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  • richardmitnick 2:26 pm on July 8, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Asteroids, , , , , HeraldNet, LSST-Large Synoptic Survey Telescope,   

    From U Washington via Heraldnet: “UW scientists may save the Earth using computer algorithms” 

    U Washington

    University of Washington

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    HeraldNet

    Jun 29th, 2017
    Katherine Long

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    Andrew Connolly, left, director of DIRAC, a new institute for intensive survey astrophysics at the University of Washington, and Zeljko Ivezic, a professor of astronomy and a key player in the development of software for the LSST telescope in Chile, stand in the planetarium at the UW. They’re involved in a major project to create a map of all the asteroids in our solar system, and to figure out which ones might pose a danger to Earth. (Ellen M. Banner/The Seattle Times) [U Washington]

    Scientists at the University of Washington are writing computer algorithms that could one day save the world — and that’s no exaggeration.

    Working away in the university’s quiet Physics/Astronomy building, these scientists are teaching computers how to sift through massive amounts of data to identify asteroids on a collision course with Earth.

    Together with 60 colleagues at six other universities, the 20 UW scientists are part of a massive new data project to catalog space itself, using the largest digital camera ever made.

    Five years from now, a sky-scanning telescope under construction in Chile will begin photographing the night sky with a 3,200-megapixel camera. The telescope will have the power to peer into the solar system and beyond, and track things we have never been able to track before — including asteroids, the rubble left behind during the formation of the solar system.

    LSST


    LSST Camera, built at SLAC



    LSST telescope, currently under construction at Cerro Pachón Chile, a 2,682-meter-high mountain in Coquimbo Region, in northern Chile, alongside the existing Gemini South and Southern Astrophysical Research Telescopes.

    When it is up and running, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will produce 20 terabytes of images every night, and will be able to photograph half the night sky every three days, said Andrew Connolly, one of the UW astronomers working on the project.

    It will replace the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, which dates back to 1998, and which was only able to cover one-eighth the sky over 10 years.

    SDSS Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, NM, USA

    The LSST’s mission is different from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, which sends back detailed photos of specific regions of space, but does not take vast surveys of everything in the sky.

    NASA/ESA Hubble Telescope

    The danger asteroids pose became clear in 2013, when more than 1,000 people were reportedly injured after a meteor exploded near the Russian town of Chelyabinsk. (Meteorites are closely related to asteroids.)

    And 66 million years ago, many scientists believe, an asteroid the size of a mountain smashed into Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula, dramatically changing Earth’s environment and wiping out the dinosaurs.

    Scientists have already plotted the orbits of more than 700,000 known asteroids in the solar system, said Željko Ivezic, a UW astronomy professor and project scientist for LSST. The LSST will help astronomers identify an estimated 5 million more.

    That’s why teaching a computer to identify asteroids is such vital work.

    See the full article here .

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    The University of Washington is one of the world’s preeminent public universities. Our impact on individuals, on our region, and on the world is profound — whether we are launching young people into a boundless future or confronting the grand challenges of our time through undaunted research and scholarship. Ranked number 10 in the world in Shanghai Jiao Tong University rankings and educating more than 54,000 students annually, our students and faculty work together to turn ideas into impact and in the process transform lives and our world. For more about our impact on the world, every day.

    So what defines us — the students, faculty and community members at the University of Washington? Above all, it’s our belief in possibility and our unshakable optimism. It’s a connection to others, both near and far. It’s a hunger that pushes us to tackle challenges and pursue progress. It’s the conviction that together we can create a world of good. Join us on the journey.

     
  • richardmitnick 11:59 am on July 8, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Asteroids, , Meteorology, , The Martian meteorite of Tissint   

    From NS: “Why Morocco loves its meteorites” 

    NewScientist

    New Scientist

    30 June 2017
    Sandrine Ceurstemont

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    A hotspot for space rocks. Sandrine Ceurstemont

    In Morocco’s High Atlas mountains, the twin lakes of Isli and Tislit (nicknamed the Moroccan Romeo and Juliet) have an unusual origin. Abderrahmane Ibhi from Ibn Zohr University in Agadir found strong evidence in 2013 that they were impact craters, formed when an asteroid hurtling towards Earth split in two about 40,000 years ago. “It was over 100 metres wide,” says Ibhi. “It’s the biggest asteroid to fall in Morocco.”

    Large space rocks can cause destruction or alter the landscape if they hit Earth. Today, the world’s Asteroid Day, Ibhi gave a talk about how to protect our planet from killer asteroids. “When they are over 10 metres wide, they can be dangerous,” he says.

    Luckily, space rocks rarely hit Earth. And double impacts are even less common: there are only three other known cases worldwide. But in recent years, the already otherworldly rocky land and desert close to Tata in southern Morocco has been defying the odds. From chunks of asteroids to pieces of the moon, more space rocks have been recovered in Morocco than in other countries of a similar size, with 95 per cent of them coming from around Tata.

    Rare finds

    It has been home to several rare finds, too. The most famous – the Martian meteorite of Tissint – blasted through the night sky in July 2011, scattering pieces that were collected over the following months.

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    http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/technology-science/science/tissint-martian-meteorite-which-landed-in-morocco-1373528

    It’s one of five rocks from the Red Planet ever to be found on Earth, and the first to carry traces of Martian soil.

    Ibhi and his team have been trying to work out why the area is such a hotspot. One reason seems to be the landscape: meteorites are easily revealed by windswept sand, in which their dark colour also makes them stand out. And a dry climate helps preserve them far better than a humid one.

    Then there’s the well-distributed population, which gives people a greater chance of stumbling upon them. In Tata, several villages are close together and many nomads live in the desert, explains team member Fouad Khiri. In addition, Morocco’s political stability is a plus, making it safer than in other countries to wander around searching for meteorites.

    But the biggest factor is a surprise: local knowledge. Since 2006, Ibhi has been organising workshops to teach people how to identify space rocks. Many nomads are now aware, for example, that looking for a particular combination of features that may mark them out is key.

