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  • richardmitnick 10:37 am on May 29, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , BNL-Brookhaven National Lab, , ,   

    From Brookhaven National Lab: “RHIC and the EIC” 

    From Brookhaven National Lab

    The Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) at Brookhaven Lab will reuse key infrastructure from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and build on discoveries at RHIC and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). But the EIC will have new features that greatly expand our ability to explore the building blocks of visible matter.

    1
    RHIC and the EIC


    RHIC: Two ion accelerator/storage rings (inside RHIC tunnel).


    EIC: One ion accelerator/storage ring plus one electron accelerator ring and one electron storage ring.

    RHIC: Both rings carry ions (any atomic nuclei from protons—hydrogen nuclei—to uranium).

    EIC: One existing ion ring will carry ions (protons or other atomic nuclei) just like RHIC; a new electron storage ring will carry electrons after they have been accelerated by the new electron accelerator ring.

    2
    RHIC: Collides two beams of ions; the two beams can be the same (for example, proton-proton, gold-gold), or one can have protons and the other heavier ions (proton-gold).

    3
    EIC: Collides electrons with ions (protons or other atomic nuclei).


    RHIC: Recreates matter as it existed just after the Big Bang nearly 14 billion years ago.


    EIC: Probes the internal structure of nuclear matter as it exists today.

    RHIC: Collisions of heavy ions “melt” atomic nuclei to “set free” the quarks and gluons that make up the protons and neutrons of the nuclei; the result is a hot soup of these fundamental particles, a quark-gluon plasma (QGP)—a substance that filled the entire universe just after the Big Bang, before quarks and gluons coalesced to form protons and neutrons of ordinary matter.

    EIC: Electrons colliding with ions will exchange virtual photons with the nuclear particles to help scientists “see” inside the nuclear particles; the collisions will produce precision 3-D snapshots of the internal arrangement of quarks and gluons within ordinary nuclear matter; like a combination CT/MRI scanner for atoms.

    RHIC: Allows scientists to study what happens as the “early universe” QGP cools down to form composite particles (protons and neutrons).

    EIC: Electrons can “pick out” individual quarks from the protons that make up nuclei. Studying how those quarks recombine to form composite particles will inform our understanding of how today’s visible matter evolved from the QGP studied at RHIC.

    5
    RHIC: Offers insight into the strong nuclear force, the strongest but least-understood force in nature, which holds the quarks together within protons, neutrons, and nuclei.
    EIC: Will offer new insight into the strong nuclear force, including how it keeps quarks and gluons confined in ordinary matter and builds up the mass and spin of the building blocks of nuclear matter.

    6
    RHIC: Found indirect hints that gluons within nuclear matter multiply to reach a state of saturation, known as a color glass condensate (CGC), as they flit in and out of existence inside nuclear particles accelerated to near the speed of light.
    EIC: Will explore in detail and establish definitively whether a saturated state of gluons known as color glass condensate (CGC) exists at these energies. If the EIC finds the CGC, it will study the properties of this novel state of matter in detail by varying the energy and the nuclear ions colliding with the electrons.

    7
    RHIC: Can collide two beams of polarized protons (where particles’ spin orientations are aligned in a particular direction) to study proton spin—a property somewhat analogous to the way a toy top rotates on its axis, which establishes the particle’s angular momentum.

    8
    EIC: Both proton and electron beams will be polarized for precision studies of proton spin.

    8
    RHIC: Has revealed that gluons and a sea of quark-antiquark pairs make essential contributions to proton spin.
    EIC: Will precisely measure how much gluons, quarks, and a sea of quark-antiquark pairs contribute to proton spin to solve the longstanding physics puzzle (or spin crisis) created when physicists discovered that a proton’s three main constituent quarks cannot account for its total spin. It will also make measurements that directly reveal the rotational motion of quarks and gluons.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    BNL Campus

    Brookhaven campus

    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    BNL NSLS-II


    BNL NSLS II

    BNL RHIC Campus

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector

    BNL Phenix Detector

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:00 am on May 22, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "A Fresh Pair of Eyes On an Old Nuclear Physics Problem", BNL-Brookhaven National Lab, Brookhaven Lab Intern Pedro Rodríguez is working on simplifying a problem in nuclear physics that's over a half-century old., Rodríguez has been focusing on uranium-238 because of the large amount of data that’s available for this isotope.   

    From Brookhaven National Lab: “A Fresh Pair of Eyes On an Old Nuclear Physics Problem” 

    From Brookhaven National Lab

    May 20, 2020

    Erika Peters
    epeters@bnl.gov

    Brookhaven Lab Intern Pedro Rodríguez is working on simplifying a problem in nuclear physics that’s over a half-century old.

    1
    Pedro Rodríguez has wanted to be a physicist from a young age. He’s helping to develop a new way to calculate neutron cross sections—a mathematical concept that determines whether a nuclear chain reaction will take place to keep power reactors running. Photo courtesy of Pedro Rodríguez.

    As an intern for the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory, Pedro Rodríguez is working to resolve a 70-year-old problem in nuclear physics. He and his mentor, David Brown, who manages a library of nuclear data files at the NNDC, are figuring out a way to simplify one of the steps for ensuring nuclear reactors can be modeled correctly.

    The project, made possible by DOE’s Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program and administered at Brookhaven by the Office of Educational Programs (OEP), starts with the idea that a nuclear reactor is driven by the splitting of atoms, a process called fission. A neutron, a subatomic particle without an electric charge, is fired at an atom, which splits the atom into two smaller atoms and some leftover neutrons. Some of those neutrons then hit other atoms, causing them to fission too, releasing more neutrons, which split more atoms, and so on. This is called a nuclear chain reaction.

    For scientists to know whether a chain reaction will occur under a reactor’s normal operating conditions, they must calculate the area of the neutron “cross section.” If a bombarding neutron hits a circular area of this size centered on the target nucleus, this fission occurs and the chain reaction can continue. If it misses the area, the chain reaction can fizzle out.

    “Imagine shooting a neutron as if it was a dart at a dartboard,” Brown said. The “cross section,” or probability, of a dart hitting a circular dart board is proportional to the area of the dart board.

    In nuclear physics, the probability of a neutron “hitting” a target nucleus and interacting with it can be described by a mathematical representation of the target’s cross section.

