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  • richardmitnick 7:49 am on July 3, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Europeans Decide on Particle Strategy", Accelerator Science, , , , , , , ,   

    From “Physics”: “Europeans Decide on Particle Strategy” 

    About Physics

    From “Physics”

    July 2, 2020
    Michael Schirber

    The CERN Council approved a strategy update that prioritizes a 100-km circular collider, while still developing other options for future particle physics projects.

    1
    A map depicting where the 100-km-long Future Circular Collider could be built in relation to CERN’s existing accelerator infrastructure.

    European particle physicists have updated their strategy for the coming decades. Beyond current commitments, the community advocates pursuing a new facility at the CERN site outside Geneva—a circular collider with a circumference of 100 kilometers. Such a machine could serve a dual purpose: to act initially as a “Higgs factory” where electrons and positrons smash together at energies up to 350 GeV, and to later scope out the high-energy frontier by colliding protons at up to 100-TeV energies. The feasibility of this so-called Future Circular Collider (FCC) is still an open question, which is why the strategy also calls for continued research and development into accelerator technology, such as plasma acceleration and muon colliders.

    Following a two-year-long process, the European Strategy for Particle Physics Update was unanimously endorsed on June 19 by the CERN Council, which is the governing body of the CERN facility. The Update outlines a number of current and future priorities. In the near-term, the main initiatives for Europe are the high-luminosity upgrade of CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and continuing support of international neutrino experiments, such as the forthcoming Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) in the US.

    FNAL LBNF/DUNE from FNAL to SURF, Lead, South Dakota, USA

    But beyond that, many questions remain. “CERN needs to have a project for after the LHC,” says Halina Abramowicz, chair of the European Strategy Group, from Tel Aviv University in Israel.

    The main objective of any post-LHC endeavor will be to look for new particles or phenomena that go beyond the standard model of particle physics.

    Standard Model of Particle Physics, Quantum Diaries

    Physicists are still in the dark as to what this “new physics” will be, so the best way forward is to study the Higgs boson with greater precision, Abramowicz says. The Higgs is unique in that it should interact with all particles, even ones that physicists haven’t detected yet. “The Higgs does not differentiate: if there is something out there, it will couple to it,” Abramowicz explains.

    CERN CMS Higgs Event May 27, 2012

    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event June 12, 2012

    Precision measurements of Higgs physics can be done with an electron-positron collider, but the exact design of such a Higgs factory is still undecided. The International Linear Collider (ILC) is one option, but the proposed host, Japan, has not yet committed to the project.


    ILC schematic, being planned for the Kitakami highland, in the Iwate prefecture of northern Japan

    Researchers at CERN have been developing the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), which could potentially smash electrons and positrons at energies as high as 3 TeV.

    CERN CLIC collider


    CERN CLIC Collider annotated

    However, uncertainty about the energy where new physics might appear led the Strategy Group to decide on the FCC concept as the best option to pursue. The large ring-shaped tunnel could accommodate a Higgs factory and then later shift to colliding protons at energies 7 times greater than those of the LHC.

    But pursuing the FCC won’t be straightforward. “The FCC would be the machine that physicists most want,” says Ursula Bassler, the president of the CERN Council. “However, we do not know if it’s technically and financially feasible.” Preliminary estimates suggest that such a collider would cost around 20 billion dollars, so involvement by countries outside of Europe will likely be necessary. “The scope and the science and technology challenges of such a Higgs factory would require a long-term global collaboration of the kind that the US is currently engaged in with the LHC and DUNE,” says Fermilab’s Marcela Carena, who was the US representative for the strategy’s Physics Preparatory Group.

    One possible wrinkle is that Chinese physicists have proposed the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC), whose design is similar in size and scope to that of the FCC.

    China Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) map. It would be housed in a hundred-kilometer- (62-mile-) round tunnel at one of three potential sites. The documents work under the assumption that the collider will be located near Qinhuangdao City around 200 miles east of Beijing.

    “I think there is a competition between China and Europe,” Bassler says. “However, there’s also a lot of collaboration going on.” As long as neither side has committed to a project, she thinks it can help spur innovation to have different groups working on the same research track.

    Abramowicz stresses that the FCC is not the final word. By continuing research and development into accelerator technology, she believes particle physicists can remain flexible in the face of new developments in the scientific and political worlds. “From the input we received, it’s clear that particle physicists are very excited about the FCC, but they do realize that it’s not a given. So they want to make sure that we have alternatives.”

    Bassler is happy the process is complete. “In the beginning, every time I met a physicist at CERN cafeteria, I heard a different strategy.” She feels the community has now converged on a common roadmap, in which the first step will be a thorough feasibility study of the FCC concept. At the same time, US particle physicists will be working on “Snowmass”—a community exercise led by the American Physical Society, which aims to draw up a particle physics vision for 2021. “The timing of the European Strategy Update fits well with the launch of the Snowmass process,” Carena says.

    See the full article here .

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    Physicists are drowning in a flood of research papers in their own fields and coping with an even larger deluge in other areas of physics. How can an active researcher stay informed about the most important developments in physics? Physics highlights a selection of papers from the Physical Review journals. In consultation with expert scientists, the editors choose these papers for their importance and/or intrinsic interest. To highlight these papers, Physics features three kinds of articles: Viewpoints are commentaries written by active researchers, who are asked to explain the results to physicists in other subfields. Focus stories are written by professional science writers in a journalistic style and are intended to be accessible to students and non-experts. Synopses are brief editor-written summaries. Physics provides a much-needed guide to the best in physics, and we welcome your comments (physics@aps.org).

     
  • richardmitnick 8:31 am on July 1, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "LHCb discovers a new type of tetraquark at CERN", Accelerator Science, , , , , ,   

    From CERN LHCb: “LHCb discovers a new type of tetraquark at CERN” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event


    From CERN LHCb

    1 July, 2020

    1
    Illustration of a tetraquark composed of two charm quarks and two charm antiquarks, detected for the first time by the LHCb collaboration at CERN. (Image: CERN)

    The LHCb collaboration has observed a type of four-quark particle never seen before. The discovery, presented at a recent seminar at CERN and described in a paper posted today on the arXiv preprint server, “Observation of structure in the J/ψ-pair mass spectrum“, is likely to be the first of a previously undiscovered class of particles.