    One of the telltale signs is a black skin, or fusion crust, formed by the fiery journey through the atmosphere. But desert rocks can appear similar, given that they too can have a dark surface from the extreme heat. Looking for marks that resemble thumbprints, caused by wind sculpting the rock during its journey, is a helpful clue.

    Space rocks from asteroids – the most common type – also have circular grains across their surface composed of molten minerals. “I always bring meteorites along so that people can take a close look and feel them,” says Ibhi.

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 1:14 pm on June 19, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: 6 Hebe, Asteroids, , , , , , H-chondrites - 34% of all meteorites found on Earth, SPHERE on the VLT   

    From ESO: “Not the mother of meteorites” 

    ESO 50 Large

    European Southern Observatory

    19 June 2017
    NO writer credit found.

    The region between Mars and Jupiter is teeming with rocky worlds called asteroids. This asteroid belt is estimated to contain millions of small rocky bodies, and between 1.1 and 1.9 million larger ones spanning over one kilometre across. Small fragments of these bodies often fall to Earth as meteorites. Interestingly, 34% of all meteorites found on Earth are of one particular type: H-chondrites. These are thought to have originated from a common parent body — and one potential suspect is the asteroid 6 Hebe, shown here.

    Approximately 186 kilometres in diameter and named for the Greek goddess of youth, 6 Hebe was the sixth asteroid ever to be discovered. These images were taken during a study of the mini-world using the SPHERE instrument on ESO’s Very Large Telescope, which aimed to test the idea that 6 Hebe is the source of H-chondrites.

    ESO/SPHERE extreme adaptive optics system and coronagraphic facility on the VLT

    Astronomers modelled the spin and 3D shape of 6 Hebe as reconstructed from the observations, and used their 3D model to determine the volume of the largest depression on 6 Hebe — likely an impact crater from a collision that could have created numerous daughter meteorites. However, the volume of the depression is five times smaller than the total volume of nearby asteroid families with H-chondrite composition, which suggests that 6 Hebe is not the most likely source of H-chondrites after all.

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    Credit: ESO/M. Marsset

    Research paper

    See the full article here .

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    ESO is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It is supported by 16 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world’s most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and two survey telescopes. VISTA works in the infrared and is the world’s largest survey telescope and the VLT Survey Telescope is the largest telescope designed to exclusively survey the skies in visible light. ESO is a major partner in ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. And on Cerro Armazones, close to Paranal, ESO is building the 39-metre European Extremely Large Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become “the world’s biggest eye on the sky”.

    ESO LaSilla
    ESO/Cerro LaSilla 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres

    ESO VLT
    VLT at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    ESO Vista Telescope
    ESO/Vista Telescope at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    ESO NTT
    ESO/NTT at Cerro LaSilla 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres

    ESO VLT Survey telescope
    VLT Survey Telescope at Cerro Paranal with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    ALMA Array
    ALMA on the Chajnantor plateau at 5,000 metres

    ESO E-ELT
    ESO/E-ELT to be built at Cerro Armazones at 3,060 m

    ESO APEX
    APEX Atacama Pathfinder 5,100 meters above sea level, at the Llano de Chajnantor Observatory in the Atacama desert

     
  • richardmitnick 1:23 pm on April 22, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Asteroids, , , ,   

    From AGU: “New study ranks hazardous asteroid effects from least to most destructive” 

    AGU bloc

    American Geophysical Union

    19 April 2017
    Media Contacts

    Nanci Bompey
    Manager, Public Information
    Phone: +1 202 777 7524
    AGU research, publications and meetings

    Joshua Speiser
    Manager, Strategic Communications
    Phone: +1 202 777 7444
    AGU organizational issues, policy and leadership

    Caitlyn Camacho
    Program Manager, Strategic Communications
    Phone: +1 202 777 7423
    AGU organizational issues, policy and leadership

    Lauren Lipuma
    Public Information Specialist
    Phone: +1 202 777 7396
    AGU research, publications and meetings

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    Fax: +1 202 328 0566

    1
    The trace left in the sky by the meteor that broke up over Chelyabinsk, Russia, in 2013. A new study explored seven effects associated with asteroid impacts — heat, pressure shock waves, flying debris, tsunamis, wind blasts, seismic shaking and cratering — and estimated their lethality for varying sizes.
    Credit: Alex Alishevskikh

    Violent winds, shock waves from impacts pose greatest threat to humans.

    If an asteroid struck Earth, which of its effects—scorching heat, flying debris, towering tsunamis—would claim the most lives? A new study has the answer: violent winds and shock waves are the most dangerous effects produced by Earth-impacting asteroids.

    The study explored seven effects associated with asteroid impacts—heat, pressure shock waves, flying debris, tsunamis, wind blasts, seismic shaking and cratering—and estimated their lethality for varying sizes. The researchers then ranked the effects from most to least deadly, or how many lives were lost to each effect.

    Overall, wind blasts and shock waves were likely to claim the most casualties, according to the study. In experimental scenarios, these two effects accounted for more than 60 percent of lives lost. Shock waves arise from a spike in atmospheric pressure and can rupture internal organs, while wind blasts carry enough power to hurl human bodies and flatten forests.

    “This is the first study that looks at all seven impact effects generated by hazardous asteroids and estimates which are, in terms of human loss, most severe,” said Clemens Rumpf, a senior research assistant at the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom, and lead author of the new study published in Geophysical Research Letters, a journal of the American Geophysical Union.

    Rumpf said his findings, which he plans to present at the 2017 International Academy of Astronautics Planetary Defense Conference in Tokyo, Japan, could help hazard mitigation groups better prepare for asteroid threats because it details which impact effects are most dominant, which are less severe and where resources should be allocated.

    Though studies like his are necessary to reduce harm, deadly asteroid impacts are still rare, Rumpf said. Earth is struck by an asteroid 60 meters (more than 190 feet) wide approximately once every 1500 years, whereas an asteroid 400 meters (more than 1,300 feet) across is likely to strike the planet every 100,000 years, according to Rumpf.