    Such mathematical cross sections are the meeting ground between theory and experiment. The calculations take into consideration certain conditions—for example, the energy of the incoming neutron, the angle of scattered neutron—and can be compared with measurements made in the laboratory to evaluate the accuracy of the underlying theory.

    The largest reaction cross sections are usually found at distinctive neutron energies that result in states that have relatively long lifetimes when a neutron is first absorbed by a nucleus. The energies that form such a “compound nucleus” are known as nuclear resonances.

    “When you hit one of these resonances, the effective target area of the nucleus jumps dramatically,” Brown said, and increases the likelihood of starting a chain reaction. “So, we want to know where these resonances are.” Knowing where the resonances are helps to more easily predict and control nuclear reactors.

    By using statistical behavior provided by nuclear theory to analyze the neutron resonance energies, Brown and Rodríguez can determine neutron reaction cross sections more easily.

    “If you don’t get those numbers correct, you don’t get the shape of the cross section right as a function of energy, and you can’t model your reactor right,” Brown said.

    Rodríguez has always had a love for learning new things, particularly in the field of physics.

    “I just like sitting down and solving these types of problems, like an artist likes to sit down and paint,” he said.

    “Like sorting marbles into buckets”

    Sometimes the shape of resonances cannot be determined, so the cross section cannot be accurately modeled. But much can still be learned about the resonances from a statistical analysis of their energies. Rodríguez has been trying to take advantage of this approach through machine learning techniques and what is called random matrix theory.

    Starting with the range of energy resonances from the isotope he wants to study, he sorts them by assigning a combination of quantum numbers to each. This can be compared to sorting marbles in buckets, Rodríguez and Brown said, because these resonances fall in groups.

    “Let’s imagine there are red, blue, and green marbles in a bag,” Rodríguez said. “You have to sort the marbles into buckets by color, and you’re not allowed to look. All you can do is see what the average color of each bucket is when you put all the marbles in together. So, at first, you end up with three buckets that, from a distance, look brown because all the colors are mixed.”

    These mixtures are like the resonances being random or incorrect quantum number assignments.

    “But now we can take out one marble and put it in one of the other buckets, and then see if the average color of that bucket changed,” Brown said. “Again, we’re only allowed to look at the average color of each bucket.”

    “Then we start reclassifying those marbles, or energy resonances, using the statistics provided by the theory. We keep repeating this until we get a blue bucket, a green bucket, and a red bucket” –a clear separation of the resonances, Rodríguez said.

    Solving a problem, a half-century-old

    Rodríguez has been focusing on uranium-238 because of the large amount of data that’s available for this isotope.

    According to Brown, people have been trying to understand this particular nucleus for 70 years.

    Despite the fact that nuclear reactors powered by U-238 work, assigning correct quantum numbers to sequences of resonances is still somewhat slow.

    The method of using random matrix theory to assign neutron resonances may help improve the process.

    “It’s kind of amazing that with the right statistical mindset, we can do this so quickly and so easily,” Brown said

    “From what David told me,” Rodríguez added, “no one has tried this stuff before—the path we’re taking, it is kind of new.”

    “Having the fresh eyes on the problem brings a lot of energy and it brings new ideas,” Brown added. “And honestly, Pedro’s poking around in ways that I didn’t think to poke around, and it has definitely helped dramatically.”

    Rodríguez, who decided he wanted to study physics at a young age, will graduate next spring with his bachelor’s degree in theoretical physics from the University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez Campus. After graduation, he wants to pursue a Ph.D. in experimental physics but has not decided on a university yet.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    BNL Campus

    Brookhaven campus

    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    BNL NSLS-II


    BNL NSLS II

    BNL RHIC Campus

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector

    BNL Phenix Detector

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:47 am on May 19, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Electrons Break Rotational Symmetry in Exotic Low-Temp Superconductor", , BNL-Brookhaven National Lab, , , X-ray diffraction   

    From Brookhaven National Lab: “Electrons Break Rotational Symmetry in Exotic Low-Temp Superconductor” 

    From Brookhaven National Lab

    May 19, 2020

    Ariana Manglaviti
    amanglaviti@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-2347

    Peter Genzer,
    genzer@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-3174

    Scientists previously observed this peculiar behavior—characterized by electrons preferentially traveling along one direction, decoupled from the host crystal structure—in other materials whose ability to conduct electricity without energy loss cannot be explained by standard theoretical frameworks.

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    Scientists patterned thin films of strontium ruthenate—a metallic superconductor containing strontium, ruthenium, and oxygen—into the “sunbeam” configuration seen above. They arranged a total of 36 lines radially in 10-degree increments to cover the entire range from 0 to 360 degrees. On each bar, electrical current flows from I+ to I-. They measured the voltages vertically along the lines (between gold contacts 1-3, 2-4, 3-5, and 4-6) and horizontally across them (1-2, 3-4, 5-6). Their measurements revealed that electrons in strontium ruthenate flow in a preferred direction unexpected from the crystal lattice structure.

    Scientists have discovered that the transport of electronic charge in a metallic superconductor containing strontium, ruthenium, and oxygen breaks the rotational symmetry of the underlying crystal lattice. The strontium ruthenate crystal has fourfold rotational symmetry like a square, meaning that it looks identical when turned by 90 degrees (four times to equal a complete 360-degree rotation). However, the electrical resistivity has twofold (180-degree) rotational symmetry like a rectangle.

    This “electronic nematicity”—the discovery of which is reported in a paper published on May 4 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences—may promote the material’s “unconventional” superconductivity. For unconventional superconductors, standard theories of metallic conduction are inadequate to explain how upon cooling they can conduct electricity without resistance (i.e., losing energy to heat). If scientists can come up with an appropriate theory, they may be able to design superconductors that don’t require expensive cooling to achieve their near-perfect energy efficiency.

    “We imagine a metal as a solid framework of atoms, through which electrons flow like a gas or liquid,” said corresponding author Ivan Bozovic, a senior scientist and the leader of the Oxide Molecular Beam Epitaxy Group in the Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (CMPMS) Division at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory and an adjunct professor in the Department of Chemistry at Yale. “Gases and liquids are isotropic, meaning their properties are uniform in all directions. The same is true for electron gases or liquids in ordinary metals like copper or aluminum. But in the last decade, we have learned that this isotropy doesn’t seem to hold in some more exotic metals.”

