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  • richardmitnick 1:19 pm on August 9, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "ALMA Makes First-Ever Detection of Gas in a Circumplanetary Disk", ALMA (CL), , , ,   

    From ALMA (CL): “ALMA Makes First-Ever Detection of Gas in a Circumplanetary Disk” 

    From ALMA (CL)

    Nicolás Lira
    Education and Public Outreach Coordinator
    Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago – Chile
    Phone: +56 2 2467 6519
    Cell phone: +56 9 9445 7726
    Email: nicolas.lira@alma.cl

    Amy C. Oliver
    Public Information & News Manager
    National Radio Astronomical Observatory (NRAO), USA
    Phone: +1 434 242 9584
    Email: aoliver@nrao.edu

    All general references:
    ALMA Observatory (CL) http://www.almaobservatory.org/

    European Southern Observatory(EU) http://www.eso.org/public/

    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan(JP) http://www.nao.ac.jp/en/

    National Radio Astronomy Observatory(US) https://public.nrao.edu/
    Full identification of an astronomical asset will be presented once in the first instance of that asset.

    1
    Artist impression of the circumplanetary disk discovered in 2021 around a young planet in the PDS 70 star system. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), S. Dagnello (NRAO/AUI/NSF)

    2
    Scientists studying the young star AS 209 have detected gas in a circumplanetary disk for the first time, which suggests the star system may be harboring a very young Jupiter-mass planet. Science images from the research show (right) blob-like emissions of light coming from otherwise empty gaps in the highly-structured, seven-ring disk (left). Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), J. Bae (U. Florida)

    3
    AS 209 is a young star in the Ophiuchus constellation that scientists have now determined is host to what may be one of the youngest exoplanets ever. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), A. Sierra (U. Chile)

    Scientists using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to study planet formation have made the first-ever detection of gas in a circumplanetary disk. What’s more, the detection also suggests the presence of a very young exoplanet. The results of the research are published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters [below].

    Circumplanetary disks are an amassing of gas, dust, and debris around young planets. These disks give rise to moons and other small, rocky objects, and control the growth of young, giant planets. Studying these disks in their earliest stages may help shed light on the formation of our own Solar System, including that of Jupiter’s Galilean moons, which scientists believe formed in a circumplanetary disk of Jupiter around 4.5 billion years ago.

    While studying AS 209— a young star located roughly 395 light-years from Earth in the constellation Ophiuchus— scientists observed a blob of emitted light in the middle of an otherwise empty gap in the gas surrounding the star. That led to the detection of the circumplanetary disk surrounding a potential Jupiter-mass planet. Scientists are watching the system closely, both because of the planet’s distance from its star and the star’s age. The exoplanet is located more than 200 astronomical units, or 18.59 billion miles, away from the host star, challenging currently accepted theories of planet formation. And if the host star’s estimated age of just 1.6 million years holds true, this exoplanet could be one of the youngest ever detected. Further study is needed, and scientists hope that upcoming observations with the James Webb Space Telescope will confirm the planet’s presence.

    “The best way to study planet formation is to observe planets while they’re forming. We are living in a very exciting time when this happens thanks to powerful telescopes, such as ALMA and JWST,” said Jaehan Bae, a professor of astronomy at the University of Florida and the lead author of the paper.

    AS 209 is a young star located roughly 395 light-years from Earth in the constellation Ophiuchus. The star system has been of interest to scientists working in the ALMA MAPS— Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales— collaboration for more than five years due to the presence of seven nested rings [The Astrophysical Journal Letters (below)], which scientists believed to be associated with ongoing planet formation
    [The Astrophysical Journal (below)]. The new results provide further evidence of planet formation around the young star.

    Scientists have long suspected the presence of circumplanetary disks around exoplanets, but until recently were unable to prove it. In 2019, ALMA scientists made the first-ever detection of a circumplanetary, moon-forming disk [The Astrophysical Journal Letters (below)] while observing the young exoplanet PDS 70c, and confirmed the find in 2021 [The Astrophysical Journal Letters (below)]. The new observations of gas in a circumplanetary disk at AS 209 may shed further light on the development of planetary atmospheres and the processes by which moons are formed.

    Science papers:
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters
    The Astrophysical Journal
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) (CL) , an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) (EU), in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) (CA) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and in East Asia by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan.

    ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by European Southern Observatory(EU), on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (US) and on behalf of East Asia by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.
    NRAO Small
    ESO 50 Large

    The antennas can be moved across the desert plateau over distances from 150 m to 16 km, which will give ALMA a powerful variable “zoom”, similar in its concept to that employed at the centimetre-wavelength Very Large Array (VLA) site in New Mexico, United States.

    The high sensitivity is mainly achieved through the large numbers of antenna dishes that will make up the array.

    The telescopes were provided by the European, North American and East Asian partners of ALMA. The American and European partners each provided twenty-five 12-meter diameter antennas, that compose the main array. The participating East Asian countries are contributing 16 antennas (four 12-meter diameter and twelve 7-meter diameter antennas) in the form of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA), which is part of the enhanced ALMA.

    By using smaller antennas than the main ALMA array, larger fields of view can be imaged at a given frequency using ACA. Placing the antennas closer together enables the imaging of sources of larger angular extent. The ACA works together with the main array in order to enhance the latter’s wide-field imaging capability.

    ALMA has its conceptual roots in three astronomical projects — the Millimeter Array (MMA) of the United States, the Large Southern Array (LSA) of Europe, and the Large Millimeter Array (LMA) of Japan.

    The first step toward the creation of what would become ALMA came in 1997, when the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) agreed to pursue a common project that merged the MMA and LSA. The merged array combined the sensitivity of the LSA with the frequency coverage and superior site of the MMA. ESO and NRAO worked together in technical, science, and management groups to define and organize a joint project between the two observatories with participation by Canada and Spain (the latter became a member of ESO later).

    A series of resolutions and agreements led to the choice of “Atacama Large Millimeter Array”, or ALMA, as the name of the new array in March 1999 and the signing of the ALMA Agreement on 25 February 2003, between the North American and European parties. (“Alma” means “soul” in Spanish and “learned” or “knowledgeable” in Arabic.) Following mutual discussions over several years, the ALMA Project received a proposal from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) whereby Japan would provide the ACA (Atacama Compact Array) and three additional receiver bands for the large array, to form Enhanced ALMA. Further discussions between ALMA and NAOJ led to the signing of a high-level agreement on 14 September 2004 that makes Japan an official participant in Enhanced ALMA, to be known as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. A groundbreaking ceremony was held on November 6, 2003 and the ALMA logo was unveiled.

    During an early stage of the planning of ALMA, it was decided to employ ALMA antennas designed and constructed by known companies in North America, Europe, and Japan, rather than using one single design. This was mainly for political reasons. Although very different approaches have been chosen by the providers, each of the antenna designs appears to be able to meet ALMA’s stringent requirements. The components designed and manufactured across Europe were transported by specialist aerospace and astrospace logistics company Route To Space Alliance, 26 in total which were delivered to Antwerp for onward shipment to Chile.

    Partners

    European Southern Observatory (EU) and the European Regional Support Centre
    National Science Foundation (US) via the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) and the North American ALMA Science Center (US)
    National Research Council Canada [Conseil national de recherches Canada] (CA)
    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (JP) under the National Institute of Natural Sciences (自然科学研究機構, Shizenkagaku kenkyuukikou) (JP)
    ALMA-Taiwan at the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics [中央研究院天文及天文物理研究所](TW)
    Republic of Chile

    ALMA is a time machine!

    ALMA-In Search of our Cosmic Origins

     
  • richardmitnick 8:44 am on July 16, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , ALMA (CL), An international research team has observed using ALMA redshifted emissions of a distant galaxy MACS1149-JD1., , , ,   

    From ALMA (CL): “Capturing the Onset of Galaxy Rotation in the Early Universe” 

    From ALMA (CL)

    1 July, 2022

    Nicolás Lira
    Education and Public Outreach Coordinator
    Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago – Chile
    Phone: +56 2 2467 6519
    Cell phone: +56 9 9445 7726
    Email: nicolas.lira@alma.cl

    Junko Ueda
    Public Information Officer
    NAOJ
    Email: junko.ueda@nao.ac.jp

    Bárbara Ferreira
    ESO Public Information Officer
    Garching bei München, Germany
    Phone: +49 89 3200 6670
    Email: pio@eso.org

    Amy C. Oliver
    Public Information & News Manager
    National Radio Astronomical Observatory (NRAO), USA
    Phone: +1 434 242 9584
    Email: aoliver@nrao.edu

    All general references:
    ALMA Observatory (CL) http://www.almaobservatory.org/

    European Southern Observatory(EU) http://www.eso.org/public/

    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan(JP) http://www.nao.ac.jp/en/

    National Radio Astronomy Observatory(US) https://public.nrao.edu/
    Full identification of an astronomical asset will be presented once in the first instance of that asset.

    1
    Conceptual image of MACS1149-JD1 forming and spinning up to speed in the early universe. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO).

    An international research team led by Tsuyoshi Tokuoka, a graduate student at Waseda University in Japan, has observed signs of rotation in a galaxy, which existed in the early universe, only 500 million years after the Big Bang. This galaxy is by far the earliest galaxy with a signature of galaxy rotation. Its rotational speed is only 50 kilometers per second, compared to 220 kilometers per second for the Milky Way, indicating that the galaxy is still at an initial stage of developing a rotational motion. This finding would lead to a better understanding of the galaxy formation in the early universe.

    As telescopes have become more advanced and powerful, astronomers have been able to detect more and more distant galaxies. Due to the expansion of the universe, these galaxies are receding away from us. This causes their emissions to be redshifted (shifted towards longer wavelengths).

    Interestingly, we can estimate how fast a galaxy is moving and, in turn, when it was formed based on how redshifted the emission appears. ALMA is particularly well-suited for observing such redshifts in galaxy emission.

    An international research team has observed using ALMA redshifted emissions of a distant galaxy MACS1149-JD1, or JD1 for short, which has led them to some interesting conclusions. “Beyond finding high redshift, namely very distant, galaxies, studying their internal motion of gas and stars provides motivation for understanding the process of galaxy formation in the earliest possible universe,” explained Richard S. Ellis, a professor at University College London.

    Galaxy formation begins with the accumulation of gas and proceeds with forming stars from that gas. With time, star formation progresses from the center outward, a galactic disk develops, and the galaxy acquires a particular shape. As star formation continues, newer stars form in the rotating disk while older stars remain in the central part. It is possible to determine the evolutionary stage of the galaxy by studying the age of the stellar objects and the motion of the stars and gas.

    The team successfully measured small differences in the “redshift” from position to position inside the galaxy, showing that JD1 satisfied the criterion for a galaxy dominated by rotation. The calculated rotational speed was about 50 kilometers per second, compared to the rotational speed of the Milky Way disk of 220 kilometers per second. The team also measured the diameter of JD1 at only 3,000 light-years, which is much smaller than that of the Milky Way at 100,000 light-years across.

    The galaxy the team observed is by far the most distant source yet found that has a rotating disk. Together with similar measurements of nearer systems in the research literature, this has allowed the team to delineate the gradual development of rotating galaxies over more than 95% of our cosmic history.

    Furthermore, the mass estimated from the rotational speed was in line with the stellar mass estimated previously from the spectral signature, and came predominantly from that of “mature” stars that formed about 300 million years ago. “This shows that the stellar population in JD1 formed at an even earlier epoch of the cosmic age,” said Takuya Hashimoto, an assistant professor at Univesity of Tsukuba.

    “The rotational speed of JD1 is much slower than those found in galaxies in later epochs and the Milky Way, and JD1 is likely at an initial stage of developing a rotational motion,” said Akio Inoue, a professor at Waseda University. With the recently launched James Webb Space Telescope, the team now plans to identify the locations of young and older stars in the galaxy to refine their scenario for its formation.

