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  • richardmitnick 1:42 pm on July 14, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Astrobites, , , ,   

    From astrobites: “The speeding binary that shouldn’t exist” 

    Astrobites bloc

    From astrobites

    Jul 13, 2018
    Jennifer Scora

    Title: An extremely fast halo hot subdwarf star in a wide binary system
    Authors: P. Németh, E. Ziegerer, A. Irrgang, S. Geier, F. Fürst, T. Kupfer, U. Heber
    First Author’s Institution: Dr. Karl Remeis-Observatory, Astronomical Institute, University of Erlangen – Nuremberg
    1
    Status: Published in The Astrophysical Journal, open access on arXiv

    Hyper-velocity stars (HVS) are so named because they speed through our galaxy really, really fast. So fast, in fact, that they can escape the gravitational pull of our galaxy (about 300 km/s for the Milky Way). This means that either they are flying in from somewhere else altogether, maybe a dwarf galaxy that collided with us, or they were accelerated to such high velocities by a dramatic event within our own galaxy. There are two widely accepted theories about what this event could be, and HVS stars are often divided into two categories based on which origin story they fit best. One theory proposes that when a binary star system gets too close to the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way it is ripped apart by the strong gravitational forces, leaving one star in a close orbit around the black hole and ejecting the other. However, some HVS have been seen travelling from other parts of the galaxy. These can also be explained with binary star systems, but in this case it is the force of the supernova explosion of one star that ejects its companion and accelerates it to high speeds.

    To learn more about the supernova theory, the authors picked a star from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) called PB 3877 to be part of a follow-up study of HVS stars. PB 3877 was observed at a speed of 713 ± 140 km/s with respect to the galaxy, putting it well above the requirements for a HVS. They also traced its trajectory backwards and found it did not originate from the black hole at the centre of our galaxy, ruling out the other main theory (see Figure 1). In order to better classify the star and to learn more about the star’s composition and rotation, the authors used the Keck and European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope (ESO-VLT) to take higher resolution spectra of the star.

    1


    Keck Observatory, Maunakea, Hawaii, USA.4,207 m (13,802 ft), above sea level, showing also NASA’s IRTF and NAOJ Subaru

    ESO VLT (VLT) at Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert, elevation 2,635 m (8,645 ft) from above Credit J.L. Dauvergne & G. Hüdepohl atacamaphoto

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    What do we do?

    Astrobites is a daily astrophysical literature journal written by graduate students in astronomy. Our goal is to present one interesting paper per day in a brief format that is accessible to undergraduate students in the physical sciences who are interested in active research.
    Why read Astrobites?

    Reading a technical paper from an unfamiliar subfield is intimidating. It may not be obvious how the techniques used by the researchers really work or what role the new research plays in answering the bigger questions motivating that field, not to mention the obscure jargon! For most people, it takes years for scientific papers to become meaningful.
    Our goal is to solve this problem, one paper at a time. In 5 minutes a day reading Astrobites, you should not only learn about one interesting piece of current work, but also get a peek at the broader picture of research in a new area of astronomy.

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  • richardmitnick 1:17 pm on July 2, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Astrobites, , , , , Nearby supernovas   

    From astrobites: “Have we been hit by a supernova?” 

    Astrobites bloc

    From astrobites

    July 2, 2018
    Matthew Green

    Title: The consequences of a nearby supernova on the early Solar System
    Authors: Simon Portegies Zwart, Inti Pelupessy, Arjen van Elteren, Thomas Wijnen, Maria Lugaro
    First Author’s Institution: Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands

    Status: Submitted to A&A, open access

    When we think of planetary systems and how they evolve, we generally imagine this evolution to be driven by factors within the system itself. We think about what the star is like, how much dust was around, or how the planets interact with each other. Factors outside the solar system — the local neighbourhood of the star — get a lot less press, but that doesn’t mean that they aren’t important. A couple of previous astrobites[only one shows up] discussed a paper on the impact that nearby supernovae and gamma ray bursts can have on the habitability of a planetary system. Today, we’re talking about a paper on a similar topic: how would a nearby supernova impact the evolution of the planets themselves? Is it possible that our solar system, in its distant past, was hit by the shockwave of a supernova?

    1
    01.27.2014 Graham Templeton- An enormously bright event has both amateur stargazers and hardened physicists buzzing this week.

    The event, which occurred in the nearby Messier 82 “Cigar” galaxy, will light up the sky for some time to come. It has been identified as a supernova, but thanks to both what and where it is, this explosion could do a lot more for humanity than just sparkle and dance. Thousands of telescopes both professional and amateur will be trained on its location over the coming month or so, collecting data that could even help to clarify the nature of dark energy and the universe.

