Tagged: Accelerator Science Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 8:48 am on December 3, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Accelerator Science, CERN LHC prepares for new achievements, , , ,   

    From CERN: “LHC prepares for new achievements” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    From CERN

    3 December, 2018

    After an outstanding performance, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the accelerator complex and the experiments are now stopping for two years for major improvements and upgrading.

    1
    The Superconducting Magnets and Circuits Consolidation project which took place during the first Long Shutdown (LS1) (Image: Maximilien Brice/CERN)

    Early this morning, operators of the CERN Control Centre turned off the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), ending the very successful second run of the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. CERN’s accelerator complex will be stopped for about two years to enable major upgrade and renovation works.

    During this second run (2015–2018), the LHC performed beyond expectations, achieving approximately 16 million billion proton-proton collisions at an energy of 13 TeV and large datasets for lead-lead collisions at an energy of 5.02 TeV. These collisions produced an enormous amount of data, with more than 300 petabytes (300 million gigabytes) now permanently archived in CERN’s data centre tape libraries. This is the equivalent of 1000 years of 24/7 video streaming! By analysing these data, the LHC experiments have already produced a large amount of results, extending our knowledge of fundamental physics and of the Universe.

    “The second run of the LHC has been impressive, as we could deliver well beyond our objectives and expectations, producing five times more data than during the first run, at the unprecedented energy of 13 TeV,” says Frédérick Bordry, CERN Director for Accelerators and Technology. “With this second long shutdown starting now, we will prepare the machine for even more collisions at the design energy of 14 TeV.”

    “In addition to many other beautiful results, over the past few years the LHC experiments have made tremendous progress in the understanding of the properties of the Higgs boson,” adds Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General. “The Higgs boson is a special particle, very different from the other elementary particles observed so far; its properties may give us useful indications about physics beyond the Standard Model.”

    A cornerstone of the Standard Model of particle physics – the theory that best describes the elementary particles and the forces that binds them together – the Higgs boson was discovered at CERN in 2012 and has been studied ever since. In particular, physicists are analysing the way it decays or transforms into other particles, to check the Standard Model’s predictions. Over the last three years, the LHC experiments extended the measurements of rates of Higgs boson decays, including the most common, but hard-to-detect, decay into bottom quarks, and the rare production of a Higgs boson in association with top quarks. The ATLAS and CMS experiments also presented updated measurement of the Higgs boson mass with the best precision to date.

    Beside the Higgs boson, the LHC experiments produced a wide range of results and hundreds of scientific publications, including the discovery of exotic new particles such as Ξcc++ and pentaquarks with the LHCb experiment, and the unveiling of so-far unobserved phenomena in proton–proton and proton-lead collisions at ALICE.

    During the two-year break, Long Shutdown 2 (LS2), the whole accelerator complex and detectors will be reinforced and upgraded for the next LHC run, starting in 2021, and the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, which will start operation after 2025. Increasing the luminosity of the LHC means producing far more data.

    “The rich harvest of the second run enables the researchers to look for very rare processes,” explains Eckhard Elsen, Director for Research and Computing at CERN. “They will be busy throughout the shutdown examining the huge data sample for possible signatures of new physics that haven’t had the chance to emerge from the dominant contribution of the Standard Model processes. This will guide us into the HL-LHC when the data sample will increase by yet another order of magnitude.”

    Several components of the accelerator chain (injectors) that feed the LHC with protons will be renewed to produce more intense beams. The first link in this chain, the linear accelerator Linac2, will leave the floor to Linac4.

    CERN Linac2

    CERN Linac 4

    The new linear accelerator will accelerate H- ions, which are later stripped to protons, allowing the preparation of brighter beams. The second accelerator in the chain, the Proton Synchrotron Booster, will be equipped with completely new injection and acceleration systems. The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), the last injector before the LHC, will have new radio frequency power to accelerate higher beam intensities, and will be connected to upgraded transfer lines.

    CERN The Proton Synchrotron Booster

    The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), CERN’s second-largest accelerator. (Image: Julien Ordan/CERN

    Some improvements of the LHC are also planned during LS2. The bypass diodes – the electrical components that protect the magnets in case of quench – will be shielded, as prerequisite for extending the LHC beam energy to 7 TeV after the LS2, and more than 20 main superconducting magnets will be replaced. Moreover, civil engineering works for the HL-LHC that started in June 2018 will continue, new galleries will be connected to the LHC tunnel, and new powerful magnet and superconducting technologies will be tested for the first time.

    All the LHC experiments will upgrade important parts of their detectors in the next two years. Almost the entire LHCb experiment will be replaced with faster detector components that will enable the collaboration to record events at full proton-proton rate. Similarly, ALICE will upgrade the technology of its tracking detectors. ATLAS and CMS will undergo improvements and start to prepare for the big experiments’ upgrade for HL-LHC.

    Proton beams will resume in spring 2021 with the LHC’s third run.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA


    CERN ALPHA-g Detector

    CERN ALPHA-g Detector


    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN GBAR

    CERN GBAR

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

    CERN Proto Dune

    CERN Proto Dune

    Advertisements
     
  • richardmitnick 6:35 pm on November 17, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Accelerator Science, , CEPC-Circular Electron Positron Collider plans in China, , ILC-International Linear Collider plans in Japan, , , Studying the Higgs   

    From Science Magazine: “China unveils design for $5 billion particle smasher” 

    AAAS
    From Science Magazine

    1
    China’s Circular Electron Positron Collider would be built underground in a 100-kilometer-circumference tunnel at an as-yet-undetermined site.
    IHEP

    Nov. 16, 2018
    Dennis Normile

    BEIJING—The center of gravity in high energy physics could move to Asia if either of two grand plans is realized. At a workshop here last week, Chinese scientists unveiled the full conceptual design for the proposed Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC), a $5 billion machine to tackle the next big challenge in particle physics: studying the Higgs boson. (Part of the design was published in the summer.) Now, they’re ready to develop detailed plans, start construction in 2022, and launch operations around 2030—if the Chinese government agrees to fund it.