    The finding will help physicists better understand the complex ways in which quarks bind themselves together into composite particles such as the ubiquitous protons and neutrons that are found inside atomic nuclei.

    Quarks typically combine together in groups of twos and threes to form particles called hadrons. For decades, however, theorists have predicted the existence of four-quark and five-quark hadrons, which are sometimes described as tetraquarks and pentaquarks, and in recent years experiments including the LHCb have confirmed the existence of several of these exotic hadrons. These particles made of unusual combinations of quarks are an ideal “laboratory” for studying one of the four known fundamental forces of nature, the strong interaction that binds protons, neutrons and the atomic nuclei that make up matter. Detailed knowledge of the strong interaction is also essential for determining whether new, unexpected processes are a sign of new physics or just standard physics.

    “Particles made up of four quarks are already exotic, and the one we have just discovered is the first to be made up of four heavy quarks of the same type, specifically two charm quarks and two charm antiquarks,” says the outgoing spokesperson of the LHCb collaboration, Giovanni Passaleva. “Up until now, the LHCb and other experiments had only observed tetraquarks with two heavy quarks at most and none with more than two quarks of the same type.”

    “These exotic heavy particles provide extreme and yet theoretically fairly simple cases with which to test models that can then be used to explain the nature of ordinary matter particles, like protons or neutrons. It is therefore very exciting to see them appear in collisions at the LHC for the first time,” explains the incoming LHCb spokesperson, Chris Parkes.

    The LHCb team found the new tetraquark using the particle-hunting technique of looking for an excess of collision events, known as a “bump”, over a smooth background of events. Sifting through the full LHCb datasets from the first and second runs of the Large Hadron Collider, which took place from 2009 to 2013 and from 2015 to 2018 respectively, the researchers detected a bump in the mass distribution of a pair of J/ψ particles, which consist of a charm quark and a charm antiquark. The bump has a statistical significance of more than five standard deviations, the usual threshold for claiming the discovery of a new particle, and it corresponds to a mass at which particles composed of four charm quarks are predicted to exist.

    As with previous tetraquark discoveries, it is not completely clear whether the new particle is a “true tetraquark”, that is, a system of four quarks tightly bound together, or a pair of two-quark particles weakly bound in a molecule-like structure. Either way, the new tetraquark will help theorists test models of quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong interaction.

    2
    This is the first observation of this unusual combination of heavy quarks. Indeed all the exotic hadrons observed so far have at most two heavy quarks and none of them is made of more than two quarks of the same type.

    See the full article here .

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    LHCb
    CERN LHCb New II

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Quantum Diaries
    QuantumDiaries

    Cern Courier

     
  • richardmitnick 2:51 pm on June 26, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New Research Deepens Mystery of Particle Generation in Proton Collisions", Accelerator Science, , , , , , , RHICf   

    From Brookhaven National Lab: “New Research Deepens Mystery of Particle Generation in Proton Collisions” 

    From Brookhaven National Lab

    June 23, 2020

    Karen McNulty Walsh
    kmcnulty@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-8350

    Peter Genzer
    genzer@bnl.gov
    (631) 344-3174

    ____________________________________
    The following news release was issued by the RHICf collaboration. The RHICf experiment is installed in the “forward” direction (along the beamline) in the same particle interaction region as the STAR detector [below] at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) [below], a DOE Office of Science user facility for nuclear physics research at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The RHICf experiment collected data from RHIC’s polarized proton collisions to explore further details of asymmetries observed in collisions at RHIC—particularly a preference for certain particles to emerge from these spin-polarized collisions in a particular direction. This new result adds to the puzzling story of what causes this “transverse spin asymmetry”—an open question for physicists since the 1970s. These and other results from RHIC’s polarized proton collisions will eventually contribute to solving this question. For more information about research at RHIC, contact Karen McNulty Walsh, (631) 344-8350, kmcnulty@bnl.gov.
    ____________________________________

    1
    The RHICf experiment is installed in the “forward” direction (along the beamline) in the same particle interaction region as the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a DOE Office of Science user facility for nuclear physics research at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

    A group of researchers including scientists from the RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, University of Tokyo, Nagoya University, and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) used the spin-polarized Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) [below]—a DOE Office of Science user facility for nuclear physics research at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the United States—to show that, in polarized proton-proton collisions, neutral pions emitted in the very forward area of collisions—where direct interactions involving quarks and gluons are not applicable—still have a large degree of left-right asymmetry. This finding suggests that the previous consensus regarding the generation of particles in such collisions needs to be reevaluated.

    Understanding the mechanism through which particles are created in collisions involving protons has relevance for understanding cosmic ray showers, where particles entering Earth’s atmosphere from outer space create particle “showers” that help us learn about astronomical phenomena that take place in the extreme environment of the universe. However, it is very difficult to study the details of how particles are created, as the force that binds protons in the nucleus and that bind quarks and gluons into protons—the strong interaction or nuclear force—is very strong compared to other forces such as the electromagnetic force and gravity. One avenue for exploring these challenging questions has involved an attribute of protons called “spin,” which can be understood by analogy to the way a toy top rotates on its axis. The spin of protons can be artificially aligned in a process that is called “polarization.”

    In the 1970s, accelerator experiments at Argonne National Laboratory in the United States revealed that the pions generated toward the front of collisions involving polarized protons had large left-right asymmetry. The energy of the polarized protons used in these experiments was about 10 billion electron volts (GeV). Experiments at higher energies—including one at 200 GeV using the polarized proton beam at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in the United States and at RHIC at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the United States, where two beams of 100 GeV protons moving in opposite directions were collided—showed that the left-right asymmetry persisted even with high-energy polarized protons. A consensus emerged that this asymmetry was caused by direct interactions among the quarks and gluons in the protons, based on a theory called perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD).