    The visible light from this event could continue to be visible for up to several weeks, and at its peak it could be visible with as little as a pair of binoculars. Its position is directly above Ursa Major.

    See the full Astrobite article here .
    See the article on the event in the nearby Messier 82 “Cigar” galaxy here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    What do we do?

    Astrobites is a daily astrophysical literature journal written by graduate students in astronomy. Our goal is to present one interesting paper per day in a brief format that is accessible to undergraduate students in the physical sciences who are interested in active research.
    Why read Astrobites?

    Reading a technical paper from an unfamiliar subfield is intimidating. It may not be obvious how the techniques used by the researchers really work or what role the new research plays in answering the bigger questions motivating that field, not to mention the obscure jargon! For most people, it takes years for scientific papers to become meaningful.
    Our goal is to solve this problem, one paper at a time. In 5 minutes a day reading Astrobites, you should not only learn about one interesting piece of current work, but also get a peek at the broader picture of research in a new area of astronomy.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:59 am on June 26, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: A White Dwarf Moving With The Flow, Astrobites, , , ,   

    From astrobites: “A White Dwarf Moving With The Flow” 

    Astrobites bloc

    From astrobites

    Title: A Young Ultramassive White Dwarf in the AB Doradus Moving Group
    Authors: Jonathan Gagné, Gilles Fontaine, Amélie Simon, & Jacqueline K. Faherty
    First Author’s Institution: Carnegie Institute for Science, Washington, DC, USA

    Status: Accepted to ApJ Letters, open access

    1
    Figure 1: Artist’s impression of a white dwarf. Credit: All About Space/Imagine Publishing.

    In today’s astrobite, we’re talking about a paper on the AB Doradus co-moving group of stars. The paper shows that a white dwarf named GD 50 is part of the AB Dor group; we’ll be talking about how the authors arrived at this result, and what this can tell us about the history and stellar evolution of the group.

    A co-moving group of stars is just what it says on the tin: a group of stars which are all moving in about the same direction at about the same speed. Such a group is normally around a couple of dozen stars. They’re generally not too far away from each other in space as well, but are not nearly as tightly bunched up as clusters are; the space inside a co-moving group can contain many stars that aren’t part of the group. For instance, the Ursa Major moving group includes most of the brightest stars in the “Big Dipper”, and also extends to include some stars at the far end of the sky in Triangulum Australe, but does not include the sun even though the sun is between the two. Stars in a co-moving group are generally thought to have formed all at once, perhaps as part of an open cluster that has broken apart. This shared history can make co-moving groups useful for constraining models of stellar evolution.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    What do we do?

    Astrobites is a daily astrophysical literature journal written by graduate students in astronomy. Our goal is to present one interesting paper per day in a brief format that is accessible to undergraduate students in the physical sciences who are interested in active research.
    Why read Astrobites?

    Reading a technical paper from an unfamiliar subfield is intimidating. It may not be obvious how the techniques used by the researchers really work or what role the new research plays in answering the bigger questions motivating that field, not to mention the obscure jargon! For most people, it takes years for scientific papers to become meaningful.
    Our goal is to solve this problem, one paper at a time. In 5 minutes a day reading Astrobites, you should not only learn about one interesting piece of current work, but also get a peek at the broader picture of research in a new area of astronomy.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:11 am on June 26, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Astrobites, , , , ,   

    From astrobites: ” Clearing Up Stellar Streams with Gaia” 

    Astrobites bloc

    From astrobites

    26 June 2018
    Nora Shipp

    Title: Off the beaten path: Gaia reveals GD-1 stars outside of the main stream
    Author: Adrian M. Price-Whelan, Ana Bonaca
    First Author’s Institution: Princeton University

    Status: Submitted to ApJL

    1
    Figure 1: An illustration of the Gaia space telescope measuring positions and velocities of stars in the Milky Way. [ESA]

    The Gaia space telescope is revolutionizing our understanding of the Milky Way. This European satellite (Figure 1) is carefully tracking the positions of over a billion stars over five years, providing us with an evolving map of stellar locations and velocities. Just a couple months ago the second Gaia data catalog was released, including brand new information about the motions of many times more stars than in previous datasets to accuracies never before achieved, launching a scramble to see what exciting surprises this new data would reveal about our galaxy. (For more examples of exciting Gaia science see these Astrobites.)

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    What do we do?

    Astrobites is a daily astrophysical literature journal written by graduate students in astronomy. Our goal is to present one interesting paper per day in a brief format that is accessible to undergraduate students in the physical sciences who are interested in active research.
    Why read Astrobites?