    Scientists have previously observed symmetry-breaking electronic nematicity in other unconventional superconductors. In 2017, Bozovic and his team detected the phenomenon in a metallic compound containing lanthanum, strontium, copper, and oxygen (LSCO), which becomes superconducting at relatively higher (but still ultracold) temperatures compared to low-temperature counterparts like strontium ruthenate. The LSCO crystal lattice also has square symmetry, with two equal periodicities, or arrangements of atoms, in the vertical and horizontal directions. But the electrons do not obey this symmetry; the electrical resistivity is higher in one direction unaligned with the crystal axes.

    We see this kind of behavior in liquid crystals, which polarize light in TVs and other displays,” said Bozovic. “Liquid crystals flow like liquids but orient in a preferred direction like solids because the molecules have an elongated rod-like shape. This shape constrains rotation by the molecules when packed close together. Liquids are typically symmetric with respect to any rotation, but liquid crystals break such rotational symmetry, with their properties different in the parallel and perpendicular directions. This is what we saw in LSCO—the electrons behave like an electronic liquid crystal.”

    With this surprising discovery, the scientists wondered whether electronic nematicity existed in other unconventional superconductors. To begin addressing this question, they decided to focus on strontium ruthenate, which has the same crystal structure as LSCO and strongly interacting electrons.

    2
    Brookhaven Lab scientists (left to right) Anthony Bollinger, Ivan Bozovic, Xi He, Ian Robinson, and Jie Wu of the Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Division and collaborators at Cornell found evidence of an electronic “liquid crystal” state in a superconductor called strontium ruthenate. In this exotic state, electrons flow in a preferred direction that is unexpected from the arrangement of atoms in the host material’s crystal lattice.

    At the Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Darrell Schlom, Kyle Shen, and their collaborators grew single-crystal thin films of strontium ruthenate one atomic layer at a time on square substrates and rectangular ones, which elongated the films in one direction. These films have to be extremely uniform in thickness and composition—having on the order of one impurity per trillion atoms—to become superconducting.

    To verify that the crystal periodicity of the films was the same as that of the underlying substrates, the Brookhaven Lab scientists performed high-resolution x-ray diffraction experiments.

    “X-ray diffraction allows us to precisely measure the lattice periodicity of both the films and the substrates in different directions,” said coauthor and CMPMS Division X-ray Scattering Group Leader Ian Robinson, who made the measurements. “In order to determine whether the lattice distortion plays a role in nematicity, we first needed to know if there is any distortion and how much.”

    Bozovic’s group then patterned the millimeter-sized films into a “sunbeam” configuration with 36 lines arranged radially in 10-degree increments. They passed electrical current through these lines—each of which contained three pairs of voltage contacts—and measured the voltages vertically along the lines (longitudinal direction) and horizontally across them (transverse direction). These measurements were collected over a range of temperatures, generating thousands of data files per thin film.

    3
    The crystal structure of strontium ruthenate, which is made up of ruthenium (red), strontium (blue), and oxygen (green).

    Compared to the longitudinal voltage, the transverse voltage is 100 times more sensitive to nematicity. If the current flows with no preferred direction, the transverse voltage should be zero at every angle. That wasn’t the case, indicating that strontium ruthenate is electronically nematic—10 times more so than LSCO. Even more surprising was that the films grown on both square and rectangular substrates had the same magnitude of nematicity—the relative difference in resistivity between two directions—despite the lattice distortion caused by the rectangular substrate. Stretching the lattice only affected the nematicity orientation, with the direction of highest conductivity running along the shorter side of the rectangle. Nematicity is already present in both films at room temperature and significantly increases as the films are cooled down to the superconducting state.

    “Our observations point to a purely electronic origin of nematicity,” said Bozovic. “Here, interactions between electrons bumping into each other appear to have a much stronger contribution to electrical resistivity than electrons interacting with the crystal lattice, as they do in conventional metals.”

    Going forward, the team will continue to test their hypothesis that electronic nematicity exists in all nonconventional superconductors.

    “The synergy between the two CMPMS Division groups at Brookhaven was critical to this research,” said Bozovic. “We will apply our complementary expertise, techniques, and equipment in future studies looking for signatures of electronic nematicity in other materials with strongly interacting electrons.”

    This work was funded by the DOE Office of Science, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and the National Science Foundation.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    BNL Campus

    Brookhaven campus

    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    BNL NSLS-II


    BNL NSLS II

    BNL RHIC Campus

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector

    BNL Phenix Detector

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:29 am on April 24, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New Discovery Helps Close the Gap Towards Optically-Controlled Quantum Computation", , , BNL-Brookhaven National Lab, Scientists who study topological materials face a challenge—how to establish and maintain control of these unique quantum behaviors in a way that makes applications like quantum computing possible.   

    From Brookhaven National Lab: “New Discovery Helps Close the Gap Towards Optically-Controlled Quantum Computation” 

    From Brookhaven National Lab

    April 21, 2020

    Ariana Manglaviti
    amanglaviti@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-2347

    Peter Genzer
    genzer@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-3174

    Written by Laura Millsaps at Ames Laboratory

    1
    Scientists who study topological materials face a challenge—how to establish and maintain control of these unique quantum behaviors in a way that makes applications like quantum computing possible. In this experiment, Jigang Wang and his colleagues demonstrated that control by using light to steer quantum states in a Dirac semimetal.

    Scientists at Ames Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and the University of Alabama Birmingham have discovered a light-induced switching mechanism in a Dirac semimetal. The mechanism establishes a new way to control the topological material, driven by back-and-forth motion of atoms and electrons, which will enable topological transistor and quantum computation using light waves.

    Just like today’s transistors and photodiodes replaced vacuum tubes over half a century ago, scientists are searching for a similar leap forward in design principles and novel materials in order to achieve quantum computing capabilities. Current computation capacity faces tremendous challenges in terms of complexity, power consumption, and speed; to exceed the physical limits reached as electronics and chips become hotter and faster, bigger advances are needed. Particularly at small scales, such issues have become major obstacles to improving performance.