    1
    Understanding the mechanism through which particles are created in collisions involving protons like those at RHIC has relevance for understanding cosmic ray showers created by particles entering Earth’s atmosphere. (Image credit: Simon Swordy (U. Chicago), NASA)

    However, with additional experiments at RHIC, findings began to emerge that challenged the consensus. According to Yuji Goto, one of the authors of the current work, “At the energy of RHIC, quarks and gluons are scattered, and various particles are generated in the form of a jet. When the left-right asymmetry of the jet generated forward of the collision position at RHIC was examined, it was found that, contrary to expectations, the overall jet and the pions contained in the jet did not show a left-right asymmetry. This suggested that the cause of the left-right asymmetry was not the direct scattering of quarks and gluons.”

    In order to further investigate, the researchers conducted experiments, published in Physical Review Letters, where they used an electromagnetic calorimeter detector previously used in the Large Hadron Collider at CERN—known as the LHCf experiment there and the RHICf experiment at RHIC—to take a detailed look at the gamma rays generated by pion decays at the very forward region of the collision. They found, however, that the left-right asymmetry in neutral pions persists even in that very narrow area.

    CERN LHCf

    BNL RHICf detector

    More information on the RHICf experiment is available at http://crportal.isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp/RHICf/.

    See the full article here .


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    BNL Campus

    Brookhaven campus

    BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    BNL NSLS-II


    BNL NSLS II

    BNL RHIC Campus

    BNL/RHIC Star Detector

    BNL Phenix Detector

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:57 am on June 26, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Accelerator Science, , , , , ,   

    From KEK Inter-University Research Institute Corporation: “SuperKEKB collider achieves the world’s highest luminosity” 

    From KEK Inter-University Research Institute Corporation

    2020/06/26

    1
    Fig. 1 The instantaneous luminosity of SuperKEKB measured at 5-minute intervals from Fall 2019 to June 22, 2020. Values are on-line measurements and contain an approximate 1% error.

    Japan’s High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) has been steadily improving the performance of its flagship electron-positron collider, SuperKEKB, since it produced its first electron-positron collisions in April 2018.

    The SuperKEKB electron-positron collider in Tsukuba, Japan

    At 20:34 on 15th June 2020, SuperKEKB achieved the world’s highest instantaneous luminosity for a colliding-beam accelerator, setting a record of 2.22×1034cm-2s-1. Previously, the KEKB collider, which was SuperKEKB’s predecessor and was operated by KEK from 1999 to 2010, had achieved the world’s highest luminosity, reaching 2.11×1034cm-2s-1. KEKB’s record was surpassed in 2018, when the LHC proton-proton collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) overtook the KEKB luminosity at 2.14×1034cm-2s-1. SuperKEKB’s recent achievement returns the title of world’s highest luminosity colliding-beam accelerator to KEK.(*)

    (*)The current record is 2.40×1034cm-2s-1, obtained at 00:53 JST on June 21st.

    In the coming years, the luminosity of SuperKEKB will be increased to approximately 40 times the new record. This exceptionally high luminosity is to be achieved mainly by using a beam collision method called the “nano-beam scheme”, developed by Italian physicist Pantaleo Raimondi. Raimondi’s innovation enables significant increases in luminosity by using powerful magnets to squeeze the two beams in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Substantially decreasing the beam sizes increases the luminosity, which varies inversely with the cross-sectional area of the colliding beams.

    SuperKEKB is the first collider in the world to realize the nano-beam scheme. In the beam operation of SuperKEKB, we keep increasing the luminosity by squeezing the beams ever harder, while solving various problems associated with the squeezing. Currently, the vertical height of the beams at the collision point is about 220 nanometers, and this will decrease to approximately 50 nanometers (about 1/1000 the width of a human hair) in the future.

    Another factor that determines luminosity is the product of the two beam currents, which is proportional to the product of the numbers of electrons and positrons stored in the collider. KEK physicists and accelerator operators continue to increase the beam currents, while mitigating various high-current problems, such as stray background particles that introduce noise in the Belle II detector. SuperKEKB achieved the new luminosity record with a product of beam currents that was less than 25% that of KEKB. This demonstrates the superiority of the SuperKEKB design. In the future, we aim to increase the beam current product to about four times the value achieved by KEKB.

    In order to adopt the nano-beam scheme and increase the beam current, KEKB underwent significant upgrades that turned it into SuperKEKB. These included a new beam pipe, new superconducting final-focusing magnets, a positron damping ring, and an advanced injector. The most recent improvement was completed in April 2020, with the introduction of the “crab waist”, first used at the DAΦNE accelerator in Frascati, Italy, in 2010, and which reduces the beam size and stabilizes collisions.

    The success of SuperKEKB relies also on contributions from overseas. As an example, the superconducting final-focusing magnets were built in cooperation with Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in the U.S. under the U.S.-Japan Science and Technology Cooperation Program. Other major contributions under this program were the development of a collision-point orbit feedback system (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory) and an X-ray beam size monitor (University of Hawaii and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory). Researchers from CERN (Switzerland), IJCLab (France), IHEP (China)as well as SLAC(U.S.) have participated in accelerator research and operation under KEK’s Multinational Partnership Project (MNPP-01).There are also contributions from many other foreign research institutes. Other important contributions have come through the Belle II experiment collaboration, such as the diamond-based radiation monitor and beam abort system (INFN and University of Trieste, Italy), and the luminosity monitoring system developed at BINP (Russia).

    SuperKEKB brings its electron and positron beams into collision at the center of the Belle II particle detector. The detector has been built and is operated by the Belle II collaboration, an international group of approximately 1,000 physicists and engineers from 119 universities and laboratories located in 26 countries and regions around the world. Belle II physicists use the detector to explore fundamental physics phenomena, by studying the production and decay processes of particles produced in the collisions, primarily B mesons, D mesons, and tau leptons. To within the precision of current measurements, the behavior of particles such as these is well described by the theory known as the Standard Model. However, the Standard Model fails to address key questions, such as the mystery of the matter-dominated universe and the existence of dark matter. Therefore, new physical laws are needed to explain these observations. Signals of such “new physics” may arise in decay processes that are very rarely observed. Maximizing the discovery potential of Belle II for such signals requires a large number of electron-positron collisions, necessitating a very high-luminosity collider, such as SuperKEKB.

