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  • richardmitnick 4:45 pm on September 21, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Australian National University AU, , It is star-forming galaxies that produce the majority of diffuse gamma-ray radiation.   

    From Australian National University (AU) : “Astrophysicists solve ’empty sky’ gamma-ray mystery” 

    ANU Australian National University Bloc

    From Australian National University (AU)

    16 September 2021

    George Booth
    Phone +61 439 362 537
    media@anu.edu.au

    1
    A detailed look at the gamma-ray sky. Credit NASA Fermi LAT.

    Star-forming galaxies are responsible for creating gamma-rays that until now had not been associated with a known origin, researchers from The Australian National University (ANU) have confirmed.

    Lead author Dr Matt Roth, from the ANU Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, said until now it has been unclear what created gamma-rays – one of the most energetic forms of light in the Universe – that appear in patches of seemingly ’empty sky’.

    The discovery could offer clues to help astronomers solve other mysteries of the Universe, such as what kind of particles make up Dark Matter – one of the holy grails of astrophysics.

    “It’s a significant milestone to finally discover the origins of this gamma-ray emission, solving a mystery of the Universe astronomers have been trying to decipher since the 1960s,” Dr Roth said.

    “There are two obvious sources that produce large amounts of gamma-rays seen in the Universe. One when gas falls into the supermassive black holes which are found at the centres of all galaxies – called an active galactic nucleus (AGN) – and the other associated with star formation in the disks of galaxies.

    “We modelled the gamma-ray emission from all the galaxies in the Universe and compared our results with the predictions for other sources and found that it is star-forming galaxies that produce the majority of this diffuse gamma-ray radiation and not the AGN process.”

    ANU researchers were able to pinpoint what created these mysterious gamma-rays after obtaining a better understanding of how cosmic rays – particles that travel at speeds very close to the speed of light – move through the gas between the stars. Cosmic rays are important because they create large amounts of gamma-ray emission in star-forming galaxies when they collide with the interstellar gas.

    Data from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope was a key resource used to uncover the unknown origins of the gamma-rays. Researchers analysed information about many galaxies such as their star-formation rates, total masses, physical size and distances from Earth.

    “Our model can also be used to make predictions for radio emission – the electromagnetic radiation that has a frequency similar to a car radio – from star-forming galaxies, which could help researchers understand more about the internal structure of galaxies,” Dr Roth said.

    “We are currently looking at producing maps of the gamma-ray sky that can be used to inform upcoming gamma-ray observations from next-generation telescopes. This includes the Čerenkov Telescope Array, which Australia is involved in.

    “This new technology will hopefully allow us to observe many more star-forming galaxies in gamma-rays than we can detect with current gamma-ray telescopes.”

    This research, published in Nature, features authors from Australia and Italy. The ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D) was also involved.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    ANU Campus

    Australian National University (AU) is a world-leading university in Australia’s capital city, Canberra. Our location points to our unique history, ties to the Australian Government and special standing as a resource for the Australian people.

    Our focus on research as an asset, and an approach to education, ensures our graduates are in demand the world-over for their abilities to understand, and apply vision and creativity to addressing complex contemporary challenges.

    Australian National University is regarded as one of the world’s leading research universities, and is ranked as the number one university in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere by the 2021 QS World University Rankings. It is ranked 31st in the world by the 2021 QS World University Rankings, and 59th in the world (third in Australia) by the 2021 Times Higher Education.

    In the 2020 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates’ employability, Australian National University was ranked 15th in the world (first in Australia). According to the 2020 QS World University by Subject, the university was also ranked among the top 10 in the world for Anthropology, Earth and Marine Sciences, Geography, Geology, Philosophy, Politics, and Sociology.

    Established in 1946, Australian National University is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. It traces its origins to Canberra University College, which was established in 1929 and was integrated into Australian National University in 1960. Australian National University enrolls 10,052 undergraduate and 10,840 postgraduate students and employs 3,753 staff. The university’s endowment stood at A$1.8 billion as of 2018.

    Australian National University counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni. The university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU’s scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:14 pm on September 16, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Australian National University AU, , Star-forming galaxies are responsible for creating gamma-rays that until now had not been associated with a known origin.   

    From Australian National University (AU) : “Astrophysicists solve ’empty sky’ gamma-ray mystery” 

    ANU Australian National University Bloc

    From Australian National University (AU)

    16 September 2021

    Star-forming galaxies are responsible for creating gamma-rays that until now had not been associated with a known origin.

    Star-forming galaxies are responsible for creating gamma-rays that until now had not been associated with a known origin, researchers from The Australian National University (ANU) have confirmed.

    Lead author Dr Matt Roth, from the ANU Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, said until now it has been unclear what created gamma-rays – one of the most energetic forms of light in the Universe – that appear in patches of seemingly ’empty sky’.

    The discovery could offer clues to help astronomers solve other mysteries of the Universe, such as what kind of particles make up Dark Matter – one of the holy grails of astrophysics.

    “It’s a significant milestone to finally discover the origins of this gamma-ray emission, solving a mystery of the Universe astronomers have been trying to decipher since the 1960s,” Dr Roth said.

    “There are two obvious sources that produce large amounts of gamma-rays seen in the Universe. One when gas falls into the supermassive black holes which are found at the centres of all galaxies – called an active galactic nucleus (AGN) – and the other associated with star formation in the disks of galaxies.

    “We modelled the gamma-ray emission from all the galaxies in the Universe and compared our results with the predictions for other sources and found that it is star-forming galaxies that produce the majority of this diffuse gamma-ray radiation and not the AGN process.”

