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  • richardmitnick 11:37 am on June 25, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New math model traces the link between atmospheric CO2 and temperature over half a billion years", , , Biomathematics, , ESS: Earth system sensitivity, ,   

    From Rochester Institute of Technology (US) : “New math model traces the link between atmospheric CO2 and temperature over half a billion years” 

    From Rochester Institute of Technology (US)

    June 23, 2021
    Luke Auburn
    luke.auburn@rit.edu

    Lead author Assistant Professor Tony Wong’s paper featured in Nature Communications.

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    Assistant professor Tony Wong is the lead author of an article featured in the journal Nature Communications that outlines a new modeling method to explore the relationship between the Earth’s atmospheric carbon dioxide and surface temperature over hundreds of millions of years.

    A Rochester Institute of Technology mathematician helped develop a new modeling method to explore the relationship between the Earth’s atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and surface temperature over hundreds of millions of years. Assistant professor Tony Wong is the lead author of an article featured in the journal Nature Communications that outlines the method. He hopes it will help answer fundamental questions about the geophysical processes that drive the Earth’s climate.

    Scientists often use a measurement method called equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) to study the long-term effect on temperature of doubling atmospheric CO2 concentrations above pre-industrial conditions. ECS is helpful for assessing the effectiveness of climate change policies and understanding changes of up to a few hundred years. Wong’s method works on a much grander scale and uses a measurement called Earth system sensitivity (ESS), which allows the method to factor in processes that take millions of years to change, such as the shifting of tectonic plates or variations in solar luminosity.

    “The model gives us better insight into how the world and its geophysical processes work,” said Wong, faculty in the School of Mathematical Sciences. “It offers this nice schematic to incorporate all of the physics that encapsulates our current understanding of the Earth’s system. If it doesn’t look good or there are areas where there are biases relative to data that we have, then that highlights a gap in the understanding of the physics of our world. So we can go back and say OK, so what do we need to do to improve our understanding of the world?”

    Wong said the new work improves upon previous studies that used more limited sets of data and less sophisticated statistical methods for calibration. He also noted that the team used a unique inverse parameter calibration approach.

    “It’s taking this kind of Sherlock Holmes approach of once you rule out what’s not possible, what you’re left with must contain the truth,” said Wong. “It’s an interesting approach and it’s nice because there’s this satisfying cycle where you run the model forward, you see how it compares against data, and you rule out the parameter values that don’t represent the world we live in.”

    Wong has been working with College of Science students on ways to leverage the new technique. Recent alumnus Ken Shultes ’20 (applied mathematics) ’21 MS (applied and computational mathematics) built on the method and is developing an even more detailed statistical technique to infer the best model parameter values based on observational data.

    See the full article here .

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    Rochester Institute of Technology (US) is a private doctoral university within the town of Henrietta in the Rochester, New York metropolitan area.

    RIT is composed of nine academic colleges, including National Technical Institute for the Deaf(RIT)(US). The Institute is one of only a small number of engineering institutes in the State of New York, including New York Institute of Technology, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute(US). It is most widely known for its fine arts, computing, engineering, and imaging science programs; several fine arts programs routinely rank in the national “Top 10” according to US News & World Report.

    The university offers undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees and online masters as well.

    The university was founded in 1829 and is the tenth largest private university in the country in terms of full-time students. It is internationally known for its science; computer; engineering; and art programs as well as for the National Technical Institute for the Deaf- a leading deaf-education institution that provides educational opportunities to more than 1000 deaf and hard-of-hearing students. RIT is known for its Co-op program that gives students professional and industrial experience. It has the fourth oldest and one of the largest Co-op programs in the world. It is classified among “R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity”.

    RIT’s student population is approximately 19,000 students, about 16,000 undergraduate and 3000 graduate. Demographically, students attend from all 50 states in the United States and from more than 100 countries around the world. The university has more than 4000 active faculty and staff members who engage with the students in a wide range of academic activities and research projects. It also has branches abroad, its global campuses, located in China, Croatia and United Arab Emirates (Dubai).

    Fourteen RIT alumni and faculty members have been recipients of the Pulitzer Prize.