    Additional information:

    The science team:

    Tsuyoshi Tokuoka,1; Akio K. Inoue ,1, 2; Takuya Hashimoto ,3; Richard S. Ellis,4; Nicolas Laporte ,5, 6;
    Yuma Sugahara ,2, 7; Hiroshi Matsuo ,7; Yoichi Tamura ,8; Yoshinobu Fudamoto,2, 7; Kana Moriwaki ,9;
    Guido Roberts-Borsani ,10; Ikkoh Shimizu,11; Satoshi Yamanaka ,12; Naoki Yoshida ,9, 13, 14, 15;
    Erik Zackrisson ,16; and Wei Zheng 17;

    1 Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering,
    Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
    2 Waseda Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University,
    3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
    3 Tomonaga Center for the History of the Universe (TCHoU), Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571, Japan
    4 Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    5 Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
    6 Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK
    7 National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
    8 Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Aichi 4648602, Japan
    9 Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
    10 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    11 Department of Literature, Shikoku Gakuin University, 3-2-1 Bunkyocho, Zentsuji, Kagawa 765-8505, Japan
    12 General Education Department, National Institute of Technology, Toba College, 1-1, Ikegami-cho, Toba, Mie 517-8501, Japan
    13 Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), UT Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo,5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583, Japan
    14 Research Center for the Early Universe, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
    15 Institute for Physics of Intelligence, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
    16 Observational Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden
    17 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA

    This research was supported by NAOJ ALMA Scientific Research Grant Numbers 2020-16B.

    These research results were published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) (CL) , an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) (EU), in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) (CA) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and in East Asia by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan.

    ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by European Southern Observatory(EU), on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (US) and on behalf of East Asia by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.
    NRAO Small
    ESO 50 Large

    The antennas can be moved across the desert plateau over distances from 150 m to 16 km, which will give ALMA a powerful variable “zoom”, similar in its concept to that employed at the centimetre-wavelength Very Large Array (VLA) site in New Mexico, United States.

    The high sensitivity is mainly achieved through the large numbers of antenna dishes that will make up the array.

    The telescopes were provided by the European, North American and East Asian partners of ALMA. The American and European partners each provided twenty-five 12-meter diameter antennas, that compose the main array. The participating East Asian countries are contributing 16 antennas (four 12-meter diameter and twelve 7-meter diameter antennas) in the form of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA), which is part of the enhanced ALMA.

    By using smaller antennas than the main ALMA array, larger fields of view can be imaged at a given frequency using ACA. Placing the antennas closer together enables the imaging of sources of larger angular extent. The ACA works together with the main array in order to enhance the latter’s wide-field imaging capability.

    ALMA has its conceptual roots in three astronomical projects — the Millimeter Array (MMA) of the United States, the Large Southern Array (LSA) of Europe, and the Large Millimeter Array (LMA) of Japan.

    The first step toward the creation of what would become ALMA came in 1997, when the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) agreed to pursue a common project that merged the MMA and LSA. The merged array combined the sensitivity of the LSA with the frequency coverage and superior site of the MMA. ESO and NRAO worked together in technical, science, and management groups to define and organize a joint project between the two observatories with participation by Canada and Spain (the latter became a member of ESO later).

    A series of resolutions and agreements led to the choice of “Atacama Large Millimeter Array”, or ALMA, as the name of the new array in March 1999 and the signing of the ALMA Agreement on 25 February 2003, between the North American and European parties. (“Alma” means “soul” in Spanish and “learned” or “knowledgeable” in Arabic.) Following mutual discussions over several years, the ALMA Project received a proposal from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) whereby Japan would provide the ACA (Atacama Compact Array) and three additional receiver bands for the large array, to form Enhanced ALMA. Further discussions between ALMA and NAOJ led to the signing of a high-level agreement on 14 September 2004 that makes Japan an official participant in Enhanced ALMA, to be known as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. A groundbreaking ceremony was held on November 6, 2003 and the ALMA logo was unveiled.

    During an early stage of the planning of ALMA, it was decided to employ ALMA antennas designed and constructed by known companies in North America, Europe, and Japan, rather than using one single design. This was mainly for political reasons. Although very different approaches have been chosen by the providers, each of the antenna designs appears to be able to meet ALMA’s stringent requirements. The components designed and manufactured across Europe were transported by specialist aerospace and astrospace logistics company Route To Space Alliance, 26 in total which were delivered to Antwerp for onward shipment to Chile.

    Partners

    European Southern Observatory (EU) and the European Regional Support Centre
    National Science Foundation (US) via the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) and the North American ALMA Science Center (US)
    National Research Council Canada [Conseil national de recherches Canada] (CA)
    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (JP) under the National Institute of Natural Sciences (自然科学研究機構, Shizenkagaku kenkyuukikou) (JP)
    ALMA-Taiwan at the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics [中央研究院天文及天文物理研究所](TW)
    Republic of Chile

    ALMA is a time machine!

    ALMA-In Search of our Cosmic Origins

     
  • richardmitnick 10:40 pm on June 30, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , ALMA (CL), , , , Galaxy MACS1149-JD1 forming and spinning up to speed in the early universe.,   

    From ALMA (CL): “Capturing the Onset of Galaxy Rotation in the Early Universe” 

    From ALMA (CL)

    Nicolás Lira
    Education and Public Outreach Coordinator
    Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago – Chile
    Phone: +56 2 2467 6519
    Cell phone: +56 9 9445 7726
    Email: nicolas.lira@alma.cl

    Junko Ueda
    Public Information Officer
    NAOJ
    Email: junko.ueda@nao.ac.jp

    Bárbara Ferreira
    ESO Public Information Officer
    Garching bei München, Germany
    Phone: +49 89 3200 6670
    Email: pio@eso.org

    Amy C. Oliver
    Public Information & News Manager
    National Radio Astronomical Observatory (NRAO), USA
    Phone: +1 434 242 9584
    Email: aoliver@nrao.edu

    All general references:
    ALMA Observatory (CL) http://www.almaobservatory.org/

    European Southern Observatory(EU) http://www.eso.org/public/

    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan(JP) http://www.nao.ac.jp/en/

    National Radio Astronomy Observatory(US) https://public.nrao.edu/
    Full identification of an astronomical asset will be presented once in the first instance of that asset.

    1
    Conceptual image of MACS1149-JD1 forming and spinning up to speed in the early universe. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)

    An international research team led by Tsuyoshi Tokuoka, a graduate student at Waseda University in Japan, has observed signs of rotation in a galaxy, which existed in the early universe, only 500 million years after the Big Bang. This galaxy is by far the earliest galaxy with a signature of galaxy rotation. Its rotational speed is only 50 kilometers per second, compared to 220 kilometers per second for the Milky Way, indicating that the galaxy is still at an initial stage of developing a rotational motion. This finding would lead to a better understanding of the galaxy formation in the early universe.

    As telescopes have become more advanced and powerful, astronomers have been able to detect more and more distant galaxies. Due to the expansion of the universe, these galaxies are receding away from us. This causes their emissions to be redshifted (shifted towards longer wavelengths). Interestingly, we can estimate how fast a galaxy is moving and, in turn, when it was formed based on how redshifted the emission appears. ALMA is particularly well-suited for observing such redshifts in galaxy emission.

    An international research team has observed using ALMA redshifted emissions of a distant galaxy, MACS1149-JD1, or JD1 for short, which has led them to some interesting conclusions. “Beyond finding high-redshift, namely very distant, galaxies, studying their internal motion of gas and stars provides motivation for understanding the process of galaxy formation in the earliest possible universe,” explained Richard S. Ellis, a professor at University College London.

    Galaxy formation begins with the accumulation of gas and proceeds with forming stars from that gas. With time, star formation progresses from the center outward, a galactic disk develops, and the galaxy acquires a particular shape. As star formation continues, newer stars form in the rotating disk while older stars remain in the central part. It is possible to determine the evolutionary stage of the galaxy by studying the age of the stellar objects and the motion of the stars and gas.

    The team successfully measured small differences in the “redshift” from position to position inside the galaxy, showing that JD1 satisfied the criterion for a galaxy dominated by rotation. The calculated rotational speed was about 50 kilometers per second, compared to the rotational speed of the Milky Way disk of 220 kilometers per second. The team also measured the diameter of JD1 at only 3,000 light-years, which is much smaller than that of the Milky Way at 100,000 light-years across.

    The galaxy the team observed is by far the most distant source yet found that has a rotating disk. Together with similar measurements of nearer systems in the research literature, this has allowed the team to delineate the gradual development of rotating galaxies over more than 95% of our cosmic history.

    Furthermore, the mass estimated from the rotational speed was in line with the stellar mass estimated previously from the spectral signature, and came predominantly from that of “mature” stars that formed about 300 million years ago. “This shows that the stellar population in JD1 formed at an even earlier epoch of the cosmic age,” said Takuya Hashimoto, an assistant professor at Univesity of Tsukuba.

    “The rotational speed of JD1 is much slower than those found in galaxies in later epochs and the Milky Way, and JD1 is likely at an initial stage of developing a rotational motion,” said Akio Inoue, a professor at Waseda University. With the recently launched James Webb Space Telescope, the team now plans to identify the locations of young and older stars in the galaxy to refine their scenario for its formation.

    Additional information

    These research results were published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

    This research was supported by NAOJ ALMA Scientific Research Grant Numbers 2020-16B.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) (CL) , an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) (EU), in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) (CA) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and in East Asia by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan.

    ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by European Southern Observatory(EU), on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (US) and on behalf of East Asia by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.
    NRAO Small
    ESO 50 Large

    The antennas can be moved across the desert plateau over distances from 150 m to 16 km, which will give ALMA a powerful variable “zoom”, similar in its concept to that employed at the centimetre-wavelength Very Large Array (VLA) site in New Mexico, United States.

    The high sensitivity is mainly achieved through the large numbers of antenna dishes that will make up the array.

    The telescopes were provided by the European, North American and East Asian partners of ALMA. The American and European partners each provided twenty-five 12-meter diameter antennas, that compose the main array. The participating East Asian countries are contributing 16 antennas (four 12-meter diameter and twelve 7-meter diameter antennas) in the form of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA), which is part of the enhanced ALMA.

    By using smaller antennas than the main ALMA array, larger fields of view can be imaged at a given frequency using ACA. Placing the antennas closer together enables the imaging of sources of larger angular extent. The ACA works together with the main array in order to enhance the latter’s wide-field imaging capability.

    ALMA has its conceptual roots in three astronomical projects — the Millimeter Array (MMA) of the United States, the Large Southern Array (LSA) of Europe, and the Large Millimeter Array (LMA) of Japan.

    The first step toward the creation of what would become ALMA came in 1997, when the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) agreed to pursue a common project that merged the MMA and LSA. The merged array combined the sensitivity of the LSA with the frequency coverage and superior site of the MMA. ESO and NRAO worked together in technical, science, and management groups to define and organize a joint project between the two observatories with participation by Canada and Spain (the latter became a member of ESO later).

    A series of resolutions and agreements led to the choice of “Atacama Large Millimeter Array”, or ALMA, as the name of the new array in March 1999 and the signing of the ALMA Agreement on 25 February 2003, between the North American and European parties. (“Alma” means “soul” in Spanish and “learned” or “knowledgeable” in Arabic.) Following mutual discussions over several years, the ALMA Project received a proposal from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) whereby Japan would provide the ACA (Atacama Compact Array) and three additional receiver bands for the large array, to form Enhanced ALMA. Further discussions between ALMA and NAOJ led to the signing of a high-level agreement on 14 September 2004 that makes Japan an official participant in Enhanced ALMA, to be known as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. A groundbreaking ceremony was held on November 6, 2003 and the ALMA logo was unveiled.

    During an early stage of the planning of ALMA, it was decided to employ ALMA antennas designed and constructed by known companies in North America, Europe, and Japan, rather than using one single design. This was mainly for political reasons. Although very different approaches have been chosen by the providers, each of the antenna designs appears to be able to meet ALMA’s stringent requirements. The components designed and manufactured across Europe were transported by specialist aerospace and astrospace logistics company Route To Space Alliance, 26 in total which were delivered to Antwerp for onward shipment to Chile.

    Partners

    European Southern Observatory (EU) and the European Regional Support Centre
    National Science Foundation (US) via the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) and the North American ALMA Science Center (US)
    National Research Council Canada [Conseil national de recherches Canada] (CA)
    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (JP) under the National Institute of Natural Sciences (自然科学研究機構, Shizenkagaku kenkyuukikou) (JP)
    ALMA-Taiwan at the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics [中央研究院天文及天文物理研究所](TW)
    Republic of Chile

    ALMA is a time machine!

    ALMA-In Search of our Cosmic Origins

     
  • richardmitnick 8:23 am on June 20, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Close Encounter More Than 10000 Years Ago Stirred Up Spirals in an Accretion Disk", A 32 solar mass protostar in the Galactic Center., A binary stellar system known as Scholz's Star flew by the solar system about 70000 years ago probably penetrating through the Oort cloud and sending comets to the inner solar system., Accretion disks at the early evolutionary stages of star formation are subject to frequent dynamic processes such as flybys., ALMA (CL), An object flew by the disk more than 10000 years ago and perturbed the disk leading to the formation of spiral arms., , At a distance of about 26000 light-years away from us the Galactic Center is a unique and important star-forming environment., , , , Numerical simulation matches perfectly with the ALMA observations., The disk clearly displays two spiral arms. Such spiral arms resemble those found in spiral galaxies but are rarely seen in protostellar disks., The disk has a diameter of about 4000 astronomical units and is surrounding a forming early O-type star of 32 solar mass., The spiral arms in the disk are relics of the flyby of the intruding object., The team detected an object of about three solar masses at about 8000 astronomical units away from the disk.   