    ANU researchers were able to pinpoint what created these mysterious gamma-rays after obtaining a better understanding of how cosmic rays – particles that travel at speeds very close to the speed of light – move through the gas between the stars. Cosmic rays are important because they create large amounts of gamma-ray emission in star-forming galaxies when they collide with the interstellar gas.

    Data from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope was a key resource used to uncover the unknown origins of the gamma-rays.

    Researchers analysed information about many galaxies such as their star-formation rates, total masses, physical size and distances from Earth.

    “Our model can also be used to make predictions for radio emission – the electromagnetic radiation that has a frequency similar to a car radio – from star-forming galaxies, which could help researchers understand more about the internal structure of galaxies,” Dr Roth said.

    “We are currently looking at producing maps of the gamma-ray sky that can be used to inform upcoming gamma-ray observations from next-generation telescopes. This includes the Čerenkov Telescope Array, in which Australia is involved.

    “This new technology will hopefully allow us to observe many more star-forming galaxies in gamma-rays than we can detect with current gamma-ray telescopes.”

    This research, published in Nature, features authors from Australia and Italy. The ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D) was also involved.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    ANU Campus

    Australian National University (AU) is a world-leading university in Australia’s capital city, Canberra. Our location points to our unique history, ties to the Australian Government and special standing as a resource for the Australian people.

    Our focus on research as an asset, and an approach to education, ensures our graduates are in demand the world-over for their abilities to understand, and apply vision and creativity to addressing complex contemporary challenges.

    Australian National University is regarded as one of the world’s leading research universities, and is ranked as the number one university in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere by the 2021 QS World University Rankings. It is ranked 31st in the world by the 2021 QS World University Rankings, and 59th in the world (third in Australia) by the 2021 Times Higher Education.

    In the 2020 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates’ employability, Australian National University was ranked 15th in the world (first in Australia). According to the 2020 QS World University by Subject, the university was also ranked among the top 10 in the world for Anthropology, Earth and Marine Sciences, Geography, Geology, Philosophy, Politics, and Sociology.

    Established in 1946, Australian National University is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. It traces its origins to Canberra University College, which was established in 1929 and was integrated into Australian National University in 1960. Australian National University enrolls 10,052 undergraduate and 10,840 postgraduate students and employs 3,753 staff. The university’s endowment stood at A$1.8 billion as of 2018.

    Australian National University counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni. The university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU’s scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:06 pm on September 13, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New laser captures energy like noise-cancelling headphones", , Australian National University AU, Extremely powerful microscopic lasers that are even smaller than the wavelength of the light they produce., , , , This technology uses laser light instead of electronics-an approach called photonics.   

    From Australian National University (AU) : “New laser captures energy like noise-cancelling headphones” 

    ANU Australian National University Bloc

    From Australian National University (AU)

    13 September 2021

    1
    Kirill Koshelev and Yuri Kivshar

    1
    Merging of BICs in the finite-size structure. a Calculated Hz field distribution at a = 573 nm in the finite-size domain with N = 15. N is the number of air holes along the vertical (or horizontal) direction. b Topological charge distributions in FT(Hz) at before-merging (left), pre-merging (middle), and merging (right). FT denotes the spatial Fourier transformation. The white circle of 7° indicates the first field minimum. c Schematic illustrations of the radiative loss in the three cases corresponding to b. d Calculated radiation factor, defined as |FT(Hz)/Q | , for a = 568, 573, 576, and 578 nm. The largest dark area is obtained at pre-merging of a = 573 nm. e The values of the inverse radiation factor plotted as a function of the lattice constant for N = 15 (black) and N = 21 (purple). The vertical red dashed line indicates the merging point in the infinite-size domain. f Radiative Q factor for N = 15 as a function of the lattice constant, calculated by the FDTD simulation. Credit: DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-24502-0

    Physicists at The Australian National University (ANU) have developed extremely powerful microscopic lasers that are even smaller than the wavelength of the light they produce.

    So called ‘nanolasers’ have a huge variety of medical, surgical, industrial and military uses, covering everything from hair removal to laser printers and night-time surveillance.

    According to lead researcher Professor Yuri Kivshar, the nanolasers developed by his team promise to be even more powerful than existing lasers, allowing them to be useful in smaller-scale devices.

    “They can also be integrated on a chip,” he said.

    “For example, they can be mounted directly on the tip of an optical fibre to lighten or operate on a particular spot inside a human body.

    “This technology uses laser light instead of electronics-an approach called photonics. It’s exciting to see how this can be realised in everyday practical devices, like mobile phones.”

    Professor Kivshar’s team used a clever trick to modify conventional lasers, which traditionally comprise some form of light amplification device placed between two mirrors. As the light bounces back and forth between the two mirrors it becomes brighter and brighter.

    Instead of mirrors, the research team created a device that works like “inside-out” noise-cancelling headphones and which traps energy and prevents it from escaping. The trapped light energy builds up into a strong, well-shaped laser.

    This trick overcomes a well-known challenge of nanolasers — energy leakage.

    To fabricate the laser, the team collaborated with Professor Hong-Gyu Park and his group at Korea University [고려대학교](KR).

    The researchers say the device’s efficiency was high — only a small amount of energy was required to start the laser shining — with a threshold about 50 times lower than any previously reported nanolaser and narrow beam.

    Professor Kivshar said the new laser builds on a quantum mechanical discovery made almost 100 years ago.

    “This mathematical solution was published by Wigner and von Neumann in 1929, in a paper that seemed very strange at the time – it was not explained for many years,” Professor Kivshar said.

    “Now this 100-year-old discovery is driving tomorrow’s technology.”

