidney E. Frank, a member of the Brown Class of 1942, had pledged $100 million for undergraduate financial aid. A $100 million gift from the Warren Alpert Foundation announced by Brown in 2007 funded research, faculty recruitment, a new building and named Brown’s Warren Alpert Medical School.

    5
    Brown President Christina Paxson (standing, left) joined Robert J. Carney and Nancy D. Carney to celebrate the couple’s generous gift at an event in Houston on April 18. No image credit.

    This wonderful gift from the Carneys is one of the most significant in the long, distinguished history of Brown University,” Brown Chancellor Samuel M. Mencoff said. “The gift represents a substantial long-term investment in what Brown does exceptionally well — bringing together the people and expertise to solve problems and benefit society.”

    The Carneys said they were inspired to make their gift by many previous positive experiences with Brown, as well as the opportunities they saw for the University in brain science.

    “Brown has meant so much to Nancy and me,” Carney said. “We feel extremely fortunate to be able to help expand Brown’s brain institute and carry forward such a significant priority for the University.”

    The Carneys, of Houston, are long-time supporters of Brown, including as the donors of two endowed professorships — the Robert J. and Nancy D. Carney University Professor of Economics and the Robert J. and Nancy D. Carney Assistant Professor of Neuroscience. This spring, Carney will finish his third term as a trustee on the Corporation of Brown University. His volunteerism includes having served as the co-chair of the 50th reunion gift committee for the Class of 1961.

    Former Brown Chancellor Thomas J. Tisch, currently a member of the Corporation’s Board of Fellows, said about the Carneys, “They have always done things worth doing, quietly and with modesty and deep intelligence. Bob and Nancy have a great combined sense of caring and commitment to things important.”

    As part of a celebration in Houston coinciding with the announcement of the Carneys’ gift to the brain science institute, Paxson on behalf of the University conferred honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degrees on both of the Carneys.

    The citation read, in part: “Through your steadfast support of Brown’s ambitions to expand its reach through excellence in teaching and research in particular, you have played a major role in bolstering its reputation as a world-class learning institution.”

    6
    After implantation with the BrainGate brain-computer interface (which originated in a Brown research laboratory) and stimulative electrodes in his arm, a Cleveland man with quadriplegia was able to again move his arm to eat and drink. Cleveland FES Center.

    See the full article here .

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    Welcome to Brown

    Brown U Robinson Hall
    Located in historic Providence, Rhode Island and founded in 1764, Brown University is the seventh-oldest college in the United States. Brown is an independent, coeducational Ivy League institution comprising undergraduate and graduate programs, plus the Alpert Medical School, School of Public Health, School of Engineering, and the School of Professional Studies.

    With its talented and motivated student body and accomplished faculty, Brown is a leading research university that maintains a particular commitment to exceptional undergraduate instruction.

    Brown’s vibrant, diverse community consists of 6,000 undergraduates, 2,000 graduate students, 400 medical school students, more than 5,000 summer, visiting and online students, and nearly 700 faculty members. Brown students come from all 50 states and more than 100 countries.

    Undergraduates pursue bachelor’s degrees in more than 70 concentrations, ranging from Egyptology to cognitive neuroscience. Anything’s possible at Brown—the university’s commitment to undergraduate freedom means students must take responsibility as architects of their courses of study.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:11 am on March 26, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Big wage gap between male and female R.I. doctors, Brown University, , Providence Journal,   

    From Brown University via Providence Journal: Women in STEM -“My Turn: Katherine M. Sharkey: Big wage gap between male and female R.I. doctors” 

    Brown University
    Brown University

    1

    Providence Journal

    Mar 21, 2018

    2
    Katherine M. Sharkey, M.D.

    “I grew up in Rhode Island. I am always thrilled when Providence makes it onto a list of the top five hippest cities or our beaches are singled out as the most beautiful in the world.