    History

    The university began as a result of an 1891 merger between Rochester Athenæum, a literary society founded in 1829 by Colonel Nathaniel Rochester and associates and The Mechanics Institute- a Rochester school of practical technical training for local residents founded in 1885 by a consortium of local businessmen including Captain Henry Lomb- co-founder of Bausch & Lomb. The name of the merged institution at the time was called Rochester Athenæum and Mechanics Institute (RAMI). The Mechanics Institute however, was considered as the surviving school by taking over The Rochester Athenaeum’s charter. From the time of the merger until 1944 RAMI celebrated The former Mechanics Institute’s 1885 founding charter. In 1944 the school changed its name to Rochester Institute of Technology and re-established The Athenaeum’s 1829 founding charter and became a full-fledged research university.

    The university originally resided within the city of Rochester, New York, proper, on a block bounded by the Erie Canal; South Plymouth Avenue; Spring Street; and South Washington Street (approximately 43.152632°N 77.615157°W). Its art department was originally located in the Bevier Memorial Building. By the middle of the twentieth century, RIT began to outgrow its facilities, and surrounding land was scarce and expensive. Additionally in 1959 the New York Department of Public Works announced a new freeway- the Inner Loop- was to be built through the city along a path that bisected the university’s campus and required demolition of key university buildings. In 1961 an unanticipated donation of $3.27 million ($27,977,071 today) from local Grace Watson (for whom RIT’s dining hall was later named) allowed the university to purchase land for a new 1,300-acre (5.3 km^2) campus several miles south along the east bank of the Genesee River in suburban Henrietta. Upon completion in 1968 the university moved to the new suburban campus, where it resides today.

    In 1966 RIT was selected by the Federal government to be the site of the newly founded National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID). NTID admitted its first students in 1968 concurrent with RIT’s transition to the Henrietta campus.

    In 1979 RIT took over Eisenhower College- a liberal arts college located in Seneca Falls, New York. Despite making a 5-year commitment to keep Eisenhower open RIT announced in July 1982 that the college would close immediately. One final year of operation by Eisenhower’s academic program took place in the 1982–83 school year on the Henrietta campus. The final Eisenhower graduation took place in May 1983 back in Seneca Falls.

    In 1990 RIT started its first PhD program in Imaging Science – the first PhD program of its kind in the U.S. RIT subsequently established PhD programs in six other fields: Astrophysical Sciences and Technology; Computing and Information Sciences; Color Science; Microsystems Engineering; Sustainability; and Engineering. In 1996 RIT became the first college in the U.S to offer a Software Engineering degree at the undergraduate level.

    Colleges

    RIT has nine colleges:

    RIT College of Engineering Technology
    Saunders College of Business
    B. Thomas Golisano College of Computing and Information Sciences
    Kate Gleason College of Engineering
    RIT College of Health Sciences and Technology
    College of Art and Design
    RIT College of Liberal Arts
    RIT College of Science
    National Technical Institute for the Deaf

    There are also three smaller academic units that grant degrees but do not have full college faculties:

    RIT Center for Multidisciplinary Studies
    Golisano Institute for Sustainability
    University Studies

    In addition to these colleges, RIT operates three branch campuses in Europe, one in the Middle East and one in East Asia:

    RIT Croatia (formerly the American College of Management and Technology) in Dubrovnik and Zagreb, Croatia
    RIT Kosovo (formerly the American University in Kosovo) in Pristina, Kosovo
    RIT Dubai in Dubai, United Arab Emirates
    RIT China-Weihai Campus

    RIT also has international partnerships with the following schools:[34]

    Yeditepe University in Istanbul, Turkey
    Birla Institute of Technology and Science in India
    Pontificia Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra (PUCMM) in Dominican Republic
    Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo (INTEC) in Dominican Republic
    Universidad Tecnologica Centro-Americana (UNITEC) in Honduras
    Universidad del Norte (UNINORTE) in Colombia
    Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas (UPC) in Peru

    Research

    RIT’s research programs are rapidly expanding. The total value of research grants to university faculty for fiscal year 2007–2008 totaled $48.5 million- an increase of more than twenty-two percent over the grants from the previous year. The university currently offers eight PhD programs: Imaging science; Microsystems Engineering; Computing and Information Sciences; Color science; Astrophysical Sciences and Technology; Sustainability; Engineering; and Mathematical modeling.