    The research is reported in Nature Communications.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    ANU Campus

    Australian National University (AU) is a world-leading university in Australia’s capital city, Canberra. Our location points to our unique history, ties to the Australian Government and special standing as a resource for the Australian people.

    Our focus on research as an asset, and an approach to education, ensures our graduates are in demand the world-over for their abilities to understand, and apply vision and creativity to addressing complex contemporary challenges.

    Australian National University is regarded as one of the world’s leading research universities, and is ranked as the number one university in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere by the 2021 QS World University Rankings. It is ranked 31st in the world by the 2021 QS World University Rankings, and 59th in the world (third in Australia) by the 2021 Times Higher Education.

    In the 2020 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates’ employability, Australian National University was ranked 15th in the world (first in Australia). According to the 2020 QS World University by Subject, the university was also ranked among the top 10 in the world for Anthropology, Earth and Marine Sciences, Geography, Geology, Philosophy, Politics, and Sociology.

    Established in 1946, Australian National University is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. It traces its origins to Canberra University College, which was established in 1929 and was integrated into Australian National University in 1960. Australian National University enrolls 10,052 undergraduate and 10,840 postgraduate students and employs 3,753 staff. The university’s endowment stood at A$1.8 billion as of 2018.

    Australian National University counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni. The university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU’s scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:34 pm on August 25, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Small diamond-based quantum computers could be in our hands within five years", ANU research spinoff Quantum Brilliance, Australian National University AU, , Small affordable ‘plug-and-play’ quantum computing is one step closer. An Australian startup has won $13 million to make its diamond-based computing cores shine. Now it needs to grow.   

    From Australian National University (AU) via COSMOS (AU) : “Small diamond-based quantum computers could be in our hands within five years” 

    ANU Australian National University Bloc

    From Australian National University (AU)

    via

    Cosmos Magazine bloc

    COSMOS (AU)

    25 August 2021
    Jamie Seidel

    An Australian startup has received funding to make the next quantum computer.

    1
    Andrew Horsely. Credit: ANU.

    Small affordable ‘plug-and-play’ quantum computing is one step closer. An Australian startup has won $13 million to make its diamond-based computing cores shine. Now it needs to grow.

    ANU research spinoff Quantum Brilliance has found a way to use synthetic diamonds to drive quantum calculations. Now it’s on a five-year quest to produce commercially viable Quantum Accelerators. The goal is a card capable of being plugged into any existing computer system similar to the way graphics cards are now.

    “We’re not deluding ourselves,” says CEO Dr Andrew Horsley. “There’s still a lot of work to do. But we’ve now got a five-year pathway to produce a lunchbox-sized device”.

    To do this, Quantum Brilliance is hiring 20 engineers, scientists, physicists, software engineers, and control engineers. The resulting quantum accelerator card will be valuable for self-driving car manufacturers, materials research labs, logistics hubs and financial services firms.

    “We’ve understood electricity and magnetism for a long time,” Dr Horsley says. “We now understand quantum phenomena and are in the process of turning that into technology. It’s very exciting. And it’s not just an iterative improvement. This is a whole new way of computing. And we’re doing it here in Australia”.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    ANU Campus

    Australian National University (AU) is a world-leading university in Australia’s capital city, Canberra. Our location points to our unique history, ties to the Australian Government and special standing as a resource for the Australian people.

    Our focus on research as an asset, and an approach to education, ensures our graduates are in demand the world-over for their abilities to understand, and apply vision and creativity to addressing complex contemporary challenges.

    Australian National University is regarded as one of the world’s leading research universities, and is ranked as the number one university in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere by the 2021 QS World University Rankings. It is ranked 31st in the world by the 2021 QS World University Rankings, and 59th in the world (third in Australia) by the 2021 Times Higher Education.

    In the 2020 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates’ employability, Australian National University was ranked 15th in the world (first in Australia). According to the 2020 QS World University by Subject, the university was also ranked among the top 10 in the world for Anthropology, Earth and Marine Sciences, Geography, Geology, Philosophy, Politics, and Sociology.

    Established in 1946, Australian National University is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. It traces its origins to Canberra University College, which was established in 1929 and was integrated into Australian National University in 1960. Australian National University enrolls 10,052 undergraduate and 10,840 postgraduate students and employs 3,753 staff. The university’s endowment stood at A$1.8 billion as of 2018.

    Australian National University counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni. The university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU’s scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:58 pm on August 11, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Detailed look at earliest moments of supernova explosion", , Australian National University AU, , , Shock cooling curve, The ANU researchers tested the new data against a number of existing star models., The astronomers determined the star that caused the supernova was most likely a yellow supergiant which was more than 100 times bigger than our sun.,   

    From Australian National University (AU) : “Detailed look at earliest moments of supernova explosion” 

    ANU Australian National University Bloc

    From Australian National University (AU)

    5 August 2021

    Contact
    George Booth
    +61 439 362 537
    media@anu.edu.au

    1
    Illustration of a supernova explosion. Credit: M Weiss/ National Aeronautics Space Agency (US)/Chandra X-ray Center (US).

    In a world-first, astronomers at The Australian National University (ANU), working with NASA and an international team of researchers, have captured the first moments of a supernova – the explosive death of stars – in detail never-before-seen.

    NASA’s Kepler space telescope captured the data in 2017.

    The ANU researchers recorded the initial burst of light that is seen as the first shockwave travels through the star before it explodes.

    PhD scholar Patrick Armstrong, who led the study, said researchers are particularly interested in how the brightness of the light changes over time prior to the explosion. This event, known as the “shock cooling curve”, provides clues as to what type of star caused the explosion.