    “Light wave topological engineering seeks to overcome all of these challenges by driving quantum periodic motion to guide electrons and atoms via new degrees of freedom, i.e., topology, and induce transitions without heating at unprecedented terahertz frequencies, defined as one trillion cycles per second, clock rates,” said Jigang Wang, a senior scientist at Ames Laboratory and professor of physics at Iowa State University. “This new coherent control principle is in stark contrast to any equilibrium tuning methods used so far, such as electric, magnetic and strain fields, which have much slower speeds and higher energy losses.”

    Wide-scale adoption of new computational principles, such as quantum computing, requires building devices in which fragile quantum states are protected from their noisy environments. One approach is through the development of topological quantum computation, in which qubits are based on “symmetry-protected” quasiparticles that are immune to noise.

    However, scientists who study these topological materials face a challenge—how to establish and maintain control of these unique quantum behaviors in a way that makes applications like quantum computing possible. In this experiment, Wang and his colleagues demonstrated that control by using light to steer quantum states in a Dirac semimetal, an exotic material that exhibits extreme sensitivity due to its proximity to a broad range of topological phases.

    “We achieved this by applying a new light-quantum-control principle known as mode-selective Raman phonon coherent oscillations—driving periodic motions of atoms about the equilibrium position using short light pulses,” says Ilias Perakis, professor of physics and chair at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. “These driven quantum fluctuations induce transitions between electronic states with different gaps and topological orders.”

    An analogy of this kind of dynamic switching is the periodically driven Kapitza’s pendulum, which can transition to an inverted yet stable position when high-frequency vibration is applied. The researcher’s work shows that this classical control principle – driving materials to a new stable condition not found normally – is surprisingly applicable to a broad range of topological phases and quantum phase transitions.

    “Our work opens a new arena of light wave topological electronics and phase transitions controlled by quantum coherence,” says Qiang Li, Group leader of the Brookhaven National Laboratory’s Advanced Energy Materials Group. “This will be useful in the development of future quantum computing strategies and electronics with high speed and low energy consumption.”

    The spectroscopy and data analysis were performed at Ames Laboratory. Model building and analysis were partially performed at the University of Alabama, Birmingham. Sample development and magneto-transport measurements were performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Density functional calculations were supported by the Center for the Advancement of Topological Semimetals, a DOE Energy Frontier Research Center at Ames Laboratory.

    The research is further discussed in the paper, Light-Driven Raman Coherence as a Non-Thermal Route to Ultrafast Topology Switching in a Dirac Semimetal, authored by C. Vaswani, L.-L. Wang, D.H. Mudiyanselage, Q. Li, P. M. Lozano, G. Gu, D. Cheng, B. Song, L. Luo, R. H. J. Kim, C. Huang, Z. Liu, M. Mootz, I.E. Perakis, Y. Yao, K. M. Ho, and J. Wang; and published in Physical Review X.

    Ames Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science national laboratory operated by Iowa State University.

    Ames Laboratory creates innovative materials, technologies and energy solutions. We use our expertise, unique capabilities and interdisciplinary collaborations to solve global problems.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    BNL Campus

    Brookhaven campus

    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    BNL NSLS-II


    BNL NSLS II

    BNL RHIC Campus

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector

    BNL Phenix Detector

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:35 pm on January 21, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Transformative 'Green' Accelerator Achieves World's First 8-pass Full Energy Recovery", , BNL-Brookhaven National Lab, CBETA: Instead of dumping the energy of previously accelerated particles it recovers and reuses that energy to accelerate the next batch of particles., , Electron-Ion Collider a planned groundbreaking nuclear physics research facility that will be located at Brookhaven Lab., , Fixed-Field-Alternating Linear Gradient (FFA-LG) beamline, The Cornell-BNL ERL Test Accelerator- or CBETA- located at Cornell is an Energy Recovery Linear accelerator (ERL) that uses two transformational “green” technologies.   

    From Brookhaven National Lab and Cornell University: “Transformative ‘Green’ Accelerator Achieves World’s First 8-pass Full Energy Recovery” 


    Cornell University

    From Brookhaven National Lab

    January 21, 2020
    Karen McNulty Walsh,
    kmcnulty@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-8350

    Peter Genzer
    genzer@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-3174

    Successful demonstration paves the way for unprecedented applications in science, industry, and medicine.

    1
    Georg Hoffstaetter (left) and Dejan Trbojevic at the CBETA facility at Cornell University.

    Scientists from Cornell University and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have successfully demonstrated the world’s first capture and reuse of energy in a multi-turn particle accelerator, where electrons are accelerated and decelerated in multiple stages and transported at different energies through a single beamline. This advance paves the way for ultra-bright particle accelerators that use far less energy than today’s machines.

    Applications include medical isotope production, cancer therapy, x-ray sources, and industrial applications such as micro-chip production, as well as more energy-efficient machines for basic research in physics, materials science, and many other fields. One example: Scientists may use such energy-recovery accelerator technology to efficiently generate electrons for “cooling” ions at the Electron-Ion Collider, a planned groundbreaking nuclear physics research facility that will be located at Brookhaven Lab.

    The Cornell-BNL ERL Test Accelerator, or CBETA, located at Cornell, is an Energy Recovery Linear accelerator (ERL) that uses two transformational “green” technologies: Instead of dumping the energy of previously accelerated particles, it recovers and reuses that energy to accelerate the next batch of particles. And the beamline that steers the particles through the accelerator is made of permanent magnets, which require no electricity to operate. These are expected to become the most energy-efficient technologies for high-performance accelerators of the future.

    2
    Schematic of the Cornell-BNL ERL Test Accelerator. Superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities accelerate electrons to high energy in stages, sending them around the racetrack-shaped accelerator after each acceleration stage. Each curved arc is made of a series of fixed field, alternating gradient (FFA) permanent magnets that can carry beams at multiple energies simultaneously. After four passes through the accelerating infrastructure and FFA arcs, the electrons then decelerate in stages, returning their energy to the SRF cavities so it can be used to accelerate electrons again.

    “Reusing a particle beam’s energy in this new kind of accelerator makes brighter beams available, which would have required too much energy until now,” said Georg Hoffstaetter, physics professor and principle investigator for Cornell. In addition to the above-mentioned applications, Hoffstaetter points out that “such innovative technology and these brighter beams will likely lead to additional uses yet to be imagined.”

    CBETA’s construction was funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and used components that were developed with funds from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and industrial partners. The CBETA team achieved the key milestone of full energy recovery and reacceleration of particles in the early hours of December 24, 2019, on schedule. Since then, the team has continued to enhance CBETA’s performance.