    Meanwhile, Japan’s government is due to decide by the end of December whether to host an equally costly machine to study the Higgs, the International Linear Collider (ILC).

    ILC schematic, being planned for the Kitakami highland, in the Iwate prefecture of northern Japan

    How Japan’s decision might affect China’s, which is a few years away, is unclear. But it seems increasingly likely that most of the future action around the Higgs will be in Asia. Proposed “Higgs factories” in Europe are decades away and the United States has no serious plans [remember the superconducting supercollider intended for Texas and killed by our idiot Congress in 1993 for having “no immediate economic value”?].

    The Higgs boson, key to explaining how other particles gain mass, was discovered at CERN, the European particle physics laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland, in 2012—more than 40 years after being theoretically predicted.

    CERN CMS Higgs Event


    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event

    LHC

    CERN map


    CERN LHC Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    Now, scientists want to confirm the particle’s properties, how it interacts with other particles, and whether it contributes to dark matter. Having only mass but no spin and no charge, the Higgs is really a “new kind of elementary particle” that is both “a special part of the standard model” and a “harbinger of some profound new principles,” says Nima Arkani-Hamed, a theorist at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.


    Standard Model of Particle Physics from Symmetry Magazine

    Answering the most important questions in particle physics today “involves studying the Higgs to death,” he says.

    “Physicists want at least one machine,” says Joao Guimaraes da Costa, a physicist at the Chinese Academy of Sciences’s Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) here, which put together the Chinese proposal. “Ideally, both should be built,” because each has its scientific merits, adds Hitoshi Murayama, a theoretical physicist at the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Tokyo’s Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe in Kashiwa, Japan.

    The CERN discovery relied on the Large Hadron Collider, a 27-kilometer ring [map is above] in which high-energy protons traveling in opposite directions are steered into head-on collisions. This produces showers of many types of particles, forcing physicists to sift through billions of events to spot the telltale signal of a Higgs. It’s a bit like smashing together cherry pies, Murayama says: “A lot of goo flies out when what you are really looking for is the little clinks between pits.”

    Smashing electrons into their antimatter counterparts, positrons, results in cleaner collisions that typically produce one Z particle and one Higgs boson at a time, says Bill Murray of The University of Warwick in Coventry, U.K. How Z particles decay is well understood, so other signals can be attributed to the Higgs “and we can watch what it does,” Murray says.

    Japan’s plan to build an electron-positron collider grew from international investigations in the 1990s. Physicists favored a linear arrangement [see schematic above], in which the particles are sent down two straight opposing raceways, colliding like bullets in rifles put muzzle to muzzle. That design promises higher energies, because it avoids the losses that result when charged particles are sent in a circle, causing them to shed energy in the form of x-rays. Its disadvantage is that particles that don’t collide are lost; in a circular design they continue around the ring for another chance at colliding.

    Along the way, Japan signaled it might host the machine and shoulder the lion’s share of the cost, with other countries contributing detectors, other components, and expertise. A 2013 basic design envisioned a 500-giga-electronvolt (GeV) linear collider in a 31-kilometer tunnel costing almost $8 billion, not counting labor. But by then, the CERN team had already pegged the Higgs mass at 125 GeV, making the ILC design “overkill,” Murayama says. The group has since revised the plan, aiming for a 250-GeV accelerator housed in a 20-kilometer-long tunnel and costing $5 billion, says Murayama, who is also deputy director of the Linear Collider Collaboration, which coordinates global R&D work on several future colliders.

    IHEP scientists made their own proposal just 2 months after the Higgs was announced. They recognized the energy required for a Higgs factory “is still in a range where circular is better,” Murray says. With its beamlines buried in a 100-kilometer-circumference tunnel at a site yet to be chosen, the CEPC would collide electrons and positrons at up to 240 GeV.

    Both approaches have their advantages. The CEPC will produce Higgs at roughly five times the rate of ILC, allowing research to move faster. But Murayama notes that the ILC could easily be upgraded to higher energies by extending the tunnel by another couple of kilometers. Most physicists don’t want to choose. The two colliders “are quite complementary,” Murray says.

    Whether politicians and funding agencies agree remains to be seen. Construction of the CEPC hinges on funding under China’s next 5-year plan, which starts in 2021, says IHEP Director Wang Yifang. IHEP would then also seek international contributors. Murayama says Japan needs to say yes to the ILC in time to negotiate support from the European Union under a particle physics strategy to be hammered out in 2019. Missing that opportunity could mean delaying the collider by 20 years, he says—and perhaps ceding the field to China.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 8:42 am on November 2, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Accelerator Science, , CERN ALPHA-g, , , ,   

    From CERN: “New antimatter gravity experiments begin at CERN” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    From CERN

    2 Nov 2018
    Ana Lopes

    CERN ALPHA-g experiment being installed at CERN_s Antiproton Decelerator hall. (Image CERN)

    CERN ALPHA-g Detector

    We learn it at high school: Release two objects of different mass in the absence of friction forces and they fall down at the same rate in Earth’s gravity. What we haven’t learned, because it hasn’t been directly measured in experiments, is whether antimatter falls down at the same rate as ordinary matter or if it might behave differently. Two new experiments at CERN, ALPHA-g and GBAR, have now started their journey towards answering this question.


    CERN GBAR

    ALPHA-g is very similar to the ALPHA experiment [below], which makes neutral antihydrogen atoms by taking antiprotons from the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) and binding them with positrons from a sodium-22 source. ALPHA then confines the resulting neutral antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic trap and shines laser light or microwaves onto them to measure their internal structure. The ALPHA-g experiment has the same type of antiatom making and trapping apparatus except that it is oriented vertically. With this vertical set-up, researchers can measure precisely the vertical positions at which the antihydrogen atoms annihilate with normal matter once they switch off the trap’s magnetic field and the atoms are under the sole influence of gravity. The values of these positions will allow them to measure the effect of gravity on the antiatoms.