    “This is the first time anyone has had such a detailed look at a complete shock cooling curve in any supernova,” Mr Armstrong, from the ANU Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, said.

    “Because the initial stage of a supernova happens so quickly, it is very hard for most telescopes to record this phenomenon.

    “Until now, the data we had was incomplete and only included the dimming of the shock cooling curve and the subsequent explosion, but never the bright burst of light at the very start of the supernova.

    “This major discovery will give us the data we need to identify other stars that became supernovae, even after they have exploded.”

    The ANU researchers tested the new data against a number of existing star models.

    Based on their modelling, the astronomers determined the star that caused the supernova was most likely a yellow supergiant which was more than 100 times bigger than our sun.

    Astrophysicist and ANU researcher Dr Brad Tucker said the international team was able to confirm that one particular model, known as SW 17, is the most accurate at predicting what types of stars caused different supernovae.

    “We’ve proven one model works better than the rest at identifying different supernovae stars and there is no longer a need to test multiple other models, which has traditionally been the case,” he said.

    “Astronomers across the world will be able to use SW 17 and be confident it is the best model to identify stars that turn into supernovas.”

    Supernovae are among the brightest and most powerful events we can see in space and are important because they are believed to be responsible for the creation of most of the elements found in our universe.

    By better understanding how these stars turn into supernovae, researchers are able to piece together information that provides clues as to where the elements that make up our universe originate.

    Although the Kepler telescope was discontinued in 2018, new space telescopes such as NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will likely capture more supernovae explosions.
    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    National Aeronautics Space Agency (US)/Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US) TESS

    NASA/MIT Tess in the building

    National Aeronautics Space Agency (US)/Massachusetts Institute of Technology(US) TESS – Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite replaced the Kepler Space Telescope in search for exoplanets. TESS is a NASA Astrophysics Explorer mission led and operated by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US), and managed by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (US)


    Additional partners include Northrop Grumman, based in Falls Church, Virginia; NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley; the Center for Astrophysics – Harvard and Smithsonian; MIT Lincoln Laboratory; and the NASA Space Telescope Science Institute (US) in Baltimore.







    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    “As more space telescopes are launched, we will likely observe more of these shock cooling curves,” Mr Armstrong said.

    “This will provide us with further opportunities to improve our models and build our understanding of supernovae and where the elements that make up the world around us come from.”

    Science paper:
    MNRAS

    SN 2017jgh is a type IIb supernova discovered by Pan-STARRS during the C16/C17 campaigns of the Kepler/K2 mission.

    Pann-STARRS 1 Telescope, U Hawaii, situated at Haleakala Observatories near the summit of Haleakala in Hawaii, USA, altitude 3,052 m (10,013 ft).

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    ANU Campus

    Australian National University is a world-leading university in Australia’s capital city, Canberra. Our location points to our unique history, ties to the Australian Government and special standing as a resource for the Australian people.

    Our focus on research as an asset, and an approach to education, ensures our graduates are in demand the world-over for their abilities to understand, and apply vision and creativity to addressing complex contemporary challenges.

    Australian National University is regarded as one of the world’s leading research universities, and is ranked as the number one university in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere by the 2021 QS World University Rankings. It is ranked 31st in the world by the 2021 QS World University Rankings, and 59th in the world (third in Australia) by the 2021 Times Higher Education.

    In the 2020 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates’ employability, Australian National University was ranked 15th in the world (first in Australia). According to the 2020 QS World University by Subject, the university was also ranked among the top 10 in the world for Anthropology, Earth and Marine Sciences, Geography, Geology, Philosophy, Politics, and Sociology.

    Established in 1946, Australian National University is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. It traces its origins to Canberra University College, which was established in 1929 and was integrated into Australian National University in 1960. Australian National University enrolls 10,052 undergraduate and 10,840 postgraduate students and employs 3,753 staff. The university’s endowment stood at A$1.8 billion as of 2018.

    Australian National University counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni. The university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU’s scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:48 pm on July 7, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Ancient star death unlocks 13-billion-year space mystery", , , Australian National University AU, , , Magneto-rotational hypernova, The star: SMSS J200322.54-114203.3   

    From Australian National University (AU) : “Ancient star death unlocks 13-billion-year space mystery” 

    ANU Australian National University Bloc

    From Australian National University (AU)

    8 July 2021
    George Booth
    +61 2 6125 7979
    media@anu.edu.au

    1
    The star SMSS J200322.54-114203.3. (centre, with crosshairs) in the south-eastern corner of the constellation Aquila (the Eagle) close to the border with Capricornus and Sagittarius. Credit: Da Costa/SkyMapper.

    2
    Artists impression of a hypernova explosion. National Aeronautics Space Agency (US).

    In a world-first, astronomers from The Australian National University (ANU) have discovered evidence of a massive explosion that led to the destruction of a rapidly spinning, strongly-magnetized star [Nature].

    The so-called “magneto-rotational hypernova” occurred around a billion years after the Big Bang and was 10-times more energetic than a supernova.

    The breakthrough discovery, led by an international team of scientists, offers clues for why an unusually high concentration of metal elements were present in another ancient Milky Way star.

    The star, SMSS J200322.54-114203.3, had higher amounts of zinc, uranium and europium, compared to the first stars in the universe which were predominantly made up of hydrogen and helium.

    “We calculate that 13-billion-years ago, J200322.54-114203.3 formed out of a chemical soup that contained the remains of this type of hypernova,” Dr David Yong, from the ANU Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, said.

    “No one’s ever found this phenomenon before.

    “It is a very rare star, and the fact that it contains much larger than expected amounts of some heavier elements means that it is even rarer – a real needle in a haystack.”