    Alicia Barton, President and CEO, NYSERDA, said, “NYSERDA is extremely proud to support this groundbreaking project and we look forward to seeing how it advances our ability to address the most pressing scientific and societal challenges of our time. New York’s support for technologies that deliver economy-wide benefits is unwavering under Governor Cuomo’s leadership and we congratulate our partners on this tremendous milestone.”

    Energy-recovery design basics

    The CBETA machine includes the world’s first eight-pass superconducting Energy-Recovery Linear accelerator, in which a beam is accelerated by passing four times through a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavity to reach its highest energy.

    1
    Energy-efficient accelerator was 50 years in the making

    By making another four passes through the same cavity, but this time decelerating, the beam’s energy is captured and made available for new particles to be accelerated. This ERL concept was first proposed in 1965 by Maury Tigner, professor emeritus at Cornell University, but it took decades of work at Cornell and elsewhere to develop the necessary technology.

    After each pass through the acceleration apparatus, the particles have a different energy and traverse their own “lane” through a special chain of magnets, referred to as Fixed-Field-Alternating Linear Gradient (FFA-LG) beamline, which loops the particles back to the SRF cavities. The permanent magnets that make up this beamline were designed, developed, and precisely shaped at Brookhaven to allow all beams to traverse the same magnet structure, even though they have four different energies. This design reduces the need for multiple accelerator rings to accommodate beams at different energies and eliminates the need for electricity to power the magnets, further reducing cost and improving overall efficiency.

    Dejan Trbojevic, senior physicist and principal investigator for Brookhaven’s participation in the project, first described the idea of accelerating beams at multiple energies in a single beamline made of fixed-field alternating-gradient magnets at a muon collider workshop in 1999. Meanwhile, Cornell was developing components for a superconducting ERL.

    “With CBETA, the idea was to show that Brookhaven’s single-beamline return loop would work with Cornell’s ERL technology for the acceleration of electrons, particles with many more potential applications than their heavier muon cousins,” Trbojevic said.

    In late December, with Cornell physicist Adam Bartnik as the lead operator, CBETA did just that. Starting with an electron beam at the energy of six million electron volts (MeV), the accelerator components brought the particles to 42, 78, 114, and 150 MeV in four passes through the ERL. After deceleration during four additional passes through the SRF cavities, the particles reached their original 6 MeV energy—at exactly the same position as the starting beam. This showed that full electron energy recovery had been achieved, and that the SRF cavities were energized to accelerate the next batch of particles.

    This accomplishment makes CBETA the first multi-turn ERL to recover the energy of accelerated particle beams in SRF accelerating structures, and the first accelerator to use a single beamline with fixed magnetic fields to transport seven different accelerating and decelerating energy beams.

    “We couldn’t have achieved these results without many contributions throughout the design, construction, and commissioning phases by scientists, engineers, and technical staff at both Brookhaven and Cornell, along with input from many industrial partners and renowned accelerator experts,” said Brookhaven Lab engineer Rob Michnoff, director of the CBETA project.

    See the full article here .


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    Once called “the first American university” by educational historian Frederick Rudolph, Cornell University represents a distinctive mix of eminent scholarship and democratic ideals. Adding practical subjects to the classics and admitting qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion was quite a departure when Cornell was founded in 1865.

    Today’s Cornell reflects this heritage of egalitarian excellence. It is home to the nation’s first colleges devoted to hotel administration, industrial and labor relations, and veterinary medicine. Both a private university and the land-grant institution of New York State, Cornell University is the most educationally diverse member of the Ivy League.

    On the Ithaca campus alone nearly 20,000 students representing every state and 120 countries choose from among 4,000 courses in 11 undergraduate, graduate, and professional schools. Many undergraduates participate in a wide range of interdisciplinary programs, play meaningful roles in original research, and study in Cornell programs in Washington, New York City, and the world over.

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    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.
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  • richardmitnick 4:47 pm on January 9, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Department of Energy picks New York over Virginia for site of new particle collider", , BNL-Brookhaven National Lab, , , , , ,   

    From BNL via Science Magazine: “Department of Energy picks New York over Virginia for site of new particle collider” 

    From Brookhaven National Lab

    via

    AAAS
    Science Magazine

    Jan. 9, 2020
    Adrian Cho

    Nuclear physicists’ next dream machine will be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York, officials with the Department of Energy (DOE) announced today. The Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) will smash a high-energy beam of electrons into one of protons to probe the mysterious innards of the proton. The machine will cost between $1.6 billion and $2.6 billion and should be up and running by 2030, said Paul Dabbar, DOE’s undersecretary for science, in a telephone press briefing.

    6
    This schematic shows how the EIC will fit within the tunnel of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC, background photo), reusing essential infrastructure and key components of RHIC.

    3
    Electrons will collide with protons or larger atomic nuclei at the Electron-Ion Collider to produce dynamic 3-D snapshots of the building blocks of all visible matter.

    7
    The EIC will allow nuclear physicists to track the arrangement of the quarks and gluons that make up the protons and neutrons of atomic nuclei.

    “It will be the first brand-new greenfield collider built in the country in decades,” Dabbar said. “The U.S. has been at the front end in nuclear physics since the end of the Second World War and this machine will enable the U.S. to stay at the front end for decades to come.”

    The site decision brings to a close the competition to host the machine. Physicists at DOE’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia, had also hoped to build the EIC.

    Protons and neutrons make up the atomic nucleus, so the sort of work the EIC would do falls under the rubric of nuclear physics. Although they’re more common than dust, protons remain somewhat mysterious. Since the early 1970s, physicists have known that each proton consists of a trio of less massive particles called quarks. These bind to one another by exchanging other quantum particles called gluons.

    However, the detailed structure of the proton is far more complex. Thanks to the uncertainties inherent in quantum mechanics, its interior roils with countless gluons and quark-antiquark pairs that flit in and out of existence too quickly to be directly observed. And many of the proton’s properties—including its mass and spin—emerge from that sea of “virtual” particles. To determine how that happens, the EIC will use its electrons to probe the protons, colliding the two types of particles at unprecedented energies and in unparalleled numbers.