    “The likelihood of an asteroid impact is really low,” said Rumpf. “But the consequences can be unimaginable.”

    Modeling asteroid effects

    Rumpf and his colleagues used models to pepper the globe with 50,000 artificial asteroids ranging from 15 to 400 meters (49 to 1312 feet) across—the diameter range of asteroids that most frequently strike the Earth. The researchers then estimated how many lives would be lost to each of the seven effects.

    Land-based impacts were, on average, an order of magnitude more dangerous than asteroids that landed in oceans.

    Large, ocean-impacting asteroids could generate enough power to trigger a tsunami, but the wave’s energy would likely dissipate as it traveled and eventually break when it met a continental shelf. Even if a tsunami were to reach coastal communities, far fewer people would die than if the same asteroid struck land, Rumpf said. Overall, tsunamis accounted for 20 percent of lives lost, according to the study.

    The heat generated by an asteroid accounted for nearly 30 percent of lives lost, according to the study. Affected populations could likely avoid harm by hiding in basements and other underground structures, Rumpf said.

    Seismic shaking was of least concern, as it accounted for only 0.17 percent of casualties, according to the study. Cratering and airborne debris were similarly less concerning, both garnering fewer than 1 percent of deaths.

    Only asteroids that spanned at least 18 meters (nearly 60 feet) in diameter were lethal. Many asteroids on the lower end of this spectrum disintegrate in Earth’s atmosphere before reaching the planet’s surface, but they strike more frequently than larger asteroids and generate enough heat and explosive energy to deal damage. For example, the meteor involved in the 2013 impact in Chelyabinsk, Russia, was 17 to 20 meters (roughly 55 to 65 feet) across and caused more than 1,000 injuries, inflicting burns and temporary blindness on people nearby.

    Understanding risk

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    This chart shows reported fireball events for which geographic location data are provided. Each event’s calculated total impact energy is indicated by its relative size and by a color.
    Credit: NASA

    “This report is a reasonable step forward in trying to understand and come to grips with the hazards posed by asteroids and comet impactors,” said geophysicist Jay Melosh, a distinguished professor in the Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at Purdue University in Lafayette, Indiana.

    Melosh, who wasn’t involved in the study, added that the findings “lead one to appreciate the role of air blasts in asteroid impacts as we saw in Chelyabinsk.” The majority of the injuries in the Chelyabinsk impact were caused by broken glass sent flying into the faces of unknowing locals peering through their windows after the meteor’s bright flash, he noted.

    The study’s findings could help mitigate loss of human life, according to Rumpf. Small towns facing the impact of an asteroid 30 meters across (about 98 feet) may fare best by evacuating. However, an asteroid 200 meters wide (more than 650 feet) headed for a densely-populated city poses a greater risk and could warrant a more involved response, he said.

    “If only 10 people are affected, then maybe it’s better to evacuate the area,” Rumpf said. “But if 1,000,000 people are affected, it may be worthwhile to mount a deflection mission and push the asteroid out of the way.”

    See the full post here .

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    The purpose of the American Geophysical Union is to promote discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity.

    To achieve this mission, AGU identified the following core values and behaviors.

    Core Principles

    As an organization, AGU holds a set of guiding core values:

    The scientific method
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    Diversity of backgrounds, scientific ideas and approaches
    Benefit of science for a sustainable future
    International and interdisciplinary cooperation
    Equality and inclusiveness
    An active role in educating and nurturing the next generation of scientists
    An engaged membership
    Unselfish cooperation in research
    Excellence and integrity in everything we do

    When we are at our best as an organization, we embody these values in our behavior as follows:

    We advance Earth and space science by catalyzing and supporting the efforts of individual scientists within and outside the membership.
    As a learned society, we serve the public good by fostering quality in the Earth and space science and by publishing the results of research.
    We welcome all in academic, government, industry and other venues who share our interests in understanding the Earth, planets and their space environment, or who seek to apply this knowledge to solving problems facing society.
    Our scientific mission transcends national boundaries.
    Individual scientists worldwide are equals in all AGU activities.
    Cooperative activities with partner societies of all sizes worldwide enhance the resources of all, increase the visibility of Earth and space science, and serve individual scientists, students, and the public.
    We are our members.
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    AGU staff work flexibly and responsively in partnership with volunteers to achieve our goals and objectives.

     
  • richardmitnick 8:54 am on April 8, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Asteroids, , , , ,   

    From EarthSky: “Large asteroid coming close on April 19” 

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    EarthSky

    April 8, 2017
    Eddie Irizarry

    Asteroid 2014 JO25 will pass safely at 4.6 times the moon’s distance. It’s 60 times the diameter of the asteroid that penetrated the atmosphere over Chelyabinsk, Russia in 2013. People with small telescopes might be able to spot it.

    A big asteroid will have a safely sweep past Earth on April 19, 2017. It’ll come so close – and it’s known so far in advance – that scientists will be able to study the space rock using both radar and optical observations. The flyby should also be visible in amateur telescopes. Asteroid 2014 JO25 was discovered by astronomers at the Catalina Sky Survey near Tucson, Arizona in May 2014. It appears to be roughly 2,000 feet (650 meters) in size, with a surface about twice as reflective as that of Earth’s moon. The asteroid will safely pass at some 1,098,733 miles (1,768,239 km ) from our planet or about 4.6 times the distance from Earth to the moon.

    After analyzing the orbit of Asteroid 2014 JO25, astronomers have realized the April 19 encounter is the closest this asteroid has come to Earth for at least 400 years and will be its closest approach for at least the next 500 years. There is no danger as the space rock’s orbit is well known.

    2014 JO25 is classified as a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid by the Minor Planet Center. The asteroid will sweep close enough to allow good radar observations. NASA has said they will study this asteroid using the Goldstone Radar in California from April 16 to 21.