    The other day, though, Little Rhody made it onto a Top Five list of more dubious distinction: a national survey of 65,000 physicians showed that Providence-area women physicians have the fourth-largest gender wage gap in the nation — at a whopping 31 percent difference between men and women — and the fifth-lowest average salary for female physicians.

    Translated into dollars and cents, this means that a woman physician in Rhode Island earns about $110,000 less per year than her male counterparts. Added up over the course of a career, the compensation difference is staggering.

    Many possible explanations for the lack of gender equity in physician compensation have been put forth.

    One hypothesis is that male physicians are in higher-paying specialties than women. The data, however, do not support this explanation. Indeed, although women in more lucrative specialties have higher salaries than the average women physician’s salary, the gap is even wider in higher paying specialties.

    Perhaps then, male physicians have higher salaries because they do a better job than women? Again, the data do not support this explanation. A 2017 study in the Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine showed that patients who were cared for by women physicians had lower death rates and were less likely to be readmitted to the hospital than patients treated by a male physician.

    Finally, there is a theory that women don’t get raises because they simply do not ask. Once again, the data do not bear this out. A 2017 study of 70,000 people by LeanIn.Org and McKinsey & Co showed that women do ask, but they are denied more frequently than men and are viewed more negatively after broaching the issue of a raise.

    While discussing these data with a male colleague, he responded, “There is only so much money in the system, so if women doctors get paid more, then men will end up getting paid less.” My reply: “That is exactly what women experience. It doesn’t feel good, does it?”

    Now is the time to call this gender gap in pay — in medicine, science, and other industries — exactly what it is. The people in power want to hold onto that power and are reluctant to give it up. And often they are indignant when they are confronted about the issue, as if to say, “Wait a minute, we’ve been so generous and let you in to our boys’ club, and now you have the nerve to ask to be treated equally?”

    Some may wonder why this issue matters, and here the data are clear. Paying women less hurts working families and perpetuates the structural sexism and racism that has advantaged men and white people across occupations and industries for generations. Men who accept this gap in compensation for their female colleagues are complicit in prolonging these inequities.

    While it is true that no male physician today is responsible for the sexism and racism in our field, it is time for them to join the fight to end these disparities. As Maya Angelou said “Do the best you can until you know better. Then when you know better, do better.”

    What can be done? First, both male and female physicians must demand transparency with regard to salaries. Until we break the taboo of discussing money, and pay gap information is examined in the light of day, we cannot come up with solutions to divide the pot more equally.

    I also call upon my colleagues to support legislation, such as the Fair Pay Act currently before the General Assembly, that would make gender pay gaps illegal.”

    Katherine M. Sharkey, M.D., is associate professor of medicine and psychiatry and human behavior, and assistant dean for women in medicine and science at Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

    See the full article here.

    [Full disclosure: I have personal interests in what goes on at Brown Univertsity and in the State of Rhode Island.]

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    Welcome to Brown

    Brown U Robinson Hall
    Located in historic Providence, Rhode Island and founded in 1764, Brown University is the seventh-oldest college in the United States. Brown is an independent, coeducational Ivy League institution comprising undergraduate and graduate programs, plus the Alpert Medical School, School of Public Health, School of Engineering, and the School of Professional Studies.

    With its talented and motivated student body and accomplished faculty, Brown is a leading research university that maintains a particular commitment to exceptional undergraduate instruction.

    Brown’s vibrant, diverse community consists of 6,000 undergraduates, 2,000 graduate students, 400 medical school students, more than 5,000 summer, visiting and online students, and nearly 700 faculty members. Brown students come from all 50 states and more than 100 countries.