    Researchers at Jefferson lab already do similar work by firing their electron beam at targets rich with protons and neutrons. In 2017, researchers completed a $338 million upgrade to double the energy of the lab’s workhorse, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility.

    3
    4
    Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility

    With that electron accelerator in hand, Jefferson lab researchers had hoped to build the EIC by adding a new proton accelerator.

    Brookhaven researchers have studied a very different type of nuclear physics. Their Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) [below] collides nuclei such as gold and copper to produce fleeting puffs of an ultrahot plasma of free-flying quarks and gluons like the one that filled the universe in the split second after the big bang. The RHIC is a 3.8-kilometer-long ring consisting of two concentric and counter-circulating accelerators. Brookhaven researchers plan to make the EIC by using one of the RHIC’s rings to accelerate the protons and to add an electron accelerator to the complex.

    To decide which option to take, DOE officials convened an independent EIC site selection committee, Dabbar says. The committee weighed numerous factors, including the relative costs of the rival plans, he says. Proton accelerators are generally larger and more expensive than electron accelerators.

    The Jefferson lab won’t be left out in the cold, Dabbar says. Researchers there have critical expertise in, among other things, making the superconducting accelerating cavities that will be needed for the new collider. So, scientists there will participate in designing, building, and operating the new collider. “We certainly look forward to [the Jefferson lab] taking the lead in these areas,” Dabbar says.

    The site decision does not commit DOE to building the EIC. The project must still pass several milestones before researchers can being construction—including the approval of a detailed design, cost estimate, and construction schedule. That process can take a few years. However, the announcement does signal the end for the RHIC, which has run since 1999. To make way for the new collider, the RHIC will shut down for good in 2024, Dabbar said at the briefing.

    The decision on a machine still 10 years away reflects the relative good times for DOE science funding, Dabbar says. “We’ve been able to start on every major project that’s been on the books for years.” DOE’s science budget is up 31% since 2016—in spite of the fact that under President Donald Trump, the White House has tried to slash it every year.

    See the full article here .


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    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.
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  • richardmitnick 10:25 am on December 20, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , BNL-Brookhaven National Lab, eRHIC- electron-ion collider, , ,   

    From Brookhaven National Lab: “The Big Questions: Barbara Jacak on the Quark-Gluon Plasma” 

    From Brookhaven National Lab

    December 16, 2019
    Shannon Brescher Shea
    shannon.shea@science.doe.gov

    The PHENIX detector [below] at Brookhaven National Laboratory’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) [below] records many different particles emerging from RHIC collisions, including photons, electrons, muons, and quark-containing particles called hadrons.

    The Big Questions series features perspectives from the five recipients of the Department of Energy Office of Science’s 2019 Distinguished Scientists Fellows Award describing their research and what they plan to do with the award.

    Contributing Author Credit: Barbara Jacak is the director of the nuclear science division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

    What was matter like at the beginning of the universe?

    While we can’t time travel, we can explore the first microsecond after the Big Bang by re-creating the quark-gluon plasma. The very earliest type of matter, the quark-gluon plasma is a hot, incredibly dense soup of particles. These days, we produce the quark-gluon plasma by smashing heavy ions together at extremely high speeds.

    When we turned on the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) [below] at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2000, we found out that the quark-gluon plasma is much more interesting than we expected. It behaved like a liquid! How can something so hot – trillions of degrees kelvin – behave like a liquid? Even at that temperature, the strong interactions remain really strong.

    What we’re learning about the quark-gluon plasma can also teach us a lot about other types of plasma. The way it behaves isn’t all that different from the warm dense matter that makes up the cores of small stars and giant planets. Our work can even inform fusion scientists’ research to minimize disruptions in plasma. There’s a lot of room for cross-fertilization.

    RHIC, a Department of Energy Office of Science user facility, makes it possible to explore this unique form of matter. It relies on accelerators, extremely powerful machines that speed very tiny particles up to nearly the speed of light.

    The Office of Science – particularly the Nuclear Physics program – is a major steward of fundamental physics and accelerator science. Developing and maintaining accelerators has always been a major responsibility of the DOE national laboratories. E.O. Lawrence’s vision in the 1930s of the first circular accelerator both launched this field of research and the laboratory that eventually became DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

    2
    The first cyclotron, a particle accelerator created in 1930 at the University of California, Berkeley. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Photo Archives)

    But the government’s support for Lawrence’s invention was just the beginning. Even now, reliable long-term funding allows us to do great things that we wouldn’t be able to do with inconsistent support. Personally, the sustained support from the Office of Science that I’ve enjoyed has been truly awesome.

    Team science is also really fun. It makes us more productive and inspired. Fortunately, the Office of Science’s long-term support sets the foundation for the mentoring and growth of young scientists that go on to be researchers, innovators, and technological leaders. A student’s response when encountering the research at our national labs is, “This is awesome.” These young minds bring new ideas and questions that make us rethink how we look at fundamental problems. You can do stuff at the national labs that you can’t do anywhere else, but when you add students, that’s when the magic really happens. The combination makes the labs and the universities both better at their mission.

    Looking forward, the electron-ion collider will be the next great project coming out of this long-term support.

    3
    A schematic of the world’s first electron-ion collider (EIC). Adding an electron ring (red) to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven would create the eRHIC.

    My team and I will be using it to discover some fundamental truths about protons, neutrons, and nuclei. I look forward to the adventures it will make possible. This includes writing some 21st century just-so stories, like “How the proton got his spin” and “How the neutron got her mass.”

    This fellowship is going to allow me and my team to use the electron-ion collider to see if the very interesting and weird properties that we see in hot dense matter full of gluons also show up in cold, dense matter full of gluons. My bet is that it’s going to be just as weird and surprising as hot dense matter.

    Thank you very much to the Department of Energy’s Office of Science for making my past, present, and future work possible.

    See the full article here .


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    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.
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  • richardmitnick 12:45 pm on September 27, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Theorists Discover the "Rosetta Stone" for Neutrino Physics", BNL-Brookhaven National Lab, Eigenvectors and eigenvalues, , Linear algebra,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Theorists Discover the “Rosetta Stone” for Neutrino Physics” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    September 23, 2019
    Stephen Parke

    Linear algebra is a field of mathematics that has been thoroughly investigated for many centuries, providing invaluable tools used not only in mathematics, but also across physics and engineering as well as many other fields. For years physicists have used important theorems in linear algebra to quickly calculate solutions to the most complicated problems.