    Reading a technical paper from an unfamiliar subfield is intimidating. It may not be obvious how the techniques used by the researchers really work or what role the new research plays in answering the bigger questions motivating that field, not to mention the obscure jargon! For most people, it takes years for scientific papers to become meaningful.
    Our goal is to solve this problem, one paper at a time. In 5 minutes a day reading Astrobites, you should not only learn about one interesting piece of current work, but also get a peek at the broader picture of research in a new area of astronomy.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:56 pm on June 19, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Astrobites, , , , , , The paleo-detector   

    From astrobites: “A Paleo-Detector for Dark Matter: How Ancient Rocks Could Help Unravel the Mystery” 

    Astrobites bloc

    From astrobites

    Title: Searching for Dark Matter with Paleo-Detectors
    Authors: S. Baum, A. K. Drukier, K. Freese, M. Górski, & P. Stengel
    First Author’s Institution: The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Sweden
    1
    Status: Pre-print available [open access on arXiv]

    Dark matter is, by its very nature, elusive. Though we can detect its presence by observing its gravitational influence, dark matter remains invisible because it doesn’t interact electromagnetically. The most widely accepted explanation for dark matter is the existence of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). WIMPs, if eventually observed, would constitute a new, massive kind of elementary particle. Their discovery would be revolutionary for particle physics and cosmology; therefore, countless direct (in labs) and indirect (observing their annihilation or decay) detection experiments are being conducted to identify them. Today’s astrobite discusses a novel proposal for direct dark matter detection that seems more fit for scientists in Jurassic Park than for particle physicists: the paleo-detector.

    The authors of today’s featured paper theorize that ancient rocks could contain evidence of interactions between WIMPS and nuclei in the minerals, forming a completely natural “detector” that would allow scientists to search for evidence of the massive particles using excavated rocks. This experiment varies significantly from other direct detection efforts, as those look for evidence of WIMPs hitting Earth-based detectors in real time. The paleo-detector would instead trace nanometers-long “tracks” of chemical and physical change in the rocks as the result of WIMP-induced nuclear recoil that occurred long ago.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    What do we do?

    Astrobites is a daily astrophysical literature journal written by graduate students in astronomy. Our goal is to present one interesting paper per day in a brief format that is accessible to undergraduate students in the physical sciences who are interested in active research.
    Why read Astrobites?

    Reading a technical paper from an unfamiliar subfield is intimidating. It may not be obvious how the techniques used by the researchers really work or what role the new research plays in answering the bigger questions motivating that field, not to mention the obscure jargon! For most people, it takes years for scientific papers to become meaningful.
    Our goal is to solve this problem, one paper at a time. In 5 minutes a day reading Astrobites, you should not only learn about one interesting piece of current work, but also get a peek at the broader picture of research in a new area of astronomy.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:23 am on June 18, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Astrobites, , , ,   

    From astrobites: “The Planets in the Gaps” 

    Astrobites bloc

    From astrobites

    Title: A Kinematical Detection of Two Embedded Jupiter Mass Planets in HD 163296
    Authors: Richard Teague (University of Michigan), Jaehan Bae, Edwin Bergin, Tilman Birnstiel, Daniel Foreman-Mackey

    Status: Accepted to ApJL, 2018 [open access]

    Planets form. (We know this, occupying, as we do, a planet.) And planets form out of the disks of gas and dust that surround young stars. (We know this because we see these disks around young stars, and we cannot explain where the stuff of planets comes from otherwise.) And planets form in these disks quite quickly. (We know this because the disks only last a few million years–a blink of an eye, astronomically speaking.) And planets form in these disks easily. (We know this because planets are everywhere! On average, there’s at least one planet per star.)

    Planet formation, then: it’s quick, easy, commonplace, and completely mysterious. How does a sphere the size of Jupiter coalesce from a bunch of grains of dust swimming in hydrogen gas? Or a snowball like Pluto (planet, dwarf planet, don’t @ me), for that matter, or a rock like Earth?

    1
    Figure 1. The big q

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    What do we do?

    Astrobites is a daily astrophysical literature journal written by graduate students in astronomy. Our goal is to present one interesting paper per day in a brief format that is accessible to undergraduate students in the physical sciences who are interested in active research.
    Why read Astrobites?

    Reading a technical paper from an unfamiliar subfield is intimidating. It may not be obvious how the techniques used by the researchers really work or what role the new research plays in answering the bigger questions motivating that field, not to mention the obscure jargon! For most people, it takes years for scientific papers to become meaningful.
    Our goal is to solve this problem, one paper at a time. In 5 minutes a day reading Astrobites, you should not only learn about one interesting piece of current work, but also get a peek at the broader picture of research in a new area of astronomy.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:23 pm on June 14, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Astrobites, , , , , Deflating a Planet: Helium Loss in the Atmosphere of Wasp-107b   

    From astrobites: “Deflating a Planet: Helium Loss in the Atmosphere of Wasp-107b” 

    Astrobites bloc

    From astrobites

    Title: Helium in the Eroding Atmosphere of an Exoplanet
    Authors: J. J. Spake, D. K. Sing, T. M. Evans, et al.
    First Author’s Institution: University of Exeter
    1
    Status: Published in Nature [closed access] (open access on arxiv here)

    Hydrogen and helium are the two most abundant elements in our Solar System (and the Universe as a whole). They are the main constituents in our Sun and in the atmospheres of our gas giants. Even Earth has some minor amount of helium in its upper atmosphere. Because these elements are so common, we also expect gas giant exoplanets to have large abundances of hydrogen and helium in their atmospheres. In fact, in 2000, Seager and Sasselov [The Astrophysical Journal] predicted that we should be able to observe helium and other atoms in the atmospheres of these planets in the near-future.

    Wasp-107b: The Perfect Target

    3

    Wasp-107b is a highly-inflated hot Jupiter with a radius similar to Jupiter but only with 12% the mass of Jupiter. It orbits a very active star once every 5.7 days, putting it up close and right in the path of a large number of UV photons. Wasp-107b just needed a significant quantity of helium in its extended atmosphere to make it the perfect target.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    What do we do?

    Astrobites is a daily astrophysical literature journal written by graduate students in astronomy. Our goal is to present one interesting paper per day in a brief format that is accessible to undergraduate students in the physical sciences who are interested in active research.
    Why read Astrobites?

    Reading a technical paper from an unfamiliar subfield is intimidating. It may not be obvious how the techniques used by the researchers really work or what role the new research plays in answering the bigger questions motivating that field, not to mention the obscure jargon! For most people, it takes years for scientific papers to become meaningful.
    Our goal is to solve this problem, one paper at a time. In 5 minutes a day reading Astrobites, you should not only learn about one interesting piece of current work, but also get a peek at the broader picture of research in a new area of astronomy.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:21 am on June 13, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: 44Ti in the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, Astrobites, , , ,   

    From astrobites: “Supernova Archeology with Radioactive Eyes” 

    Astrobites bloc

    From astrobites

    Jun 13, 2018
    Maria Arias, guest author

    Title: The distribution of radioactive 44Ti in Cassiopeia A
    Authors: Brian Grefenstette et al.
    First author institution: Caltech

    Status: published in ApJ, open access version available

    Massive stars die as core collapse supernovae: the star can no longer produce the nuclear reactions that balance its strong gravity, and the star collapses onto its core. When this happens, large amounts of energy and neutrons are available to form elements heavier than iron. The distribution of elements produced in the deepest layers of the star as it goes supernova is key to understanding the mechanism by which the collapse of the star leads to an explosion.Radioactive decay powers the optical light emitted by the supernova ~ 50−100 days after the explosion. In fact, we can still see radioactive signatures in remnants that are hundreds of years old. In today’s paper, the authors use high energy X-ray satellite NuStar observations to study the distribution of 44Ti in the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A).

    NASA NuSTAR X-ray telescope

    3
    44Ti Cas A map. Grefenstette et al 2017

    The current distribution of radioactive elements and their decay products is linked to the local conditions in which they were synthesised when the explosion took place. Therefore, knowing where the 44Ti is now can shed light on the details of the supernova event that ended the life of Cas A’s progenitor star.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    What do we do?

    Astrobites is a daily astrophysical literature journal written by graduate students in astronomy. Our goal is to present one interesting paper per day in a brief format that is accessible to undergraduate students in the physical sciences who are interested in active research.
    Why read Astrobites?

    Reading a technical paper from an unfamiliar subfield is intimidating. It may not be obvious how the techniques used by the researchers really work or what role the new research plays in answering the bigger questions motivating that field, not to mention the obscure jargon! For most people, it takes years for scientific papers to become meaningful.
    Our goal is to solve this problem, one paper at a time. In 5 minutes a day reading Astrobites, you should not only learn about one interesting piece of current work, but also get a peek at the broader picture of research in a new area of astronomy.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:39 am on June 12, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Astrobites, , , , ,   

    From astrobites: “Testing micro with macro – from quantum to the cosmos” 

    Astrobites bloc

    From astrobites

    June 12, 2018
    Philippa Cole

    Title: Precision test of quantum mechanics – our Universe
    Authors: Julian Georg and Carl Rosenzweig

    First Author’s Institution: Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
    Status: Open access on arXiv

    Quantum mechanics governs what goes on at mind-bogglingly small scales. So far it’s provided a really good description of microscopic systems that we’ve been able to test on earth, but today’s authors muse that it’s not really had any competition – “all theories benefit from having an alternative to serve as a foil”.

    Since quantum laws should work on all scales, why not zoom all the way out and use the increasingly precise measurements we have on cosmological scales to test our quantum framework? In order to do this we need something to describe the relationship between the unfathomably large and the unimaginably small, and luckily, the leading theory of the early universe connects the two – that theory is inflation.

    4
    Alan Guth, Highland Park High School and M.I.T., who first proposed cosmic inflation

    HPHS Owls

    Lambda-Cold Dark Matter, Accelerated Expansion of the Universe, Big Bang-Inflation (timeline of the universe) Date 2010 Credit: Alex MittelmannColdcreation

    Alan Guth’s notes:
    5

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    What do we do?

    Astrobites is a daily astrophysical literature journal written by graduate students in astronomy. Our goal is to present one interesting paper per day in a brief format that is accessible to undergraduate students in the physical sciences who are interested in active research.
    Why read Astrobites?

    Reading a technical paper from an unfamiliar subfield is intimidating. It may not be obvious how the techniques used by the researchers really work or what role the new research plays in answering the bigger questions motivating that field, not to mention the obscure jargon! For most people, it takes years for scientific papers to become meaningful.
    Our goal is to solve this problem, one paper at a time. In 5 minutes a day reading Astrobites, you should not only learn about one interesting piece of current work, but also get a peek at the broader picture of research in a new area of astronomy.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:13 pm on June 11, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Astrobites, , , , , SMSS J215728.21-360215.1, The Biggest Baddest Quasar of Them All" [So Far]   

    From astrobites: “The Biggest, Baddest Quasar of Them All” [So Far] 

    Astrobites bloc

    From astrobites

    Title: Discovery of the Most Ultra-luminous QSO using Gaia, SkyMapper, and WISE
    Authors: Christian Wolf, Fuyan Bian, Christopher A. Onken, Brian P. Schmidt, Patrick Tisserand, Noura Alonzi, Wei Jeat Hon, John L. Tonry
    First Author’s Institution: Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australia National University

    Status: Accepted to PASA, open access on arxiv

    ESA/GAIA satellite


    ANU Skymapper telescope, a fully automated 1.35 m (4.4 ft) wide-angle optical telescope, at Siding Spring Observatory , near Coonabarabran, New South Wales, Australia, Altitude 1,165 m (3,822 ft)

    NASA/WISE Telescope

    If you’re reading this, chances are you have heard of black holes. These mysterious objects have long captured the interest of the public and scientists alike. Even The Simpsons have tackled this topic.

    A supermassive black hole gives life to the subject of today’s paper, a quasar known as SMSS J215728.21-360215.1 (J2157-3602 for short), the brightest quasar yet discovered.

    2
    Artist impression of a feeding black hole (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center)

    Quasars are a type of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), which sit at the center of high redshift galaxies, meaning they have only been found at distances corresponding to the early universe. Their massive accretion disks allow them to outshine their entire host galaxy, making these astronomical bodies among the brightest objects in the sky.

    So what’s with the name? ‘Quasar’ originated from the phrase ‘quasi-stellar radio source.’ These objects were identified as quasi-stellar because they appear to be a point-source, like a star. Many of the first quasars discovered emitted very strongly in radio wavelengths, but since then, it has been determined that only a fraction of quasars are ‘radio loud.’ So now, ‘quasar’ is simply in reference to ‘quasi-stellar objects,’ or ‘QSOs,’ as in the title of today’s paper.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    What do we do?

    Astrobites is a daily astrophysical literature journal written by graduate students in astronomy. Our goal is to present one interesting paper per day in a brief format that is accessible to undergraduate students in the physical sciences who are interested in active research.
    Why read Astrobites?

    Reading a technical paper from an unfamiliar subfield is intimidating. It may not be obvious how the techniques used by the researchers really work or what role the new research plays in answering the bigger questions motivating that field, not to mention the obscure jargon! For most people, it takes years for scientific papers to become meaningful.
    Our goal is to solve this problem, one paper at a time. In 5 minutes a day reading Astrobites, you should not only learn about one interesting piece of current work, but also get a peek at the broader picture of research in a new area of astronomy.

     
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