    From ALMA (CL): “Close Encounter More Than 10000 Years Ago Stirred Up Spirals in an Accretion Disk” 

    From ALMA (CL)

    Nicolás Lira
    Education and Public Outreach Coordinator
    Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago – Chile
    Phone: +56 2 2467 6519
    Cell phone: +56 9 9445 7726
    Email: nicolas.lira@alma.cl

    Junko Ueda
    Public Information Officer
    NAOJ
    Email: junko.ueda@nao.ac.jp

    Bárbara Ferreira
    ESO Public Information Officer
    Garching bei München, Germany
    Phone: +49 89 3200 6670
    Email: pio@eso.org

    Amy C. Oliver
    Public Information & News Manager
    National Radio Astronomical Observatory (NRAO), USA
    Phone: +1 434 242 9584
    Email: aoliver@nrao.edu

    All general references:
    ALMA Observatory (CL) http://www.almaobservatory.org/

    European Southern Observatory(EU) http://www.eso.org/public/

    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan(JP) http://www.nao.ac.jp/en/

    National Radio Astronomy Observatory(US) https://public.nrao.edu/
    Full identification of an astronomical asset will be presented once in the first instance of that asset.

    1
    The three plots starting from the bottom left are snapshots from the numerical simulation, capturing the system right at the flyby event, 4,000 years after, and 8,000 years after, respectively. The top right image is from the ALMA observations, showing the disk with spirals and the two objects around it, corresponding to the system at 12,000 years after the flyby event. Image credit: Lu et al.

    An international research team from China, the U.S., and Germany has used high-resolution observational data from ALMA and discovered a massive accretion disk with two spiral arms surrounding a 32 solar mass protostar in the Galactic Center. This disk could be perturbed by a close encounter with a flyby object, thus leading to the formation of the spiral arms. This finding demonstrates that the formation of massive stars may be similar to that of lower-mass stars through accretion disks and flybys.

    Accretion disks around protostars, also known as ‘protostellar disks,’ are essential components in star formation because they continuously feed gas into protostars from the environment. In this sense, they are stellar cradles where stars are born and raised. Accretion disks surrounding solar-like low-mass protostars have been extensively studied in the last few decades, leading to a wealth of observational and theoretical achievements. For massive protostars, especially early O-type ones of more than 30 solar masses, it is still unclear whether and how accretion disks play a role in their formation. These massive stars are far more luminous than the Sun, with intrinsic luminosities up to several hundreds of thousands of times the solar value, which strongly impact the environment of the entire Galaxy. Therefore, understanding the formation of massive stars is of great importance.

    At a distance of about 26000 light-years away from us the Galactic Center is a unique and important star-forming environment. The most well-known object here would undoubtedly be the supermassive black hole Sgr A*. Besides that, there is a massive reservoir of dense molecular gas, mainly in the form of molecular hydrogen (H2), which is the raw material for star formation. The gas will start to form stars once gravitational collapse is initiated. However, direct observations of star-forming regions around the Galactic Center are challenging, given the considerable distance and the contamination from foreground gas between the Galactic Center and us. A very high resolution, combined with high sensitivity, is necessary to resolve details of star formation in this region.

    The research team has used the long-baseline observations of ALMA to achieve a resolution of 40 milliarcseconds. We can easily spot a baseball hidden in Osaka from Tokyo at such a resolution. With these high-resolution, high-sensitivity ALMA observations, the team has discovered an accretion disk around the Galactic Center. The disk has a diameter of about 4000 astronomical units and is surrounding a forming early O-type star of 32 solar mass. “This system is among the most massive protostars with accretion disks and represents the first direct imaging of a protostellar accretion disk in the Galactic Center,” said Qizhou Zhang, a co-author and an astrophysicist at the Center for Astrophysics. This discovery suggests that the formation of massive early O-type stars does go through a phase with accretion disks involved, and such a conclusion is valid for the Galactic Center.

    What is more interesting is that the disk clearly displays two spiral arms. Such spiral arms resemble those found in spiral galaxies but are rarely seen in protostellar disks. Spiral arms could emerge in accretion disks due to fragmentation induced by gravitational instabilities. However, the disk discovered in this study is hot and turbulent, thus able to balance its gravity. The team detected an object of about three solar masses at about 8000 astronomical units away from the disk. Through a combined analysis of analytic solutions and numerical simulations, they reproduce a scenario where an object flew by the disk more than 10000 years ago and perturbed the disk leading to the formation of spiral arms. “The numerical simulation matches perfectly with the ALMA observations. We conclude that the spiral arms in the disk are relics of the flyby of the intruding object,” said Xing Lu, the lead author and an associate researcher at the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

    This finding demonstrates that accretion disks at the early evolutionary stages of star formation are subject to frequent dynamic processes such as flybys, which would substantially influence the formation of stars and planets. It is interesting to note that flybys have also happened in our Solar System. A binary stellar system known as Scholz’s Star flew by the solar system about 70000 years ago probably penetrating through the Oort cloud and sending comets to the inner solar system. This study suggests that for more massive stars, especially in the high stellar density environment around the Galactic Center, such flybys should also be frequent. “The formation of stars should be a dynamical process, with many mysteries still unresolved,” said Xing Lu. “With more upcoming high-resolution ALMA observations, we expect to disentangle these mysteries in star formation.”

    Additional information

    These research results were published by X. Lu et al. in Nature Astronomy.

    This research was supported by the initial funding of scientific research for high-level talents at Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP20K14528, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China grants W820301904 and 12033005.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) (CL) , an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) (EU), in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) (CA) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and in East Asia by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan.

    ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by European Southern Observatory(EU), on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (US) and on behalf of East Asia by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.
    NRAO Small
    ESO 50 Large

    The antennas can be moved across the desert plateau over distances from 150 m to 16 km, which will give ALMA a powerful variable “zoom”, similar in its concept to that employed at the centimetre-wavelength Very Large Array (VLA) site in New Mexico, United States.

    The high sensitivity is mainly achieved through the large numbers of antenna dishes that will make up the array.

    The telescopes were provided by the European, North American and East Asian partners of ALMA. The American and European partners each provided twenty-five 12-meter diameter antennas, that compose the main array. The participating East Asian countries are contributing 16 antennas (four 12-meter diameter and twelve 7-meter diameter antennas) in the form of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA), which is part of the enhanced ALMA.

    By using smaller antennas than the main ALMA array, larger fields of view can be imaged at a given frequency using ACA. Placing the antennas closer together enables the imaging of sources of larger angular extent. The ACA works together with the main array in order to enhance the latter’s wide-field imaging capability.

    ALMA has its conceptual roots in three astronomical projects — the Millimeter Array (MMA) of the United States, the Large Southern Array (LSA) of Europe, and the Large Millimeter Array (LMA) of Japan.

    The first step toward the creation of what would become ALMA came in 1997, when the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) agreed to pursue a common project that merged the MMA and LSA. The merged array combined the sensitivity of the LSA with the frequency coverage and superior site of the MMA. ESO and NRAO worked together in technical, science, and management groups to define and organize a joint project between the two observatories with participation by Canada and Spain (the latter became a member of ESO later).

    A series of resolutions and agreements led to the choice of “Atacama Large Millimeter Array”, or ALMA, as the name of the new array in March 1999 and the signing of the ALMA Agreement on 25 February 2003, between the North American and European parties. (“Alma” means “soul” in Spanish and “learned” or “knowledgeable” in Arabic.) Following mutual discussions over several years, the ALMA Project received a proposal from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) whereby Japan would provide the ACA (Atacama Compact Array) and three additional receiver bands for the large array, to form Enhanced ALMA. Further discussions between ALMA and NAOJ led to the signing of a high-level agreement on 14 September 2004 that makes Japan an official participant in Enhanced ALMA, to be known as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. A groundbreaking ceremony was held on November 6, 2003 and the ALMA logo was unveiled.

    During an early stage of the planning of ALMA, it was decided to employ ALMA antennas designed and constructed by known companies in North America, Europe, and Japan, rather than using one single design. This was mainly for political reasons. Although very different approaches have been chosen by the providers, each of the antenna designs appears to be able to meet ALMA’s stringent requirements. The components designed and manufactured across Europe were transported by specialist aerospace and astrospace logistics company Route To Space Alliance, 26 in total which were delivered to Antwerp for onward shipment to Chile.

    Partners

    European Southern Observatory (EU) and the European Regional Support Centre
    National Science Foundation (US) via the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) and the North American ALMA Science Center (US)
    National Research Council Canada [Conseil national de recherches Canada] (CA)
    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (JP) under the National Institute of Natural Sciences (自然科学研究機構, Shizenkagaku kenkyuukikou) (JP)
    ALMA-Taiwan at the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics [中央研究院天文及天文物理研究所](TW)
    Republic of Chile

    ALMA is a time machine!

    ALMA-In Search of our Cosmic Origins

     
  • richardmitnick 2:06 pm on June 15, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "ALMA Gets Front-Row Seat to an Ongoing Star-Formation Standoff in the Large Magellanic Cloud", ALMA (CL), , , ,   

    From ALMA (CL): “ALMA Gets Front-Row Seat to an Ongoing Star-Formation Standoff in the Large Magellanic Cloud” 

    From ALMA (CL)

    Nicolás Lira
    Education and Public Outreach Coordinator
    Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago – Chile
    Phone: +56 2 2467 6519
    Cell phone: +56 9 9445 7726
    Email: nicolas.lira@alma.cl

    Junko Ueda
    Public Information Officer
    NAOJ
    Email: junko.ueda@nao.ac.jp

    Bárbara Ferreira
    ESO Public Information Officer
    Garching bei München, Germany
    Phone: +49 89 3200 6670
    Email: pio@eso.org

    Amy C. Oliver
    Public Information & News Manager
    National Radio Astronomical Observatory (NRAO), USA
    Phone: +1 434 242 9584
    Email: aoliver@nrao.edu

    All general references:
    ALMA Observatory (CL) http://www.almaobservatory.org/

    European Southern Observatory(EU) http://www.eso.org/public/

    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan(JP) http://www.nao.ac.jp/en/

    National Radio Astronomy Observatory(US) https://public.nrao.edu/
    Full identification of an astronomical asset will be presented once in the first instance of that asset.

    1
    30 Doradus is a large star-forming region located in the heart of the Tarantula Nebula. Shown here in composite, the red/orange millimeter-wavelength data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) stands out like stringlike filaments against optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Scientists studying 30 Dor discovered that despite intense stellar feedback— which is known to moderate or decrease the birth rate of stars— gravity continues to shape the region, giving rise to star formation. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), T. Wong (U. Illinois, Urbana-Champaign); S. Dagnello (NRAO/AUI/NSF)

    2
    This zoomed-in view of the southern region of 30 Doradus reveals some clumpy areas that help make up the gas cloud. Unlike the northern region, which is home to massive protostars more than 5x the mass of the Sun, the southern region is home to numerous protostars similar in mass to the Sun. Future studies of the star-forming region using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) will help scientists understand why star formation differs from location to location within 30 Dor. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), T. Wong (U. Illinois, Urbana-Champaign); S. Dagnello (NRAO/AUI/NSF)

    3
    This zoomed-in view of the northern region of 30 Doradus reveals the filamentary structures that make up the gas cloud. This region contains several massive protostars— each more than 5x the mass of the Sun— and is characterized by ongoing star formation. Future studies of the star-forming region using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) will help scientists understand why star formation differs from location to location within 30 Dor. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), T. Wong (U. Illinois, Urbana-Champaign); S. Dagnello (NRAO/AUI/NSF)

    4
    This composite image shows the star-forming region 30 Doradus, also known as the Tarantula Nebula. The background image, taken in the infrared, is itself a composite: it was captured by the HAWK-I instrument on ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA), shows bright stars and light, pinkish clouds of hot gas. The bright red-yellow streaks that have been superimposed on the image come from radio observations taken by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), revealing regions of cold, dense gas which have the potential to collapse and form stars. The unique web-like structure of the gas clouds led astronomers to the nebula’s spidery nickname. Credit: ESO, ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/Wong et al., ESO/M.-R. Cioni/VISTA Magellanic Cloud survey. Acknowledgment: Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit.