    In 1986 RIT founded the Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science and started its first doctoral program in Imaging Science in 1989. The Imaging Science department also offers the only Bachelors (BS) and Masters (MS) degree programs in imaging science in the country. The Carlson Center features a diverse research portfolio; its major research areas include Digital Image Restoration; Remote Sensing; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Printing Systems Research; Color Science; Nanoimaging; Imaging Detectors; Astronomical Imaging; Visual Perception; and Ultrasonic Imaging.

    The Center for Microelectronic and Computer Engineering was founded by RIT in 1986. The university was the first university to offer a bachelor’s degree in Microelectronic Engineering. The Center’s facilities include 50,000 square feet (4,600 m^2) of building space with 10,000 square feet (930 m^2) of clean room space. The building will undergo an expansion later this year. Its research programs include nano-imaging; nano-lithography; nano-power; micro-optical devices; photonics subsystems integration; high-fidelity modeling and heterogeneous simulation; microelectronic manufacturing; microsystems integration; and micro-optical networks for computational applications.

    The Center for Advancing the Study of CyberInfrastructure (CASCI) is a multidisciplinary center housed in the College of Computing and Information Sciences. The Departments of Computer science; Software Engineering; Information technology; Computer engineering; Imaging Science; and Bioinformatics collaborate in a variety of research programs at this center. RIT was the first university to launch a Bachelor’s program in Information technology in 1991; the first university to launch a Bachelor’s program in Software Engineering in 1996 and was also among the first universities to launch a Computer science Bachelor’s program in 1972. RIT helped standardize the Forth programming language and developed the CLAWS software package.

    The Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation was founded in 2007. The CCRG comprises faculty and postdoctoral research associates working in the areas of general relativity; gravitational waves; and galactic dynamics. Computing facilities in the CCRG include gravitySimulator, a novel 32-node supercomputer that uses special-purpose hardware to achieve speeds of 4TFlops in gravitational N-body calculations, and newHorizons [image N/A], a state-of-the art 85-node Linux cluster for numerical relativity simulations.

    2
    Gravity Simulator at the Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, RIT, Rochester, New York, USA.

    The Center for Detectors was founded in 2010. The CfD designs; develops; and implements new advanced sensor technologies through collaboration with academic researchers; industry engineers; government scientists; and university/college students. The CfD operates four laboratories and has approximately a dozen funded projects to advance detectors in a broad array of applications, e.g. astrophysics; biomedical imaging; Earth system science; and inter-planetary travel. Center members span eight departments and four colleges.

    RIT has collaborated with many industry players in the field of research as well, including IBM; Xerox; Rochester’s Democrat and Chronicle; Siemens; National Aeronautics Space Agency(US); and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (US) (DARPA). In 2005, it was announced by Russell W. Bessette- Executive Director New York State Office of Science Technology & Academic Research (NYSTAR), that RIT will lead the SUNY University at Buffalo (US) and Alfred University (US) in an initiative to create key technologies in microsystems; photonics; nanomaterials; and remote sensing systems and to integrate next generation IT systems. In addition, the collaboratory is tasked with helping to facilitate economic development and tech transfer in New York State. More than 35 other notable organizations have joined the collaboratory, including Boeing, Eastman Kodak, IBM, Intel, SEMATECH, ITT, Motorola, Xerox, and several Federal agencies, including as NASA.

    RIT has emerged as a national leader in manufacturing research. In 2017, the U.S. Department of Energy selected RIT to lead its Reducing Embodied-Energy and Decreasing Emissions (REMADE) Institute aimed at forging new clean energy measures through the Manufacturing USA initiative. RIT also participates in five other Manufacturing USA research institutes.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:34 pm on February 7, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Biomathematics, , , New study is an advance toward preventing a ‘post-antibiotic era’,   

    From UCLA: “New study is an advance toward preventing a ‘post-antibiotic era’ “ 

    UCLA bloc

    UCLA

    February 07, 2017
    Stuart Wolpert

    UCLA biologists identify drug combinations that may be highly effective at reducing growth of deadly bacteria

    1
    UCLA’s Elif Tekin, Casey Beppler, Pamela Yeh and Van Savage are gaining insights into why certain groups of three antibiotics interact well together and others don’t.

