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  • richardmitnick 8:04 am on April 23, 2019 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: AIDA 2020, , , , , , , , , NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft 2004, US Double Asteroid Redirect Test or DART spacecraft   

    From European Space Agency: “Earth vs. asteroids: humans strike back” 

    ESA Space For Europe Banner

    From European Space Agency

    22 April 2019

    Incoming asteroids have been scarring our home planet for billions of years. This month humankind left our own mark on an asteroid for the first time: Japan’s Hayabusa2 spacecraft dropped a copper projectile at very high speed in an attempt to form a crater on asteroid Ryugu. A much bigger asteroid impact is planned for the coming decade, involving an international double-spacecraft mission.

    JAXA/Hayabusa 2 Credit: JAXA/Akihiro Ikeshita

    On 5 April, Hayabusa2 released an experiment called the ‘Small Carry-on Impactor’ or SCI for short, carrying a plastic explosive charge that shot a 2.5-kg copper projectile at the surface of the 900-m diameter Ryugu asteroid at a velocity of around 2 km per second. The objective is to uncover subsurface material to be brought back to Earth for detailed analysis.

    “We are expecting it to form a distinctive crater,” comments Patrick Michel, CNRS Director of Research of France’s Côte d’Azur Observatory, serving as co-investigator and interdisciplinary scientist on the Japanese mission. “But we don’t know for sure yet, because Hayabusa2 was moved around to the other side of Ryugu, for maximum safety.

    “The asteroid’s low gravity means it has an escape velocity of a few tens of centimetres per second, so most of the material ejected by the impact would have gone straight out to space. But at the same time it is possible that lower-velocity ejecta might have gone into orbit around Ryugu and might pose a danger to the Hayabusa2 spacecraft.

    “So the plan is to wait until this Thursday, 25 April, to go back and image the crater. We expect that very small fragments will meanwhile have their orbits disrupted by solar radiation pressure – the slow but persistent push of sunlight itself. In the meantime we’ve also been downloading images from a camera called DCAM3 that accompanied the SCI payload to see if it caught a glimpse of the crater and the early ejecta evolution.”

    According to simulations, the crater is predicted to have a roughly 2 m diameter, although the modelling of impacts in such a low-gravity environment is extremely challenging. It should appear darker than the surrounding surface, based on a February touch-and-go sampling operation when Hayabusa2’s thrusters dislodged surface dust to expose blacker material underneath.

    “For us this is an exciting first data point to compare with simulations,” adds Patrick, “but we have a much larger impact to look forward to in future, as part of the forthcoming double-spacecraft Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission.

    “In late 2022 the US Double Asteroid Redirect Test or DART spacecraft will crash into the smaller of the two Didymos asteroids.

    NASA DART Double Impact Redirection Test vehicle depiction schematic

    As with Hayabusa2’s SCI test it should form a very distinct crater and expose subsurface material in an even lower gravity environment, but its main purpose is to actually divert the orbit of the 160 m diameter ‘Didymoon’ asteroid in a measurable way.”

    The DART spacecraft will have a mass of 550 kg, and will strike Didymoon at 6 km/s. Striking an asteroid five times smaller with a spacecraft more than 200 times larger and moving three times faster should deliver sufficient impact energy to achieve the first ever asteroid deflection experiment for planetary defence.

    DART mission profile. APL – Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

    A proposed ESA mission called Hera would then visit Didymos to survey the diverted asteroid, measure its mass and perform high-resolution mapping of the crater left by the DART impact.

    DLR Asteroid Framing Camera used on NASA Dawn and ESA HERA missions

    ESA’s proposed Hera spaceraft

    “The actual relation between projectile size, speed and crater size in low gravity environments is still poorly understood,” adds Patrick, also serving as Hera’s lead scientist. “Having both SCI and Hera data on crater sizes in two different impact speed regimes will offer crucial insights.

    “These scaling laws are also crucial on a practical basis, because they underpin how our calculations estimating the efficiency of asteroid deflection are made, taking account the properties of the asteroid material as well as the impact velocity involved.

    “This is why Hera is so important; not only will we have DART’s full-scale test of asteroid deflection in space, but also Hera’s detailed follow-up survey to discover Didymoon’s composition and structure. Hera will also record the precise shape of the DART crater, right down to centimetre scale.

    “So, building on this Hayabusa2 impact experiment, DART and Hera between them will go on to close the gap in asteroid deflection techniques, bringing us to a point where such a method might be used for real.”

    Didymoon will also be by far the smallest asteroid ever explored, so will offer insights into the cohesion of material in an environment whose gravity is more than a million times weaker than our own – an alien situation extremely challenging to simulate.

    In 2004, NASA’s Deep Impact spacecraft launched an impactor into comet Tempel 1. The body was subsequently revisited, but the artificial crater was hard to pinpoint – largely because the comet had flown close to the Sun in the meantime, and its heating would have modified the surface.

    NASA’s Deep Impact hitting a comet

    NASA Deep Impact spacecraft 2004

    Hera will visit Didymoon around four years after DART’s impact, but because it is an inactive asteroid in deep space, no such modification will occur. “The crater will still be ‘fresh’ for Hera,” Patrick concludes.

    See the full article here .

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    The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an intergovernmental organization dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 19 member states. Headquartered in Paris, ESA has a staff of more than 2,000. ESA’s space flight program includes human spaceflight, mainly through the participation in the International Space Station program, the launch and operations of unmanned exploration missions to other planets and the Moon, Earth observation, science, telecommunication as well as maintaining a major spaceport, the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou, French Guiana, and designing launch vehicles. ESA science missions are based at ESTEC in Noordwijk, Netherlands, Earth Observation missions at ESRIN in Frascati, Italy, ESA Mission Control (ESOC) is in Darmstadt, Germany, the European Astronaut Centre (EAC) that trains astronauts for future missions is situated in Cologne, Germany, and the European Space Astronomy Centre is located in Villanueva de la Cañada, Spain.

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  • richardmitnick 11:38 am on June 6, 2016 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: AIDA 2020,   

    From AIDA2020: “Timepix3 makes its way into synchrotron research” 

    AIDA 2020 bloc

    Advanced European Infrastructures for Detectors at Accelerators


    Figure 1: Shows the histogram of the time of arrivals of photons. The acquisition was synchronised with the machine clock and it shows that Timepix3 measures correctly the beam structure and that the isolated flash is completely separated from the train of flashes. (Image: Hazem Yousef and Giulio Crevatin, Diamond Light Source)

    The detector group at Diamond Light Source, the UK’s synchrotron science facility, is developing a new photon counting detector for time resolved experiments based on Timepix3. The Timepix3 builds upon previous designs with a very high spatial resolution and it is the latest read-out application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for pixelated detectors released by the Medipix3 collaboration led by CERN.

    The Timepix3 ASIC is designed to resolve individual interaction of photons and particles with the sensor material by placing a time stamp to the time of arrival of the event. The nominal accuracy of the time stamp of Timepix3 is 1.5625 ns. Unlike the more conventional technology of photon counting detectors, such as Medipix3, Timepix3 works in the so-called “data driven mode”: every time an event is detected the information related to the time of arrival and location of the event is sent on the data lines. This enables a much more efficient data transfer when data is sparse.

    The detector group at Diamond has been a member of the Medipix3 collaboration since 2007. Scientists there realised that the Timepix3 could be a very good candidate for building position-sensitive detectors for time-resolved experiments from time scales between less than milliseconds down to tens of nanosecond and possibly below.

    Beamline scientists at Diamond voiced a strong need for more efficient detectors for time-resolved experiments in a large number of techniques that include small-molecule crystallography, powder diffraction, small angle scattering, absorption and emission X-ray spectroscopy. The detector group therefore proposed the development of a large-area position-sensitive detector for time-resolved experiments based on Timepix3. The detector that is going to be developed will tile 160 Timepix3 read-out ASICs that will be flip-chip bump-bonded to 10 monolithic silicon sensors. This will give a total of 10 million pixels and a sensitive area of 320 cm2.

    In order to determine the characteristics of Timepix3, and the best way to operate it, the detector group at Diamond is carrying out a number of beam tests with a single chip system. Some of the results already published show the outstanding timing capability of Timepix3. The X-ray beam emitted by Diamond consists of trains of flashes 50 picoseconds long and spaced 2 nanometres apart. During the hybrid mode of operation the train of flashes lasts 1.372 microseconds (686 flashes) followed by a 0.5-microsecond gap. In the middle of the gap an isolated flash is placed. This results in an excellent diagnostic tool of the timing capabilities of detectors when the acquisition is synchronised with the machine clock that is locked to the frequency of flashes. Figure 1 shows the beam structure measured by Timepix3. The isolated flash is completely separated by the train of flashes. The best results achieved so far are 19 nanoseconds FWHM of the isolated peak. Pump and probe experiments can be greatly enhanced by the capability to completely separate the isolated flash.

    The time-resolved detector development project was approved last March by the Diamond management team. The delivery of a first single module prototype is planned in 2017.

    For further information on Diamond’s detector activities, please visit http://www.diamond.ac.uk/Science/Research/Detector.html (link is external)

    See the full article here .

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    What is AIDA-2020?

    The AIDA-2020 project brings together the leading European research infrastructures in the field of detector development and testing and a number of institutes, universities and technological centers, thus assembling the necessary expertise for the ambitious programme of work.
    Who is involved?

    In total, 24 countries and CERN are involved in a coherent and coordinated programme of NAs, TAs and JRAs, fully in line with the priorities of the European Strategy for Particle Physics.
    What benefits does AIDA-2020 offer?

    AIDA-2020 aims to advance detector technologies beyond current limits by offering well-equipped test beam and irradiation facilities for testing detector systems under its Transnational Access programme. Common software tools, micro-electronics and data acquisition systems are also provided. This shared high-quality infrastructure will ensure optimal use and coherent development, thus increasing knowledge exchange between European groups and maximising scientific progress. The project also exploits the innovation potential of detector research by engaging with European industry for large-scale production of detector systems and by developing applications outside of particle physics, e.g. for medical imaging.

    AIDA-2020 will lead to enhanced coordination within the European detector community, leveraging EU and national resources. The project will explore novel detector technologies and will provide the ERA with world-class infrastructure for detector development, benefiting thousands of researchers participating in future particle physics projects, and contributing to maintaining Europe’s leadership of the field.

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