    Collecting data for about 10 years, the Belle II experiment will accumulate 50 times more particle collisions than its predecessor, the Belle experiment. The large data set, containing about 50 billion B-meson pairs and similar numbers of charm mesons and tau leptons, will enable Belle II physicists to explore nature at a much deeper level than was previously possible. The data will also be used in sensitive searches for very weakly interacting particles that may help answer some of the outstanding mysteries of the universe.

    See the full article here .

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    KEK-Accelerator Laboratory

    KEK, the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, is one of the world’s leading accelerator science research laboratories, using high-energy particle beams and synchrotron light sources to probe the fundamental properties of matter. With state-of-the-art infrastructure, KEK is advancing our understanding of the universe that surrounds us, its mechanisms and their control. Our mission is:

    • To make discoveries that address the most compelling questions in a wide range of fields, including particle physics, nuclear physics, materials science, and life science. We at KEK strive to make the most effective use of the funds entrusted by Japanese citizens for the benefit of all, by adding to knowledge and improving the technology that protects the environment and serves the economy, academia, and public health; and

    • To act as an Inter-University Research Institute Corporation, a center of excellence that promotes academic research by fulfilling the needs of researchers in universities across the country and by cooperating extensively with researchers abroad; and

    • To promote national and international collaborative research activities by providing advanced research facilities and opportunities. KEK is committed to be in the forefront of accelerator science in Asia-Oceania, and to cooperate closely with other institutions, especially with Asian laboratories.

    Established in 1997 in a reorganization of the Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo (established in 1955), the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (established in 1971), and the Meson Science Laboratory of the University of Tokyo (established in 1988), KEK serves as a center of excellence for domestic and foreign researchers, providing a wide variety of research opportunities. In addition to the activities at the Tsukuba Campus, KEK is now jointly operating a high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC) in Tokai village, together with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Over 600 scientists, engineers, students and staff perform research activities on the Tsukuba and Tokai campuses. KEK attracts nearly 100,000 national and international researchers every year (total man-days), and provides excellent research facilities and opportunities to many students and post-doctoral fellows each year.

     
  • richardmitnick 7:24 am on June 26, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Experiment at CERN makes the first observation of rare events producing three massive force carriers simultaneously", Accelerator Science, , , , , , , The simultaneous production of three W or Z bosons- subatomic "mediator particles" that carry the weak interaction.   

    From Caltech: “Experiment at CERN makes the first observation of rare events producing three massive force carriers simultaneously” 

    Caltech Logo

    From Caltech

    June 25, 2020
    Emily Velasco
    626‑395‑6487
    evelasco@caltech.edu

    1
    Caltech

    Modern physics knows a great deal about how the universe works, from the grand scale of galaxies down to the infinitesimally small size of quarks and gluons. Still, the answers to some major mysteries, such as the nature of dark matter and origin of gravity, have remained out of reach.

    Caltech physicists and their colleagues using the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in existence, and its Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment have made a new observation of very rare events that could help take physics beyond its current understanding of the world.

    LHC

    CERN map

    CERN LHC Maximilien Brice and Julien Marius Ordan

    CERN LHC particles

    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

    ATLAS

    CERN ATLAS Image Claudia Marcelloni CERN/ATLAS

    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector

    CMS

    CERN/CMS

    LHCb

    CERN/LHCb detector

    The new observation involves the simultaneous production of three W or Z bosons, subatomic “mediator particles” that carry the weak interaction—one of the four known fundamental forces—which is responsible for the phenomenon of radioactivity as well as an essential ingredient in the sun’s thermonuclear processes.

    Bosons are a class of particles that also include photons, which make up light; the Higgs boson, which is thought to be responsible for giving mass to matter; and gluons, which bind nuclei together. The W and Z bosons are similar to each other in that they both carry the weak force but are different in that the Z boson has no electric charge. The existence of these bosons, along with other subatomic particles like gluons and neutrinos, is explained by what is known as the Standard Model of particle physics.

    Caltech graduate student Zhicai Zhang (MS ’18), a member of the High Energy Physics research team led by Harvey Newman, the Marvin L. Goldberger Professor of Physics, and Maria Spiropulu, the Shang-Yi Ch’en Professor of Physics, is one of the principal contributors to the new observation, working together with other team members.

    The events producing the trios of bosons occur when intense bunches of high-energy protons that have been accelerated to nearly the speed of light are brought into a head-on collision at a few points along the circular path of the LHC. When two protons collide, the quarks and gluons in the protons are forced apart, and as that happens, W and Z bosons can pop into existence; in very rare cases, they appear as triplets: WWW, WWZ, WZZ, and ZZZ. Such triplets of W and Z bosons, Newman says, are only produced in one out of 10 trillion proton-proton collisions.

    These events are recorded using the CMS, which surrounds one of the collision points along the LHC’s path. Zhang says these events are 50 times rarer than those used to discover the Higgs boson.

    “With the LHC creating an enormous number of collisions, we can see things that are very rare, like the production of these bosons,” Newman says.

    It is possible for the W and Z bosons to self-interact, allowing W and Z bosons to create still more W and Z bosons; these may manifest themselves as events with two or three massive bosons. Still, this creation is rare, so the more bosons that are produced, the less frequent the production happens. The production of two massive bosons has previously been observed and measured with good precision at the LHC.

    The creation of these bosons was not the specific goal of the experiment, Newman says. By collecting enough data, including many events with boson triplets and other rare events, researchers will be able to test the Standard Model’s predictions with increasing precision and may eventually find and be able to study the new interactions that lie beyond it.

    “We know from observing the rotation and distribution of galaxies that there must be dark matter exerting its gravitational influence, but dark matter doesn’t fit into the Standard Model. There is no room in it for dark particles, nor does it include gravity, and it simply does not work at the energy scales typical of the early universe in the first moments after the Big Bang. We know that there is a more fundamental yet-to-be-discovered theory than the Standard Model,” Newman says.

    The next three-year experimental run, scheduled for 2021–24, is already being prepared. At the end of that run, the equipment will be upgraded to increase its data-collection capacity 30-fold. “There is a lot of unrealized potential. The masses of data we have already collected still represent only a few percent of what we expect to collect following major upgrades of both CMS and the LHC, at the High Luminosity LHC that is scheduled to run for 10 years beginning in 2027. We are only at the very beginning of this 30-year physics program,” he says.

    A paper describing their findings, titled, “Observation of heavy triboson production in leptonic final states in proton-proton collisions at √s = 13 TeV” is available at CERN [ http://cds.cern.ch/record/2714899 ].

    See the full article here .


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    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


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    The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private research university located in Pasadena, California, United States. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphases on science and engineering. Its 124-acre (50 ha) primary campus is located approximately 11 mi (18 km) northeast of downtown Los Angeles. “The mission of the California Institute of Technology is to expand human knowledge and benefit society through research integrated with education. We investigate the most challenging, fundamental problems in science and technology in a singularly collegial, interdisciplinary atmosphere, while educating outstanding students to become creative members of society.”

    Caltech campus

     
  • richardmitnick 1:04 pm on June 22, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "CMS collaboration publishes 1000th paper", Accelerator Science, , CMS became the first experiment in the history of HEP to reach this outstanding total of papers., , , , , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “CMS collaboration publishes 1,000th paper” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    June 22, 2020
    Boaz Klima

    We are proud to share with you the exciting news that on Friday, June 19, CMS reached a momentous milestone by submitting its 1,000th paper for publication [Physical Review Letters]. In doing so, CMS became the first experiment in the history of HEP to reach this outstanding total of papers.

    CERN/CMS Detector

    The very first paper published by the CMS collaboration as a whole was a description of the detector, submitted early in 2008. This was followed in 2009 by a series of papers describing the preoperation tuning of the apparatus using cosmic rays. The first publications of physics results based on LHC collisions appeared very soon after the LHC commenced operation at the end of 2009, and they have been issued at an average rate of about 100 papers per year since then. The publications timeline of collider-data papers split by physics topics is available on the CMS publications webpage.

    The scientific impact of CMS publications has been at the highest level. Approximately a third are published as letters in Physical Review Letters or Physics Letters B, where the standards for significance and timeliness are even more stringent than those required for longer articles. Indeed, several CMS letters have been singled out for special recognition as “Editor’s Selection,” a testament to the utmost importance of those results.

    By happy coincidence, the 1,000th CMS paper has been submitted close to the eighth anniversary of the most notable paper submitted so far, that reporting the observation of the Higgs boson, paper number 183, which was submitted in July 2012. The discovery of the Higgs boson led to a Nobel Prize.

    Not only has the number of papers produced by CMS reached an unprecedented level, but the diversity of physics topics covered is also unparalleled. Just one decade ago the high-energy physics field exploited three different types of accelerators to pursue separately research at the energy frontier, the intensity frontier and on heavy-ion collisions under extreme conditions. In contrast, the advanced design of the CMS detector, made possible by a long program of R&D, and the remarkable flexibility of the LHC accelerator, have enabled CMS to publish world-class results probing all three boundaries of knowledge.

    The exceptional success of CMS is a testimony to the skill and dedication of the collaboration, and credit for reaching the milestone of 1,000 publications belongs to all its members.

    See the full here.


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    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:01 pm on June 20, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Silicon detector R&D for future high-energy physics experiments", Accelerator Science, , , , , ,   

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab: “Silicon detector R&D for future high-energy physics experiments” 

    FNAL Art Image
    FNAL Art Image by Angela Gonzales

    From Fermi National Accelerator Lab , an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    June 19, 2020
    Ron Lipton

    Our ability to explore the physics of elementary particles depends on the sensors we use to translate flows of energy from particle collisions in our accelerators into electronic pulses in our detectors. The patterns of these pulses are used to reconstruct the underlying particles and their interactions. At the core of the mammoth detector assemblies and snugly surrounding the beam pipes are arrays of silicon sensors. These sensors, derived from integrated circuit technology, provide detailed patterns of interactions to micron-level (40 millionths of an inch) precision, with subnanosecond timing and low mass. The active area of these arrays has increased from a few square centimeters in experiments in the 1980s to 200 square meters in the CMS and ATLAS trackers at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.

    CERN/CMS Detector

    CERN ATLAS Credit CERN SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

    The CMS high-granularity calorimeter, or HGCal, will use 600 square meters of silicon. The precision of these detectors enables unique identification of heavy quarks (bottom and charm) that travel a fraction of a millimeter before they decay. The precision was crucial, for example, in the discoveries of the top quark in 1995, CP violation and mixing in the B meson system, and the Higgs boson in 2012.

    Research and development to improve the characteristics and develop better silicon detectors with the use of new technologies continue as we upgrade the existing detectors for better performance and develop designs for experiments at future generations of accelerators.

    1
    Working with collaborating laboratories and industrial partners, Fermilab researchers have developed and demonstrated the first three-layer 3-D bonded devices. This shows a three-layer 3-D chip stack. Image courtesy of Ron Lipton

    The 3-D integration of pixelated sensors with readout chips was an infant technology when we began R&D in 2006. The 3-D interconnection technique (now called hybrid bonding by the semiconductor industry) can replace the large, costly, solder bump interconnect technology with one that can be directly integrated into semiconductor process lines. It reduces the minimum spacing between pixels from about 50 microns to three, allows multilayer stacked connections through the body of the semiconductor, and dramatically reduces the capacitance of the interconnect, increasing speed and reducing electronic noise. Working with collaborating laboratories and industrial partners, we have developed and demonstrated the first three-layer 3-D bonded devices, with two electronics layers occupying only 35 microns in height, down from the usual hundreds. This hybrid bonding technology is now probably in your smart phone camera.

    2
    Schematic of the stacked layers. Image courtesy of Ron Lipton

    Future accelerators, including the High-Luminosity LHC, will produce collisions at a rate many times higher than the current LHC. The complexity of these collision events puts a premium on fast timing and recognition of very complex patterns of energy deposited in detectors. A possibility we are exploring is the induced-current detector. 3-D technology allows us to combine small pixels and low electronic noise with sophisticated electronics. The sensitivity and timing capabilities are now so good that we can measure the detailed shape of pulses due to charge movement deep in the silicon. This pattern of pulse shapes can give us much more information than the usual measurement of only the total charge. If this idea works, a single layer of silicon could measure timing to picoseconds, position to microns, as well as track angle, compressing multiple layers of sensor into one. This would greatly increase the power of detectors to select and process interesting events at very high speed. Work is under way on simulations of these effects and collaboration with industry on a 3-D demonstrator.

    Another way to address the experimental challenges is to improve the time resolution of silicon detectors. This can be done by designing the silicon to provide internal gain, providing a larger signal with a faster rise time. The low-gain avalanche diode, or LGAD, was designed to accomplish this. The LGAD is a new technology, and improved variants are continually emerging. Fermilab has an extensive program of testing and qualifying these LGAD detectors in bench tests and in the Fermilab Test Beam. The work is a close collaboration with the foundries and with other institutes within CMS and ATLAS. This program has been crucial in the validation and adoption of LGAD technology for the CMS upgrade endcap timing layer.

    The current generation of LGADs suffers from dead regions at the edges of each pixel and has only moderate radiation hardness. This limits the pixel size and range of applicability of these devices. By changing the top layers of the sensors (AC coupling) and adding a layer buried below the surface (buried gain layer) we can both eliminate most of the dead region and provide for a more well-defined gain that is also more resistant to radiation. First demonstrators are now being fabricated in collaboration with industry and universities.

    3
    Researchers are developing 8-inch sensors, seen here on a probe station at SiDet, for the CMS HGCal. Photo courtesy of Ron Lipton

    Finally, the very large area of the CMS HGCal prompted us to begin the development of large-area sensors, producing the first HEP sensors on 8-inch silicon wafers in collaboration with industry. We developed the process flow with colleagues from other laboratories and integrated designs from contributors all over the world. We have demonstrated high quality 8-inch sensors thinned to 200 microns.

    In this work, intense collaboration with the Fermilab ASIC group, support from CMS and DOE, infrastructure at SiDet, strong collaboration with laboratory, university and industrial partners, and the central contributions of summer students, graduate students, and postdocs have all been vital. These are all exciting developments and there is much more to do. As Richard Feynman said: “There is plenty of room at the bottom.”

    See the full here.


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    FNAL Icon

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab is America’s premier laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world
    collaborate at Fermilab on experiments at the frontiers of discovery.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:09 pm on June 19, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "European physicists boldly take small step toward 100-kilometer-long atom smasher", Accelerator Science, , , , , ILC-being planned for the Kitakami highland in the Iwate prefecture of northern Japan, , , Physicists in China have similar plans to build big circular colliders, ,   

    From Science Magazine: “European physicists boldly take small step toward 100-kilometer-long atom smasher” 

    From Science Magazine

    CERN FCC Future Circular Collider map

    Jun. 19, 2020
    Adrian Cho

    It is a truth universally acknowledged that a physics laboratory with a world-leading scientific facility must have a plan for an even better machine to succeed it. So it is with the European particle physics laboratory, CERN, near Geneva, which is home to the world’s biggest atom smasher, the 27-kilometer-long Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Today, CERN’s governing council announced it will launch a technical and financial feasibility study to build an even bigger collider 80 to 100 kilometers long (actually two of them in succession) that could ultimately reach an energy seven times higher than the LHC. The first machine wouldn’t be built before 2040.

    There is “some pride of the member states of CERN [that it is] the leading particle physics laboratory, and I think there is interest in CERN staying there,” says Ursula Bassler, a physicist and president of the CERN council, the panel of representatives from the 23 nations that support the lab. However, CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti emphasizes that no commitment has been made to build a new mammoth collider, which could cost $20 billion. “There is no recommendation for the implementation of any project,” she says. “This is coming in a few years.”

    Physicists have been debating what collider to build next since well before the LHC started to take data in 2010. In the early 2000s, discussions centered on a 30-kilometer-long, straight-shot, linear collider that would smash electrons into positrons. Such a machine would complement the circular LHC, which smashes countercirculating beams of protons. The two types of machines have different strengths. A proton collider can generally reach higher energies and discover heavier new particles. But protons are made of other particles called quarks, so they make messy collisions. In contrast, electrons and positrons are indivisible fundamental particles, so they make cleaner collisions. Historically, physicists often have found new particles at proton colliders and studied them in detail at electron-positron colliders.

    That’s the game particle physicists around the world are trying to play today. In 2012, the proton-smashing LHC blasted out the Higgs boson, the last particle predicted by physicists’ standard model and the linchpin to their explanation how all other fundamental particles get their mass. Many would now like to build an electron-positron collider and run it as a Higgs factory, to make the particle in large numbers and see whether it has exactly the predicted properties. Any deviation from the predictions would be signs of new physics beyond the 40-year-old standard model, something particle physicists are desperate to find. Physicists in Japan would like to host such a linear collider.


    ILC schematic, being planned for the Kitakami highland, in the Iwate prefecture of northern Japan

    A few years ago, however, some physicists proposed another approach, building an 80- to 100-kilometer-long circular electron-positron collider to study the Higgs. That machine would have a major drawback: As light-weight electrons go around in circles, they radiate copious x-rays and lose energy, so such a machine is inefficient and limited in its energy reach. But it has a big practical upside: The tunnel it needs could also later be used to house a higher energy proton collider. This is exactly what CERN did with the LHC, which was built in an existing tunnel dug for the Large Electron-Positron Collider, which ran from 1989 to 2000. (It studied in detail particles called the W and Z bosons that had been discovered previously with a proton-antiproton collider at CERN.)

    Now, CERN physicists envision a future in which, around 2040, they build a huge circular electron-positron collider to study the Higgs. Then, they would follow up with a more powerful proton collider to reach a new high-energy frontier. Today, the CERN council took a step in that direction, announcing an update to its long-range strategy, the first since 2013.

    Just how much CERN’s plans have changed remains murky, however. Some physicists there have long been working on CERN’s own design for a linear collider. And it appears the new long-range strategy does not completely sideline that idea. “We also recommend continued accelerator R&D to ensure that we do not miss an opportunity to improve our accelerator technology,” said Halina Abramowicz, a physicist at Tel Aviv University who led the planning exercise, during an online question-and-answer session. “I think it’s important to convey this message very clearly.”

    The feasibility study for the big new machine should be done by 2026 or 2027, when CERN will next update its long-term strategy. CERN may also have competition in the presumed collider arms race, as physicists in China have similar plans to build big circular colliders.

    China Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) map

    Of course, all may depend on whether the LHC, which is now undergoing an upgrade and should run until the mid 2030s, finds anything beyond the Higgs boson to study. If it doesn’t, convincing the governments of Europe to spend $20 billion to study just the Higgs may prove a daunting political challenge.

    See the full article here .


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  • richardmitnick 1:12 pm on June 19, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "ATLAS Experiment measures light scattering on light and constrains axion-like particles", Accelerator Science, , , , , , , ,   

    From CERN ATLAS via phys.org: “ATLAS Experiment measures light scattering on light and constrains axion-like particles” 

    CERN/ATLAS detector

    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event

    CERN ATLAS another view Image Claudia Marcelloni ATLAS CERN


    From CERN ATLAS

    via


    phys.org

    June 19, 2020

    1
    Figure 1: Differential cross section of γγ→γγ production in lead–lead collisions at 5.02 TeV as a function of the invariant mass of the diphoton system and the cosine of the scattering angle in the photon-photon centre-of-mass frame, as measured by ATLAS. The measurements are compared to the theoretical prediction. Credit: ATLAS Collaboration/CERN.

    Light-by-light scattering is a rare phenomenon in which two photons—particles of light—interact, producing another pair of photons. Direct observation of this process at high energy had proven elusive for decades, until it was first seen by the ATLAS Experiment in 2016 and established in 2019. In a new measurement, ATLAS physicists are using light-by-light scattering to search for a hyped phenomenon beyond the Standard Model of particle physics: axion-like particles.

    Collisions of heavy lead ions in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) provide the ideal environment to study light-by-light scattering. As bunches of lead ions are accelerated, an enormous flux of surrounding photons is generated corresponding to an electrical field with strength of up to 1025 volt per metre. When ions from opposite beams pass next to each other at the centre of the ATLAS detector, their surrounding photons can interact and scatter off one another. Because the lead ions lose only a tiny fraction of their energy in this process, the outgoing ions continue their path around the LHC ring, unseen by the ATLAS detector. These interactions are known as ultra-peripheral collisions. This leads to a distinct event signature, very unlike typical lead ion collision events, with two back-to-back photons and no further activity in the detector.

    Based on lead-lead collision data recorded in 2015, the ATLAS Collaboration found the first direct evidence of high-energy light-by-light scattering. More recently the ATLAS Collaboration reported the observation of light-by-light scattering with a significance of 8.2 standard deviations, using a large data sample taken in 2018.

    2
    Figure 2: Compilation of exclusion limits at 95% confidence level in the photon–a (axion-like particle) coupling (1/Λa) versus a mass (ma) plane obtained by different experiments. The existing limits are compared to the limits extracted from this measurement. Credit: ATLAS Collaboration/CERN

    The ATLAS Collaboration has studied the full LHC Run-2 dataset of heavy-ion collisions to measure light-by-light scattering with improved precision and more detail. Out of the more than hundred billion ultra-peripheral collisions probed, ATLAS observed a total of 97 candidate events while 27 events are expected from background processes. In addition to the production rate (cross section), ATLAS measured the energies and angular distributions of the produced photons (i.e. their kinematics). The result explores a broader range of diphoton masses, increasing the expected signal yield by about 50% in comparison to the previous ATLAS measurements.

    The measurement of light-by-light scattering is sensitive to processes beyond the Standard Model, such as axion-like particles. These are hypothetical spin-less (scalar) particles with an odd parity quantum number (the Higgs boson, for example, is a scalar with even parity) and typically weak interactions with Standard Model particles. In the new ATLAS result, physicists considered whether the pairs of interacting photons produce axion-like particles (a) as they scatter off each other (γγ → a → γγ), which would lead to an excess of scattering events with diphoton mass equal to the mass of a. They examined the diphoton mass distribution for a mass range for a between 6 and 100 GeV. No significant excess of events over the expected background was found in the analysis. ATLAS physicists were able to derive, at a 95% confidence level, an exclusion bound of the axion-like particles coupling to photons (Figure 2). Assuming 100% of the putative particles decay to photons, this new analysis places the strongest existing limits on the production of axion-like particles in the examined mass range to date.

    With the much larger dataset expected in the future LHC runs, physicists will continue to explore the sensitivity of light-by-light scattering to phenomena beyond the Standard Model.

    More information: Measurement of light-by-light scattering and search for axion-like particles with 2.2 nb−1 of Pb+Pb data with the ATLAS detector (ATLAS-CONF-2020-010):
    https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/CONFNOTES/ATLAS-CONF-2020-010/

    See the full article here .


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    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
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  • richardmitnick 10:18 am on June 19, 2020 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Particle physicists update strategy for the future of the field in Europe", Accelerator Science, , , , , , , The CERN Council today announced that it has updated the strategy to guide the future of particle physics in Europe within the global particle-physics landscape.   

    From CERN: “Particle physicists update strategy for the future of the field in Europe” 

    Cern New Bloc

    Cern New Particle Event


    From CERN

    19 June, 2020

    The CERN Council today announced that it has updated the strategy that will guide the future of particle physics in Europe.

    1

    Following almost two years of discussion and deliberation, the CERN Council today announced that it has updated the strategy that will guide the future of particle physics in Europe within the global particle-physics landscape. Presented during the open part of the Council’s meeting, held remotely due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the recommendations highlight the scientific impact of particle physics, as well as its technological, societal and human capital.

    By probing ever-higher energy and thus smaller distance scales, particle physics has made discoveries that have transformed the scientific understanding of the world. Nevertheless, many of the mysteries about the universe, such as the nature of dark matter, and the preponderance of matter over antimatter, are still to be explored. The 2020 update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics proposes a vision for both the near- and the long-term future of the field, which maintains Europe’s leading role in addressing the outstanding questions in particle physics and in the innovative technologies being developed within the field.

    The highest scientific priorities identified in this update are the study of the Higgs boson – a unique particle that raises scientific profound questions about the fundamental laws of nature – and the exploration of the high-energy frontier. These are two crucial and complementary ways to address the open questions in particle physics.

    “The Strategy is above all driven by science and thus presents the scientific priorities for the field,” says Ursula Bassler, President of the CERN Council. “The European Strategy Group (ESG) – a special body set up by the Council – successfully led a strategic reflection to which several hundred European physicists contributed.” The scientific vision outlined in the Strategy should serve as a guideline to CERN and facilitate a coherent science policy across Europe.

    The successful completion of the High-Luminosity LHC in the coming decade, for which upgrade work is currently in progress at CERN, should remain the focal point of European particle physics. The strategy emphasises the importance of ramping up research and development (R&D) for advanced accelerator, detector and computing technologies, as a necessary prerequisite for all future projects. Delivering the near and long-term future research programme envisaged in this Strategy update requires both focused and transformational R&D, which also has many potential benefits to society.

    The document also highlights the need to pursue an electron-positron collider acting as a “Higgs factory” as the highest-priority facility after the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

    China Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) map

    The Higgs boson was discovered at CERN in 2012 by scientists working on the LHC, and is expected to be a powerful tool to look for physics beyond the Standard Model. Such a machine would produce copious amounts of Higgs bosons in a very clean environment, would make dramatic progress in mapping the diverse interactions of the Higgs boson with other particles and would form an essential part of a rich research programme, allowing measurements of extremely high precision. Construction of this future collider at CERN could begin within a timescale of less than 10 years after the full exploitation of the High-Luminosity LHC, which is expected to complete operations in 2038.

    The exploration of significantly higher energies than the LHC will allow new discoveries to be made and the answers to existing mysteries, such as the nature of dark matter, to potentially be found. In acknowledgement of the fact that the particle physics community is ready to prepare for the next step towards even higher energies and smaller scales, another significant recommendation of the Strategy is that Europe, in collaboration with the worldwide community, should undertake a technical and financial feasibility study for a next-generation hadron collider at the highest achievable energy, with a view to the longer term.

    CERN FCC Future Circular Collider details of proposed 100km-diameter successor to LHC

    It is further recommended that Europe continue to support neutrino projects in Japan and the US. Cooperation with neighbouring fields is also important, such as astroparticle and nuclear physics, as well as continued collaboration with non-European countries.

    “This is a very ambitious strategy, which outlines a bright future for Europe and for CERN with a prudent, step-wise approach. We will continue to invest in strong cooperative programmes between CERN and other research institutes in CERN’s Member States and beyond,” declares CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti. “These collaborations are key to sustained scientific and technological progress and bring many societal benefits.”

    “The natural next step is to explore the feasibility of the high-priority recommendations, while continuing to pursue a diverse programme of high-impact projects,” explains ESG chair Halina Abramowicz. “Europe should keep the door open to participating in other headline projects that will serve the field as a whole, such as the proposed International Linear Collider project.”


    ILC schematic, being planned for the Kitakami highland, in the Iwate prefecture of northern Japan

    Beyond the immediate scientific return, major research infrastructures such as CERN have broad societal impact, thanks to their technological, economic and human capital. Advances in accelerators, detectors and computing have a significant impact on areas like medical and biomedical technologies, aerospace applications, cultural heritage, artificial intelligence, energy, big data and robotics. Partnerships with large research infrastructures help drive innovation in industry. In terms of human capital, the training of early-career scientists, engineers, technicians and professionals provides a talent pool for industry and other fields of society.

    The Strategy also highlights two other essential aspects: the environment and the importance of Open Science. “The environmental impact of particle physics activities should continue to be carefully studied and minimized. A detailed plan for the minimization of environmental impact and for the saving and reuse of energy should be part of the approval process for any major project,” says the report. The technologies developed in particle physics to minimise the environmental impact of future facilities may also find more general applications in environmental protection.

    The update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics announced today got under way in September 2018, when the CERN Council, comprising representatives from CERN’s Member and Associate Member States, established a European Strategy Group (ESG) to coordinate the process. The ESG worked in close consultation with the scientific community. Nearly two hundred submissions were discussed during an Open Symposium in Granada in May 2019 and distilled into the Physics Briefing Book, a scientific summary of the community’s input, prepared by the Physics Preparatory Group. The ESG converged on the final recommendations during a week-long drafting session held in Germany in January 2020. The group’s findings were presented to the CERN Council in March and were scheduled to be announced on 25 May, in Budapest. This was delayed due to the global Covid-19 situation but they have now been made publicly available.

    For more information, consult the documents of the Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics:

    2020 Update of the European Strategy for Particles Physics
    Deliberation Document on the 2020 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics

    See the full article here.


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    THE FOUR MAJOR PROJECT COLLABORATIONS

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    CERN ATLAS Image Claudia Marcelloni CERN/ATLAS


    ALICE

    CERN/ALICE Detector


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    CERN CMS New

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    CERN LHCb New II

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