    5
    30 Doradus is a large star-forming region located in the Large Magellanic Cloud, at the heart of the Tarantula Nebula. It is roughly 170,000 light-years away from Earth. Credit: IAU/Sky & Telescope.

    While using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to observe large star-forming regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), scientists discovered a turbulent push-and-pull dynamic in the star-forming region, 30 Doradus. Observations revealed that despite intense stellar feedback, gravity is shaping the molecular cloud, and against scientific odds, is driving the ongoing formation of young, massive stars. The observations were presented today in a press conference at the 240th American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Pasadena, California, and are published in The Astrophysical Journal [below] .

    30 Doradus is a large star-forming region located next door to the Milky Way— just 170,000 light-years away— in the heart of the Large Magellanic Cloud’s famed Tarantula Nebula. It is home to the most massive cluster of stars in the cosmic neighborhood, creating a perfect target for scientists seeking to understand the birth and evolution of stars. At the heart of 30 Doradus lies a sparkling stellar nursery that has witnessed the birth of over 800,000 stars and protostars, including half a million hot, young, and massive stars. The region is of interest to astronomers studying star formation and galactic evolution because of the ongoing effects of gravity and stellar feedback: enormous energy released back into the region by young and massive stars that can slow down star formation. Gravity and feedback compete against each other to manage star-formation rates.

    Using ALMA’s highly-sensitive Band 6 receivers, astronomers made new observations of 30 Doradus that led to a surprising revelation about the molecular cloud. “Stars form when dense clouds of gas cannot resist the pull of gravity. Our new observations reveal clear evidence that gravity is shaping the thickest parts of the clouds while also revealing many lower-density cloud fragments which are too turbulent for gravity to exert much influence,” said Tony Wong, a professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the lead author on the new research. “We were expecting that the parts of the cloud closest to the young, massive stars would show the clearest signs of gravity being overwhelmed by feedback, resulting in a lower rate of star formation. Instead, these observations confirmed that even in a region with extremely active feedback, gravity’s presence is still strongly felt, and star formation is likely to continue.”

    “The outstanding resolution and sensitivity of ALMA allowed us to map the entire region of 30 Doradus in the southern skies,” says Monica Rubio, Professor at the University of Chile and associate researcher of the Center for Excellence in Astrophysics and Associated Technologies in Chile (CATA), a specialist in the Magellanic Clouds and co-author of this study. “It was a surprise to confirm that dense regions existed and survived in such a violent environment, where the UV radiation and wind of the hundreds of massive stars should disperse and photo-ionize most of the gas. We are sure that the excellent conditions of the skies in Northern Chile for millimeter-wave observations and the power of ALMA will continue to astonish us with important discoveries in the coming years”.

    To form a clearer picture of what was happening in 30 Doradus, the team divided the cloud into clumps to measure how one part of the cloud differs from another. Since stars typically form in the densest parts of molecular clouds, distinguishing between the less-dense and more-dense clumps was critical to building a clear understanding of what is happening in 30 Doradus. The novel approach revealed a pattern. “We used to think of interstellar gas clouds as puffy or roundish structures, but it’s increasingly clear that they are stringlike or filamentary,” said Wong. “When we divided the cloud into clumps to measure differences in density, we observed that the densest clumps are not randomly placed but are highly organized onto these filaments. The filaments themselves appear to be shaped by gravity, so they are probably an important step in the process of star formation.”

    Unlike the Milky Way, which experiences a relatively slow and steady star formation rate of roughly seven stars— or the equivalent of four solar masses— each year, 30 Doradus’ home galaxy, the LMC, and its star-forming regions go through “boom and bust” cycles, which often results in periods of intensely paced star formation. The team hopes that the new findings and additional future research will shed light on the differences between the Milky Way and other, more active star-forming galaxies, including how the competition between gravity and feedback shapes molecular clouds and impacts stellar birth rates.

    Remy Indebetouw, an astronomer at NRAO and a co-author of the research said, “30 Doradus contains the nearest massive stellar cluster to Earth. Clusters like this one can act like bombs in galaxies, blowing out gas and even changing their long-term evolution. We want to understand how molecular clouds turn into stars in detail— how long does it take, how quickly do newly formed stars start to affect their natal cloud, and over what distances, things that are currently not well understood. Observing these clusters will get us one step closer to an answer.”

    Wong added that the observations are both helping scientists to understand the broad scientific implications of star formation and revealing the history and future of galaxies. “One of the biggest mysteries of astronomy is why we are able to witness stars forming today. Why didn’t all available gas collapse in a huge fireworks show long ago? What we’re learning now can help us shine a light on what is happening deep within molecular clouds to understand better how galaxies sustain star formation over time.”
    Additional Information

    The research paper “The 30 Doradus Molecular Cloud at 0.4 Parsec Resolution with ALMA: Physical Properties and the Boundedness of CO Emitting Structures,” by Wong et al. (2022) appeared in The Astrophysical Journal.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) (CL) , an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) (EU), in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) (CA) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and in East Asia by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan.

    ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by European Southern Observatory(EU), on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (US) and on behalf of East Asia by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.
    NRAO Small
    ESO 50 Large

    The antennas can be moved across the desert plateau over distances from 150 m to 16 km, which will give ALMA a powerful variable “zoom”, similar in its concept to that employed at the centimetre-wavelength Very Large Array (VLA) site in New Mexico, United States.

    The high sensitivity is mainly achieved through the large numbers of antenna dishes that will make up the array.

    The telescopes were provided by the European, North American and East Asian partners of ALMA. The American and European partners each provided twenty-five 12-meter diameter antennas, that compose the main array. The participating East Asian countries are contributing 16 antennas (four 12-meter diameter and twelve 7-meter diameter antennas) in the form of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA), which is part of the enhanced ALMA.

    By using smaller antennas than the main ALMA array, larger fields of view can be imaged at a given frequency using ACA. Placing the antennas closer together enables the imaging of sources of larger angular extent. The ACA works together with the main array in order to enhance the latter’s wide-field imaging capability.

    ALMA has its conceptual roots in three astronomical projects — the Millimeter Array (MMA) of the United States, the Large Southern Array (LSA) of Europe, and the Large Millimeter Array (LMA) of Japan.

    The first step toward the creation of what would become ALMA came in 1997, when the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) agreed to pursue a common project that merged the MMA and LSA. The merged array combined the sensitivity of the LSA with the frequency coverage and superior site of the MMA. ESO and NRAO worked together in technical, science, and management groups to define and organize a joint project between the two observatories with participation by Canada and Spain (the latter became a member of ESO later).

    A series of resolutions and agreements led to the choice of “Atacama Large Millimeter Array”, or ALMA, as the name of the new array in March 1999 and the signing of the ALMA Agreement on 25 February 2003, between the North American and European parties. (“Alma” means “soul” in Spanish and “learned” or “knowledgeable” in Arabic.) Following mutual discussions over several years, the ALMA Project received a proposal from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) whereby Japan would provide the ACA (Atacama Compact Array) and three additional receiver bands for the large array, to form Enhanced ALMA. Further discussions between ALMA and NAOJ led to the signing of a high-level agreement on 14 September 2004 that makes Japan an official participant in Enhanced ALMA, to be known as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. A groundbreaking ceremony was held on November 6, 2003 and the ALMA logo was unveiled.

    During an early stage of the planning of ALMA, it was decided to employ ALMA antennas designed and constructed by known companies in North America, Europe, and Japan, rather than using one single design. This was mainly for political reasons. Although very different approaches have been chosen by the providers, each of the antenna designs appears to be able to meet ALMA’s stringent requirements. The components designed and manufactured across Europe were transported by specialist aerospace and astrospace logistics company Route To Space Alliance, 26 in total which were delivered to Antwerp for onward shipment to Chile.

    Partners

    European Southern Observatory (EU) and the European Regional Support Centre
    National Science Foundation (US) via the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) and the North American ALMA Science Center (US)
    National Research Council Canada [Conseil national de recherches Canada] (CA)
    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (JP) under the National Institute of Natural Sciences (自然科学研究機構, Shizenkagaku kenkyuukikou) (JP)
    ALMA-Taiwan at the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics [中央研究院天文及天文物理研究所](TW)
    Republic of Chile

    ALMA is a time machine!

    ALMA-In Search of our Cosmic Origins

     
  • richardmitnick 8:09 pm on June 14, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Undergraduate Researcher Captures Young Galaxy's 'Coming of Age' and Finds Evidence That Early Galaxies May Be Bigger and More Complex Than We Thought", A1689-zD1 is a star-forming galaxy located in the Virgo constellation cluster., ALMA (CL), , , ,   

    From ALMA (CL): “Undergraduate Researcher Captures Young Galaxy’s ‘Coming of Age’ and Finds Evidence That Early Galaxies May Be Bigger and More Complex Than We Thought” Revised to add link to science paper 

    From ALMA (CL)

    Nicolás Lira
    Education and Public Outreach Coordinator
    Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago – Chile
    Phone: +56 2 2467 6519
    Cell phone: +56 9 9445 7726
    Email: nicolas.lira@alma.cl

    Junko Ueda
    Public Information Officer
    NAOJ
    Email: junko.ueda@nao.ac.jp

    Bárbara Ferreira
    ESO Public Information Officer
    Garching bei München, Germany
    Phone: +49 89 3200 6670
    Email: pio@eso.org

    Amy C. Oliver
    Public Information & News Manager
    National Radio Astronomical Observatory (NRAO), USA
    Phone: +1 434 242 9584
    Email: aoliver@nrao.edu

    All general references:
    ALMA Observatory (CL) http://www.almaobservatory.org/

    European Southern Observatory(EU) http://www.eso.org/public/

    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan(JP) http://www.nao.ac.jp/en/

    National Radio Astronomy Observatory(US) https://public.nrao.edu/
    Full identification of an astronomical asset will be presented once in the first instance of that asset.

    1
    A1689-zD1 is a star-forming galaxy located in the Virgo constellation cluster. It was first observed thanks to gravitational lensing from the Abell 1689 galaxy, which made the young galaxy appear nine times more luminous. New observations made using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) are revealing to scientists that the young galaxy, and others like it, may be bigger and more complex than originally thought. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/H. Akins (Grinnell College), B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF)

    2
    This composite combines radio images of A1689-zD1, captured using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), shown in orange/red, with optical images from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), shown in blue/white. In the context of its surroundings, it becomes clear how A1689-zD1 managed to “hide out” behind Abell 1689, and why gravitational lensing— the magnification of the young galaxy— are critical to studying its behaviors and processes. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/H. Akins (Grinnell College), HST, B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF)

    3
    This artist’s conception illustrates the previously unknown complexity of the young galaxy, A1689-zD1. Reaching far beyond the center of the galaxy, shown here in pink, is an abundant halo of cold carbon gas. For scientists, this uncommon feature indicates that the galaxy may be much larger than previously believed and that early stages of normal galaxy formation may have been more active and dynamic than theorized. To the upper left and lower right are outflows of hot, ionized gas pushing outward from the center of the galaxy, shown here in red. Scientists believe it is possible that these outflows have something, though they don’t yet know what, to do with the presence of cold carbon gas in the outer reaches of the galaxy. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF)

    4
    A1689-zD1 is a young, star-forming galaxy located in the Virgo constellation cluster, roughly 13 billion light-years away from Earth. Credit: IAU/Sky & Telescope

    Scientists using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have observed a significant amount of cold, neutral gas in the outer regions of the young galaxy A1689-zD1, as well as outflows of hot gas coming from the galaxy’s center. These results may shed light on a critical stage of galactic evolution for early galaxies, where young galaxies begin the transformation to be increasingly like their later, more structured cousins. The observations were presented today in a press conference at the 240th meeting of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) in Pasadena, California. They will be published in an upcoming edition of The Astrophysical Journal.

    A1689-zD1— a young, active, star-forming galaxy slightly less luminous and less massive than the Milky Way— is located roughly 13 billion light-years away from Earth in the Virgo constellation cluster. It was discovered hiding out behind the Abell 1689 galaxy cluster in 2007 and confirmed in 2015 thanks to gravitational lensing, which amplified the brightness of the young galaxy by more than 9x. Since then, scientists have continued to study the galaxy as a possible analog for the evolution of other “normal” galaxies. That label— normal— is an important distinction that has helped researchers divide A1689-zD1’s behaviors and characteristics into two buckets: typical and uncommon, with the uncommon characteristics mimicking those of later and more massive galaxies.