    Undergraduates pursue bachelor’s degrees in more than 70 concentrations, ranging from Egyptology to cognitive neuroscience. Anything’s possible at Brown—the university’s commitment to undergraduate freedom means students must take responsibility as architects of their courses of study.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:07 pm on February 13, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Brown University, , Lead-free perovskite material for solar cells   

    From Brown: “Researchers discover new lead-free perovskite material for solar cells” 

    Brown University
    Brown University

    February 13, 2018
    Kevin Stacey
    kevin_stacey@brown.edu
    401-863-3766

    1
    Getting the lead out
    Researchers have shown that titanium is an attractive choice to replace the toxic lead in the prevailing perovskite thin film solar cells. Padture Lab / Brown University

    A class of materials called perovskites has emerged as a promising alternative to silicon for making inexpensive and efficient solar cells. But for all their promise, perovskites are not without their downsides. Most contain lead, which is highly toxic, and include organic materials that are not particularly stable when exposed to the environment.

    Now a group of researchers at Brown University and University of Nebraska – Lincoln (UNL) has come up with a new titanium-based material for making lead-free, inorganic perovskite solar cells. In a paper published in the journal Joule (a new energy-focused sister journal to Cell), the researchers show that the material can be a good candidate, especially for making tandem solar cells — arrangements in which a perovskite cells are placed on top of silicon or another established material to boost the overall efficiency.

    “Titanium is an abundant, robust and biocompatible element that, until now, has been largely overlooked in perovskite research,” said the senior author of the new paper, Nitin Padture, the Otis E. Randall University Professor in Brown’s School of Engineering and director of Institute for Molecular and Nanoscale Innovation. “We showed that it’s possible to use titanium-based material to make thin-film perovskites and that the material has favorable properties for solar applications which can be tuned.”

    Interest in perovskites, a class of materials with a particular crystalline structure, for clean energy emerged in 2009, when they were shown to be able to convert sunlight into electricity. The first perovskite solar cells had a conversion efficiency of only about 4 percent, but that has quickly skyrocketed to near 23 percent, which rivals traditional silicon cells. And perovskites offer some intriguing advantages. They’re potentially cheaper to make than silicon cells, and they can be partially transparent, enabling new technologies like windows that generate electricity.

    “One of the big thrusts in perovskite research is to get away from lead-based materials and find new materials that are non-toxic and more stable,” Padture said. “Using computer simulations, our theoretician collaborators at UNL predicted [ACS Energy Letters] that a class of perovskites with cesium, titanium and a halogen component (bromine or/and iodine) was a good candidate. The next step was to actually make a solar cell using that material and test its properties, and that’s what we’ve done here.”

    The team made semi-transparent perovskite films that had bandgap — a measure of the energy level of photons the material can absorb — of 1.8 electron volts, which is considered to be ideal for tandem solar applications. The material had a conversion efficiency of 3.3 percent, which is well below that of lead-based cells, but a good start for an all-new material, the researchers say.

    “There’s a lot of engineering you can do to improve efficiency,” Yuanyuan Zhou, an assistant professor (research) of engineering at Brown and a study co-author. “We think this material has a lot of room to improve.”

    Min Chen, a Ph.D. student of materials science at Brown and the first author of the paper, used a high-temperature evaporation method to prepare the films, but says the team is investigating alternative methods. “We are also looking for new low-temperature and solvent-based methods to reduce the potential cost of cell fabrication,” he said.

    The research showed the material has several advantages over other lead-free perovskite alternatives. One contender for a lead-free perovskite is a material made largely from tin, which rusts easily when exposed to the environment. Titanium, on the hand, is rust-resistant. The titanium-perovskite also has an open-circuit voltage — a measure of the total voltage available from a solar cell — of over one volt. Other lead-free perovskites generally produce voltage smaller than 0.6 volts.

    “Open-circuit voltage is a key property that we can use to evaluate the potential of a solar cell material,” Padture said. “So, having such a high value at the outset is very promising.”

    The researchers say that material’s relatively large bandgap compared to silicon makes it a prime candidate to serve as the top layer in a tandem solar cell. The titanium-perovskite upper layer would absorb the higher-energy photons from the sun that the lower silicon layer can’t absorb because of its smaller bandgap. Meanwhile, lower energy photons would pass through the semi-transparent upper layer to be absorbed by the silicon, thereby increasing the cell’s total absorption capacity.