    The GBAR experiment, also located in the AD hall, takes a different tack. It plans to use antiprotons supplied by the ELENA deceleration ring and positrons produced by a small linear accelerator to make antihydrogen ions, consisting of one antiproton and two positrons. Next, after trapping the antihydrogen ions and chilling them to an ultralow temperature (about 10 microkelvin), it will use laser light to strip them of one positron, turning them into neutral antiatoms. At this point, the neutral antiatoms will be released from the trap and allowed to fall from a height of 20 centimetres, during which the researchers will monitor their behaviour.

    After months of round-the-clock work by researchers and engineers to put together the experiments, ALPHA-g and GBAR have received the first beams of antiprotons, marking the beginning of both experiments. ALPHA-g began taking beam on 30 October, after receiving the necessary safety approvals. ELENA sent its first beam to GBAR on 20 July, and since then the decelerator and GBAR researchers have been trying to perfect the delivery of the beam. The ALPHA-g and GBAR teams are now racing to commission their experiments before CERN’s accelerators shut down in a few weeks for a two-year period of maintenance work. Jeffrey Hangst, spokesperson of the ALPHA experiments, says: “We are hoping that we’ll get the chance to make the first gravity measurements with antimatter, but it’s a race against time.” Patrice Pérez, spokesperson of GBAR, says: “The GBAR experiment is using an entirely new apparatus and an antiproton beam still in its commissioning phase. We hope to produce antihydrogen this year and are working towards being ready to measure the gravitational effects on antimatter when the antiprotons are back in 2021.”

    Another experiment at the AD hall, AEgIS, which has been in operation for several years, is also working towards measuring the effect of gravity on antihydrogen using yet another approach. Like GBAR, AEgIS [below] is also hoping to produce its first antihydrogen atoms this year.

    Discovering any difference between the behaviour of antimatter and matter in connection with gravity could point to a quantum theory of gravity and perhaps cast light on why the universe seems to be made of matter rather than antimatter.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN GBAR

    CERN GBAR

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

    CERN Proto Dune

    CERN Proto Dune

     
  • richardmitnick 8:08 am on November 2, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Accelerator Science, Antimatter particles, “Majorana” particles: particles that are indistinguishable from their antimatter counterparts, , , , , , ,   

    From CERN: “Chasing a particle that is its own antiparticle” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    From CERN

    1 Nov 2018
    Ana Lopes

    1
    The ATLAS experiment at CERN. (Image: Maximilien Brice/CERN)

    Neutrinos weigh almost nothing: you need at least 250 000 of them to outweigh a single electron. But what if their lightness could be explained by a mechanism that needs neutrinos to be their own antiparticles? The ATLAS collaboration at CERN is looking into this, using data from high-energy proton collisions collected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

    One way to explain neutrinos’ extreme lightness is the so-called seesaw mechanism, a popular extension of the Standard Model of particle physics.

    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.


    Standard Model of Particle Physics from Symmetry Magazine

    This mechanism involves pairing up the known light neutrinos with hypothetical heavy neutrinos. The heavier neutrino plays the part of a larger child on a seesaw, lifting the lighter neutrino to give it a small mass. But for this mechanism to work, both neutrinos need to be “Majorana” particles: particles that are indistinguishable from their antimatter counterparts.

    Antimatter particles have the same mass as their corresponding matter particles but have the opposite electric charge. So, for example, an electron has a negative electric charge and its antiparticle, the positron, is positive. But neutrinos have no electric charge, opening up the possibility that they could be their own antiparticles. Finding heavy Majorana neutrinos could not only help explain neutrino mass, it could also lead to a better understanding of why matter is much more abundant in the universe than antimatter.

    In an extended form of the seesaw model, these heavy Majorana neutrinos could potentially be light enough to be detected in LHC data. In a new paper, the ATLAS collaboration describes the results of its latest search for hints of these particles.

    ATLAS looked for instances in which both a heavy Majorana neutrino and a “right-handed” W boson, another hypothetical particle, could appear. They used LHC data from collision events that produce two “jets” of particles plus a pair of energetic electrons or a pair of their heavier cousins, muons.

    The researchers compared the observed number of such events with the number predicted by the Standard Model. They found no significant excess of events over the Standard Model expectation, indicating that no right-handed W bosons and heavy Majorana neutrinos took part in these collisions.

    However, the researchers were able to use their observations to excludepossible masses for these two particles. They excluded heavy Majorana neutrino masses up to about 3 TeV, for a right-handed W boson with a mass of 4.3 TeV. In addition, they explored for the first time the hypothesis that the Majorana neutrino is heavier than the right-handed W boson, placing a lower limit of 1.5 TeV on the mass of Majorana neutrinos. Further studies should be able to put tighter limits on the mass of heavy Majorana neutrinos in the hope of finding them – if, indeed, they exist.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New
    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

    CERN Proto Dune

    CERN Proto Dune

     
  • richardmitnick 12:30 pm on November 1, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Accelerator Science, , , , , , , , Tantalising 'Bumps' in Large Hadron Collider Data   

    From Science Alert: “CERN’s About to Release Details on Tantalising ‘Bumps’ in Large Hadron Collider Data” 

    ScienceAlert

    From Science Alert

    1 NOV 2018
    MICHELLE STARR

    Strap yourselves in, because CERN has something up its sleeve.

    On Thursday 1 November, Large Hadron Collider (LHC) physicists will be discussing the fact that they may have found a new and unexpected new particle.

    “I’d say theorists are excited and experimentalists are very sceptical,” CERN physicist Alexandre Nikitenko told The Guardian. “As a physicist I must be very critical, but as the author of this analysis I must have some optimism too.”

    The telltale signal is a bump in the data collected by the LHC’s Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector as the researchers were smashing together particles to look for something else entirely.

    CERN/CMS Detector

    When heavy particles – such as the Higgs Boson – are produced through particle collisions, they decay almost immediately. This produces a shower of smaller mass particles, as well as increased momentum, which can be picked up by the LHC’s detectors.