    “A1689-zD1 is located in the very early Universe— only 700 million years after the Big Bang. This is the era where galaxies were just beginning to form,” said Hollis Akins, an undergraduate student in astronomy at Grinnell College and the lead author of the research. “What we see in these new observations is evidence of processes that may contribute to the evolution of what we call normal galaxies as opposed to massive galaxies. More importantly, these processes are ones we did not previously believe applied to these normal galaxies.”

    One of these uncommon processes is the galaxy’s production and distribution of star-forming fuel, potentially a lot of it. The team used ALMA’s highly-sensitive Band 6 receiver to home in on a halo of carbon gas that extends far beyond the center of the young galaxy. This could be evidence of ongoing star formation in the same region or the result of structural disruptions, such as mergers or outflows, in the earliest stages of the galaxy’s formation.

    According to Akins, this is unusual for early galaxies. “The carbon gas we observed in this galaxy is typically found in the same regions as neutral hydrogen gas, which is also where new stars tend to form. If that is the case with A1689-zD1, the galaxy is likely much larger than previously thought. It’s also possible that this halo is a remnant of previous galactic activity, like mergers that exerted complex gravitational forces on the galaxy leading to the ejection of a lot of neutral gas out to these large distances. In either case, the early evolution of this galaxy was likely active and dynamic, and we’re learning that this may be a common, although previously unobserved, theme in early galaxy formation.”

    More than just uncommon, the discovery could have significant implications for the study of galactic evolution, particularly as radio observations uncover details unseen at optical wavelengths. Seiji Fujimoto, a postdoctoral researcher at the Niels Bohr Institute’s Cosmic Dawn Center and co-author of the research, said, “The emission from the carbon gas in A1689-zD1 is much more extended than what was observed with Hubble Space Telescope, and this could mean that early galaxies are not as small as they appear. If, in fact, early galaxies are larger than we previously believed, this would have a major impact on the theory of galaxy formation and evolution in the early Universe.”

    Led by Akins, the team also observed outflows of hot, ionized gas— commonly caused by violent galactic activity like supernovae— pushing outward from the galaxy’s center. Given their potentially explosive nature, the outflows may have something to do with the carbon halo. “Outflows occur as a result of violent activity, such as the explosion of supernovae— which blast nearby gaseous material out of the galaxy— or black holes in the centers of galaxies— which have strong magnetic effects that can eject material in powerful jets. Because of this, there’s a strong possibility that the hot outflows have something to do with the presence of the cold carbon halo,” said Akins. “And that further highlights the importance of the multiphase, or hot to cold, nature of the outflowing gas.”

    Darach Watson, an associate professor at the Niels Bohr Institute’s Cosmic Dawn Center and co-author of the new research, confirmed A1689-zD1 as a high-redshift galaxy in 2015, the most distant dusty galaxy known. “We have seen this type of extended gas halo emission from galaxies that formed later in the Universe, but seeing it in such an early galaxy means that this behavior is universal even in the more modest galaxies that formed most of the stars in the early Universe. Understanding how these processes occurred in such a young galaxy is critical to understanding how star-formation happens in the early Universe.”

    Kirsten Knudsen, a professor of astrophysics in the Department of Space, Earth, and Environment at the Chalmers University of Technology and co-author of the research, found evidence of A1689-zD1’s dust continuum in 2017. Knudsen pointed out the fortunate role of extreme gravitational lensing in making each discovery in the research possible. “Because A1689-zD1 is magnified more than nine times, we can see critical details that are otherwise difficult to observe in ordinary observations of such distant galaxies. Ultimately, we see here that early Universe galaxies are very complex, and this galaxy will continue to present new research challenges and results for some time.”

    Dr. Joe Pesce, NSF program officer for ALMA, added, “This fascinating ALMA research adds to a growing body of results indicating that things aren’t quite as we expected in the early Universe, but they are really interesting and exciting nonetheless!”

    Spectroscopy and infrared observations of A1689-zD1 are planned for January 2023, using the NIRSpec Integral Field Unit (IFU) and NIRCam on the James Webb Space Telescope. The new observations will complement previous HST and ALMA data, offering a deeper and more complete multi-wavelength look at the young galaxy.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) (CL) , an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) (EU), in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) (CA) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and in East Asia by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan.

    ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by European Southern Observatory(EU), on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (US) and on behalf of East Asia by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.
    NRAO Small
    ESO 50 Large

    The antennas can be moved across the desert plateau over distances from 150 m to 16 km, which will give ALMA a powerful variable “zoom”, similar in its concept to that employed at the centimetre-wavelength Very Large Array (VLA) site in New Mexico, United States.

    The high sensitivity is mainly achieved through the large numbers of antenna dishes that will make up the array.

    The telescopes were provided by the European, North American and East Asian partners of ALMA. The American and European partners each provided twenty-five 12-meter diameter antennas, that compose the main array. The participating East Asian countries are contributing 16 antennas (four 12-meter diameter and twelve 7-meter diameter antennas) in the form of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA), which is part of the enhanced ALMA.

    By using smaller antennas than the main ALMA array, larger fields of view can be imaged at a given frequency using ACA. Placing the antennas closer together enables the imaging of sources of larger angular extent. The ACA works together with the main array in order to enhance the latter’s wide-field imaging capability.

    ALMA has its conceptual roots in three astronomical projects — the Millimeter Array (MMA) of the United States, the Large Southern Array (LSA) of Europe, and the Large Millimeter Array (LMA) of Japan.

    The first step toward the creation of what would become ALMA came in 1997, when the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) agreed to pursue a common project that merged the MMA and LSA. The merged array combined the sensitivity of the LSA with the frequency coverage and superior site of the MMA. ESO and NRAO worked together in technical, science, and management groups to define and organize a joint project between the two observatories with participation by Canada and Spain (the latter became a member of ESO later).

    A series of resolutions and agreements led to the choice of “Atacama Large Millimeter Array”, or ALMA, as the name of the new array in March 1999 and the signing of the ALMA Agreement on 25 February 2003, between the North American and European parties. (“Alma” means “soul” in Spanish and “learned” or “knowledgeable” in Arabic.) Following mutual discussions over several years, the ALMA Project received a proposal from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) whereby Japan would provide the ACA (Atacama Compact Array) and three additional receiver bands for the large array, to form Enhanced ALMA. Further discussions between ALMA and NAOJ led to the signing of a high-level agreement on 14 September 2004 that makes Japan an official participant in Enhanced ALMA, to be known as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. A groundbreaking ceremony was held on November 6, 2003 and the ALMA logo was unveiled.

    During an early stage of the planning of ALMA, it was decided to employ ALMA antennas designed and constructed by known companies in North America, Europe, and Japan, rather than using one single design. This was mainly for political reasons. Although very different approaches have been chosen by the providers, each of the antenna designs appears to be able to meet ALMA’s stringent requirements. The components designed and manufactured across Europe were transported by specialist aerospace and astrospace logistics company Route To Space Alliance, 26 in total which were delivered to Antwerp for onward shipment to Chile.

    Partners

    European Southern Observatory (EU) and the European Regional Support Centre
    National Science Foundation (US) via the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) and the North American ALMA Science Center (US)
    National Research Council Canada [Conseil national de recherches Canada] (CA)
    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (JP) under the National Institute of Natural Sciences (自然科学研究機構, Shizenkagaku kenkyuukikou) (JP)
    ALMA-Taiwan at the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics [中央研究院天文及天文物理研究所](TW)
    Republic of Chile

    ALMA is a time machine!

    ALMA-In Search of our Cosmic Origins

     
  • richardmitnick 12:44 pm on June 14, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Scientists on the Hunt for Planetary Formation Fossils Reveal Unexpected Eccentricities in Nearby Debris Disk", ALMA (CL), , , ,   

    From ALMA (CL): “Scientists on the Hunt for Planetary Formation Fossils Reveal Unexpected Eccentricities in Nearby Debris Disk” 

    From ALMA (CL)

    14 June, 2022

    Nicolás Lira
    Education and Public Outreach Coordinator
    Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago – Chile
    Phone: +56 2 2467 6519
    Cell phone: +56 9 9445 7726
    Email: nicolas.lira@alma.cl

    Junko Ueda
    Public Information Officer
    NAOJ
    Email: junko.ueda@nao.ac.jp

    Bárbara Ferreira
    ESO Public Information Officer
    Garching bei München, Germany
    Phone: +49 89 3200 6670
    Email: pio@eso.org

    Amy C. Oliver
    Public Information & News Manager
    National Radio Astronomical Observatory (NRAO), USA
    Phone: +1 434 242 9584
    Email: aoliver@nrao.edu

    All general references:
    ALMA Observatory (CL) http://www.almaobservatory.org/

    European Southern Observatory(EU) http://www.eso.org/public/

    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan(JP) http://www.nao.ac.jp/en/

    National Radio Astronomy Observatory(US) https://public.nrao.edu/
    Full identification of an astronomical asset will be presented once in the first instance of that asset.

    First radio images of HD 53143 shed new light on the early development of Sun-like systems.

    Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), astronomers have imaged the debris disk of the nearby star HD 53143 at millimeter wavelengths for the first time, and it looks nothing like they expected. Based on early coronagraphic data, scientists expected ALMA to confirm the debris disk as a face-on ring peppered with clumps of dust. Instead, the observations took a surprise turn, revealing the most complicated and eccentric debris disk observed. The observations were presented today in a press conference at the 240th meeting of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) in Pasadena, California. They will be published in an upcoming edition of The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

    HD 53143— a roughly billion-year-old Sun-like star located 59.8 light-years from Earth in the Carina constellation— was first observed with the coronagraphic Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 2006.

    A debris disk also surrounds it—a belt of comets orbiting a star constantly colliding and grinding down into smaller dust and debris— that scientists previously believed to be a face-on ring similar to the debris disk surrounding our Sun, more commonly known as the Kuiper Belt.

    The new observations made of HD 53143 using the ALMA highly-sensitive Band 6 receivers have revealed that the star system’s debris disk is highly eccentric. In ring-shaped debris disks, the star is typically located at or near the center of the disk. But in elliptically-shaped eccentric disks, the star resides at one focus of the ellipse, far away from the disk’s center. Such is the case with HD 53143, which wasn’t seen in previous coronagraphic studies because coronagraphs purposely block the light of a star to see nearby objects more clearly. The star system may also be harboring a second disk and at least one planet.

    “Until now, scientists had never seen a debris disk with such a complicated structure. In addition to being an ellipse with a star at one focus, it also likely has a second inner disk that is misaligned or tilted relative to the outer disk,” said Meredith MacGregor, an assistant professor at the Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy (CASA) and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences (APS) at CU Boulder, and the lead author on the study. “In order to produce this structure, there must be a planet or planets in the system that are gravitationally perturbing the material in the disk.”

    This level of eccentricity, MacGregor said, makes HD 53143 the most eccentric debris disk observed to date, being twice as eccentric as the Fomalhaut debris disk, which MacGregor fully imaged at millimeter wavelengths using ALMA in 2017. “So far, we have not found many disks with a significant eccentricity. In general, we don’t expect disks to be very eccentric unless something, like a planet, is sculpting them and forcing them to be eccentric. Without that force, orbits tend to circularize, like what we see in our Solar System.”

    MacGregor notes that debris disks aren’t just collections of dust and rocks in space. They are a historical record of planetary formation and how planetary systems evolve. and provide a peek into their futures. “We can’t study the formation of Earth and the Solar System directly, but we can study other systems that appear similar to but younger than our own. It’s a bit like looking back in time,” she said. “Debris disks are the fossil record of planet formation, and this new result is confirmation that there is much more to be learned from these systems and that knowledge may provide a glimpse into the complicated dynamics of young star systems similar to our Solar System.”

    Dr. Joe Pesce, NSF program officer for ALMA, added, “We are finding planets everywhere we look, and these fabulous results by ALMA are showing us how planets form – both those around other stars and in our own Solar System. This research demonstrates how astronomy works and how progress is made, informing not only what we know about the field but also about ourselves.”