    “Tandem cells are the low-hanging fruit when it comes to perovskites,” Padture said. “We’re not looking to replace existing silicon technology just yet, but instead we’re looking to boost it. So if you can make a lead-free tandem cell that’s stable, then that’s a winner. This new material looks like a good candidate.”

    Other co-authors on the paper were Ming-Gang Ju, Alexander Carl, Yingxia Zong, Ronald Grimm, Jiajun Gu and Xiao Cheng Zeng. The research was supported by the National Science Foundation (OIA-1538893, DMR-1420645).

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Welcome to Brown

    Brown U Robinson Hall
    Located in historic Providence, Rhode Island and founded in 1764, Brown University is the seventh-oldest college in the United States. Brown is an independent, coeducational Ivy League institution comprising undergraduate and graduate programs, plus the Alpert Medical School, School of Public Health, School of Engineering, and the School of Professional Studies.

    With its talented and motivated student body and accomplished faculty, Brown is a leading research university that maintains a particular commitment to exceptional undergraduate instruction.

    Brown’s vibrant, diverse community consists of 6,000 undergraduates, 2,000 graduate students, 400 medical school students, more than 5,000 summer, visiting and online students, and nearly 700 faculty members. Brown students come from all 50 states and more than 100 countries.

    Undergraduates pursue bachelor’s degrees in more than 70 concentrations, ranging from Egyptology to cognitive neuroscience. Anything’s possible at Brown—the university’s commitment to undergraduate freedom means students must take responsibility as architects of their courses of study.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:38 pm on February 13, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Brown University, , Dark Matter May Be a Product of Gravitational Waves with a Twist,   

    From Brown University via Futurism: “Dark Matter May Be a Product of Gravitational Waves with a Twist” 

    Brown University
    Brown University

    futurism-bloc

    Futurism

    February 12, 2018
    Dom Galeon

    1
    Give us a wave! Right-handed or left-handed? Henze/NASA.

    It is said that the universe is made up of over 80 percent dark matter. What dark matter exactly is, however, has continued to elude experts. Theories abound, and a recent one suggests an entirely different approach involving gravitational waves.

    Breaking Symmetry

    For decades now, the exact composition of matter in the universe has baffled astronomers and physicists alike. It would seem that, given the basic assumptions about the origins of the universe, there is still no way to account for the “missing” dark matter that makes up for as much as a quarter of all matter in the universe. That’s why a trio of researchers has proposed a new dark matter theory, which could explain how dark matter came about.

    We know dark matter exists because we can observe how its gravity interacts with visible matter and electromagnetic radiation. There is something there, although we can’t yet see it, or put a finger on what it is.

    In the new study, Evan McDonough and Stephon Alexander from Brown University, with David Spergel from Princeton University, suggest that a mechanism involving gravitational waves — basically, ripples in the fabric of space and time, first theorized by Einstein and confirmed to exist only in 2016 — could explain how dark matter came to be.

    McDonough’s team used a model of the primordial universe that assumed the presence of particles called dark matter quarks, which aren’t the same as today’s dark matter. These dark quarks could have a property called chirality, referring to the way the particles twist, similar to neutrinos. The chirality or “handedness” of these dark quarks could have then interacted with the chiral gravitational waves in the early universe, producing the kind of dark matter we have today.

    Lighter and Wimpier

    Supposedly, as the universe settled into a cooler state, the interactions between chiral dark quarks and chiral gravitational waves resulted in a small excess of the former. These condensed into a quirky state of matter called a superfluid, which could still exist as a background field today. What we know to be dark matter are proposed as excitations of this background field, in the same way photons are excitations of an electromagnetic field.

    Interestingly, the dark matter particles resulting from such a model would be lighter than what’s known as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which many researchers believe could make up dark matter. There hasn’t been enough evidence to suggest, however, that this is the case. At any rate, being lighter than WIMPs would mean that dark matter wouldn’t interact with normal matter. “It’s much wimpier than WIMPs,” Spergel told New Scientist.

    As such, this dark matter theory could change how we should “look” for dark matter, as it wouldn’t be possible to see such particles directly at all. Unlike WIMPs, these particles would also be distributed more evenly across the galaxy. At the same time, the ratio of dark matter and normal matter wouldn’t necessarily be constant throughout the universe.

    Spergel explained, however, that this unique behavior could also provide us with a way to find dark matter. A more uniform, non-clustered distribution of dark matter could spill over into cosmic microwave background — the Big Bang’s residual radiation — and produce a unique signature. It could even affect the formation of larger-scale structures, like galaxy clusters. It could also, perhaps, have an effect on gravitational waves.

    In any case, any new dark matter theory is certainly a welcome one, as experts continue exploring other possibilities to account for dark matter — or even dismiss it altogether.

    “It’s a cool idea,” Stanford University’s Michael Peskin, who wasn’t part of the study, told New Scientist. “Right now, dark matter is completely open. Anything you can do that brings in a new idea into this area, it opens a door. And then you have to walk down that corridor and see whether there are interesting things there that suggest new experiments. This opens another door.”

    See the full article here .

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    Futurism covers the breakthrough technologies and scientific discoveries that will shape humanity’s future. Our mission is to empower our readers and drive the development of these transformative technologies towards maximizing human potential.

    Welcome to Brown

    Brown U Robinson Hall
    Located in historic Providence, Rhode Island and founded in 1764, Brown University is the seventh-oldest college in the United States. Brown is an independent, coeducational Ivy League institution comprising undergraduate and graduate programs, plus the Alpert Medical School, School of Public Health, School of Engineering, and the School of Professional Studies.

    With its talented and motivated student body and accomplished faculty, Brown is a leading research university that maintains a particular commitment to exceptional undergraduate instruction.

    Brown’s vibrant, diverse community consists of 6,000 undergraduates, 2,000 graduate students, 400 medical school students, more than 5,000 summer, visiting and online students, and nearly 700 faculty members. Brown students come from all 50 states and more than 100 countries.

    Undergraduates pursue bachelor’s degrees in more than 70 concentrations, ranging from Egyptology to cognitive neuroscience. Anything’s possible at Brown—the university’s commitment to undergraduate freedom means students must take responsibility as architects of their courses of study.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:17 pm on February 6, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Brown University, , , Researchers take terahertz data links around the bend   

    From Brown via phys.org: “Researchers take terahertz data links around the bend” 

    Brown University
    Brown University

    phys.org

    February 6, 2018
    Kevin Stacey

    1
    New research shows that non-line-of-site terahertz data links are possible because the waves can bounce off of walls without losing too much data. Credit: Mittleman lab / Brown University

    An off-the-wall new study by Brown University researchers shows that terahertz frequency data links can bounce around a room without dropping too much data. The results are good news for the feasibility of future terahertz wireless data networks, which have the potential to carry many times more data than current networks.

    Today’s cellular networks and Wi-Fi systems rely on microwave radiation to carry data, but the demand for more and more bandwidth is quickly becoming more than microwaves can handle. That has researchers thinking about transmitting data on higher-frequency terahertz waves, which have as much as 100 times the data-carrying capacity of microwaves. But terahertz communication technology is in its infancy. There’s much basic research to be done and plenty of challenges to overcome.

    For example, it’s been assumed that terahertz links would require a direct line of sight between transmitter and receiver. Unlike microwaves, terahertz waves are entirely blocked by most solid objects. And the assumption has been that it’s not possible to bounce a terahertz beam around—say, off a wall or two—to find a clear path around an object.

    “I think it’s fair to say that most people in the terahertz field would tell you that there would be too much power loss on those bounces, and so non-line-of-sight links are not going to be feasible in terahertz,” said Daniel Mittleman, a professor in Brown University’s School of Engineering and senior author of the new research published in APL Photonics. “But our work indicates that the loss is actually quite tolerable in some cases—quite a bit less than many people would have thought.”