    A landmark report by the World Health Organization in 2014 observed that antibiotic resistance — long thought to be a health threat of the future — had finally become a serious threat to public health around the world. A top WHO official called for an immediate and aggressive response to prevent what he called a “post-antibiotic era, in which common infections and minor injuries which have been treatable for decades can once again kill.”

    A team of UCLA biologists has been responding to the challenge, exploring possible ways to defeat life-threatening antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In 2016, they reported that combinations of three different antibiotics can often overcome bacteria’s resistance to antibiotics, even when none of the three antibiotics on its own — or even two of the three together — is effective.

    Their latest work, which is published online and appears in the current print edition of the Journal of the Royal Society Interface, extends their understanding of that phenomenon and identifies two combinations of drugs that are unexpectedly successful in reducing the growth of E. coli bacteria.

    A key to the study is an understanding that using two, three or more antibiotics in combination does not necessarily make the drugs more effective in combating bacteria — in fact, in many cases, their effectiveness is actually reduced when drugs are used together — so the combinations must be chosen carefully and systematically. The new paper also provides the first detailed explanation of how the scientists created a mathematical formula that can help predict which combinations of drugs will be most effective.

    The scientists tested every possible combination of a group of six antibiotics, including 20 different combinations of three antibiotics at a time.

    Among the three-drug combinations, the researchers found two that were noticeably more effective than they had expected. Those groupings used treatments from three different classes of antibiotics, so the combinations used a wide range of mechanisms to fight the bacteria. (Five of the three-drug combinations were less effective than they expected, and the other 13 groupings performed as they predicted.)

    2
    Pamela Yeh. Reed Hutchinson/UCLA

    “So many bacteria are now so resistant to antibiotics,” said Pamela Yeh, the study’s senior author and a UCLA assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology. “We have a logical, methodical way to identify three-drug combinations to pursue. We think it’s vital to have this framework for identifying the best possible combinations of antibiotics.”

    The researchers have identified cases where the effects of the interactions are larger than the sum of the parts.

    “Doctors may want to super-efficiently kill the bacteria, and that is what these enhanced interactions make possible,” said lead author Casey Beppler, who was an undergraduate in Yeh’s laboratory and is now a graduate student at UC San Francisco.

    For the current study, the scientists evaluated the drug combinations on plates in a lab. Beppler said a next step will be to test the most effective combinations in mice.

    In addition to reporting on how well various combinations of antibiotics worked, the paper also presents a mathematical formula the biologists developed for analyzing how three or more factors interact and of explaining complex, unexpected interactions. The framework would be useful for solving other questions in the sciences and social sciences in which researchers analyze how three or more components might interact — for example, how climate is affected by the interplay among temperature, rainfall, humidity and ocean acidity.

    The biologists are gaining a deep understanding of why certain groups of three antibiotics interact well together, and others don’t, said Van Savage, a co-author of the paper and a UCLA professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and of biomathematics.

    Beppler said more research is needed to determine which combinations are optimal for specific diseases and for specific parts of the body. And the researchers now are using the mathematical formula to test combinations of four antibiotics.

    Co-authors of the new research are Elif Tekin, a UCLA graduate student in Savage’s laboratory; Zhiyuan Mao, Cynthia White, Cassandra McDiarmid and Emily Vargas, who were undergraduates in Yeh’s laboratory; and Jeffrey H. Miller, a UCLA distinguished professor of microbiology, immunology and molecular genetics.

    Yeh’s research was funded by the Hellman Foundation. Savage’s research was funded by a James S. McDonnell Foundation Complex Systems Scholar Award and from the National Science Foundation. Beppler received funding from the National Institutes of Health Initiative to Maximize Student Development.

    See the full article here .

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    For nearly 100 years, UCLA has been a pioneer, persevering through impossibility, turning the futile into the attainable.

    We doubt the critics, reject the status quo and see opportunity in dissatisfaction. Our campus, faculty and students are driven by optimism. It is not naïve; it is essential. And it has fueled every accomplishment, allowing us to redefine what’s possible, time after time.

    This can-do perspective has brought us 12 Nobel Prizes, 12 Rhodes Scholarships, more NCAA titles than any university and more Olympic medals than most nations. Our faculty and alumni helped create the Internet and pioneered reverse osmosis. And more than 100 companies have been created based on technology developed at UCLA.

     
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