    1
    While studying HD 53143— a roughly billion-year-old Sun-like star— in millimeter-wavelengths for the first time, scientists discovered that the star’s debris disk is highly eccentric. Unlike ring-shaped debris disks, in which the star sits in the center, HD 53143 is located at one foci of an elliptical-shaped disk and is shown as the unresolved dot below and left of the center. Scientists believe a second unresolved dot in the north of this image to be a planet that is perturbing and shaping the debris disk. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/M. MacGregor (U. Colorado Boulder); S. Dagnello (NRAO/AUI/NSF)

    2
    Composite image of the HD 53143 star system. Shown in orange/red, millimeter-wavelength data from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), reveal a previously unobserved eccentric debris disk orbiting HD 53143 in the form of an ellipse. An unresolved dot shows the star off-center near the southern foci of the disk, while a second unresolved dot to the north indicates the potential presence of a planet. Optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope’s Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) is shown in blue and white; a coronagraphic mask blocks out the starlight, allowing researchers to see what’s happening in the region surrounding HD 53143. Credit: ALMA(ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), M. MacGregor (U. Colorado Boulder); NASA/ESA Hubble, P. Kalas (UC Berkeley); S. Dagnello (NRAO/AUI/NSF)

    3
    Artist’s impression of the billion-year-old Sun-like star, HD 53143, and its highly eccentric debris disk. The star and a second inner disk are shown near the southern foci of the elliptical debris disk. A planet, which scientists assume is shaping the disk through gravitational force, is shown to the north. Debris disks are the fossils of planetary formation. Since we can’t directly study our disk— also known as the Kuiper Belt— scientists glean information about the formation of our Solar System by studying those we can see from a distance. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO); M. Weiss (NRAO/AUI/NSF)

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) (CL) , an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) (EU), in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) (CA) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and in East Asia by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan.

    ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by European Southern Observatory(EU), on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (US) and on behalf of East Asia by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.
    NRAO Small
    ESO 50 Large

    The antennas can be moved across the desert plateau over distances from 150 m to 16 km, which will give ALMA a powerful variable “zoom”, similar in its concept to that employed at the centimetre-wavelength Very Large Array (VLA) site in New Mexico, United States.

    The high sensitivity is mainly achieved through the large numbers of antenna dishes that will make up the array.

    The telescopes were provided by the European, North American and East Asian partners of ALMA. The American and European partners each provided twenty-five 12-meter diameter antennas, that compose the main array. The participating East Asian countries are contributing 16 antennas (four 12-meter diameter and twelve 7-meter diameter antennas) in the form of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA), which is part of the enhanced ALMA.

    By using smaller antennas than the main ALMA array, larger fields of view can be imaged at a given frequency using ACA. Placing the antennas closer together enables the imaging of sources of larger angular extent. The ACA works together with the main array in order to enhance the latter’s wide-field imaging capability.

    ALMA has its conceptual roots in three astronomical projects — the Millimeter Array (MMA) of the United States, the Large Southern Array (LSA) of Europe, and the Large Millimeter Array (LMA) of Japan.

    The first step toward the creation of what would become ALMA came in 1997, when the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) agreed to pursue a common project that merged the MMA and LSA. The merged array combined the sensitivity of the LSA with the frequency coverage and superior site of the MMA. ESO and NRAO worked together in technical, science, and management groups to define and organize a joint project between the two observatories with participation by Canada and Spain (the latter became a member of ESO later).

    A series of resolutions and agreements led to the choice of “Atacama Large Millimeter Array”, or ALMA, as the name of the new array in March 1999 and the signing of the ALMA Agreement on 25 February 2003, between the North American and European parties. (“Alma” means “soul” in Spanish and “learned” or “knowledgeable” in Arabic.) Following mutual discussions over several years, the ALMA Project received a proposal from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) whereby Japan would provide the ACA (Atacama Compact Array) and three additional receiver bands for the large array, to form Enhanced ALMA. Further discussions between ALMA and NAOJ led to the signing of a high-level agreement on 14 September 2004 that makes Japan an official participant in Enhanced ALMA, to be known as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. A groundbreaking ceremony was held on November 6, 2003 and the ALMA logo was unveiled.

    During an early stage of the planning of ALMA, it was decided to employ ALMA antennas designed and constructed by known companies in North America, Europe, and Japan, rather than using one single design. This was mainly for political reasons. Although very different approaches have been chosen by the providers, each of the antenna designs appears to be able to meet ALMA’s stringent requirements. The components designed and manufactured across Europe were transported by specialist aerospace and astrospace logistics company Route To Space Alliance, 26 in total which were delivered to Antwerp for onward shipment to Chile.

    Partners

    European Southern Observatory (EU) and the European Regional Support Centre
    National Science Foundation (US) via the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) and the North American ALMA Science Center (US)
    National Research Council Canada [Conseil national de recherches Canada] (CA)
    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (JP) under the National Institute of Natural Sciences (自然科学研究機構, Shizenkagaku kenkyuukikou) (JP)
    ALMA-Taiwan at the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics [中央研究院天文及天文物理研究所](TW)
    Republic of Chile

    ALMA is a time machine!

    ALMA-In Search of our Cosmic Origins

     
  • richardmitnick 3:20 pm on April 7, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Astronomers Detect Most Distant Galaxy Candidate Yet", ALMA (CL), , The current record holder for the most distant galaxy is GN-z11-a galaxy 13.4 billion light-years away discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope., The most distant galaxy candidate to date named HD1   

    From ALMA (CL): “Astronomers Detect Most Distant Galaxy Candidate Yet” 

    From ALMA (CL)

    Nicolás Lira
    Education and Public Outreach Coordinator
    Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago – Chile
    Phone: +56 2 2467 6519
    Cell phone: +56 9 9445 7726
    Email: nicolas.lira@alma.cl

    Daisuke Iono
    Interim EA ALMA EPO officer
    Observatory, Tokyo – Japan
    Email: d.iono@nao.ac.jp

    Bárbara Ferreira
    ESO Public Information Officer
    Garching bei München, Germany
    Phone: +49 89 3200 6670
    Email: pio@eso.org

    Amy C. Oliver
    Public Information & News Manager
    National Radio Astronomical Observatory (NRAO), USA
    Phone: +1 434 242 9584
    Email: aoliver@nrao.edu

    All general references:
    ALMA Observatory (CL) http://www.almaobservatory.org/

    European Southern Observatory(EU) http://www.eso.org/public/

    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan(JP) http://www.nao.ac.jp/en/

    National Radio Astronomy Observatory(US) https://public.nrao.edu/
    Full identification of an astronomical asset will be presented once in the first instance of that asset.

    An international astronomer team has discovered the most distant galaxy candidate to date named HD1, which is about 13.5 billion light-years away. This discovery implies that bright systems like HD1 existed as early as 300 million years after the Big Bang. This galaxy candidate is one of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) targets launched late last year.

    If observations with the JWST confirm its exact distance, HD1 will be the most distant galaxy ever recorded.

    To understand how and when galaxies formed in the early Universe, astronomers look for distant galaxies. Because of the finite speed of light, it takes time for the light from distant objects to reach Earth. The light we see from an object 1 billion light-years away left that object 1 billion years ago and had to travel for 1 billion years to reach us. Thus studying distant galaxies lets us look back in time.

    The current record holder for the most distant galaxy is GN-z11-a galaxy 13.4 billion light-years away discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope. However, this distance is about the limit of Hubble’s detection capabilities.

    HD1, a candidate object for the earliest/most-distant galaxy, was discovered from more than 1,200 hours of observation data taken by the Subaru Telescope, VISTA Telescope, UK Infrared Telescope, and Spitzer Space Telescope. “It was tough work to find HD1 out of more than 700,000 objects,” says Yuichi Harikane, who discovered HD1. “HD1’s red color matched the expected characteristics of a galaxy 13.5 billion light-years away surprisingly well, giving me some goosebumps when I found it.”



    The team conducted follow-up observations using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to confirm HD1’s distance. Akio Inoue, a professor at Waseda University [早稲田大学] (JP), who led the ALMA observations, says, “We found a weak signal at the frequency where an oxygen emission line was expected. The significance of the signal is 99.99%. If this signal is real, this is evidence that HD1 exists 13.5 billion light-years away, but we cannot be sure without a significance of 99.999% or more.”

    HD1 is very bright, suggesting that bright objects already existed in the Universe only 300 million years after the Big Bang. HD1 is hardly explained with current theoretical models of galaxy formation. Observational information on HD1 is limited, and its physical properties remain a mystery. It is thought to be a very active star-forming galaxy, but it might be an active black hole. Either possibility makes it a fascinating object. In recognition of its astronomical importance, HD1 was selected as a target for the Cycle 1 observations by the James Webb Space Telescope, launched last year. Yuichi Harikane, who is leading these observations, says, “If the spectroscopic observation confirms its exact distance, HD1 will be the most distant galaxy ever recorded, 100 million light-years further away than GN-z11. We are looking forward to seeing the Universe with the James Webb Space Telescope.”

    1
    Three-color image of HD1, the most distant galaxy candidate to date, created using data from the VISTA telescope. The red object in the center of the zoom-in image is HD1. Credit: Harikane et al.

    1
    Earliest galaxy candidates and the history of the Universe. Credit: Harikane et al., The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, The European Space Agency [La Agencia Espacial Europea] [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU), and P. Oesch (Yale University)

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) (CL) , an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) (EU), in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) (CA) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and in East Asia by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan.

    ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by European Southern Observatory(EU), on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (US) and on behalf of East Asia by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.
    NRAO Small
    ESO 50 Large

    The antennas can be moved across the desert plateau over distances from 150 m to 16 km, which will give ALMA a powerful variable “zoom”, similar in its concept to that employed at the centimetre-wavelength Very Large Array (VLA) site in New Mexico, United States.

    The high sensitivity is mainly achieved through the large numbers of antenna dishes that will make up the array.

    The telescopes were provided by the European, North American and East Asian partners of ALMA. The American and European partners each provided twenty-five 12-meter diameter antennas, that compose the main array. The participating East Asian countries are contributing 16 antennas (four 12-meter diameter and twelve 7-meter diameter antennas) in the form of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA), which is part of the enhanced ALMA.

    By using smaller antennas than the main ALMA array, larger fields of view can be imaged at a given frequency using ACA. Placing the antennas closer together enables the imaging of sources of larger angular extent. The ACA works together with the main array in order to enhance the latter’s wide-field imaging capability.

    ALMA has its conceptual roots in three astronomical projects — the Millimeter Array (MMA) of the United States, the Large Southern Array (LSA) of Europe, and the Large Millimeter Array (LMA) of Japan.

    The first step toward the creation of what would become ALMA came in 1997, when the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) agreed to pursue a common project that merged the MMA and LSA. The merged array combined the sensitivity of the LSA with the frequency coverage and superior site of the MMA. ESO and NRAO worked together in technical, science, and management groups to define and organize a joint project between the two observatories with participation by Canada and Spain (the latter became a member of ESO later).

    A series of resolutions and agreements led to the choice of “Atacama Large Millimeter Array”, or ALMA, as the name of the new array in March 1999 and the signing of the ALMA Agreement on 25 February 2003, between the North American and European parties. (“Alma” means “soul” in Spanish and “learned” or “knowledgeable” in Arabic.) Following mutual discussions over several years, the ALMA Project received a proposal from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) whereby Japan would provide the ACA (Atacama Compact Array) and three additional receiver bands for the large array, to form Enhanced ALMA. Further discussions between ALMA and NAOJ led to the signing of a high-level agreement on 14 September 2004 that makes Japan an official participant in Enhanced ALMA, to be known as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. A groundbreaking ceremony was held on November 6, 2003 and the ALMA logo was unveiled.

    During an early stage of the planning of ALMA, it was decided to employ ALMA antennas designed and constructed by known companies in North America, Europe, and Japan, rather than using one single design. This was mainly for political reasons. Although very different approaches have been chosen by the providers, each of the antenna designs appears to be able to meet ALMA’s stringent requirements. The components designed and manufactured across Europe were transported by specialist aerospace and astrospace logistics company Route To Space Alliance, 26 in total which were delivered to Antwerp for onward shipment to Chile.

    Partners

    European Southern Observatory (EU) and the European Regional Support Centre
    National Science Foundation (US) via the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) and the North American ALMA Science Center (US)
    National Research Council Canada [Conseil national de recherches Canada] (CA)
    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (JP) under the National Institute of Natural Sciences (自然科学研究機構, Shizenkagaku kenkyuukikou) (JP)
    ALMA-Taiwan at the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics [中央研究院天文及天文物理研究所](TW)
    Republic of Chile

    ALMA is a time machine!

    ALMA-In Search of our Cosmic Origins

     
  • richardmitnick 9:45 pm on March 8, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , ALMA (CL), , Many complex organic molecules such as dimethyl ether are thought to arise in star-forming clouds even before the stars themselves are born., Scientists have for the first time detected dimethyl ether in a planet-forming disc., The molecules were found in the planet-forming disc around the young star IRS 48 (also known as Oph-IRS 48).   