    NASA DSCC Goldstone Antenna in the Mojave Desert, California USA

    The Arecibo Observatory plans to do high resolution imaging using radar from April 15 to 20.

    NAIC/Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico, USA

    Radar observations will provide a better understanding of the space rock’s size and shape.

    Preliminary estimates indicate the asteroid’s size is about 60 times the diameter of the asteroid that penetrated the atmosphere over Chelyabinsk, Russia in February, 2013. NASA said:

    “There are no known future encounters by 2014 JO25 as close as the one in 2017 through 2500. It will be among the strongest asteroid radar targets of the year. The 2017 flyby is the closest by an asteroid at least this large since the encounter by 4179 Toutatis at four lunar distances in September 2004. The next known flyby by an object with a comparable or larger diameter will occur when 800-m-diameter asteroid 1999 AN10 approaches within one lunar distance in August 2027.”

    For backyard observers, the exciting news is that asteroid 2014 JO25 might be be visible moving across the stars though 8″-diameter and bigger telescopes. Can it be seen with smaller telescopes? Maybe, but in order to be able to detect its motion across the stars, at least an 8″ scope will be required. The asteroid will not be visible to the unaided eye, as it may show a brightness or magnitude between 10 and 11.

    The asteroid is currently located in the direction of the sun, but – during the first hours of April 19 – the space rock will come into view for telescopes as it crosses the constellation of Draco. Then, during the night of April 19, asteroid 2014 JO25 will seem to move across the skies covering the distance equivalent to the moon’s diameter in about 18 minutes.

    That’s fast enough for its motion to be detected though an amateur telescope. The best strategy to catch the space rock in your telescope is to observe a star known to be in the asteroid’s path, and wait for it.

    If you are looking at the correct time and direction, the asteroid will appear as a very slowly moving “star.” Although its distance from us will make the space rock appear to move slowly, it is in fact traveling though space at a speed of 75,072 mph (120,816 km/h)!

    Because it will appear to move very slowly, observers should take a good look at a reference star for a few minutes (not seconds) to detect the moving object.

    Although asteroid 2014 JO25 will be closest to Earth on the morning of Wednesday, April 19, 2017, (around 7:24 a.m. Central Time / 12:24 UTC) the space rock may look a bit brighter (but still only visible in telescopes) during the night of April 19, because the asteroid will be at a higher elevation in our skies.

    Will it be visible from both hemispheres? Yes. Observers in the Northern Hemisphere will be able to locate the asteroid both on the predawn hours and during the night of April 19. From South America, the space rock will only be visible during the night of April 19, at over 25 degrees above the northern horizon. Observers in Africa and Australia will also be able to spot the asteroid on April 19-20.

    The asteroid’s nearness to Earth at the time of closest approach might cause a slight parallax effect. That means the space rock’s apparent nearness on our sky’s dome to a fixed star might differ slightly, as seen from different locations across Earth. Thus, if you don’t see the asteroid at the expected time, scan one more field of view up and down from your reference star, that is, the star you are waiting to see the asteroid to pass by.

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    At 3:40 a.m. Central Time on April 19, asteroid 2014 JO25 will be located in front of the constellation Draco the Dragon, as seen here. Illustration by Eddie Irizarry using Stellarium.

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    A closer view of the space rock passing by the constellation Draco early on the morning April 19.

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    Observers using a computerized “Go To” telescope can point the instrument at star HIP 87728 a few minutes before 3:40 a.m. Central Time on April 19, and watch the asteroid passing by the magnitude 5 star in Draco. Illustration by Eddie Irizarry using Stellarium.

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    During the night of April 19, asteroid 2014 JO25 will pass though the constellations Canes Venatici and Coma Berenices. Illustration by Eddie Irizarry using Stellarium.

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    The asteroid will be close to star 41 Comae, which is very close to Beta Comae. This star is magnitude 4 and thus visible to the unaided eye. Illustration by Eddie Irizarry using Stellarium.

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    At around 9:30 p.m. Central Time on April 19, the space rock will be passing very close to 41 Comae Berenices (HIP 64022) a 4.8 magnitude star which is visible to the naked eye from suburban and dark skies. Illustration by Eddie Irizarry using Stellarium.

    Bottom line: Asteroid 2014 JO25 will pass safely at 4.6 times the moon’s distance. People with small telescopes might be able to spot it. Charts here and other info on how to see it.

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 11:55 am on March 30, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Asteroid Bee-Zed, Asteroids, , , , , , or 2015 BZ509   

    From GIZMODO: “This Backwards-Orbiting Asteroid Has Been Flirting With Death For a Million Years” 

    GIZMODO bloc

    GIZMODO

    3.30.17
    George Dvorsky

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    The retrograde asteroid is shown in green. (Credit: Paul Weigert/Western University)

    Most asteroids orbit the Sun in a counterclockwise fashion, but a newly-discovered object nicknamed Bee-Zed goes against the grain, spinning around the Solar System the opposite way. Not only that, it frequently ventures within Jupiter’s orbital space—putting it on a potential collision course with the gas giant and its 6,000 co-orbiting asteroids.

    Of the millions of documented asteroids in the Solar System, a scant 82 of them, or 0.01 percent, orbit the Sun in a retrograde motion. But as a new study in Nature points out, asteroid Bee-Zed, or 2015 BZ509, is exceptional even among these backwards-orbiting misfits. It has the distinction of being the only known retrograde object in the Solar System that shares its orbital plane with another planet, in this case mighty Jupiter.

    What makes this celestial anomaly stranger still is that Jupiter is accompanied by 6,000 “Trojan” asteroids, the vast majority of which follow the gas giant in a prograde orbit (a small number of Trojans orbit Jupiter in a retrograde motion, but unlike Bee-Zed, they don’t orbit the Sun independently). Similar to a racecar driver going the wrong way around a track, Bee-Zed is careening towards these objects with each trip around the Sun. According to calculations made by Western University astronomer Paul Weigert, Bee-Zed has been doing this for at least a million years, amounting to tens of thousands of successful “laps” around the Sun. So far, it has emerged unscathed from these close encounters.