    CERN CMS Higgs Event


    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event

    When these particle showers produced pairs of muons (a type of elementary particle that is similar to an electron but with a much higher mass), the team sat up and paid attention. But what they traced these pairs back to was, to be very scientific about it, mega weird.

    The new and unknown particle that seems to have produced the muons has a mass of around 28 GeV (giga-electronvolts), just over a fifth of the mass of the Higgs boson (125 GeV).

    There’s nothing in any of the current models that predicts this mass.

    It’s unlikely to be physics-breaking, sorry to disappoint. But it is strange – a mass that has formed where no mass was expected.

    A word of caution, though: it’s too early to get excited.

    The signal could just be a glitch in the data, generated from random noise, which ended up being the case with what had been a tremendously exciting 750 GeV signal in 2016 – until it was found to be just a statistical fluctuation.

    Until this data has been checked against newer CMS data, as well as data from the ATLAS detector, the discovery remains unconfirmed.

    CERN/ATLAS detector

    Still, an anomalous detection is always interesting – so we’ll be tuning in tomorrow to see what the research team has to say when they give their talk.

    You can also check out their paper – which has yet to be peer-reviewed – on pre-print resource arXiv.

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 10:50 am on October 25, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Accelerator Science, , , , , ,   

    From Interactions.org: ““Unshakable conviction” of scientific case of the International Linear Collider” 

    From Interactions.org

    ILC schematic, being planned for the Kitakami highland, in the Iwate prefecture of northern Japan

    Scientists gathering in Arlington, Texas, U.S.A., for the International Workshop on Future Linear Colliders (LCWS2018), a scientific conference about future international particle physics projects, issued a statement (the ‘Texas statement’) expressing their strong commitment to do whatever necessary for the realisation of the International Linear Collider (ILC) in Japan. Having stressed the scientific case and the technological merits of the ILC through the statements issued during a scientific workshop in Tokyo in 2015, and in Fukuoka in May 2018, participants of LCWS2018 on behalf of the global Linear Collider Collaboration (LCC) express their unshakable conviction about the ILC and their determination to bring it to its fruition.

    “The Texas Statement” – Statement on the ILC Higgs Factory
    Scientists from all over the world are now gathering together at the International Workshop on Future Linear Colliders (LCWS2018) held in Arlington, Texas, with a firm determination to make the ILC a reality. Together with colleagues around the world, we hereby issue this ‘Texas Statement’ with unshakable conviction on its scientific case and to express our strong commitment to do whatever necessary for its success.

    The ILC is the right new experimental facility to advance our understanding of the Universe. The ILC project has been developed by an international collaboration over three decades. We conceived it as the machine to lead the era of particle physics at the Terascale with the Higgs particle as the centerpiece. The discovery of the Higgs particle by the LHC fixed the needed energy, and we now have a concrete plan for the ILC Higgs factory. Subsequent measurements at the LHC further reinforced the importance of the precision Higgs studies. If scientifically justified by the findings of the precision Higgs study, the collision energy of the ILC can be easily upgraded. Throughout the period of ILC development, our original motivation has become increasingly clearer and stronger.

    The ILC is a source of new innovative technologies. We also pride ourselves in the technology for the ILC. Global collaboration has made enormous progress in the development of the superconducting acceleration technology, improving its performance by quantum leaps. This technology, developed for the ILC, is now essential, for example, for the current state-of-the-art X-ray and neutron facilities. More innovations broadly benefitting science and society are in store as we proceed along our path.
    Now is the time to move forward. The international community represented by the participants of LCWS2018 is committed to bring the ILC to its fruition. Once the expression of intention to host the ILC is issued by the Japanese government, we will greatly expand our own efforts and work with our respective governments ever more intensively to help achieve the necessary international agreements. We eagerly await the signal to proceed and, when the ILC starts in earnest, we will be ready to carry through on its promise.

    Scientists attending LCWS2018
    on behalf of the global Linear Collider Collaboration
    Background information:
    The International Linear Collider is a proposed particle accelerator whose mission is to carry out research about the fundamental particles and forces that govern the Universe. It would complement the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, where the Higgs boson was discovered in 2012, and shed more light on the discoveries scientists have made and are likely to make there in the coming years. The ILC will be one of the world’s largest and most sophisticated scientific endeavours. The realisation of the ILC will require truly global participation.
    The Linear Collider Collaboration consists of scientists and engineers working on the Compact Linear Collider Study (CLIC) and the International Linear Collider (ILC). It is headed by former LHC Project Director Lyn Evans and coordinates the world-wide research and development for accelerators and detectors.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

     
  • richardmitnick 4:36 pm on October 24, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: 4 weeks of lead atoms, Accelerator Science, , Final lap of the LHC track for protons in 2018, , Lead colllisions allow studies to be conducted on quark-gluon plasma- a state of matter that is thought to have existed a few millionths of a second after the Big Bang, , ,   

    From CERN: “Final lap of the LHC track for protons in 2018” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    From CERN

    24 Oct 2018
    Corinne Pralavorio

    1
    View of the LHC accelerator in 2018. (Image: Maximilien Brice, Julien Ordan/CERN)

    Today, protons said their goodbyes to the Large Hadron Collider during a last lap of the track. At 6 a.m., the beams from fill number 7334 were ejected towards the beam dumps. It was the LHC’s last proton run from now until 2021, as CERN’s accelerator complex will be shut down from 10 December to undergo a full renovation.

    2
    LHC Page1, showing the operational state of the accelerator at 6.02 a.m. on Wednesday 24 October. The spiral represents the proton bunches stopped by the beam dump (Image: CERN)

    Now is the time for the scientists who read the collisions meter to make a first assessment. The integrated luminosity in 2018 (or the number of collisions likely to be produced during the 2018 run) reached 66 inverse femtobarns (fb-1) for ATLAS and CMS, which is 6 points better than expected. About 13 million billion potential collisions were delivered to the two experiments. LHCb accumulated 2.5 fb-1, more than the 2.0 predicted, and ALICE 27 inverse picobarns. The remarkable efficiency of the LHC this year is due to excellent machine availability and an instantaneous luminosity that regularly exceeded the nominal value. Since the start of the second run at a collision energy of 13 TeV, the integrated luminosity was 160 fb-1, higher than the 150 fb-1 expected.