    For the study, Mittleman and his colleagues bounced terahertz waves at four different frequencies off of a variety of objects—mirrors, metal doors, cinderblock walls and others—and measured the bit-error-rate of the data on the wave after the bounces. They showed that acceptable bit-error-rates were achievable with modest increases in signal power.

    “The concern had been that in order to make those bounces and not lose your data, you’d need more power than was feasible to generate,” Mittleman said. “We show that you don’t need as much power as you might think because the loss on the bounce is not as much as you’d think.”

    In one experiment, the researchers bounced a beam off two walls, enabling a successful link when transmitter and receiver were around a corner from each other, with no direct line-of-sight whatsoever. That’s a promising finding to support the idea of terahertz local-area networks.

    2
    In an effort to better understand the architecture needed for future terahertz data networks, Brown University researchers investigate how terahertz waves propagate and bounce off of objects both indoors and out. Credit: Mittleman Lab / Brown University

    “You can imagine a wireless network,” Mittleman explained, “where someone’s computer is connected to a terahertz router and there’s direct line-of-sight between the two, but then someone walks in between and blocks the beam. If you can’t find an alternative path, that link will be shut down. What we show is that you might still be able to maintain the link by searching for a new path that could involve bouncing off a wall somewhere. There are technologies today that can do that kind of path-finding for lower frequencies and there’s no reason they can’t be developed for terahertz.”

    The researchers also performed several outdoor experiments on terahertz wireless links. An experimental license issued by the FCC makes Brown the only place in the country where outdoor research can be done legally at these frequencies. The work is important because scientists are just beginning to understand the details of how terahertz data links behave in the elements, Mittleman says.

    Their study focused on what’s known as specular reflection. When a signal is transmitted over long distances, the waves fan out forming an ever-widening cone. As a result of that fanning out, a portion the waves will bounce off of the ground before reaching the receiver. That reflected radiation can interfere with the main signal unless a decoder compensates for it. It’s a well-understood phenomenon in microwave transmission. Mittleman and his colleagues wanted to characterize it in the terahertz range.

    They showed that this kind of interference indeed occurs in terahertz waves, but occurs to a lesser degree over grass compared to concrete. That’s likely because grass has lots of water, which tends to absorb terahertz waves. So over grass, the reflected beam is absorbed to a greater degree than concrete, leaving less of it to interfere with the main beam. That means that terahertz links over grass can be longer than those over concrete because there’s less interference to deal with, Mittleman says.

    “The specular reflection represents another possible path for your signal,” Mittleman said. “You can imagine that if your line-of-site path is blocked, you could think about bouncing it off the ground to get there.”

    Mittleman says that these kinds of basic studies on the nature of terahertz data transmission are critical for understanding how to design the network architecture for future terahertz data systems.

    See the full article here .

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

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    Welcome to Brown

    Brown U Robinson Hall
    Located in historic Providence, Rhode Island and founded in 1764, Brown University is the seventh-oldest college in the United States. Brown is an independent, coeducational Ivy League institution comprising undergraduate and graduate programs, plus the Alpert Medical School, School of Public Health, School of Engineering, and the School of Professional Studies.

    With its talented and motivated student body and accomplished faculty, Brown is a leading research university that maintains a particular commitment to exceptional undergraduate instruction.

    Brown’s vibrant, diverse community consists of 6,000 undergraduates, 2,000 graduate students, 400 medical school students, more than 5,000 summer, visiting and online students, and nearly 700 faculty members. Brown students come from all 50 states and more than 100 countries.

    Undergraduates pursue bachelor’s degrees in more than 70 concentrations, ranging from Egyptology to cognitive neuroscience. Anything’s possible at Brown—the university’s commitment to undergraduate freedom means students must take responsibility as architects of their courses of study.

     
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