    This August, three theoretical physicists — Peter Denton, a scientist at Brookhaven National Laboratory and a scholar at Fermilab’s Neutrino Physics Center; Stephen Parke, theoretical physicist at Fermilab; and Xining Zhang, a University of Chicago graduate student working under Parke — turned the tables and, in the context of particle physics, discovered a fundamental identity in linear algebra.

    1
    From left: Xining Zhang of the University of Chicago, Peter Denton of Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stephen Parke of Fermilab have discovered a new mathematical identity that had eluded mathematicians for centuries. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    The identity relates eigenvectors and eigenvalues in a direct way that hadn’t been previously recognized. Eigenvectors and eigenvalues are two important ways of reducing the properties of a matrix to their most basic components and have applications in many math, physics and real-world contexts, such as in analyzing vibrating systems and facial recognition programs. The eigenvectors identify the directions in which a transformation occurs, and the eigenvalues specify the amount of stretching or compressing that occurs.

    Experts fully expected the identity to exist somewhere in the literature for centuries but couldn’t find any evidence for it online or in textbooks. The three of us were eventually directed to a similar result by UCLA mathematics professor Terence Tao, who has a Fields Medal and Breakthrough Prize to his name. When we presented Tao with our result, he cheerfully declared that it was, in fact, the discovery of a new identity, and he provided several mathematical proofs, which have now been published online. Tao also discussed the new identity in his math blog.

    The physics usage case of this result stems from our investigations of neutrino oscillation probabilities in matter, which involve finding eigenvectors and eigenvalues, both of which are rather complicated expressions. While the eigenvalues are somewhat unavoidably tricky, this new result shows that the eigenvectors can be written down in a simple, compact, and easy-to-remember form, once the eigenvalues are calculated. For this reason, we called the eigenvalues “the Rosetta Stone” for neutrino oscillations in our original publication — once you have them, you know everything you want to know.

    This work is supported by the DOE Office of Science.

    See the full here.


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    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:21 pm on September 27, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , BNL-Brookhaven National Lab, , , , ,   

    From Brookhaven National Lab: “U.S. ATLAS Phase I Upgrade Completed” 

    From Brookhaven National Lab

    September 27, 2019
    Stephanie Kossman
    skossman@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-8671

    Peter Genzer,
    genzer@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-3174

    Major upgrades to the ATLAS experiment at CERN will give unprecedented insight into open physics questions.

    1
    Brookhaven physicist Shaochun Tang is shown with the new ATLAS trigger board he designed and engineered for the U.S. ATLAS Phase I Upgrade project.

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is ready to begin another chapter in its search for new physics.

    CERN ATLAS Image Claudia Marcelloni

    A significant upgrade to the experiment, called the U.S. ATLAS Phase I Upgrade, has received Critical Decision-4 approval from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), signifying the completion of the project and a transition to operations.

    “This milestone will enable us to push the boundaries of our understanding, following the discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN, which resulted in the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics,” said Project Director Jonathan Kotcher, a senior scientist at DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory. “The completion of this project is a major step in the physics campaign being mounted at the energy frontier, which integrates state-of-the-art accelerator and detector technology to probe the fundamental forces and particles of nature. We are very excited to turn to the physics and data analysis that all this hard work has enabled.”

    Led by Brookhaven Lab and Stony Brook University (SBU), the U.S. ATLAS Phase I Upgrade is the initial stage of a larger upgrade planned for the LHC—the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) project.

    The goal is to substantially increase the LHC’s luminosity, enabling scientists to collect 10 times more data from particle collisions, observe very rare processes, and make new discoveries about the building blocks of matter. But first, long-term experiments like ATLAS needed to undergo initial upgrades to prepare for the coming years before the LHC will transition to the HL-LHC mode.

    “The ATLAS experiment has been at the forefront of high-energy particle physics exploration and discoveries for a decade now,” said Deputy Project Manager Marc-André Pleier, a physicist at Brookhaven. “While we have learned a lot so far, our current understanding of the universe cannot explain phenomena such as dark matter, dark energy, or antimatter/matter asymmetry. Providing these detector upgrades for ATLAS will enable us to study even rarer processes than ever before and shed light on poorly understood or unexplored corners of our understanding of how the universe works.”

    “The U.S. ATLAS Phase I Upgrade involved building modern electronics to replace ageing elements with more efficient ones, but it also provided the experiment with new and improved functionalities,” said Project Manager Christopher Bee, a senior scientist at SBU.

    Specifically, the project focused on three components of ATLAS: the trigger/data acquisition system, the liquid argon calorimeter, and the forward muon detector (known as the New Small Wheel). Combined, upgrades to these three components will provide scientists with the ability to collect data more efficiently and at higher data collection rates.

    “Every second, there are several billion proton-proton collision events detected by ATLAS, but only a few hundred are recorded,” said Bee. Those events are selected by the trigger system, which sifts through a wealth of uninteresting events to find ones that may point to new physics or rare Standard Model events. “The data acquisition system moves data from the detector through the trigger system, and then it puts the selected events onto storage for further analysis. Upgrades to this system will improve its ability to select key events.”

    Upgrades to the calorimeter electronics will increase the precision of data coming out of the calorimeter detector. The New Small Wheel will dramatically improve ATLAS’s triggering capability and efficiency for events with muons, subatomic particles known as the “heavy cousins” of electrons.

    “In the experiment’s initial runs, the muon trigger had a substantial ‘fake’ muon rate,” said Pleier. “It was giving the ‘OK’ to accept a large fraction of events that were not interesting. The principle goal of the new small wheel is to reduce the fake trigger rate dramatically.”

    12 U.S. universities and DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory collaborated with Brookhaven Lab and SBU to complete the U.S. ATLAS Phase I Upgrade on time and under budget. This $44 million upgrade project was supported by DOE ($33 million) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) ($11 million).

    “We very much appreciate the support from both DOE and NSF that has allowed us to realize our goals in helping prepare ATLAS for a bright future,” said Bee. “We look forward to capitalizing on the new scientific opportunities enabled by these upgrades.”

    See the full article here .