    However, this does not mean that the LHC runs are finished for this year. The show will go on for four more weeks, during which time the collider will master another kind of particle, lead atoms. After a few days of machine tests, the teams will inject heavy ions, which have been prepared over recent months in the injectors. The LHC will therefore be able to carry out collisions of lead ions – lead atoms formed of 208 protons and neutrons that have been ionised, meaning they have had about 30 electrons removed. These collisions allow studies to be conducted on quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that is thought to have existed a few millionths of a second after the Big Bang.

    3
    This graph shows the integrated luminosity delivered to the ATLAS and CMS experiments during different LHC runs. The 2018 run produced 65 inverse femtobarns of data, which is 16 points more than in 2017. (Image: CERN)

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

    CERN Proto Dune

    CERN Proto Dune

     
  • richardmitnick 3:48 pm on October 11, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Accelerator Science, , European Strategy for Particle Physics, , , ,   

    From CERN: “European Strategy for Particle Physics” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event

    CERN New Masthead

    From CERN

    The European Strategy for Particle Physics is the cornerstone of Europe’s decision-making process for the long-term future of the field. Mandated by the CERN Council, it is formed through a broad consultation of the grass-roots particle physics community, it actively solicits the opinions of physicists from around the world, and it is developed in close coordination with similar processes in the US and Japan in order to ensure coordination between regions and optimal use of resources globally.

    The European Strategy process was initiated by the CERN Council in 2005, resulting in a document being adopted by the Council in 2006. Unsurprisingly, this document placed the LHC at the top of Europe particle physics’ scientific priorities, with a significant luminosity upgrade already being mooted. A ramp-up of R&D into future accelerators also featured high on the priority list, followed by coordination with a potential International Linear Collider, and participation in a global neutrino programme.

    ILC schematic, being planned for the Kitakami highland, in the Iwate prefecture of northern Japan

    The original Strategy also foresaw increased collaboration with neighbouring fields such as astroparticle and nuclear physics, and it recognised the importance of complementary issues such as communications and technology transfer.

    The original European Strategy prescribed regular updates to take into account the evolution of the field. The first of these was prepared in 2012 and adopted in 2013. By this time, the LHC had proved its capacity with the discovery of the long-sought Higgs boson, evidence for the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism through which fundamental particles acquire their mass.

    CERN CMS Higgs Event


    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event

    Again, it came as no surprise that the LHC topped the list of scientific priorities for European particle physics, with the high-luminosity upgrade increasing in importance, and preparations for the post-LHC future taking shape. “Europe”, said the Strategy document, “needs to be in a position to propose an ambitious post-LHC accelerator project at CERN by the time of the next Strategy update.”

    Post LHC map

    The remainder of the updated recommendations represented logical and evidence-based evolutions of those contained in the initial European Strategy. All have been, or are in the process of being, implemented.

    As the second update of the European Strategy gets underway, the stakes are high. Europe, in collaboration with partners from around the world, is engaged in R&D projects for a range of ambitious post-LHC facilities under the CLIC and FCC umbrellas.


    CERN/CLIC

    It is time to check progress on these, matching their expected performance to physics needs. The discussions will be based on scientific evidence gleaned from the impressive results coming in from the LHC, as well as from technological and resourcing considerations.

    In other areas of particle physics, much has changed since the last strategy update. Europe, through CERN, is now contributing fully to a globally-coordinated neutrino programme with experiments to be carried out in the USA and Japan. The International Linear Collider, which would be complementary to the LHC, remains on the table with a site having been identified in Japan and a decision on whether to go forward expected soon. There are ambitious plans to build a large collider in China. And at CERN, a study to investigate the potential for physics beyond colliders, maximising the potential for CERN’s unique accelerator complex, was launched in 2016. All of these factors will feed into the deliberations soon to get underway to update the European Strategy for Particle Physics.

    The current update of the European Strategy was initiated by the CERN Council in December 2016 to be carried out between 2018 and 2020, a date deemed optimal for the major decisions that need to be taken for the future of particle physics in Europe. A call for input was made in March 2018, with dates being fixed for the key information gathering and drafting stages in August 2018.

    Strategic planning in European particle physics is an open, inclusive and evidence-driven process. Follow the current strategy update as it evolves, and join us on the unfolding adventure of research at the frontier of knowledge.

    See the full article here.


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings
    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS
    CERN ATLAS New

    ALICE
    CERN ALICE New

    CMS
    CERN CMS New

    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC particles

    OTHER PROJECTS AT CERN

    CERN AEGIS

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN ALPHA

    CERN AMS

    CERN ACACUSA

    CERN ASACUSA

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN ATRAP

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN AWAKE

    CERN CAST

    CERN CAST Axion Solar Telescope

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN CLOUD

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN COMPASS

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN DIRAC

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN ISOLDE

    CERN LHCf

    CERN LHCf

    CERN NA62

    CERN NA62

    CERN NTOF

    CERN TOTEM

    CERN UA9

    CERN Proto Dune

    CERN Proto Dune

     
  • richardmitnick 4:03 pm on October 9, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Accelerator Science, , , , , , ,   

    From Symmetry: “Progress in plasma wakefield acceleration for positrons” 

    Symmetry Mag
    From Symmetry

    1
    SLAC FACET-II upgrading its Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) – a test bed for new technologies that could revolutionize the way we build particle accelerators

    2
    Researchers will use FACET-II to develop the plasma wakefield acceleration method, in which researchers send a bunch of very energetic particles through a hot ionized gas, or plasma, creating a plasma wake for a trailing bunch to “surf” on and gain energy. Credit: Greg Stewart/SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. phys.org

    3
    FACET-II will produce beams of highly energetic electrons like its predecessor FACET, but with much better quality.SLAC

    4
    Researchers will use FACET-II for crucial developments before plasma accelerators can become a reality. SLAC

    5
    Future particle colliders will require highly efficient acceleration methods for both electrons and positrons. Plasma wakefield acceleration of both particle types, as shown in this simulation, could lead to smaller and more powerful colliders than today’s machines. Credit: F. Tsung/W. An/UCLA; Greg Stewart/SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. phys.org

    10/09/18
    Angela Anderson

    Three new studies show the promise and challenge of using plasma wakefield acceleration to build a future electron-positron collider.