    Bee-Zed’s success may not be an accident. As noted in the study, Jupiter’s gravity is causing the rogue asteroid to weave in and out of the planet’s path each time the two objects pass. It’s the only asteroid known to have this relationship with a planet, and this state of “synchronicity” should allow Bee-Zed to avoid a catastrophic collision with either Jupiter or one of its Trojans for the next million years at least. This analysis is based on calculations and observations made with the Large Binocular Camera on the Large Binocular Telescope in Mt. Graham, Arizona.


    Large Binocular Telescope, Mount Graham, Arizona, USA

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    With each orbit Bee-Zed and Jupiter make around the sun, the retrograde object passes once inside and once outside the gas giant. This results in two opposing gravitational nudges that keeps the object on a safe path. Even though Bee-Zed crosses Jupiter’s orbital plane, it never actually gets too close; the nearest the two objects get to each other is about 109 million miles, roughly the distance between Earth and the Sun. So for Bee-Zed, it’s like playing “chicken” with a massive semi-truck—but the space rock only ventures onto its path when the truck is still far, far away.

    Not much is known about Bee-Zed, which was discovered by the Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) in 2015.


    Pan-STARRS1 located on Haleakala, Maui, HI, USA

    And although astronomers presume it to be a rocky asteroid, they aren’t even entirely sure—it could be an ice-covered comet. In fact, it may have originated from the same place as Halley’s Comet, perhaps the most famous retrograde object in the Solar System.

    See the full article here .

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    GIZMOGO pictorial

     
  • richardmitnick 7:42 am on March 25, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Asteroids, , , ,   

    From Goddard: “OSIRIS-REx asteroid search tests instruments, science team” 

    NASA Goddard Banner
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    March 24, 2017
    Erin Morton
    morton@orex.lpl.arizona.edu
    University of Arizona, Tucson

    Nancy Neal Jones
    nancy.n.jones@nasa.gov
    NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.

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    The path of the Main Belt asteroid 12 Victoria, as imaged by NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft on Feb. 11, 2017, during the mission’s Earth-Trojan Asteroid Search. This animation is made of a series of five images taken by the spacecraft’s MapCam camera that were then cropped and centered on Victoria. The images were taken about 51 minutes apart and each was exposed for 10 seconds. Credits: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona


    OSIRIS-REx spacecraft

    During an almost two-week search, NASA’s OSIRIS-REx mission team activated the spacecraft’s MapCam imager and scanned part of the surrounding space for elusive Earth-Trojan asteroids — objects that scientists believe may exist in one of the stable regions that co-orbits the sun with Earth. Although no Earth-Trojans were discovered, the spacecraft’s camera operated flawlessly and demonstrated that it could image objects two magnitudes dimmer than originally expected.

    The spacecraft, currently on its outbound journey to the asteroid Bennu, flew through the center of Earth’s fourth Lagrangian area — a stable region 60 degrees in front of Earth in its orbit where scientists believe asteroids may be trapped, such as asteroid 2010 TK7 discovered by NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite in 2010. Though no new asteroids were discovered in the region that was scanned, the spacecraft’s cameras MapCam and PolyCam successfully acquired and imaged Jupiter and several of its moons, as well as Main Belt asteroids.

    “The Earth-Trojan Asteroid Search was a significant success for the OSIRIS-REx mission,” said OSIRIS-REx Principal Investigator Dante Lauretta of the University of Arizona, Tucson. “In this first practical exercise of the mission’s science operations, the mission team learned so much about this spacecraft’s capabilities and flight operations that we are now ahead of the game for when we get to Bennu.”

    The Earth Trojan survey was designed primarily as an exercise for the mission team to rehearse the hazard search the spacecraft will perform as it approaches its target asteroid Bennu. This search will allow the mission team to avoid any natural satellites that may exist around the asteroid as the spacecraft prepares to collect a sample to return to Earth in 2023 for scientific study.

    The spacecraft’s MapCam imager, in particular, performed much better than expected during the exercise. Based on the camera’s design specifications, the team anticipated detecting four Main Belt asteroids. In practice, however, the camera was able to detect moving asteroids two magnitudes fainter than expected and imaged a total of 17 Main Belt asteroids. This indicates that the mission will be able to detect possible hazards around Bennu earlier and from a much greater distance that originally planned, further reducing mission risk.

    Scientists are still analyzing the implications of the search’s results for the potential population of Earth-Trojan asteroids and will publish conclusions after a thorough study of mission data.

    NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, provides overall mission management, systems engineering and the safety and mission assurance for OSIRIS-REx. Dante Lauretta of the University of Arizona, Tucson, is the principal investigator, and the University of Arizona also leads the science team and the mission’s observation planning and processing. Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Denver built the spacecraft and is providing flight operations. Goddard and KinetX Aerospace are responsible for navigating the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. OSIRIS-REx is the third mission in NASA’s New Frontiers Program. NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the agency’s New Frontiers Program for its Science Mission Directorate in Washington.

    For more information on OSIRIS-REx, visit:

    http://www.nasa.gov/osirisrex and http://www.asteroidmission.org

    See the full article here.

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    NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation’s largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

    Named for American rocketry pioneer Dr. Robert H. Goddard, the center was established in 1959 as NASA’s first space flight complex. Goddard and its several facilities are critical in carrying out NASA’s missions of space exploration and scientific discovery.

    NASA Goddard Campus
    NASA/Goddard Campus
    NASA

     
  • richardmitnick 10:29 am on March 1, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Asteroids, , ,   

    From New Scientist: “If an asteroid hit London only 3% of deaths would be from impact” 

    NewScientist

    New Scientist

    24 February 2017
    Leah Crane

    1
    Chances are it won’t land anywhere near you. Getty

    Wind kills. The most casualties from an asteroid impact won’t come from the impact itself. The wind, pressure and heat caused by the crash are far more dangerous, no matter where the asteroid hits.