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    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.
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  • richardmitnick 9:15 am on August 19, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Brookhaven Completes LSST's Digital Sensor Array", , , , , BNL-Brookhaven National Lab, , ,   

    From Brookhaven National Lab: “Brookhaven Completes LSST’s Digital Sensor Array” 

    From Brookhaven National Lab

    August 19, 2019

    Stephanie Kossman
    skossman@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-8671

    Peter Genzer,
    genzer@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-3174

    Brookhaven National Lab has finished constructing the 3.2 gigapixel “digital film” for the world’s largest camera for cosmology, physics, and astronomy.

    1
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory installs the first of Brookhaven’s 21 rafts that make up LSST’s digital sensor array. Photo courtesy SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

    After 16 years of dedicated planning and engineering, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have completed a 3.2 gigapixel sensor array for the camera that will be used in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), a massive telescope that will observe the universe like never before.

    LSST

    LSST Camera, built at SLAC



    LSST telescope, currently under construction on the El Peñón peak at Cerro Pachón Chile, a 2,682-meter-high mountain in Coquimbo Region, in northern Chile, alongside the existing Gemini South and Southern Astrophysical Research Telescopes.


    LSST Data Journey, Illustration by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kova

    “This is the biggest charge-coupled device (CCD) array that has ever been built,” said Paul O’Connor, senior scientist at Brookhaven Lab’s instrumentation division. “It’s three billion pixels. No telescope has ever put this many sensors into one camera.”

    The digital sensor array is composed of about 200 16-megapixel sensors, divided into 21 modules called “rafts.” Each raft can function on its own, but when combined, they will view an area of sky that can fit more than 40 full moons in a single image. Researchers will stitch these images together to create a time-lapse movie of the complete visible universe accessible from Chile.

    Currently under construction on a mountaintop in Chile, LSST is designed to capture the most complete images of our universe that have ever been achieved. The project to build the telescope facility and camera is a collaborative effort among more than 30 institutions from around the world, and it is primarily funded by DOE’s Office of Science and the National Science Foundation. DOE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is leading the overall effort to construct the camera—the world’s largest camera for astronomy—while Brookhaven led the design, construction, and qualification of the digital sensor array—the “digital film” for the camera.

    “It’s the heart of the camera,” said Bill Wahl, science raft subsystem manager of the LSST project at Brookhaven Lab. “What we’ve done here at Brookhaven represents years of great work by many talented scientists, engineers, and technicians. Their work will lead to a collection of images that has never been seen before by anyone. It’s an exciting time for the project and for the Lab.”

    2
    Members of the LSST project team at Brookhaven Lab are shown with a prototype raft cryostat. In addition to the rafts, Brookhaven scientists designed and built the cryostats that hold and cool the rafts to -100° Celsius.

    Brookhaven began its LSST research and development program in 2003, with construction of the digital sensor array starting in 2014. In the time leading up to construction, Brookhaven designed and fabricated the assembly and test equipment for the science rafts used both at Brookhaven and SLAC. The Laboratory also created an entire automated production facility and cleanroom, along with production and tracking software.

    “We made sure to automate as much of the production facility as possible,” O’Connor said. “Testing a single raft could take up to three days. We were working on a tight schedule, so we had our automated facility running 24/7. Of course, out of a concern for safety, we always had someone monitoring the facility throughout the day and night.”

    Constructing the complex sensor array, which operates in a vacuum and must be cooled to -100° Celsius, is a challenge on its own. But the Brookhaven team was also tasked with testing each fully assembled raft, as well as individual sensors and electronics. Once each raft was complete, it needed to be carefully packaged in a protective environment to be safely shipped across the country to SLAC.

    The LSST team at Brookhaven completed the first raft in 2017. But soon after, they were presented with a new challenge.

    “We later discovered that design features inadvertently led to the possibility that electrical wires in the rafts could get shorted out,” O’Connor said. “The rate at which this effect was impacting the rafts was only on the order of 0.2%, but to avoid any possibility of degradation, we went through the trouble of refitting almost every raft.”

    Now, just two years after the start of raft production, the team has successfully built and shipped the final raft to SLAC for integration into the camera. This marks the end of a 16-year project at Brookhaven, which will be followed by many years of astronomical observation.

    Many of the talented team members recruited to Brookhaven for the LSST project were young engineers and technicians hired right out of graduate school. Now, they’ve all been assigned to ongoing physics projects at the Lab, such as upgrading the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider—a DOE Office of Science User Facility for nuclear physics research—to sPHENIX [see RHIC components below], as well as ongoing work with the ATLAS detector at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. Brookhaven is the U.S. host laboratory for the ATLAS collaboration.

    CERN ATLAS Image Claudia Marcelloni

    “Brookhaven’s role in the LSST camera project afforded new and exciting opportunities for engineers, technicians, and scientists in electro-optics, where very demanding specifications must be met,” Wahl said. “The multi-disciplined team we assembled did an excellent job achieving design objectives and I am proud of our time together. Watching junior engineers and scientists grow into very capable team members was extremely rewarding.”

    Brookhaven Lab will continue to play a strong role in LSST going forward. As the telescope undergoes its commissioning phase, Brookhaven scientists will serve as experts on the digital sensor array in the camera. They will also provide support during LSST’s operations, which are projected to begin in 2022.

    3
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory installs the first of Brookhaven’s 21 rafts that make up LSST’s digital sensor array. Photo courtesy SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

    “The commissioning of such a complex camera will be an exciting and challenging endeavor,” said Brookhaven physicist Andrei Nomerotski, who is leading Brookhaven’s contributions to the commissioning and operation phases of the LSST project. “After years of using artificial signal sources for the sensor characterization, we are looking forward to seeing real stars and galaxies in the LSST CCDs.”

    Once operational in the Andes Mountains, LSST will serve nearly every subset of the astrophysics community. Perhaps most importantly, LSST will enable scientists to investigate dark energy and dark matter—two puzzles that have baffled physicists for decades. It is also estimated that LSST will find millions of asteroids in our solar system, in addition to offering new information about the creation of our galaxy. The images captured by LSST will be made available to physicists and astronomers in the U.S. and Chile immediately, making LSST one of the most advanced and accessible cosmology experiments ever created. Over time, the data will be made available to the public worldwide.

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    BNL Campus


    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    BNL NSLS-II


    BNL NSLS II

    BNL RHIC Campus

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector

    BNL RHIC PHENIX

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.
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