    From ALMA (CL): “Astronomers discover largest molecule yet in a planet-forming disc” 

    From ALMA (CL)

    8 March, 2022

    Nicolás Lira
    Education and Public Outreach Coordinator
    Joint ALMA Observatory, Santiago – Chile
    Phone: +56 2 2467 6519
    Cell phone: +56 9 9445 7726
    Email: nicolas.lira@alma.cl

    Masaaki Hiramatsu
    Education and Public Outreach Officer, NAOJ Chile
    Observatory
, Tokyo – Japan
    Phone: +81 422 34 3630
    Email: hiramatsu.masaaki@nao.ac.jp

    Bárbara Ferreira
    ESO Public Information Officer
    Garching bei München, Germany
    Phone: +49 89 3200 6670
    Email: pio@eso.org

    Amy C. Oliver
    Public Information & News Manager
    National Radio Astronomical Observatory (NRAO), USA
    Phone: +1 434 242 9584
    Email: aoliver@nrao.edu

    All general references:
    ALMA Observatory (CL) http://www.almaobservatory.org/

    European Southern Observatory(EU) http://www.eso.org/public/

    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan(JP) http://www.nao.ac.jp/en/

    National Radio Astronomy Observatory(US) https://public.nrao.edu/

    Full identification of an astronomical asset will be presented once in the first instance of that asset.

    Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile, researchers at The Leiden Observatory [Sterrewacht Leiden](NL) have for the first time detected dimethyl ether in a planet-forming disc. With nine atoms, this is the largest molecule identified in such a disc to date. It is also a precursor of larger organic molecules that can lead to the emergence of life.

    “From these results, we can learn more about the origin of life on our planet and therefore get a better idea of the potential for life in other planetary systems. It is very exciting to see how these findings fit into the bigger picture,” says Nashanty Brunken, a Master’s student at Leiden Observatory, part of The Leiden University [Universiteit Leiden](NL), and lead author of the study published today in Astronomy & Astrophysics.

    Dimethyl ether is an organic molecule commonly seen in star-forming clouds, but had never before been found in a planet-forming disc. The researchers also made a tentative detection of methyl formate, a complex molecule similar to dimethyl ether that is also a building block for even larger organic molecules.

    “It is really exciting to finally detect these larger molecules in discs. For a while we thought it might not be possible to observe them,” says co-author Alice Booth, also a researcher at Leiden Observatory.

    The molecules were found in the planet-forming disc around the young star IRS 48 (also known as Oph-IRS 48) with the help of ALMA, an observatory co-owned by The European Southern Observatory [La Observatorio Europeo Austral][Observatoire européen austral][Europäische Südsternwarte](EU)(CL). IRS 48, located 444 light-years away in the constellation Ophiuchus, has been the subject of numerous studies because its disc contains an asymmetric, cashew-nut-shaped “dust trap”. This region, which likely formed as a result of a newly born planet or small companion star located between the star and the dust trap, retains large numbers of millimetre-sized dust grains that can come together and grow into kilometre-sized objects like comets, asteroids and potentially even planets.

    Many complex organic molecules such as dimethyl ether are thought to arise in star-forming clouds even before the stars themselves are born. In these cold environments, atoms and simple molecules like carbon monoxide stick to dust grains, forming an ice layer and undergoing chemical reactions, which result in more complex molecules. Researchers recently discovered that the dust trap in the IRS 48 disc is also an ice reservoir, harbouring dust grains covered with this ice rich in complex molecules. It was in this region of the disc that ALMA has now spotted signs of the dimethyl ether molecule: as heating from IRS 48 sublimates the ice into gas, the trapped molecules inherited from the cold clouds are freed and become detectable.

    “What makes this even more exciting is that we now know these larger complex molecules are available to feed forming planets in the disc,” explains Booth. “This was not known before as in most systems these molecules are hidden in the ice.”

    The discovery of dimethyl ether suggests that many other complex molecules that are commonly detected in star-forming regions may also be lurking on icy structures in planet-forming discs. These molecules are the precursors of prebiotic molecules such as amino acids and sugars, which are some of the basic building blocks of life.

    By studying their formation and evolution, researchers can therefore gain a better understanding of how prebiotic molecules end up on planets, including our own. “We are incredibly pleased that we can now start to follow the entire journey of these complex molecules from the clouds that form stars, to planet-forming discs, and to comets. Hopefully with more observations we can get a step closer to understanding the origin of prebiotic molecules in our own Solar System,” says Nienke van der Marel, a Leiden Observatory researcher who also participated in the study.

    Future studies of IRS 48 with ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), currently under construction in Chile and set to start operations later this decade, will allow the team to study the chemistry of the very inner regions of the disc, where planets like Earth may be forming.

    Additional Information

    This research was presented in Astronomy and Astrophysics.

    This publication was released on International Women’s Day 2022 and features research undertaken by six researchers who identify as women.

    The team is composed of Nashanty G. C. Brunken (Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Netherlands [Leiden]), Alice S. Booth (Leiden), Margot Leemker (Leiden), Pooneh Nazari (Leiden), Nienke van der Marel (Leiden), Ewine F. van Dishoeck (Leiden Observatory, The MPG Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics [MPG Institut für außerirdische Physik](DE).

    The original press release was published by the European Southern Observatory (ESO), an ALMA partner on behalf of Europe.

    See https://sciencesprings.wordpress.com/2022/03/08/from-alma-observatory-cl-via-the-european-southern-observatory-la-observatorio-europeo-austral-observatoire-europeen-austral-europaische-sudsternwarteeucl-astronomers-discover-largest/

    1
    This composite image features an artistic impression of the planet-forming disc around the IRS 48 star, also known as Oph-IRS 48. The disc contains a cashew-nut-shaped region in its southern part, which traps millimetre-sized dust grains that can come together and grow into kilometre-sized objects like comets, asteroids and potentially even planets. Recent observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) spotted several complex organic molecules in this region, including dimethyl ether, the largest molecule found in a planet-forming disc to date. The emission signaling the presence of this molecule (real observations shown in blue) is clearly stronger in the disc’s dust trap. A model of the molecule is also shown in this composite. Credit: ESO/L. Calçada, ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/A. Pohl, van der Marel et al., Brunken et al.

    2
    These images from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) show where various gas molecules were found in the disc around the IRS 48 star, also known as Oph-IRS 48. The disc contains a cashew-nut-shaped region in its southern part, which traps millimetre-sized dust grains that can come together and grow into kilometre-sized objects like comets, asteroids and potentially even planets. Recent observations spotted several complex organic molecules in this region, including formaldehyde (H2CO; orange), methanol (CH3OH; green) and dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3; blue), the last being the largest molecule found in a planet-forming disc to date. The emission signaling the presence of these molecules is clearly stronger in the disc’s dust trap, while carbon monoxide gas (CO; purple) is present in the entire gas disc. The location of the central star is marked with a star in all four images. The dust trap is about the same size as the area taken up by the methanol emission, shown on the bottom left. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/A. Pohl, van der Marel et al., Brunken et al.

    4
    This composite image from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) shows where various gas molecules were found in the disc around the IRS 48 star, also known as Oph-IRS 48. The disc contains a cashew-nut-shaped region in its southern part, which traps millimetre-sized dust grains that can come together and grow into kilometre-sized objects like comets, asteroids and potentially even planets. Recent observations spotted several complex organic molecules in this region, including formaldehyde (orange), methanol (green) and dimethyl ether (blue), the last being the largest molecule found in a planet-forming disc to date. The emission signaling the presence of these molecules is clearly stronger in the disc’s dust trap, while carbon monoxide gas (purple) is present in the entire gas disc. The location of the central star is marked with a star. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/A. Pohl, van der Marel et al., Brunken et al.

    5
    This image from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) shows the dust trap in the disc that surrounds the system Oph-IRS 48. The high asymmetry of the dust emission between the southern and northern part of the disc (at least a factor of 130) is indicative of the presence of such a dust trap. The dust trap provides a safe haven for tiny particles in the disc, allowing them to clump together and grow to sizes that allow them to survive on their own. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/Nienke van der Marel.

    6
    This image from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) shows the dust trap in the disc that surrounds the system Oph-IRS 48. The dust trap provides a safe haven for tiny particles in the disc, allowing them to clump together and grow to sizes that allow them to survive on their own. The green region shows where the larger particles are located (millimetre-sized) and is the dust trap seen discovered by ALMA. The orange ring shows observations of much finer dust particles (micron-sized) using the VISIR instrument on ESO’s Very Large Telescope. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/Nienke van der Marel.

    7
    Annotated image from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) showing the dust trap in the disc that surrounds the system Oph-IRS 48. The dust trap provides a safe haven for the tiny dust particles in the disc, allowing them to clump together and grow to sizes that allow them to survive on their own. The green area is the dust trap, where the bigger particles accumulate. The size of the orbit of Neptune is shown in the upper left corner to show the scale. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/Nienke van der Marel.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) (CL) , an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) (EU), in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) (CA) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and in East Asia by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan.

    ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by European Southern Observatory(EU), on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (US) and on behalf of East Asia by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.
    NRAO Small
    ESO 50 Large

    The antennas can be moved across the desert plateau over distances from 150 m to 16 km, which will give ALMA a powerful variable “zoom”, similar in its concept to that employed at the centimetre-wavelength Very Large Array (VLA) site in New Mexico, United States.

    The high sensitivity is mainly achieved through the large numbers of antenna dishes that will make up the array.

    The telescopes were provided by the European, North American and East Asian partners of ALMA. The American and European partners each provided twenty-five 12-meter diameter antennas, that compose the main array. The participating East Asian countries are contributing 16 antennas (four 12-meter diameter and twelve 7-meter diameter antennas) in the form of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA), which is part of the enhanced ALMA.

    By using smaller antennas than the main ALMA array, larger fields of view can be imaged at a given frequency using ACA. Placing the antennas closer together enables the imaging of sources of larger angular extent. The ACA works together with the main array in order to enhance the latter’s wide-field imaging capability.

    ALMA has its conceptual roots in three astronomical projects — the Millimeter Array (MMA) of the United States, the Large Southern Array (LSA) of Europe, and the Large Millimeter Array (LMA) of Japan.

    The first step toward the creation of what would become ALMA came in 1997, when the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) agreed to pursue a common project that merged the MMA and LSA. The merged array combined the sensitivity of the LSA with the frequency coverage and superior site of the MMA. ESO and NRAO worked together in technical, science, and management groups to define and organize a joint project between the two observatories with participation by Canada and Spain (the latter became a member of ESO later).

    A series of resolutions and agreements led to the choice of “Atacama Large Millimeter Array”, or ALMA, as the name of the new array in March 1999 and the signing of the ALMA Agreement on 25 February 2003, between the North American and European parties. (“Alma” means “soul” in Spanish and “learned” or “knowledgeable” in Arabic.) Following mutual discussions over several years, the ALMA Project received a proposal from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) whereby Japan would provide the ACA (Atacama Compact Array) and three additional receiver bands for the large array, to form Enhanced ALMA. Further discussions between ALMA and NAOJ led to the signing of a high-level agreement on 14 September 2004 that makes Japan an official participant in Enhanced ALMA, to be known as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. A groundbreaking ceremony was held on November 6, 2003 and the ALMA logo was unveiled.

    During an early stage of the planning of ALMA, it was decided to employ ALMA antennas designed and constructed by known companies in North America, Europe, and Japan, rather than using one single design. This was mainly for political reasons. Although very different approaches have been chosen by the providers, each of the antenna designs appears to be able to meet ALMA’s stringent requirements. The components designed and manufactured across Europe were transported by specialist aerospace and astrospace logistics company Route To Space Alliance, 26 in total which were delivered to Antwerp for onward shipment to Chile.

    Partners

    European Southern Observatory (EU) and the European Regional Support Centre
    National Science Foundation (US) via the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) and the North American ALMA Science Center (US)
    National Research Council Canada [Conseil national de recherches Canada] (CA)
    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (JP) under the National Institute of Natural Sciences (自然科学研究機構, Shizenkagaku kenkyuukikou) (JP)
    ALMA-Taiwan at the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics [中央研究院天文及天文物理研究所](TW)
    Republic of Chile

    ALMA is a time machine!

    ALMA-In Search of our Cosmic Origins

     
  • richardmitnick 9:50 pm on January 13, 2022 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , ALMA (CL), , , , , ,   

    From ESO/NRAO/NAOJ/ALMA (CL): “ALMA catches ‘intruder’ redhanded in rarely detected stellar flyby event” 

    European Southern Observatory/National Radio Astronomy Observatory(US)/National Astronomical Observatory of Japan(JP) ALMA Observatory (CL).