    Nobel Laureate and ANU Vice-Chancellor Professor Brian Schmidt is a co-author of the study.

    “The high zinc abundance is a definite marker of a hypernova, a very energetic supernova,” he said.

    A key feature of the star was its rapid rotation. While hypernovae have been observed since the 1990s, this is the first time one combining rapid rotation and strong magnetism has been detected.

    Until now, researchers were unable to explain why this star contained unusually high traces of metals.

    “We now find the observational evidence for the first time directly indicating that there was a different kind of hypernova producing all stable elements in the periodic table at once – a core-collapse explosion of a fast-spinning strongly-magnetized massive star,” Associate Professor Chiaki Kobayashi, from the University of Hertfordshire (UK), said.

    “It is the only thing that explains the results.”

    The research also involved members from the ARC Centre of Excellence in All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D).

    “This is an extremely important discovery that reveals a new pathway for the formation of heavy elements in the infant universe,” ASTRO 3D Director and ANU Professor Lisa Kewley said.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    ANU Campus

    Australian National University (AU) is a world-leading university in Australia’s capital city, Canberra. Our location points to our unique history, ties to the Australian Government and special standing as a resource for the Australian people.

    Our focus on research as an asset, and an approach to education, ensures our graduates are in demand the world-over for their abilities to understand, and apply vision and creativity to addressing complex contemporary challenges.

    Australian National University (AU) is regarded as one of the world’s leading research universities, and is ranked as the number one university in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere by the 2021 QS World University Rankings. It is ranked 31st in the world by the 2021 QS World University Rankings, and 59th in the world (third in Australia) by the 2021 Times Higher Education.

    In the 2020 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates’ employability, Australian National University (AU) was ranked 15th in the world (first in Australia). According to the 2020 QS World University by Subject, the university was also ranked among the top 10 in the world for Anthropology, Earth and Marine Sciences, Geography, Geology, Philosophy, Politics, and Sociology.

    Established in 1946, ANU is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. It traces its origins to Canberra University College, which was established in 1929 and was integrated into Australian National University (AU) in 1960. Australian National University (AU) enrolls 10,052 undergraduate and 10,840 postgraduate students and employs 3,753 staff. The university’s endowment stood at A$1.8 billion as of 2018.

    Australian National University (AU) counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni. The university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU’s scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:54 am on June 8, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Scientists lead ambitious study to reach infinity and beyond", Australian National University AU,   

    From Australian National University (AU) : “Scientists lead ambitious study to reach infinity and beyond” 

    ANU Australian National University Bloc

    From Australian National University (AU)

    8 June 2021
    Will Wright
    +61 2 6125 7979
    media@anu.edu.au

    Scientists from The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a new type of space-craft propulsion system as part of an ambitious international project that aims to explore the worlds surrounding our second nearest star, Alpha Centauri.

    The Breakthrough Starshot project calls for the design of an ultra-lightweight spacecraft, which acts as a light-sail, to travel with unprecedented speed over tens of trillions of kilometres to the star about four lightyears away, reaching the destination within 20 years.

    The sheer scale and size of the interstellar distances between solar systems is difficult for most people to comprehend. Travel from Earth to Alpha Centauri using today’s conventional spacecraft would take more than 100 lifetimes.

    In a recent paper published in the Journal of the Optical Society of America B [no link], the ANU team, with funding support from Breakthrough Initiatives, outlines their design concept for the laser propulsion system to be used to launch the probes from Earth.

    Lead author Dr Chathura Bandutunga said the light to power the sail will come from the Earth’s surface – a giant laser array with millions of lasers acting in concert to illuminate the sail and push it onto its interstellar journey.

    “To cover the vast distances between Alpha Centauri and our own solar system, we must think outside the box and forge a new way for interstellar space travel,” Dr Bandutunga, from the Applied Metrology Laboratories at the ANU Centre for Gravitational Astrophysics, said.

    “Once on its way, the sail will fly through the vacuum of space for 20 years before reaching its destination. During its flyby of Alpha Centauri, it will record images and scientific measurements which it will broadcast back to Earth.”

    The ANU team has expertise in different areas of optics spanning astronomy, gravitational wave instrumentation, fiber-optic sensors and optical phased arrays.

    The founding scientist who pioneered the ANU node of this project, Dr Robert Ward, said an important part of this grand vision is the development of the laser array – in particular, designing a system to have all the lasers act as one.

    “The Breakthrough Starshot program estimates the total required optical power to be about 100 GW – about 100 times the capacity of the world’s largest battery today,” Dr Ward, from the ANU Research School of Physics, said.

    “To achieve this, we estimate the number of lasers required to be approximately 100 million.

    Researcher and fellow author, Dr Paul Sibley, said one of the main challenges we tackled is how to make measurements of each laser’s drift.

    “We use a random digital signal to scramble the measurements from each laser and unscramble each one separately in digital signal processing,” he said.

    “This allows us to pick out only the measurements we need from a vast jumble of information. We can then break the problem into small arrays and link them together in sections.”

    To orchestrate the show, the ANU design calls for a Beacon satellite – a guide laser placed in Earth orbit which acts as the conductor, bringing the entire laser array together.

    Professor Michael Ireland from the ANU Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics said the design of the laser “engine” requires compensation for the atmosphere.

    “Unless corrected, the atmosphere distorts the outgoing laser beam, causing it to divert from its intended destination,” he said.

    “Our proposal uses a laser guide star. This is a small satellite with a laser which illuminates the array from Earth orbit. As the laser guide star passes through the atmosphere on the way back to Earth, it measures the changes due to the atmosphere.

    “We have developed the algorithm which allows us to use this information to pre-correct the outgoing light from the array.”