    Matter is known to exist in four different states: solid, liquid, gas or—under circumstances such as very high temperatures—plasma. A plasma is an ionized gas, a gas with enough energy that some of its atoms have lost their electrons, and those negatively charged electrons are floating along with the now positively charged nuclei they left behind.

    If you send two bunches of particles speeding through plasma about a hair’s width apart, the first creates a wake that feeds the second with energy. That’s the basic idea behind a powerful technology under development called plasma wakefield acceleration, which promises to make future particle colliders more compact and affordable.

    Three recent studies have advanced accelerator physicists’ efforts to design a powerful future matter-antimatter collider using plasma wakefield technology.

    The current most powerful particle accelerator in the world is the Large Hadron Collider, which measures about 17 miles in circumference and cost more than $4 billion to construct. To get higher-energy particle collisions that could further our understanding of nature’s fundamental building blocks, accelerators conventionally must increase in size and cost.

    But plasma wakefield acceleration, also known as PWFA, could buck that trend. The technology has already been shown to significantly increase the energy gained by accelerated particles over shorter distances.

    “With plasma wakefield acceleration, we are trying to do something analogous to making better computer chips—the phones in our pockets can now do the same thing that football fields of computers did before,” explains PWFA researcher Carl Lindstrøm from the University of Oslo.

    A plasma wakefield accelerator could accomplish in just a few meters what it takes the copper linear accelerator at the US Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory 2 miles to do.

    “Of all known particle accelerator mechanisms, plasmas provide the most energy gained over a set distance—what’s known as accelerating gradient,” says Spencer Gessner, an accelerator physicist at CERN and formerly SLAC. “We’ve already demonstrated gradients that are almost 10,000 times larger than the conventional radio frequency cavities used in SLAC’s current linear accelerator.”

    If successful, PWFA could dramatically increase the energy of a future linear collider in the same footprint, or make it possible to build a smaller collider. “It’s unlikely that you would build tons of these machines, because they consume a lot of power,” Gessner explains. “But if even one existed, it would be a big improvement over where we are today.”

    The problem with positrons

    The cleanest collisions for particle physics research are produced by smashing together electrons and positrons. That’s because both electrons and positrons are fundamental particles; they cannot be broken down into smaller parts. And it’s because electrons and positrons are a matter-antimatter pair; when they collide, they annihilate one another and convert neatly into new particles and energy, leaving no leftover particle mess behind.

    Electron-positron colliders of the past produced numerous insights in particle physics, including Nobel Prize-winning discoveries of quarks, the tau lepton and the J/psi meson (co-discovered with scientists using a proton accelerator). These collisions are also preferred in the design of next-generation discovery machines, including plasma wakefield accelerators.

    The problem is with positrons.

    Whereas electrons can be accelerated as a tightly focused particle bunch in the plasma wake, positron bunches tend to lose their compact shape and focus in the plasma environment. PWFA scientists refer to this difference as asymmetry, and the latest research explores strategies for overcoming it.

    “For electrons, plasma wakefield acceleration achieves the two things we need from it to build the machines we would like to build: They accelerate quickly and maintain their quality,” Lindstrøm says. “It’s just unlucky, really, that the same is not true for positrons, and that is the huge challenge we are facing.”

    Wave vs. tsunami

    A conventional accelerator accelerates particles using radio-frequency cavities. RF cavities often look like series of beads on a straight line of string. Electromagnetic waves build up inside RF cavities so that they continuously flip from positive to negative and back again. Scientists send charged particles through the RF cavities, where they receive a series of pushes and pulls from the electromagnetic wave, gaining speed and energy along the way.

    The accelerating wave in a conventional accelerator varies in a regular and predictable way, making it simple to place electrons or positrons in the right location to get a boost.

    Plasma, on the other hand, creates what scientists refer to as a “non-linear” environment: one that is difficult to predict mathematically because there is no uniform variation.

    “When you send a very strong beam into plasma, it’s going to cause something like a tsunami, making all your equations invalid,” Gessner explains. “It’s no longer simply perturbing the ocean, it’s completely remaking it.”

    This non-linear plasma environment offers high acceleration gradients and focusing for electrons, but the effect on positrons is more perilous: While experiments have demonstrated acceleration of positrons in plasma, the quality of the beam cannot hold.

    According to Gessner, there are two ways to approach the asymmetry challenge: “We can either embrace the asymmetry and see where it takes us—although this turns out to be very complicated. Or we can try to create symmetry, for example, by creating a hollow channel inside the plasma where focusing is no longer an issue.”

    Learning from the roadblocks

    During the past several years, scientists working at SLAC’s Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests, or FACET, have done a series of studies on positron acceleration in plasma. In 2015, a team comprised of SLAC and UCLA researchers accelerated antimatter in a plasma wake using only one bunch of positrons [Nature Scientific Reports]. The tail of that bunch was fed by the wake created by the head.

    Single-bunch positron acceleration could potentially be put to use in a plasma-based “afterburner” for existing or future RF accelerators. One plasma accelerator structure could be added onto the end of a linear accelerator to boost energy without having to make it much longer.

    However, a complete PWFA accelerator would need to be built with many consecutive accelerator structures that require a separate trailing positron bunch.

    SLAC’s Mark Hogan, who has been studying PWFA for more than two decades, explains: “With a single bunch you are losing in one half and gaining in the other. By the time you get through multiple plasma cells, there won’t be any particles left because you are always dividing the bunch in half. You’d have to start with an enormous number of particles.”