    Clemens Rumpf at the University of Southampton, UK, and his colleagues have calculated the mortality risk, should an asteroid hit a residential area. They considered asteroids that burn up completely, those that hit the ground, and those that strike in water. Surprisingly, the airborne side effects were the ones that cost the most lives.

    As an asteroid hurtles towards the ground, it deposits a huge amount of energy into the atmosphere, resulting in a powerful shockwave, tornado-like winds and a plume of fire trailing behind it. When it crashes down, it forms a crater, shaking the ground around the impact and hurling debris into the air.

    If the asteroid hits water (which is twice as likely as hitting land), it would create a tsunami, with waves reaching dozens of metres high. The farther from shore the impact is, the deeper the water and the taller the waves.

    Far-reaching effect

    In the past, people have shown that tsunamis posed the greatest risks from an asteroid impact, but the events are notoriously difficult to model. Rumpf and his colleagues have worked out that the continental shelf helps protect the shore by dissipating waves both at its steep edge and over its gentle beachward slope.

    “What sets tsunamis apart is that they’re really the most far-reaching effect of all the impact effects,” says Rumpf. A pressure wave or heat plume can’t travel very far, and craters only form right at the impact site, but tsunamis can traverse hundreds of kilometres of ocean to hit coastal communities.

    A tsunami caused by the impact of a 200-metre-wide asteroid 130 kilometres off the coast of Rio de Janeiro, for example, could cause more than 50,000 deaths, with 75 per cent of those being directly caused by the tsunami and the rest due to high winds.

    But an asteroid over or in a city would kill millions. Most of those deaths would be due to wind as well, even if the asteroid did crash to the ground instead of exploding in the air.

    For an airburst, about 15 per cent of casualties would come from heat. In a direct impact, the effects of gusting wind and surging temperatures are joined by pressure waves, which can rupture internal organs.

    Only about 3 per cent of casualties would be caused by the actual impact or the earthquakes and debris that result, says the team. The group plans to discuss the results with disaster managers to come up with suggestions for preparedness.

    Very rare events

    Luckily, large asteroids don’t hit Earth often: an impact by a 200-metre asteroid is expected only once every 40,000 years. And an asteroid could fall anywhere, and most of the planet’s surface is unpopulated.

    “Chances are that an asteroid hits the water, and even if it hits land it’s much more likely that it will hit away from populated regions,” says Rumpf. “These are very rare events, but with potentially high consequences.”

    In case you are starting to worry, there are lots of projects dedicated to planetary defence against asteroids: telescopes have spotted most of the big ones, and there are several potential ways to avoid an asteroid impact if we see it coming.
    “We are in the business of detecting asteroids well in advance of an impact, so this kind of work is only really important if we totally fail to do our jobs,” says Erik Christensen, director of the Catalina Sky Survey at the University of Arizona.

    Journal reference: arXiv:1702.05798

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 5:03 pm on February 16, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Asteroids,   

    From Many Worlds: “Ceres, Asteroids And Us” 

    NASA NExSS bloc

    NASA NExSS

    Many Words icon

    Many Worlds

    2017-02-16
    Marc Kaufman

    1
    Ceres Up Close. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA

    For most of us, asteroids exist primarily as a threat. An asteroid that landed around the Yucatan peninsula, after all, is generally considered to have set into motion the changes that resulted in the elimination of the dinosaurs.

    Other large in-coming asteroids laid waste to swaths of Siberia in 1908, dug the world’s largest crater (118 mile wide) in South Africa long ago, and formed the Chesapeake Bay a mere 35 million years past. And another large asteroid will almost certainly threaten Earth again some day.

    There is, however, a reverse and possibly life-enhancing side to the asteroid story, one that is becoming more clear and intriguing as we learn more about them where they live. Asteroids not only contain a lot of water — some of it possibly delivered long ago to a dry Earth — but they contain some pretty complex organic molecules, the building blocks of life.

    The latest chapter in the asteroid saga is being written about Ceres, the largest asteroid in the solar system and recently declared to also be a dwarf planet (like Pluto.)

    Using data from NASA’s Dawn spacecraft, a team led by the National Institute for Astrophysics in Rome and the University of California, Los Angeles identified a variety of complex organic compounds, amino acids and nucleobases — the kind that are the building blocks of life.

    NASA/Dawn Spacecraft
    NASA/Dawn Spacecraft

    The mission has also detected signs of a possible subsurface ocean as well as cryovolcanos, which spit out ice, water, methane and other gases instead of molten rock.

    “This discovery of a locally high concentration of organics is intriguing, with broad implications for the astrobiology community,” said Simone Marchi, a senior research scientist at Southwest Research Institute and one of the authors of the paper in Science. “Ceres has evidence of ammonia-bearing hydrated minerals, water ice, carbonates, salts, and now organic materials.”

    He said that the organic-rich areas include carbonates and ammonia-based minerals, which are Ceres’ primary constituents. Their presence along with the organics makes it unlikely that the organics arrived via another asteroid.

    In an accompanying comment in the Feb. 16 edition of Science, Michael Küppers of the European Space Astronomy Center in Madrid makes the case that Ceres might be, or might once have been, habitable.

    The paper provides “the first observations of organic material on Ceres, confirming the presence of such material in the asteroid belt,” he writes. “Furthermore, because Ceres is a dwarf planet that may still preserve internal heat from its formation period and may even contain a subsurface ocean, this opens the possibility that primitive life could have developed on Ceres itself. It joins Mars and several satellites of the giant planets in the list of locations in the solar system that may harbor life.”

    2
    Illustration of the minor bodies in the inner part of the Solar System, including Jupiter trojans and the main asteroid belt. These objects are byproducts of planet formation and have key information about that process. Detecting them in extrasolar systems may help us to understand the early evolution of planetary systems. (NASA)

    Asteroids are as ancient as the solar system, some 4.6 billion years old. They are the leftovers from the planet formation process that took place in the disk around the very early sun — pieces of rock that didn’t become parts of planets or moons and weren’t otherwise smashed to bits.

    Both their age and their composition have made asteroids increasingly interesting to space scientists studying how the solar system came to look and behave as it does. The result has been a suite of missions to asteroids organized by NASA, the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the European Space Agency, the Russian space agency Roskosmos, and the China National Space Administration.

    Many of the missions include substantial collaboration between different national space agencies. The Dawn effort has major European involvement and NASA’s OSIRIS-REx mission to the asteroid Bennu and the Japanese Hayabusa2 mission to Ryugu each have three principal investigators from the other agency.

    NASA OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft
    NASA OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft

    hayabasu2-spacecraft
    JAXA Hayabasu 2 spacecraft

    Both spacecraft are now on their way, will spend months on their destination asteroids, and are designed to bring home samples (in 2018 for Hayabusa2 and 2023 for OSIRIS-REx.)

    NASA also approved two additional asteroid missions earlier this year. The first mission, called Lucy, will study asteroids, known as Trojan asteroids, trapped by Jupiter’s gravity.

    The Psyche mission will explore a very large and rare object in the solar system’s asteroid belt — an asteroid made of metal. Scientists believe it might be the exposed core of a planet that lost its rocky outer layers from a series of violent collisions. Lucy is targeted for launch in 2021 and Psyche in 2023.

    Left NASA Lucy; right NASA PSYCHE. NASA
    Left NASA Lucy; right NASA PSYCHE

    Why so many asteroid missions?

    I put the question to Harold C. Connolly Jr. of Rowan University, mission sample scientist for OSIRIS-REx and a co-investigator for the mission. He answered by email from Japan, together with Shogo Tachibana of Hakkaido University, who is a principal investigator for Hayabusa2. Both are co-principal investigators for the others’ sample analysis efforts.

    “The science is really driving the interest,” they wrote. “There now exists broader understanding that asteroids are time capsules to the past and can help illuminate the origin of Earth-like planets and potentially even the materials and conditions that lead to the origin of life.

    “The target asteroids of both missions are a treasure box of the earliest time period of the solar system, with such riches as prebiotic compounds (precursors to life-building organics) preserved in them.”

    In Japan, the Hayabusa2 mission is also a follow-on to the hugely popular original Hayabusa mission, which returned with grains from the asteroid Itokawa in 2010. Despite enormous difficulties and the failure of its lander, the spacecraft brought back enough sample to tell scientists that the asteroid was four billion years old, at one time was exposed to temperatures of 800 degrees centigrade, and much more.

    Hayabusa inspired so much interest in Japan that it led to not only the follow-on mission but also three movies, including one with star actor Ken Watanabe.

    In a phone conversation, Küppers of the European Space Astronomy Center expanded on the scientific importance of asteroids.

    He said that Ceres research has already determined that asteroid most likely was formed further out in the solar system and then migrated in. This conclusion flows from the observed presence of geological features and minerals on the surface that require the presence of water to form. Closer-in asteroids are believed to have had any water baked out of them, strongly suggesting that Ceres was once further from the sun.

    That asteroidal (and cometary) water plays an important role in the history of Earth. “The oceans on Earth certainly could have been filled with water, and organic compounds, from asteroids like Ceres,” Küppers said. Different kinds of water have different isotopic signatures, and the water signature on Earth is very much like that detected in some asteroids and comets.

    The Dawn spacecraft has already visited the large asteroid Vesta on its mission, and found minerals formed in water, a geology with steep cliffs and landslides, and the presence of an enormous crater at one of the poles. For Vesta, as for Ceres, a primary goal of the Dawn mission is to map the asteroid in various ways and with substantial precision. The overall goal, however, is to explore the conditions and processes found worlds as old as the solar system.

    While Vesta is a described as a “protoplanet” because of its size, Ceres is considered a dwarf planet (as well as an asteroid) because it has sufficient mass and gravity to be rounded like a planet. Vesta, and the other asteroids, are not. Itokawa, below, is considerably smaller than Ceres or Vesta, and so has been rounded far less.

    3
    Ceres, the largest asteroid in the solar system, features areas with concentrations of shiny, white material. Scientists have described them as likely to be salts and ice. The dwarf planet contains about one third of the mass in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, yet it is still dwarfed in size by our moon. The more detailed images was taken by Dawn from 3,200 miles away. NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA

    4
    NASA’s Dawn spacecraft captured this image of the asteroid Vesta while in orbit on July 18, 2011. The view looks across Vesta’s cratered and heavily-scarred south pole from a distance of about 6,500 miles. Vesta is the last remaining rocky protoplanet of the kind that formed the terrestrial planets. Numerous fragments of Vesta were ejected by collisions one and two billion years ago that left two enormous craters occupying much of Vesta’s southern hemisphere. Debris from these events has fallen to Earth as meteorites which have been a rich source of information about Vesta. (NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS)

    What was planned to be the biggest NASA asteroid mission is the Asteroid Redirect Mission. It was proposed as the first robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid, to collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and to then redirect it into a stable orbit around the moon. Once in orbit around the moon, astronauts would explore it and return with samples in the 2020s.

    The proposed mission was driven by science, but also was part of NASA’s plan to advance the new technologies and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. What’s more, some space scientists are concerned about the possibility of a large asteroid heading our way, and they want to develop techniques for just slightly changing an in-coming asteroid’s path so it would miss Earth.

    Many in Congress were never excited by the asteroid re-direct plan, and the future of the mission remains quite uncertain.

    But the part of the mission involved with learning more about asteroid pathways and how they might be changed is still, at least indirectly, alive.

    That’s because the asteroid Bennu, the destination for OSIRIS-REx, is one that often comes close to the Earth. (The acrony, by the way, stands for the Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer.)

    As explained on the NASA OSIRIS-REx webside, “Bennu is a B-type asteroid with a ~500 meter diameter. It completes an orbit around the Sun every 436.604 days (1.2 years) and every 6 years comes very close to Earth, within 0.002 astronomical units (the term used to describe the distance from the sun to Earth.) These close encounters give Bennu a high probability of impacting Earth in the late 22nd century.”

    Some place that probability considerably lower, but it is nonetheless a sobering thought given the damage that asteroids have periodically inflicted on the Earth.

    See the full article here .

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    About Many Worlds

    There are many worlds out there waiting to fire your imagination.

    Marc Kaufman is an experienced journalist, having spent three decades at The Washington Post and The Philadelphia Inquirer, and is the author of two books on searching for life and planetary habitability. While the “Many Worlds” column is supported by the Lunar Planetary Institute/USRA and informed by NASA’s NExSS initiative, any opinions expressed are the author’s alone.

    This site is for everyone interested in the burgeoning field of exoplanet detection and research, from the general public to scientists in the field. It will present columns, news stories and in-depth features, as well as the work of guest writers.

    About NExSS

    The Nexus for Exoplanet System Science (NExSS) is a NASA research coordination network dedicated to the study of planetary habitability. The goals of NExSS are to investigate the diversity of exoplanets and to learn how their history, geology, and climate interact to create the conditions for life. NExSS investigators also strive to put planets into an architectural context — as solar systems built over the eons through dynamical processes and sculpted by stars. Based on our understanding of our own solar system and habitable planet Earth, researchers in the network aim to identify where habitable niches are most likely to occur, which planets are most likely to be habitable. Leveraging current NASA investments in research and missions, NExSS will accelerate the discovery and characterization of other potentially life-bearing worlds in the galaxy, using a systems science approach.
    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation’s civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research.

    President Dwight D. Eisenhower established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958 with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, disestablishing NASA’s predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958.

    Since that time, most U.S. space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo moon-landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle. Currently, NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Commercial Crew vehicles. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program (LSP) which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. Most recently, NASA announced a new Space Launch System that it said would take the agency’s astronauts farther into space than ever before and lay the cornerstone for future human space exploration efforts by the U.S.

    NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System, advancing heliophysics through the efforts of the Science Mission Directorate’s Heliophysics Research Program, exploring bodies throughout the Solar System with advanced robotic missions such as New Horizons, and researching astrophysics topics, such as the Big Bang, through the Great Observatories [Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, and associated programs. NASA shares data with various national and international organizations such as from the [JAXA]Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:49 pm on February 11, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Asteroids, ,   

    From JPL: “Asteroid Resembles Dungeons and Dragons Dice” 

    NASA JPL Banner

    JPL-Caltech

    Feb. 10, 2017
    DC Agle
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California
    818-393-9011
    agle@jpl.nasa.gov

    1
    This composite of 25 images of asteroid 2017 BQ6 was generated with radar data collected using NASA’s Goldstone Solar System Radar in California’s Mojave Desert.

    NASA DSCC Goldstone Antenna located in the Mojave Desert near Barstow in California, USA
    NASA DSCC Goldstone Antenna located in the Mojave Desert near Barstow in California, USA

    The images were gathered on Feb. 7, 2017, between 8:39 and 9:50 p.m. PST (11:39 p.m. EST and 12:50 a.m., Feb. 7), revealing an irregular, angular-appearing asteroid about 660 feet (200 meters) in size that rotates about once every three hours. The images have resolutions as fine as 12 feet (3.75 meters) per pixel. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/GSSR

    Radar images of asteroid 2017 BQ6 were obtained on Feb. 6 and 7 with NASA’s 70-meter (230-foot) antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex in California. They reveal an irregular, angular-appearing asteroid about 660 feet (200 meters) in size that rotates about once every three hours. The images have resolutions as fine as 12 feet (3.75 meters) per pixel.

    “The radar images show relatively sharp corners, flat regions, concavities, and small bright spots that may be boulders,” said Lance Benner of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, who leads the agency’s asteroid radar research program. “Asteroid 2017 BQ6 reminds me of the dice used when playing Dungeons and Dragons. It is certainly more angular than most near-Earth asteroids imaged by radar.”

    Asteroid 2017 BQ6 safely passed Earth on Feb. 6 at 10:36 p.m. PST (1:36 a.m. EST, Feb. 7) at about 6.6 times the distance between Earth and the moon (about 1.6 million miles, or 2.5 million kilometers). It was discovered on Jan. 26 by the NASA-funded Lincoln Near Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) Project, operated by MIT Lincoln Laboratory on the Air Force Space Command’s Space Surveillance Telescope at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico.

    Radar has been used to observe hundreds of asteroids. When these small, natural remnants of the formation of the solar system pass relatively close to Earth, deep space radar is a powerful technique for studying their sizes, shapes, rotation, surface features, and roughness, and for more precise determination of their orbital path.

    NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, manages and operates NASA’s Deep Space Network, including the Goldstone Solar System Radar, and hosts the Center for Near-Earth Object Studies for NASA’s Near-Earth Object Observations Program within the agency’s Science Mission Directorate.

    JPL hosts the Center for Near-Earth Object Studies for NASA’s Near-Earth Object Observations Program within the agency’s Science Mission Directorate.

    More information about asteroids and near-Earth objects can be found at:

    http://cneos.jpl.nasa.gov

    http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroidwatch

    For more information about NASA’s Planetary Defense Coordination Office, visit:

    http://www.nasa.gov/planetarydefense

    For asteroid and comet news and updates, follow AsteroidWatch on Twitter:

    twitter.com/AsteroidWatch

    See the full article here .

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    NASA JPL Campus

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center located in the San Gabriel Valley area of Los Angeles County, California, United States. Although the facility has a Pasadena postal address, it is actually headquartered in the city of La Cañada Flintridge [1], on the northwest border of Pasadena. JPL is managed by the nearby California Institute of Technology (Caltech) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Laboratory’s primary function is the construction and operation of robotic planetary spacecraft, though it also conducts Earth-orbit and astronomy missions. It is also responsible for operating NASA’s Deep Space Network.

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