    Dr Bandutunga said just like the eventual light-sail, this research is at the beginning of a long journey.

    “While we are confident with our design, the proof is in the pudding,” he said.

    “The next step is to start testing some of the basic building blocks in a controlled laboratory setting. This includes the concepts for combining small arrays to make larger arrays and the atmospheric correction algorithms.

    “The work done at ANU was to see if this idea would conceivably work. The goal was to find out-of-the-box solutions, to simulate them and determine if they were physically possible.

    “While this proposal was put forward by the ANU team, there is more work happening internationally to come up with unique and clever solutions to other parts of the problem.

    “It’ll be exciting to bring these solutions together to bring the project to life.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    ANU Campus

    Australian National University (AU) is a world-leading university in Australia’s capital city, Canberra. Our location points to our unique history, ties to the Australian Government and special standing as a resource for the Australian people.

    Our focus on research as an asset, and an approach to education, ensures our graduates are in demand the world-over for their abilities to understand, and apply vision and creativity to addressing complex contemporary challenges.

    Australian National University (AU) is regarded as one of the world’s leading research universities, and is ranked as the number one university in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere by the 2021 QS World University Rankings. It is ranked 31st in the world by the 2021 QS World University Rankings, and 59th in the world (third in Australia) by the 2021 Times Higher Education.

    In the 2020 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates’ employability, Australian National University (AU) was ranked 15th in the world (first in Australia). According to the 2020 QS World University by Subject, the university was also ranked among the top 10 in the world for Anthropology, Earth and Marine Sciences, Geography, Geology, Philosophy, Politics, and Sociology.

    Established in 1946, ANU is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. It traces its origins to Canberra University College, which was established in 1929 and was integrated into Australian National University (AU) in 1960. Australian National University (AU) enrolls 10,052 undergraduate and 10,840 postgraduate students and employs 3,753 staff. The university’s endowment stood at A$1.8 billion as of 2018.

    Australian National University (AU) counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni. The university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU’s scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:27 pm on June 2, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Australia leads project that will burst the Hubble bubble", , Australian National University AU, , , , MAVIS instrument,   

    From Australian National University (AU): “Australia leads project that will burst the Hubble bubble” 

    ANU Australian National University Bloc

    From Australian National University (AU)

    2 June 2021

    Australian scientists will help construct one of the world’s most powerful ground-based telescopes that promises to see further and clearer than the Hubble Space Telescope and unlock mysteries of the early Universe.

    The team will develop a new, world-first instrument that will produce images three times sharper than Hubble under the multimillion dollar project.

    The MAVIS instrument will be fitted to one of the eight-metre Unit Telescopes at the European Southern Observatory’s (ESO’s) Very Large Telescope in Chile, to remove blurring from telescope images caused by turbulence in Earth’s atmosphere. MAVIS will be built over seven years at a cost of $57 million.

    2
    This computer model shows how MAVIS will look on the instrument platform of VLT Unit Telescope 4 (Yepun) at ESO’s Paranal Observatory. The boxes indicate the various submodules of the instrument. Credit: ESO/MAVIS consortium/L. Calçada

    The MAVIS consortium is led by The Australian National University (ANU), and involves Macquarie University (AU), Italy’s INAF Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (IT) and France’s Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille (FR) (LAM).

    MAVIS Principal Investigator Professor François Rigaut, from the ANU Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, said atmospheric turbulence is like the phenomenon of objects appearing blurry on the horizon during a hot day.

    “MAVIS will remove this blurring and deliver images as sharp as if the telescope were in space, helping us to peer back into the early Universe by pushing the cosmic frontier of what is visible,” he said.

    “The ability to deliver corrected optical images, over a wide field of view using one of the world’s largest telescope, is what makes MAVIS a first-of-its kind instrument, and means we will be able to observe very faint, distant objects.

    “We will be able to use the new technology to explore how the first stars formed 13 billion years ago, as well as how weather changes on planets and moons in our Solar System.”

    Associate Professor Richard McDermid, the MAVIS project scientist based at Macquarie University, said the project represents a significant milestone for Australia’s growing relationship with ESO, and the nation’s space research and work.

    “MAVIS demonstrates that Australia can not only participate in the scientific life of the observatory, but can also be a core player in helping ESO maintain its leadership by developing unique and competitive instruments using Australian expertise,” he said.

    Professor Matthew Colless, Director of the ANU Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, said the coming decade represents a very exciting time for astronomy.

    “ESO and Australia entered a 10-year strategic partnership in 2017, a partnership that the Australian astronomy community has embraced with enthusiasm,” he said.

    “In return for building MAVIS, the consortium will get guaranteed observing time with the instrument, as well as a financial contribution from ESO for its hardware.

    “From space, with the likes of the James Webb Space Telescope, and with ground-based facilities such as ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope, astronomers will explore the Universe in more depth than ever.

    “By delivering the sharpest view possible using visible light, MAVIS will be a unique and powerful complement to these future large facilities, which target infrared wavelengths.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    ANU Campus

    Australian National University (AU) is a world-leading university in Australia’s capital city, Canberra. Our location points to our unique history, ties to the Australian Government and special standing as a resource for the Australian people.

    Our focus on research as an asset, and an approach to education, ensures our graduates are in demand the world-over for their abilities to understand, and apply vision and creativity to addressing complex contemporary challenges.

    Australian National University (AU) is regarded as one of the world’s leading research universities, and is ranked as the number one university in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere by the 2021 QS World University Rankings. It is ranked 31st in the world by the 2021 QS World University Rankings, and 59th in the world (third in Australia) by the 2021 Times Higher Education.

    In the 2020 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates’ employability, Australian National University (AU) was ranked 15th in the world (first in Australia). According to the 2020 QS World University by Subject, the university was also ranked among the top 10 in the world for Anthropology, Earth and Marine Sciences, Geography, Geology, Philosophy, Politics, and Sociology.

    Established in 1946, ANU is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. It traces its origins to Canberra University College, which was established in 1929 and was integrated into Australian National University (AU) in 1960. Australian National University (AU) enrolls 10,052 undergraduate and 10,840 postgraduate students and employs 3,753 staff. The university’s endowment stood at A$1.8 billion as of 2018.

    Australian National University (AU) counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni. The university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU’s scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online.

     
  • richardmitnick 4:50 pm on May 27, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Gravitational wave search no hum drum hunt", Australian National University AU, , , ,   

    From Australian National University (AU) via phys.org : “Gravitational wave search no hum drum hunt” 

    ANU Australian National University Bloc

    From Australian National University (AU)

    via

    phys.org

    1
    An image of continuous gravitational waves. Credit: Mark Myers, OzGrav – Home ARC CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE FOR GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DISCOVERY (AU)/ Swinburne University of Technology (AU).

    The hunt for the never before heard ‘hum’ of gravitational waves caused by mysterious neutron stars has just got a lot easier, thanks to an international team of researchers.

    Gravitational waves have only been detected from black holes and neutron stars colliding, major cosmic events that cause huge bursts that ripple through space and time.

    The research team, involving scientists from the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) (US), Virgo Collaboration (EU) and the Centre for Gravitational Astrophysics (CGA) at The Australian National University (ANU), are now turning their eagle eye to spinning neutron stars to detect the waves.

    Unlike the massive bursts caused by black holes or neutron stars colliding, the researchers say single spinning neutron stars have a bulge or ‘mountain’ only a few millimeters high, which may produce a steady constant stream or ‘hum’ of gravitational waves.

    The researchers are using their methods that detected gravitational waves for the first time in 2015 to capture this steady soundtrack of the stars over the thunderous noise of massive black holes and dense neutron stars colliding.

    They say it’s like trying to capture the squeak of a mouse in the middle of a stampeding herd of elephants.

    If successful, it would be the first detection of a gravitational wave event that didn’t involve the collision of massive objects like black holes or neutron stars.

    ANU Distinguished Professor, Susan Scott from the ANU Research School of Physics, said the collision of dense neutron stars sent a “burst” of gravitational waves rippling through the Universe.

    “Neutron stars are mystery objects,” Professor Scott, also a Chief Investigator with the ARC Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery (OzGrav), said.

    “We don’t really understand what they are made up of, or how many types of them exist. But what we do know is that when they collide, they send incredible bursts of gravitational waves across the Universe.

    “In contrast, the gentle hum of a spinning neutron star is very faint and almost impossible to detect.”

    Three new papers have just been published by the LSC and Virgo collaborations detailing the most sensitive searches to date for the faint hum of gravitational waves from spinning neutron stars [no links].

    Their work offers a “map to the potential El Dorado of gravitational waves.”

    “One of our searches targets young supernova remnants. These neutron stars, recently born, are more deformed, and should emit a stronger stream of gravitational waves,” Dr. Lilli Sun, from CGA and an Associate Investigator with OzGrav, said.

    As these searches become more and more sensitive they are providing more detail than ever of the possible shape and make-up of neutron stars.

    “If we can manage to detect this hum, we’ll be able to look deep into the heart of a neutron star and unlock its secrets,” Dr. Karl Wette, a postdoctoral researcher with OzGrav and the CGA, said.

    Professor Scott, who is also the leader of the General Relativity Theory and Data Analysis Group at ANU, added: “Neutron stars represent the densest form of matter in the Universe before a black hole will form.”

    “Searching for their gravitational waves allows us to probe nuclear matter states that simply can’t be produced in laboratories on Earth.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    ANU Campus

    Australian National University (AU) is a world-leading university in Australia’s capital city, Canberra. Our location points to our unique history, ties to the Australian Government and special standing as a resource for the Australian people.

    Our focus on research as an asset, and an approach to education, ensures our graduates are in demand the world-over for their abilities to understand, and apply vision and creativity to addressing complex contemporary challenges.

    Australian National University (AU) is regarded as one of the world’s leading research universities, and is ranked as the number one university in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere by the 2021 QS World University Rankings. It is ranked 31st in the world by the 2021 QS World University Rankings, and 59th in the world (third in Australia) by the 2021 Times Higher Education.

    In the 2020 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates’ employability, Australian National University (AU) was ranked 15th in the world (first in Australia). According to the 2020 QS World University by Subject, the university was also ranked among the top 10 in the world for Anthropology, Earth and Marine Sciences, Geography, Geology, Philosophy, Politics, and Sociology.

    Established in 1946, ANU is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. It traces its origins to Canberra University College, which was established in 1929 and was integrated into Australian National University (AU) in 1960. Australian National University (AU) enrolls 10,052 undergraduate and 10,840 postgraduate students and employs 3,753 staff. The university’s endowment stood at A$1.8 billion as of 2018.

    Australian National University (AU) counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni. The university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU’s scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:30 am on May 16, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "A study of Earth’s crust hints that supernovas aren’t gold mines", A smattering of plutonium atoms embedded in Earth’s crust are helping to resolve the origins of nature’s heaviest elements., , , , Australian National University AU, , But heavy elements show up in very old stars which formed too early for neutron stars to have had time to collide., , Researchers think that heavy elements are more likely forged in collisions of two dense dead stars called neutron stars., , Standard supernovas have fallen out of favor., The research is not clear. Questions remain., Typical supernovas can’t explain the quantity of heavy elements in our cosmic neighborhood: gold; silver; and plutonium.   

    From Australian National University (AU) via Science News : “A study of Earth’s crust hints that supernovas aren’t gold mines” 

    ANU Australian National University Bloc

    From Australian National University (AU)

    via

    Science News

    May 13, 2021
    Emily Conover

    1
    Supernovas like the one that formed the Crab Nebula (pictured) have long been thought to forge heavy elements. But a new study suggests that the bulk of those elements must come from other sources.
    J. Hester and A. Loll/Arizona State University(US), National Aeronautics Space Agency (US), European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU).

    A smattering of plutonium atoms embedded in Earth’s crust are helping to resolve the origins of nature’s heaviest elements.

    Scientists had long suspected that elements such as gold, silver and plutonium are born during supernovas, when stars explode. But typical supernovas can’t explain the quantity of heavy elements in our cosmic neighborhood, a new study suggests. That means other cataclysmic events must have been major contributors, physicist Anton Wallner and colleagues report in the May 14 Science.

    The result bolsters a recent change of heart among astrophysicists. Standard supernovas have fallen out of favor. Instead, researchers think that heavy elements are more likely forged in collisions of two dense dead stars called neutron stars, or in certain rare types of supernovas, such as those that form from fast-spinning stars (SN: 5/8/19).

    Heavy elements can be produced via a series of reactions in which atomic nuclei swell larger and larger as they rapidly gobble up neutrons. This series of reactions is known as the r-process, where “r” stands for rapid. But, says Wallner, of Australian National University in Canberra, “we do not know for sure where the site for the r-process is.” It’s like having the invite list for a gathering, but not its location, so you know who’s there without knowing where the party’s at.

    Scientists thought they had their answer after a neutron star collision was caught producing heavy elements in 2017 (SN: 10/16/17). But heavy elements show up in very old stars which formed too early for neutron stars to have had time to collide. “We know that there has to be something else,” says theoretical astrophysicist Almudena Arcones of the Technical University of Darmstadt [Technische Universität Darmstadt] (DE), Germany, who was not involved with the new study.

    If an r-process event had recently happened nearby, ­some of the elements created could have landed on Earth, leaving fingerprints in Earth’s crust. Starting with a 410-gram sample of Pacific Ocean crust, Wallner and colleagues used a particle accelerator to separate and count atoms. Within one piece of the sample, the scientists searched for a variety of plutonium called plutonium-244, which is produced by the r-process. Since heavy elements are always produced together in particular proportions in the r-process, plutonium-244 can serve as a proxy for other heavy elements. The team found about 180 plutonium-244 atoms, deposited into the crust within the last 9 million years.

    1
    Scientists analyzed a sample of Earth’s deep-sea crust (shown) to search for atoms of plutonium and iron with cosmic origins.Credit: Norikazu Kinoshita.

    Researchers compared the plutonium count to atoms that had a known source. Iron-60 is released by supernovas, but it is formed by fusion reactions in the star, not as part of the r-process. In another, smaller piece of the sample, the team detected about 415 atoms of iron-60.

    Plutonium-244 is radioactive, decaying with a half-life of 80.6 million years. And iron-60 has an even shorter half-life of 2.6 million years. So the elements could not have been present when the Earth formed, 4.5 billion years ago. That suggests their source is a relatively recent event. When the iron-60 atoms were counted up according to their depth in the crust, and therefore how long ago they’d been deposited, the scientists saw two peaks at about 2.5 million years ago and at about 6.5 million years ago, suggesting two or more supernovas had occurred in the recent past.

    The scientists can’t say if the plutonium they detected also came from those supernovas. But if it did, the amount of plutonium produced in those supernovas would be too small to explain the abundance of heavy elements in our cosmic vicinity, the researchers calculated. That suggests regular supernovas can’t be the main source of heavy elements, at least nearby.

    That means other sources for the r-process are still needed, says astrophysicist Anna Frebel of MIT, who was not involved with the research. “The supernovae are just not cutting it.”

    The measurement gives a snapshot of the r-process in our corner of the universe, says astrophysicist Alexander Ji of Carnegie Observatories (US) in Pasadena, Calif. “It’s actually the first detection of something like this, so that’s really, really neat.”

    The research is not clear. Questions remain.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    ANU Campus

    Australian National University (AU) is a world-leading university in Australia’s capital city, Canberra. Our location points to our unique history, ties to the Australian Government and special standing as a resource for the Australian people.

    Our focus on research as an asset, and an approach to education, ensures our graduates are in demand the world-over for their abilities to understand, and apply vision and creativity to addressing complex contemporary challenges.

    Australian National University (AU) is regarded as one of the world’s leading research universities, and is ranked as the number one university in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere by the 2021 QS World University Rankings. It is ranked 31st in the world by the 2021 QS World University Rankings, and 59th in the world (third in Australia) by the 2021 Times Higher Education.

    In the 2020 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates’ employability, Australian National University (AU) was ranked 15th in the world (first in Australia). According to the 2020 QS World University by Subject, the university was also ranked among the top 10 in the world for Anthropology, Earth and Marine Sciences, Geography, Geology, Philosophy, Politics, and Sociology.

    Established in 1946, ANU is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. It traces its origins to Canberra University College, which was established in 1929 and was integrated into Australian National University (AU) in 1960. Australian National University (AU) enrolls 10,052 undergraduate and 10,840 postgraduate students and employs 3,753 staff. The university’s endowment stood at A$1.8 billion as of 2018.

    Australian National University (AU) counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni. The university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU’s scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online.

     
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