    From ESO/NRAO/NAOJ/ALMA (CL)

    Valeria Foncea
    Education and Public Outreach Officer
    Joint ALMA Observatory Santiago – Chile
    Phone: +56 2 2467 6258
    Cell phone: +56 9 7587 1963
    Email: valeria.foncea@alma.cl

    Daisuke Iono
    Interim EA ALMA EPO officer
    Observatory, Tokyo – Japan
    Email: d.iono@nao.ac.jp

    Bárbara Ferreira
    ESO Public Information Officer
    Garching bei München, Germany
    Phone: +49 89 3200 6670
    Email: pio@eso.org

    Iris Nijman
    Public Information Officer
    National Radio Astronomy Observatory Charlottesville, Virginia – USA
    Cell phone: +1 (434) 249 3423
    Email: alma-pr@nrao.edu

    All general references:
    ALMA Observatory (CL)
    European Southern Observatory(EU)
    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan(JP)
    National Radio Astronomy Observatory(US)

    Full identification of an astronomical asset will be presented once in the first instance of that asset.

    1
    Scientists have captured an intruder object disrupting the protoplanetary disk—birthplace of planets—in Z Canis Majors (Z CMa), a star in the Canis Majoris constellation. This artist’s impression shows the perturber leaving the star system, pulling a long stream of gas from the protoplanetary disk along with it. Observational data from the Subaru Telescope, Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array suggest the intruder object was responsible for the creati on of these gaseous streams, and its “visit” may have other as yet unknown impacts on the growth and development of planets in the star system. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), B. Saxton (NRAO/The Associated Universities Inc.(US)/The National Science Foundation(US))


    NAOJ/Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea Hawaii, USA,4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level.

    National Radio Astronomy Observatory(US)Karl G Jansky Very Large Array located in central New Mexico on the Plains of San Agustin, between the towns of Magdalena and Datil, ~50 miles (80 km) west of Socorro. The VLA comprises twenty-eight 25-meter radio telescopes.

    2
    As stars grow up, they often interact with their sibling stars—stars growing up near to them in space—but have rarely been observed interacting with outside, or intruder, objects. Scientists have now made observations of an intruder object disturbing the protoplanetary disk around Z Canis Majoris, a star in the Canis Major constellation, which could have major implications for the development of baby planets. Perturbations, including long streams of gas, were observed in detail by the Subaru Telescope in the H-band, the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in the Ka-band, and using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array’s Band 6 receiver. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), S. Dagnello (NRAO/AUI/NSF), NAOJ.

    3
    Scientists have made the first comprehensive multi-wavelength observational study of an intruder object disturbing the protoplanetary disk—or birthplace of planets—surrounding the Z Canis Majoris star (Z CMa) in the constellation Canis Major. This composite image includes data from the Subaru Telescope, Jansky Very Large Array, and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, revealing in detail the perturbations, including long streams of material, made in Z CMa’s protoplanetary disk by the intruding object. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), S. Dagnello (NRAO/AUI/NSF), NAOJ.

    Scientists using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) made a rare detection of a likely stellar flyby event in the Z Canis Majoris (Z CMa) star system. An intruder—not bound to the system—object came in close proximity to and interacted with the environment surrounding the binary protostar, causing the formation of chaotic, stretched-out streams of dust and gas in the disk surrounding it.

    While such intruder-based flyby events have previously been witnessed with some regularity in computer simulations of star formation, few convincing direct observations have ever been made, and until now, the events have remained largely theoretical.

    “Observational evidence of flyby events is difficult to obtain because these events happen fast and it is difficult to capture them in action. What we have done with our ALMA Band 6 and VLA observations is equivalent to capturing lightning striking a tree,” said Ruobing Dong, an astronomer at The University of Victoria (CA) and the principal investigator on the new study. “This discovery shows that close encounters between young stars harboring disks do happen in real life, and they are not just theoretical situations seen in computer simulations. Prior observational studies had seen flybys, but hadn’t been able to collect the comprehensive evidence we were able to obtain of the event at Z CMa.”

    Perturbations, or disturbances, like those at Z CMa aren’t typically caused by intruders, but rather by sibling stars growing up together in space. Hauyu Baobab Liu, an astronomer at the Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics at Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics [中央研究院天文及天文物理研究所](TW) and a co-author on the paper, said, “Most often, stars do not form in isolation. The twins, or even triplets or quadruplets, born together may be gravitationally attracted and, as a result, closely approach each other. During these moments, some material on the stars’ protoplanetary disks may be stripped off to form extended gas streams that provide clues to astronomers about the history of past stellar encounters.”

    Nicolás Cuello, an astrophysicist and Marie Curie Fellow at The Grenoble Alps University [Université Grenoble Alpes](FR) and a co-author on the paper added that in the case of Z CMa, it was the morphology, or structure, of these streams that helped scientists to identify and pinpoint the intruder. “When a stellar encounter occurs, it causes changes in disk morphology—spirals, warps, shadows, etc.—that could be considered as flyby fingerprints. In this case, by looking very carefully at Z CMa’s disk, we revealed the presence of several flyby fingerprints.”

    These fingerprints not only helped scientists to identify the intruder, but also led them to consider what these interactions might mean for the future of Z CMa and the baby planets being born in the system, a process that so far has remained a mystery to scientists. “What we now know with this new research is that flyby events do occur in nature and that they have major impacts on the gaseous circumstellar disks, which are the birth cradles of planets, surrounding baby stars,” said Cuello. “Flyby events can dramatically perturb the circumstellar disks around participant stars, as we’ve seen with the production of long streamers around Z CMa.”

    Liu added, “These perturbers not only cause gaseous streams but may also impact the thermal history of the involved host stars, like Z CMa. This can lead to such violent events as accretion outbursts, and also impact the development of the overall star system in ways that we haven’t yet observed or defined.”

    Dong said that studying the evolution and growth of young star systems throughout the galaxy helps scientists to better understand our own Solar System’s origin. “Studying these types of events gives a window into the past, including what might have happened in the early development of our own Solar System, critical evidence of which is long since gone. Watching these events take place in a newly forming star system provides us with the information needed to say, ‘Ah ha! This is what may have happened to our own Solar System long ago.’ Right now, VLA and ALMA have given us the first evidence to solve this mystery, and the next generations of these technologies will open windows on the Universe that we have yet only dreamed of.”

    Recently, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) received approval for its Central Development Laboratory (CDL) to develop a multi-million dollar upgrade to ALMA’s Band 6 receiver, and the Observatory’s next generation VLA (ngVLA) received strong support from the astronomical community in the Astro2020 Decadal Survey.

    ngVLA to be located near the location of the NRAO Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (US) site on the plains of San Agustin, fifty miles west of Socorro, NM, USA, at an elevation of 6970 ft (2124 m) with additional mid-baseline stations currently spread over greater New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, and Mexico.

    Technological advancements for both telescopes will lead to better observations, and a potentially significant increase in the discovery of difficult-to-see objects, like Z CMa’s stellar intruder. Both projects are funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF). “These observations highlight the synergy that can come from a newer instrument working in concert with a more seasoned one, and how good a workhorse the ALMA Band 6 receiver is,” said Dr. Joe Pesce, astrophysicist and ALMA Program Director at the NSF. “I look forward to the even-better results the upgraded ALMA Band 6 receiver will enable.”

    Additional information

    These research results are published in Nature Astronomy.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) (CL) , an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) (EU), in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) (CA) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and in East Asia by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan.

    ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by European Southern Observatory(EU), on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (US) and on behalf of East Asia by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.
    NRAO Small
    ESO 50 Large

    ALMA is a time machine!

    ALMA-In Search of our Cosmic Origins

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is an astronomical interferometer of 66 radio telescopes in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, which observe electromagnetic radiation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. The array has been constructed on the 5,000 m (16,000 ft) elevation Chajnantor plateau – near the Llano de Chajnantor Observatory and the ESO Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (CL). This location was chosen for its high elevation and low humidity, factors which are crucial to reduce noise and decrease signal attenuation due to Earth’s atmosphere. ALMA provides insight on star birth during the early Stelliferous era and detailed imaging of local star and planet formation.

    ALMA is an international partnership among Europe, the United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Chile. Costing about US$1.4 billion, it is the most expensive ground-based telescope in operation. ALMA began scientific observations in the second half of 2011 and the first images were released to the press on 3 October 2011. The array has been fully operational since March 2013.

    Overview

    The initial ALMA array is composed of 66 high-precision antennas, and operates at wavelengths of 3.6 to 0.32 millimeters (31 to 1000 GHz). The array has much higher sensitivity and higher resolution than earlier submillimeter telescopes such as the single-dish James Clerk Maxwell Telescope or existing interferometer networks such as the Submillimeter Array or the Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique Plateau de Bure interferometer(FR) Plateau de Bure facility.

    East Asian Observatory James Clerk Maxwell Telescope MaunaKea Hawai’i(US) altitude 4207 m (13802 ft) above sea level.

    CFA Harvard Smithsonian Submillimeter Array on MaunaKea, Hawaii, USA, Altitude 4,205 m (13,796 ft).

    IRAM-Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique Plateau de Bure interferometer (FR) at an elevation of 2550 meters, the telescope currently consists of ten antennas, each 15 meters in diameter.interferometer, Located in the French Alpes on the wide and isolated Plateau de Bure at an elevation of 2550 meters.

    The antennas can be moved across the desert plateau over distances from 150 m to 16 km, which will give ALMA a powerful variable “zoom”, similar in its concept to that employed at the centimetre-wavelength Very Large Array (VLA) site in New Mexico, United States.

    The high sensitivity is mainly achieved through the large numbers of antenna dishes that will make up the array.

    The telescopes were provided by the European, North American and East Asian partners of ALMA. The American and European partners each provided twenty-five 12-meter diameter antennas, that compose the main array. The participating East Asian countries are contributing 16 antennas (four 12-meter diameter and twelve 7-meter diameter antennas) in the form of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA), which is part of the enhanced ALMA.

    By using smaller antennas than the main ALMA array, larger fields of view can be imaged at a given frequency using ACA. Placing the antennas closer together enables the imaging of sources of larger angular extent. The ACA works together with the main array in order to enhance the latter’s wide-field imaging capability.

    ALMA has its conceptual roots in three astronomical projects — the Millimeter Array (MMA) of the United States, the Large Southern Array (LSA) of Europe, and the Large Millimeter Array (LMA) of Japan.

    The first step toward the creation of what would become ALMA came in 1997, when the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) agreed to pursue a common project that merged the MMA and LSA. The merged array combined the sensitivity of the LSA with the frequency coverage and superior site of the MMA. ESO and NRAO worked together in technical, science, and management groups to define and organize a joint project between the two observatories with participation by Canada and Spain (the latter became a member of ESO later).

    A series of resolutions and agreements led to the choice of “Atacama Large Millimeter Array”, or ALMA, as the name of the new array in March 1999 and the signing of the ALMA Agreement on 25 February 2003, between the North American and European parties. (“Alma” means “soul” in Spanish and “learned” or “knowledgeable” in Arabic.) Following mutual discussions over several years, the ALMA Project received a proposal from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) whereby Japan would provide the ACA (Atacama Compact Array) and three additional receiver bands for the large array, to form Enhanced ALMA. Further discussions between ALMA and NAOJ led to the signing of a high-level agreement on 14 September 2004 that makes Japan an official participant in Enhanced ALMA, to be known as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. A groundbreaking ceremony was held on November 6, 2003 and the ALMA logo was unveiled.

    During an early stage of the planning of ALMA, it was decided to employ ALMA antennas designed and constructed by known companies in North America, Europe, and Japan, rather than using one single design. This was mainly for political reasons. Although very different approaches have been chosen by the providers, each of the antenna designs appears to be able to meet ALMA’s stringent requirements. The components designed and manufactured across Europe were transported by specialist aerospace and astrospace logistics company Route To Space Alliance, 26 in total which were delivered to Antwerp for onward shipment to Chile.

    Partners

    European Southern Observatory (EU) and the European Regional Support Centre
    National Science Foundation (US) via the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (US) and the North American ALMA Science Center (US)
    National Research Council Canada [Conseil national de recherches Canada] (CA)
    National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (JP) under the National Institute of Natural Sciences (自然科学研究機構, Shizenkagaku kenkyuukikou) (JP)
    ALMA-Taiwan at the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics [中央研究院天文及天文物理研究所](TW)
    Republic of Chile

     
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