    In October 2017, the researchers started investigating techniques that might work for multiple plasma cells and were able to accelerate a distinct bunch of positrons using PWFA.

    “We used a strong, dense positron beam to accelerate a separate bunch of trailing positrons for the first time,” says first author of the paper in Nature Scientific Reports, Antoine Doche of Paris-Saclay University. “This was one important and necessary step for future colliders.”

    In the same study the scientists showed they could accelerate positrons in a “quasilinear” wave, demonstrating that the driving bunch does not necessarily need to be positrons: Electrons or a laser driver could create a similar wake for the trailing positrons.

    The study opens promising paths to explore the first approach, embracing the problem with positrons, though technical challenges persist.

    “Colliders require particle beams with very specific properties,” Doche explains, “High charge, meaning a lot of particles in each bunch, and a small bunch size. When a positron beam drives a plasma wave, the wave evolves toward a nonlinear regime, all the more quickly as the charge of the bunch increases. One solution might be to more fully understand these positron-driven nonlinear waves.”

    Rolling off a hill

    In 2016, the research team eliminated the asymmetry issue by creating a narrow tube of plasma with neutral gas inside where the positrons stayed tightly focused as they flew through. That same research showed that the positron beam created an energetic wake that could accelerate a trailing bunch of positrons, and in the latest experiments the team achieved this two-bunch acceleration in what they call the “hollow channel.”

    While the hollow channel approach avoids the problem of asymmetry, it brings its own obstacles.

    “If the beam is not perfectly aligned in the tube, it will start to drift to the side that it is offset,” Lindstrøm says. “It’s like putting a ball on a hilltop—if it’s slightly to one side, it will roll off to that side. It’s an effect that we call the transverse wakefield, and it is something that has been seen in past accelerators as a weak effect. But here, because we have a very, very narrow plasma tube, the effect grows really fast. Our latest research [Physical Review Letters] measured and verified that the effect is very strong.”

    When the positrons are deflected away from the axis through this effect, the beam is lost.

    “The most recent studies verify where we currently stand, with this large challenge in front of us,” Lindstrøm says. “But in the process of getting there, we learned a lot about how this technology works.”

    Gessner concurs, “We study the problem, we see how well we can make it work, and we identify the most challenging roadblocks. And then we go back to the drawing board.”

    Encouraging signals

    Despite the challenges, international momentum to achieve high-energy accelerators based on plasma is growing.

    In research roadmaps, both the DOE and the International Committee for Future Accelerators have included positron acceleration in plasma as a goal for the next decade. Gessner and Sebastien Corde, a Paris-Saclay University PWFA researcher, are heading up a working group on positron acceleration in plasma that is tasked with making recommendations for the European Strategy for Particle Physics.

    Since the earliest experiments, SLAC has been the only laboratory in the world with the infrastructure needed to provide positron beams for PWFA research. FACET operated from 2011 to 2016 as a DOE Office of Science user facility. And the DOE recently gave the green light to its upgrade, FACET-II, which is set to come online for experiments in 2020.

    While FACET-II will initially operate with electrons only, its design allows for adding capability to produce and accelerate positrons in the future.

    “We’re at a point where people are taking this knowledge that we’ve amassed in this field and figuring out what to do next. Can we take one of these approaches, like the hollow channel, and make it more forgiving?” Hogan says. “There are a lot of things for people to look at and study going forward.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 12:05 pm on October 3, 2018 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Accelerator Science, , , , Leon Lederman Nobel laureate former laboratory director and passionate advocate of science education dies at age 96, Nobel laureate, , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Leon Lederman, Nobel laureate, former laboratory director and passionate advocate of science education, dies at age 96” 

    FNAL II photo

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    October 3, 2018

    Leon Lederman from Kane County Connects

    Leon Lederman, a trail-blazing researcher with a passion for science education who served as Fermilab’s director from 1978 to 1989 and won the Nobel Prize for discovery of the muon neutrino, died peacefully on Oct. 3 at a nursing home in Rexburg, Idaho. He was 96.

    He is survived by his wife of 37 years, Ellen, and three children, Rena, Jesse and Rachel, from his first wife, Florence Gordon.

    With a career that spanned more than 60 years, Lederman became one of the most important figures in the history of particle physics. He was responsible for several breakthrough discoveries, uncovering new particles that elevated our understanding of the fundamental universe. But perhaps his most critical achievements were his influence on the field and his efforts to improve science education.

    “Leon Lederman provided the scientific vision that allowed Fermilab to remain on the cutting edge of technology for more than 40 years,” said Nigel Lockyer, the laboratory’s current director. “Leon’s leadership helped to shape the field of particle physics, designing, building and operating the Tevatron and positioning the laboratory to become a world leader in accelerator and neutrino science. Today, we continue to develop and build the next generation of particle accelerators and detectors and help to advance physics globally. Leon had an immeasurable impact on the evolution of our laboratory and our commitment to future generations of scientists, and his legacy will live on in our daily work and our outreach efforts.”

    Through Lederman’s early award-winning work, he rose to prominence as a researcher and began to influence science policy. In the early 1960s, he proposed the idea for the National Accelerator Laboratory, which eventually became Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). He worked with laboratory founder Robert R. Wilson to establish a community of users, credentialed individuals from around the world who could use the facilities and join experimental collaborations.

    According to Fermilab scientist Alvin Tollestrup, who worked with Lederman for more than 40 years, Lederman’s success was in part due to his ability to bring people together and get them to work cohesively.

    “One of his greatest skills was getting good people to work with him,” Tollestrup said. “He wasn’t selfish about his ideas. What he accomplished came about from his ability to put together a great team.”

    Lederman began his tenure as Fermilab director in 1978, at a time when both the laboratory staff and the greater particle physics community were deeply divided. As a charismatic leader and a respected researcher, Lederman unified the Fermilab staff and rallied the U.S. particle physics community around the idea of building a proton-antiproton collider. Originally called the energy doubler, the particle accelerator eventually became the Tevatron, the world’s highest-energy particle collider from 1983 until 2010.

    “Leon gave U.S. and world physicists a step up, a unique facility, a very high-energy collider, and his successors keep working for these things,” said Director Emeritus John Peoples, who worked with Lederman for more than 40 years and served as Lederman’s deputy director from 1988 to 1989. “Leon made that happen. He set things in motion.”

    In order to begin plans for a high-energy proton-antiproton collider, Lederman convinced the greater physics community, the Department of Energy, president Reagan’s science advisor and Congress.

    “Leon had the ability to lead. He was unifying and convincing,” Peoples said. “He had the ability to listen to people carefully and could synthesize things well. He was very persuasive. In some sense, I was manipulated at every level.”

    Lederman’s ability to convince others stemmed in part from his charm and his sense of humor, Peoples said.

    “He seemed to have an enormous storehouse of jokes,” Peoples said. “He had a lighthearted personality, he could have been a stand-up comic at times.”

    4
    Leon Lederman celebrates his birthday with children from the Fermilab daycare center.

    Lederman was born on July 15, 1922, to Russian-Jewish immigrant parents in New York City. His father, who operated a hand laundry, revered learning. Lederman graduated from the City College of New York with a degree in chemistry in 1943, although by that point, he had become friends with a group of physicists and became interested in the topic. He served three years with the United States Army in World War II and then returned to Columbia University in New York to pursue his Ph.D. in particle physics, which he received in 1951. During graduate school, Lederman joined the Columbia physics department in constructing a 385-MeV synchrotron at Nevis Lab at Irvington-on-the Hudson, New York. He remained as part of that collaboration for 28 years and eventually serving as director of Nevis labs from 1961 to 1978.

    In 1956, while working as part of a Columbia team at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lederman discovered the long-lived neutral K meson. In 1962, Lederman, along with colleagues Jack Steinberger and Melvin Schwartz, produced a beam of neutrinos using a high-energy accelerator. They discovered that sometimes, instead of producing an electron, a muon is produced, showing the existence of a new type of neutrino, the muon neutrino. That discovery eventually earned them the 1988 Nobel Prize in physics.

    5
    Leon M. Lederman Nobel laureate, Director of FNAL after R.R. Wilson stands outside Wilson Hall at Fermilab on the day he learned he was awarded the 1988 Nobel Prize.

    The advancement of particle accelerators continued to spur discoveries. At Brookhaven in 1965, Lederman and his team found the first antinucleus in the form of antideuteron — an antiproton and an antineutron. In 1977, at Fermilab, Lederman led the team that discovered the bottom quark, at the time the first of a suspected new family of heavy particles.

    “All of those experiments were important because they set the stage for learning that we have at least two generations of leptons and something else,” Tollestrup said.”

    Lederman served as director of Fermilab from 1978 to 1989. During his tenure as laboratory director, Lederman had a significant impact on laboratory culture. He was responsible for establishing new amenities that set Fermilab apart from other labs, such as the first daycare facility at a Department of Energy national laboratory and an art gallery that continues to host rotating exhibits.

    He also had significant impact on the next generation of scientists. It was during his years at Columbia, an institution that required students to teach, that Lederman developed a passion for science education and outreach, which became a theme throughout his career. Between 1951 and 1978 he mentored 50 Ph.D. students. He liked to joke about their success, saying that not a single one was in jail.

    As director of Fermilab, Lederman established the ongoing Saturday Morning Physics program, which has attracted students from around the Chicago areas for decades to learn more about particle physics from experts, originally from Lederman, and then a long list of leading scientists. The program has inspired generations of high school students.

    6
    Leon Lederman in 1982

    Recognizing the need for more focused education in science and math, Lederman focused on creating learning spaces and opportunities for students. In the early 1980s, Lederman worked with members of the Illinois state government to start the Illinois Math and Science Academy, which was founded in 1985, and worked with officials to try to adjust the science curriculum in Chicago’s public schools so that students learned physics first, forming the foundation for their future scientific education. He founded and was chairman of the Teachers Academy for Mathematics and Science and was active in the professional development of primary school teachers in Chicago. He also helped to found the nonprofit Fermilab Friends for Science Education, a national leading organization in precollege science education.

    In later years, Lederman continued his outreach efforts, often in memorable ways. In 2008, he set up shop on the corner of 34th Street and 8th Avenue in New York City and answered science questions from passersby.

    During his career, Lederman received some of the highest national and international awards and honors given to scientists. These include the 1965 National Medal of Science, the 1972 Elliot Creeson Medal from the Franklin Institute, the Wolf Prize in 1982 and the Nobel Prize in 1988. He received the Enrico Fermi Award in 1992 for his career contributions to science, technology and medicine related to nuclear energy and the science and technology of energy, and was given the Vannevar Bush Award in 2012 for exceptional lifelong leaders in science and technology.

    In addition to his appointments at Columbia, Nevis and Fermilab, Lederman also served as the Pritzker professor of science at Illinois Institute of Technology and chairman of the State of Illinois Governor’s Science Advisory Committee. He also served on the Board of the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry, the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board and others.

    When Lederman stepped down as Fermilab’s director in 1989 and Peoples took the role, Lederman shared some sage advice. A desk nameplate, which sits on Peoples’s desk more than 25 years later, reads “I’m listening.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.


    FNAL/MINERvA

    FNAL DAMIC

    FNAL Muon g-2 studio

    FNAL Short-Baseline Near Detector under construction

    FNAL Mu2e solenoid

    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL

    FNAL DUNE Argon tank at SURF

    FNAL/MicrobooNE

    FNAL Don Lincoln

    FNAL/MINOS

    FNAL Cryomodule Testing Facility

    FNAL Minos Far Detector

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    FNAL/NOvA experiment map

    FNAL NOvA Near Detector

    FNAL ICARUS

    FNAL Holometer

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel