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  • richardmitnick 3:08 pm on April 28, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: PCDP - Professional Career Development Program, UC Santa Cruz’s STEM Diversity Program, , Undocumented students thrive at UCSC   

    From UCSC: “Cultivating potential: How UC Santa Cruz is helping undocumented students thrive” 

    UC Santa Cruz

    UC Santa Cruz

    April 27, 2017
    Peggy Townsend
    gwenj@ucsc.edu

    Thanks to more than a half-dozen programs, undocumented students on campus have been able to get support, assistance, and encouragement—and the campus benefits from nurturing their passion and talent.

    In her third year at UC Santa Cruz, Amy is doing research on the universe’s most violent events. She is about to publish a paper on the topic, is headed to Harvard for a summer research program, has a 3.7 GPA, and plans to go to graduate school.

    But a decision her parents made to bring Amy to the U.S. at the age of 4 leaves her with worries and obstacles many other students don’t face.

    Amy (not her real name) is undocumented, which means she is ineligible for some scholarships, may be hampered in her graduate studies because she isn’t allowed to get federal research funds, and, in the current political climate, lives with an undercurrent of anxiety that her family could be deported.

    But thanks to more than a half-dozen programs at UC Santa Cruz, Amy and approximately 400 other undocumented students on campus have been able not only to survive, but to thrive.

    The programs—funded by the University of California and some private donations—provide counseling, internships, legal help, support groups, an extended orientation program, and even a lending library of 3,000 textbooks for undocumented students to borrow. The campus’s Educational Opportunity Programs office (EOP) carries out these programs, which were developed by and, now, implemented by, students and counselors.

    “Why is it critical to have these services?” says Pablo Reguerín (Oakes ’94, Latin American and Latino studies), who is assistant vice provost for student success at UC Santa Cruz. “Because undocumented students represent an enormous asset in terms of their intellectual, academic, and human capital for the state. Aside from these benefits, this is a matter of our own humanity and social justice.”
    Changing policies

    The history of undocumented students at UC campuses is a checkered one. Before 1991, undocumented students were allowed to pay in-state tuition at UC institutions provided they could prove they had lived in the state for a year and a day and planned to make California their home. Then, in 1990, an employee at the UCLA Office of the Registrar sued, saying he was forced to quit because he could not follow those rules. The employee won an injunction and soon undocumented students were being charged out-of-state tuition rates, which basically barred them from a UC education.

    A 2001 state law, AB 540, changed the rule so that undocumented students could again pay in-state fees. More state laws, passed in 2011, allowed these students to receive some state financial aid. Finally, in 2012, President Barack Obama signed an executive order dubbed DACA, or Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, which prevented young people who were brought to this country as children from being deported while they were in school.

    College seemed within reach for more undocumented students until the election of Donald Trump, who had called for a hard line on immigration policy. That prompted UC President Janet Napolitano, in November 2016, to not only reiterate the UC system’s support of undocumented students and but also allocate money for undocumented student programs. UC Santa Cruz will receive $275,000 in each of the next three years.
    Harvesting talent

    Santa Cruz programs funded by this money, along with private donations, include free legal services for students and their families, peer counseling, support groups, a textbook lending library that hands out about 650 textbooks each quarter, and an intense five-day orientation program for undocumented students. Besides learning how to navigate the wooded campus and schedule classes, the orientation gives undocumented students information on renewing their DACA status, negotiating with landlords who may be averse to renting to undocumented students, budgeting, getting emotional support, and finding financial aid, among other subjects.

    Most importantly, the UC Santa Cruz Career Center also offers an internship program available to undocumented students through the Professional Career Development Program (PCDP). These internships are especially important for undocumented students, who may come from low-income families and find themselves facing a funding gap of $7,000 to $9,000 a year, according to Reguerín.

    For five undocumented members of UC Santa Cruz’s STEM Diversity Program this year, the PCDP program means an opportunity to not only do hands-on research in fields like neurodegenerative diseases and gene expression but also receive a stipend for their work, according to Yulianna Ortega (Merrill ’05, biology and Latin American and Latino studies), director of the STEM Diversity Program. Two other undocumented STEM students are working on administrative projects.

    In addition, a program called Lamat, funded by philanthropist Julie Packard (Crown ’74, biology; M.A. ’78) allows community college students, including those who are undocumented, to be part of a summer research session in astrophysics.

    “I see these efforts as an opportunity, especially in the sciences, to find and harvest the remarkable talent we have in these communities,” says UC Santa Cruz Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz.
    Have potential, need opportunity.

    While UC Santa Cruz sometimes lost capable students from wealthier schools to institutions like Harvard, Stanford, and Princeton, Ramirez-Ruiz says, he and others have been able to attract a pool of equally talented students, many undocumented, who are ready to bring their differing viewpoints in order to find solutions to complex astrophysical problems that are often more innovative and creative.

    The students attacked problems with vigor and were quick to think on their feet, Ramirez-Ruiz says, but their status in society often made them feel unwelcome.

    “They knew, in order to stand out, they had to do better than everyone else because of the excessive resistance they are constantly confronting,” Ramirez-Ruiz says.

    Undocumented students from UC Santa Cruz have not only gone on to graduate school, but also a number are working in fields like education, biotechnology, public health, and in the nonprofit sector.

    Says Ortega: “These students have so much potential. They just need the opportunity.”

    “The fact is, the talent is already here, already contributing positively to society, and some of these students are just brilliant,” Ramirez-Ruiz says. “There is a clear message from society to them that they are second class and that they don’t belong here. But despite this unyielding defiance, the level of determination shown by these students is basically unmatched. We need to give them an opportunity because in terms of market value, they are an investment that will give you the highest return.”

    UC Santa Cruz Chancellor George Blumenthal agrees.

    “UC Santa Cruz is committed to supporting these hard-working, talented students who continue to make valuable contributions to the campus and to their fields of study,” Blumenthal says.

    See the full article here .

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    UCO Lick Shane Telescope
    UCO Lick Shane Telescope interior
    Shane Telescope at UCO Lick Observatory, UCSC

    Lick Automated Planet Finder telescope, Mount Hamilton, CA, USA

    Lick Automated Planet Finder telescope, Mount Hamilton, CA, USA

    UC Santa Cruz campus
    The University of California, Santa Cruz, opened in 1965 and grew, one college at a time, to its current (2008-09) enrollment of more than 16,000 students. Undergraduates pursue more than 60 majors supervised by divisional deans of humanities, physical & biological sciences, social sciences, and arts. Graduate students work toward graduate certificates, master’s degrees, or doctoral degrees in more than 30 academic fields under the supervision of the divisional and graduate deans. The dean of the Jack Baskin School of Engineering oversees the campus’s undergraduate and graduate engineering programs.

    UCSC is the home base for the Lick Observatory.

    Lick Observatory's Great Lick 91-centimeter (36-inch) telescope housed in the South (large) Dome of main building
    Lick Observatory’s Great Lick 91-centimeter (36-inch) telescope housed in the South (large) Dome of main building

    Search for extraterrestrial intelligence expands at Lick Observatory
    New instrument scans the sky for pulses of infrared light
    March 23, 2015
    By Hilary Lebow
    1
    The NIROSETI instrument saw first light on the Nickel 1-meter Telescope at Lick Observatory on March 15, 2015. (Photo by Laurie Hatch) UCSC Lick Nickel telescope

    Astronomers are expanding the search for extraterrestrial intelligence into a new realm with detectors tuned to infrared light at UC’s Lick Observatory. A new instrument, called NIROSETI, will soon scour the sky for messages from other worlds.

    “Infrared light would be an excellent means of interstellar communication,” said Shelley Wright, an assistant professor of physics at UC San Diego who led the development of the new instrument while at the University of Toronto’s Dunlap Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics.

    Wright worked on an earlier SETI project at Lick Observatory as a UC Santa Cruz undergraduate, when she built an optical instrument designed by UC Berkeley researchers. The infrared project takes advantage of new technology not available for that first optical search.

    Infrared light would be a good way for extraterrestrials to get our attention here on Earth, since pulses from a powerful infrared laser could outshine a star, if only for a billionth of a second. Interstellar gas and dust is almost transparent to near infrared, so these signals can be seen from great distances. It also takes less energy to send information using infrared signals than with visible light.

    5
    UCSC alumna Shelley Wright, now an assistant professor of physics at UC San Diego, discusses the dichroic filter of the NIROSETI instrument. (Photo by Laurie Hatch)

    Frank Drake, professor emeritus of astronomy and astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz and director emeritus of the SETI Institute, said there are several additional advantages to a search in the infrared realm.

    “The signals are so strong that we only need a small telescope to receive them. Smaller telescopes can offer more observational time, and that is good because we need to search many stars for a chance of success,” said Drake.

    The only downside is that extraterrestrials would need to be transmitting their signals in our direction, Drake said, though he sees this as a positive side to that limitation. “If we get a signal from someone who’s aiming for us, it could mean there’s altruism in the universe. I like that idea. If they want to be friendly, that’s who we will find.”

    Scientists have searched the skies for radio signals for more than 50 years and expanded their search into the optical realm more than a decade ago. The idea of searching in the infrared is not a new one, but instruments capable of capturing pulses of infrared light only recently became available.

    “We had to wait,” Wright said. “I spent eight years waiting and watching as new technology emerged.”

    Now that technology has caught up, the search will extend to stars thousands of light years away, rather than just hundreds. NIROSETI, or Near-Infrared Optical Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, could also uncover new information about the physical universe.

    “This is the first time Earthlings have looked at the universe at infrared wavelengths with nanosecond time scales,” said Dan Werthimer, UC Berkeley SETI Project Director. “The instrument could discover new astrophysical phenomena, or perhaps answer the question of whether we are alone.”

    NIROSETI will also gather more information than previous optical detectors by recording levels of light over time so that patterns can be analyzed for potential signs of other civilizations.

    “Searching for intelligent life in the universe is both thrilling and somewhat unorthodox,” said Claire Max, director of UC Observatories and professor of astronomy and astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz. “Lick Observatory has already been the site of several previous SETI searches, so this is a very exciting addition to the current research taking place.”

    NIROSETI will be fully operational by early summer and will scan the skies several times a week on the Nickel 1-meter telescope at Lick Observatory, located on Mt. Hamilton east of San Jose.

    The NIROSETI team also includes Geoffrey Marcy and Andrew Siemion from UC Berkeley; Patrick Dorval, a Dunlap undergraduate, and Elliot Meyer, a Dunlap graduate student; and Richard Treffers of Starman Systems. Funding for the project comes from the generous support of Bill and Susan Bloomfield.

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    UCSC is the home base for the Lick Observatory.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:38 pm on April 28, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Hunting Elusive SPRITEs with Spitzer   

    From AAS NOVA: “Hunting Elusive SPRITEs with Spitzer” 

    AASNOVA

    American Astronomical Society

    28 April 2017
    Susanna Kohler

    1
    Blue dots in this image mark the locations of infared transients — explosive or fleeting events — that were recently discovered by a survey called SPIRITS. [Kasliwal et al. 2017]

    In recent years, astronomers have developed many wide-field imaging surveys in which the same targets are observed again and again. This new form of observing has allowed us to discover optical and radio transients — explosive or irregular events with durations ranging from seconds to years. The dynamic infrared sky, however, has remained largely unexplored … until now.

    Infrared Exploration

    Why hunt for infrared transients? Optical wavelengths don’t allow us to observe events that are obscured, such that their own structure or their surroundings hide them from our view. Both supernovae and luminous red novae (associated with stellar mergers) are discoverable as infrared transients, and there may well be new types of transients in infrared that we haven’t seen before!

    To explore this uncharted territory, a team of scientists developed SPIRITS, the Spitzer Infrared Intensive Transients Survey. Begun in 2014, SPIRITS is a five-year long survey that uses the Spitzer Space Telescope to conduct a systematic search for mid-infrared transients in nearby galaxies.

    NASA/Spitzer Telescope

    NASA Spitzer Infrared Array Camera

    3
    Example of a transient: SPIRITS 14ajc was visible when imaged by SPIRITS in 2014 (left) but it wasn’t there during previous imaging between 2004 and 2008 (right). The bottom frame shows the difference between the two images. [Adapted from Kasliwal et al. 2017]

    In a recent publication led by Mansi Kasliwal (Caltech and the Carnegie Institution for Science), the SPIRITS team has now detailed how their survey works and what they’ve discovered in its first year.

    4
    The light curves of SPRITEs (red stars) lie in the mid-infared luminosity gap between novae (orange) and supernovae (blue). [Kasliwal et al. 2017]

    Mystery Transients

    Kasliwal and collaborators used Spitzer to monitor 190 nearby galaxies. In SPIRITS’ first year, they found over 1958 variable stars and 43 infrared transient sources. Of these 43 transients, 21 were known supernovae, 4 were in the luminosity range of novae, and 4 had optical counterparts. The remaining 14 events were designated “eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events”, or SPRITEs.

    SPRITEs are unusual infrared transients that lie in the luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, and they have no optical counterparts. They all occur in star-forming galaxies.

    Search for the Cause

    What’s the physical origin of these phenomena? The authors explore a number of possible sources, including obscured supernovae, stellar mergers with dusty winds, collapse of extreme stars, or even weak shocks in failed supernovae.

    5
    Spitzer image of Messier 83, one of the closest barred spiral galaxies in the sky. SPIRITS 14ajc was discovered in one of Messier 83’s spiral arms. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]

    In one case, SPIRITS 14ajc, the SPRITE’s spectrum shows signs of excited molecular hydrogen lines, which are indicative of a shock. Based on the data, Kasliwal and collaborators propose that the shock might have been driven into a molecular cloud after it was triggered by the decay of a system of massive stars that either passed closely or collided and merged.

    The other SPRITEs may all have different origins, however, and in general the infrared photometric data isn’t sufficient to identify which model fits each transient. Future technology, like spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope, may help us to better understand the origins of these elusive transients, though. And future surveying with projects like SPIRITS will help us to discover more SPRITE-like events, expanding our understanding of the dynamic infrared sky.

    Citation

    Mansi M. Kasliwal et al 2017 ApJ 839 88. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa6978

    Related Journal Articles

    Spirits 15c and spirits 14buu: two obscured supernovae in the nearby star-forming galaxy ic 2163 doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa618f
    Rising from the ashes: mid-infrared re-brightening of the impostor sn 2010da in ngc 300 doi: 10.3847/0004-637X/830/2/142
    A systematic study of mid-infrared emission from core-collapse supernovae with spirits doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/833/2/231
    Common envelope ejection for a luminous red nova in m101 doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/107
    The ALMA view of the omc1 explosion in orion doi: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa5c8b
    An excess of mid-infrared emission from the type iax sn 2014dt doi: 10.3847/2041-8205/816/1/L13

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 1:56 pm on April 28, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , ,   

    From Kavli: “Delving Into the ‘Dark Universe’ with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope” 

    KavliFoundation

    The Kavli Foundation

    Two astrophysicists and a theoretical physicist discuss how the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will probe the nature of dark matter and dark energy by taking an unprecedentedly enormous scan of the sky.


    LSST Camera, built at SLAC



    LSST telescope, currently under construction at Cerro Pachón Chile, a 2,682-meter-high mountain in Coquimbo Region, in northern Chile, alongside the existing Gemini South and Southern Astrophysical Research Telescopes.

    AT A MOUNTAINTOP CEREMONY IN CHILE, on April 14th, scientists and diplomats laid the first stone for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). This ambitious international astrophysics project is slated to start scanning the heavens in 2022. When it does, LSST should open up the “dark universe” of dark matter and dark energy—the unseen substance and force, respectively, composing 95 percent of the universe’s mass and energy—as never before.

    The “large” in LSST’s name is a bit of an understatement. The telescope will feature an 8.4-meter diameter mirror and a 3.2 gigapixel camera, the biggest digital camera ever built. The telescope will survey the entire Southern Hemisphere’s sky every few days, hauling in 30 terabytes of data nightly. After just its first month of operations, LSST’s camera will have observed more of the universe than all previous astronomical surveys combined.

    On April 2, 2015, two astrophysicists and a theoretical physicist spoke with The Kavli Foundation about how LSST’s sweeping search for dark matter and dark energy will answer fundamental questions about our universe’s make-up.

    Steven Kahn – is the Director of LSST and the Cassius Lamb Kirk Professor in the Natural Sciences in the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology (KIPAC) at Stanford University.

    Sarah Bridle – is a professor of astrophysics in the Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology research group of the Jodrell Bank Center for Astrophysics in the School of Physics and Astronomy at The University of Manchester.

    Hitoshi Murayama – is the Director of the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU) at the University of Tokyo and a professor at the Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics at the University of California, Berkeley.

    The following is an edited transcript of their roundtable discussion. The participants have been provided the opportunity to amend or edit their remarks.

    THE KAVLI FOUNDATION (TKF): Steven, when the LSST takes its first look at the universe seven years from now, why will this be so exciting to you?

    STEVEN KAHN: In terms of how much light it will collect and its field of view, LSST is about ten times bigger than any other survey telescope either planned or existing. This is important because it will allow us to survey a very large part of the sky relatively quickly and to do many repeated observations of every part of the Southern Hemisphere over ten years. By doing this, the LSST will gather information on an enormous number of galaxies. We’ll detect something like 20 billion galaxies.

    SARAH BRIDLE: That’s a hundred times as many as we’re going to get with the current generation of telescopes, so it’s a huge increase. With the data, we’re going to be able to make a three-dimensional map of the dark matter in the universe using gravitational lensing.

    Gravitational Lensing NASA/ESA

    Gravitational microlensing, S. Liebes, Physical Review B, 133 (1964): 835

    Then we’re going to use that to tell us about how the “clumpiness” of the universe is changing with time, which is going to tell us about dark energy.

    TKF: How does gathering information on billions of galaxies help us learn more about dark energy?

    HITOSHI MURAYAMA: Dark energy is accelerating the expansion of the universe and ripping it apart. The questions we are asking are: Where is the universe going? What is its fate? Is it getting completely ripped apart at some point? Does the universe end? Or does it go forever? Does the universe slow down at some point? To understand these questions, it’s like trying to understand how quickly the population of a given country is aging. You can’t understand the trend of where the country is going just by looking at a small number of people. You have to do a census of the entire population. In a similar way, you need to really look at a vast amount of galaxies so you can understand the trend of where the universe is going. We are taking a cosmic census with LSST.

    2
    A diagram explaining the phenomenon of gravitational lensing. Foreground clumps of dark matter in galaxy clusters gravitationally bend the light from background galaxies on its way to Earth. Note that the image is not to scale. Credit: NASA, ESA, L. Calcada)

    This phenomenon occurs when foreground matter and dark matter contained in galaxy clusters bend the light from background galaxies—sort of like looking through the bottom of a wine glass. Measuring the amount of the distortion of the background galaxies indirectly reveals the amount of dark matter that has clumped together in the foreground object. Measuring the rate of this dark matter clumping across different eras in the universe’s history speaks to how much dark energy is stretching the universe at given times, thus revealing the mysterious, pervasive force’s strength and properties.

    TKF: The main technique the LSST will use to learn more about dark energy will be gravitational lensing. Dark energy is the mysterious, invisible force that is pushing open and shaping the universe. Can you elaborate on why this is important and how will LSST help realize its full potential?

    BRIDLE: It’s extremely difficult to detect the dark energy that seems to be causing our universe to accelerate.


    Dark Energy Camera [DECam], built at FNAL


    NOAO/CTIO Victor M Blanco 4m Telescope which houses the DECam at Cerro Tololo, Chile, housing DECam

    Through gravitational lenses, however, it’s possible by observing how much dark matter is being pulled together by gravity.

    Dark matter cosmic web and the large-scale structure it forms The Millenium Simulation, V. Springel et al

    And by looking at how much this dark matter clumps up early and later on in the universe, we can see how much the universe is being stretched apart at different times. With LSST, there will be a huge increase in the number of galaxies that we can detect and observe. LSST will also let us identify how far away the galaxies are. This is important. If we want to see how fast the universe is clumping together at different times, we need to know at what time and how far away we’re looking.

    KAHN: With LSST, we’re trying to measure the subtle distortion of the appearance of galaxies caused by clumps of dark matter. We do this by looking for correlations in galaxies’ shapes depending on their position with respect to one another. Of course, there’s uncertainty associated with that kind of measurement on the relatively small scales of individual galaxies, and the dominant source of that uncertainty is that galaxies have intrinsic shapes—some are spiral-shaped, some are round, and so on, and we are seeing them at different viewing angles, too. Increasing the number of galaxies with LSST makes doing this a far more statistically powerful and thus precise measurement of the effect of gravitational lensing caused by dark matter and how the clumping of dark matter has changed over the universe’s history.

    LSST will also help address something called cosmic variance. This happens when we’re making comparisons of what we see against a statistical prediction of what an ensemble of possible universes might look like. We only live in one universe, so there’s an inherent error associated with how good those statistical predictions are of what our universe should look like when applied to the largest scales of great fields of galaxies. The only way to try and statistically beat that cosmic variance down is to survey as much of the sky as possible, and that’s the other area where LSST is breaking new ground.

    TKF: Will the gravitational lensing observations by LSST be more accurate than anything before?

    KAHN: One of the reasons I personally got motivated to work on LSST was because of the difficulty in making the sort of weak lensing measurements that Sarah described.

    BRIDLE: Typically, telescopes distort the images of galaxies by more than the gravitational lensing effect we are trying to measure. And in order to learn about dark matter and dark energy from gravitational lensing, we’ve got to not just detect the gravitational lensing signal but measure it to about a one-percent accuracy. So we’ve got to rid of these effects from the optics in the telescope before we can do anything to learn about cosmology.

    KAHN: A lot of the initial work in this field has been plagued by issues associated with the basic telescopes and cameras used. It was hard to separate out the cosmic signals that people were looking for from spurious effects that were introduced by the instrumentation. LSST is actually the first telescope that will have ever been built with the notion of doing weak lensing in mind. We have taken great care to model in detail the whole system, from the telescope to the camera to the atmosphere that we are looking through, to understand the particular issues in the system that could compromise weak lensing measurements. That approach has been a clear driver in how we design the facility and how we calibrate it. It’s been a big motivation for me personally and for the entire LSST team.

    TKF: As LSST reveals the universe’s past, will it also help us predict the future of the universe?

    MURAYAMA: Yes, it will. Because LSST will survey the sky so quickly and repeatedly, it will show how the universe is changing over time. For example, we will be able to see how a supernova changes from one time period to another. This kind of information should prove extremely useful in deciphering the nature of dark energy, for instance.

    KAHN: This is one way LSST will observe changes in the universe and gather information on dark energy beyond gravitational lensing. In fact, the way the acceleration of the universe by dark energy was first discovered in 1998 was through the measurement of what are called Type Ia supernovae.

    Sag A* NASA Chandra X-Ray Observatory 23 July 2014, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way

    These are exploding stars where we believe we understand the typical intrinsic brightness of the explosion. Therefore, the apparent brightness of a supernova—how faint the supernova appears when we see it—is a clear measure of how far away the object is. That is because objects that are farther away are dimmer than closer objects. By measuring a population of Type Ia supernovae, we can figure out their true distances from us and how those distances have increased over time. Put those two pieces of information together, and that’s a way of determining the expansion rate of the universe.

    This analysis was done for the initial discovery of the accelerating cosmic expansion with a relatively small number of supernovae—just tens. LSST will measure an enormous number of supernovae, something like 250,000 per year. Only a smaller fraction of those will be very well characterized, but that number is still in the tens of thousands per year. That will be very useful for understanding how our universe has evolved.

    TKF: LSST will gather a prodigious amount of data. How will this information be made available to scientists and the public alike for parsing?

    KAHN: Dealing with the enormous size of the data base LSST will produce is a challenge. Over its ten-year run, LSST will generate something like a couple hundred petabytes of data, where a petabyte is 10 to the 15th bytes. That’s more data, by a lot, than everything that’s ever been written in any language in human history.

    The data will be made public to the scientific community largely in the form of catalogs of objects and their properties. But those catalogs can be trillions of lines long. So one of the challenges is not so much how you acquire and store the data, but how do you actually find anything in something that big? It’s the needle in the haystack problem. That’s where there need to be advances because the current techniques that we use to query catalogs, or to say “find me such and such,” they don’t scale very well to this size of data. So a lot of new computer science ideas have to be invoked to make that work.

    ___________________________________________________________________________________

    “With the data, we’re going to be able to make a three-dimensional map of the dark matter in the universe using gravitational lensing. Then we’re going to use that to tell us about how the “clumpiness” of the universe is changing with time, which is going to tell us about dark energy.” –Sarah Bridle
    ___________________________________________________________________________________

    MURAYAMA: One thing that we at Kavli IPMU are pursuing right now is a sort of precursor project to LSST called Hyper Suprime-Cam, using the Subaru Telescope.

    NAOJ Subaru Hyper Suprime Camera

    NAOJ/Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea Hawaii, USA

    It’s smaller than LSST, but it’s trying to do many of the things that LSST is after, like looking for weak gravitational lensing and trying to understand dark energy. We already are facing the challenge of dealing with a large data set. One aspect we would like to pursue at Kavli IPMU, and of course LSST is already doing it, is to get a lot of people in computer science and statistics involved into this. I believe a new area of statistics will be created by the needs of handling these large data sets. It’s a sort of fusion, the interdisciplinary aspects of this project. It’s a large astronomy survey that will influence other areas of science.

    TKF: Are any “citizen science” projects envisioned for LSST, like Galaxy Zoo, a website where astronomy buffs classify the shapes of millions of galaxies imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey?

    KAHN: Data will be made available right away. So LSST will in some sense bring the universe home to anybody with a personal computer, who can log on and look at any part of the southern hemisphere’s sky at any given time. So there’s a tremendous potential there to engage the public not only in learning about science, but actually in doing science and interacting directly with the universe.

    We have people involved in LSST that are intimately tied into Galaxy Zoo. We’re looking into how to incorporate citizens and crowdsource the science investigations of LSST. One of these investigations is strong gravitational lensing. Sarah has talked about weak gravitational lensing, which is a very subtle distortion to the appearance of the background galaxies. But it turns out if you put a galaxy right behind a concentration of dark matter found in a massive foreground galaxy cluster, then the distortions can get very significant. You can actually see multiple images of the background galaxy in a single image, bent all the way around the foreground galaxy cluster. The detection of those strong gravitational lenses and the analysis of the light patterns you see within them also yields complementary scientific information about cosmological fundamental parameters. But it requires sort of recognizing what is in fact a strong gravitational lensing event, as well as modeling the distribution of dark matter that gives rise to the strength of that particular lensing. Colleagues of Hitoshi and myself have already created a tool to help with this effort, called SpaceWarps (www.spacewarps.org). The tool lets the public look for strong gravitational lenses using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and to play around with dark matter modeling to see if they can get something that looks like the real data.

    ___________________________________________________________________________

    “Over its ten-year run, LSST will generate something like a couple hundred petabytes of data, where a petabyte is 10 to the 15th bytes. That’s more data, by a lot, than everything that’s ever been written in any language in human history.” –Steven Kahn
    ___________________________________________________________________________

    MURAYAMA: This has been incredibly successful. Scientists have developed computer programs to automatically look for these strongly lensed galaxies, but even an algorithm written by the best scientists can still miss some of these strong gravitationally lensed objects. Regular citizens, however, often manage to find some candidates for the strongly lensed galaxies that the computer algorithm has missed. Not only will this be great fun for people to get involved, it can even help the science as well, especially with a project as large as LSST.

    TKF: In the hunt for dark energy’s signature on the cosmos, LSST is just one of many current and planned efforts. Sarah, how will LSST observations tie in with the Dark Energy Survey you’re working on, and Hitoshi, with will LSST complement the Hyper Suprime-Cam?

    BRIDLE: So the Dark Energy Survey is going to image one-eighth of the whole sky and have 300 million galaxy images. About two years of data have been taken so far, with about three more years to go. We’ll be doing maps of dark matter and measurements of dark energy. The preparation for LSST that we are doing via DES will be essential.

    MURAYAMA: Hyper Suprime-Cam is similar to the Dark Energy Survey. It’s a nearly billion pixel camera looking for nearly 10 million galaxies. Following up on the Hyper Suprime-Cam imaging surveys, we would like to measure what we call spectra from a couple million galaxies.

    KAHN: The measurement of spectra as an addition to imaging tells us not only about the structure of matter in the universe but also how much the matter is moving with respect to the overall, accelerating cosmic expansion due to dark energy. Spectra are an additional, very important piece of information in constraining cosmological models.

    MURAYAMA: We will identify spectra with an instrument called the Prime Focus Spectrograph, which is scheduled to start operations in 2017 also on the Subaru telescope.

    NAOJ Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph

    We will do very deep exposures to get the spectra on some of these interesting objects, such as galaxies where lensing is taking place and supernovae, which will also allow us to do much more precise measurements on dark energy.

    3
    This image from a pilot project, the Deep Lens Survey (DLS), offers up an example of what the sky will look like when observed by LSST. The images from LSST will have twice DLS’ depth and resolution, while also covering 50,000 times the area of this particular image, and in six different optical colors. Credit: Deep Lens Survey / UC Davis / NOAO)

    Like the Hyper Suprime-Cam, LSST can only do imaging. So I’m hoping when LSST comes online in the 2020s, we will already have the Prime Focus Spectrograph operational, and we will be able to help each other. LSST’s huge amount of data will contain many interesting objects we would like to study with this Prime Focus Spectrograph.

    KAHN: All these dark matter and dark energy telescope projects are very complementary to each other. It’s because of the scientific importance of these really fundamental pressing questions—what is the nature of dark matter and dark energy?—that the various different funding institutions around the world have been eager to invest in such an array of different complementary projects. I think that’s great, and it just shows how important this general problem is.

    TKF: Hitoshi, you mentioned earlier the interdisciplinary approach fostered by LSST and projects like it, and you’ve spoken before about how having different scientific disciplines and perspectives together leads to breakthrough thinking—a major goal of Kavli IPMU. Your primary expertise is in particle physics, but you work on many other areas of physics. Could you describe how observations of the very biggest scales of the dark universe with LSST will inform work on the very smallest, subatomic scales, and vice versa?

    MURAYAMA: It’s really incredible to think about this point. The biggest thing we can observe in the universe has to have something to do with the smallest things we can think of and all the matter we see around us.

    BRIDLE: It is amazing that you can look at the largest scales and find out about the smallest things.

    MURAYAMA: For more than a hundred years, particle physicists have been trying to understand what everything around us is made of. We made huge progress by building a theory called the standard model of particle physics in the 20th century, which is really a milestone of science. Discovering the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in 2012 really nailed that the standard model is the right theory about the origin of everything around us. But it turns out that what we see around us is actually making up only five percent of the universe.

    CERN CMS Higgs Event

    CERN ATLAS Higgs Event

    The Standard Model of elementary particles (more schematic depiction), with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    So there is this feeling among particle physicists of “what have we been doing for a hundred years?” We only have five percent of the universe! We still need to understand the remaining 95 percent of the universe, which is dark matter and dark energy. It’s a huge problem and we have no idea what they are really.

    ______________________________________________________________________________________

    “The biggest thing we can observe in the universe has to have something to do with the smallest things we can think of.” –Hitoshi Murayama
    ______________________________________________________________________________________

    A way I explain what dark matter is: It’s the mother from whom we got separated at birth. What I mean by this is without dark matter, there’s no structure to the universe—no galaxies, no stars—and we wouldn’t be here. Dark matter, like a mother, is the reason we exist, but we haven’t met her and have never managed to thank her. So that’s the reason why we would like to know who she is, how she came to exist and how she shaped us. That’s the connection between the science of looking for the fundamental constituents of the universe, which is namely what particle physicists are after, and this largest scale of observation done with LSST.

    TKF: Given LSST’s vast vista on the Universe, it is frankly expected that the project will turn up the unexpected. Any ideas or speculations on what tracking such a huge portion of the universe might newly reveal?

    KAHN: That’s sort of like asking, “what are the unknown unknowns?” [laughter]

    TKF: Yes—good luck figuring those out!

    KAHN: Let me just say, one of the great things about astrophysics is that we have explicit theoretical predictions we’re trying to test out by taking measurements of the universe. That approach is more akin to many other areas of experimental physics, like searching for the Higgs boson with the Large Hadron Collider, as Hitoshi mentioned earlier.

    CERN/LHC Map


    CERN LHC Tunnel



    LHC at CERN

    But there’s also this wonderful history in astronomy that every time we build a bigger and better facility, we always find all kinds of new things we never envisioned.

    If you go back—unfortunately I’m old enough to remember these days—to the period before the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope, it’s interesting to see what people had thought were going to be the most exciting things to do with Hubble. Many of those things were done and they were definitely exciting. But I think what many people felt was the most exciting was the stuff we didn’t even think to ask about, like the discovery of dark energy Hubble helped make. So I think a lot of us have expectations of similar kinds of discoveries for facilities like LSST. We will make the measurement we’re intending to make, but there will be a whole bunch of other exciting stuff that we never even dreamed of that’ll come for free on top.

    BRIDLE: I’m a cosmologist and I’m very excited for what LSST is going to do for cosmology, but I’m even more excited that it’s going to be taking very, very short 15-second exposures of the sky. LSST is going to be able to discover all these changing, fleeting objects like supernovae that Hitoshi talked about, but it’s a whole new phase of discovery. It’s inevitable we’re going to discover a whole load of new stuff that we’ve never even thought of.

    MURAYAMA: I’m sure there will be surprises!

    See the full article here .

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    The Kavli Foundation, based in Oxnard, California, is dedicated to the goals of advancing science for the benefit of humanity and promoting increased public understanding and support for scientists and their work.

    The Foundation’s mission is implemented through an international program of research institutes, professorships, and symposia in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, neuroscience, and theoretical physics as well as prizes in the fields of astrophysics, nanoscience, and neuroscience.

     
  • richardmitnick 7:35 am on April 28, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Quasar pairs, , Ripples in cosmic web measured using rare double quasars, , ,   

    From UCSC: “Ripples in cosmic web measured using rare double quasars” 

    UC Santa Cruz

    UC Santa Cruz

    [PREVIOUSLY COVERED HERE .]

    April 27, 2017
    Julie Cohen
    stephens@ucsc.edu

    1
    Astronomers identified rare pairs of quasars right next to each other on the sky and measured subtle differences in the absorption of intergalactic atoms measured along the two sightlines. This enabled them to detect small-scale fluctuations in primeval hydrogen gas.(Credit: UC Santa Barbara)

    2
    Snapshot of a supercomuter simulation showing part of the cosmic web, 11.5 billion years ago. The researchers created this and other models of the universe and directly compared them with quasar pair data in order to measure the small-scale ripples in the cosmic web. The cube is 24 million light-years on a side. © J. Oñorbe / MPIA

    The most barren regions of the universe are the far-flung corners of intergalactic space. In these vast expanses between the galaxies, a diffuse haze of hydrogen gas left over from the Big Bang is spread so thin there’s only one atom per cubic meter. On the largest scales, this diffuse material is arranged in a vast network of filamentary structures known as the “cosmic web,” its tangled strands spanning billions of light years and accounting for the majority of atoms in the Universe.

    Now a team of astronomers including J. Xavier Prochaska, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz, has made the first measurements of small-scale ripples in this primeval hydrogen gas. Although the regions of cosmic web they studied lie nearly 11 billion light years away, they were able to measure variations in its structure on scales a 100,000 times smaller, comparable to the size of a single galaxy. The researchers presented their findings in a paper published April 27 in Science.

    Intergalactic gas is so tenuous that it emits no light of its own. Instead astronomers study it indirectly, by observing how it selectively absorbs the light coming from faraway sources known as quasars. Quasars constitute a brief hyper-luminous phase of the galactic life-cycle, powered by the infall of matter onto a galaxy’s central supermassive black hole. They thus act like cosmic lighthouses—bright, distant beacons that allow astronomers to study intergalactic atoms residing between the quasars location and Earth.

    Because these hyper-luminous episodes last only a tiny fraction of a galaxy’s lifetime, quasars are correspondingly rare on the sky, and are typically separated by hundreds of millions of light years from each other. In order to probe the cosmic web on much smaller scales, the astronomers exploited a fortuitous cosmic coincidence: they identified exceedingly rare pairs of quasars, right next to each other on the sky, and measured subtle differences in the absorption of intergalactic atoms measured along the two sightlines.

    “One of the biggest challenges was developing the mathematical and statistical tools to quantify the tiny differences we measure in this new kind of data,” said Alberto Rorai, a post-doctoral researcher at Cambridge university and lead author of the study. Rorai developed these tools as part of the research for his doctoral degree, and applied his tools to spectra of quasars obtained by the team on the largest telescopes in the world, including the 10-meter Keck telescopes at the W. M. Keck Observatory on Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

    The astronomers compared their measurements to supercomputer models that simulate the formation of cosmic structures from the Big Bang to the present.

    “The input to our simulations are the laws of physics and the output is an artificial universe which can be directly compared to astronomical data. I was delighted to see that these new measurements agree with the well-established paradigm for how cosmic structures form,” said Jose Oñorbe, a post-doctoral researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, who led the supercomputer simulation effort. On a single laptop, these complex calculations would have required almost a thousand years to complete, but modern supercomputers enabled the researchers to carry them out in just a few weeks.

    “One reason why these small-scale fluctuations are so interesting is that they encode information about the temperature of gas in the cosmic web just a few billion years after the Big Bang,” said Joseph Hennawi, a professor of physics at UC Santa Barbara who led the search for quasar pairs.

    Astronomers believe that the matter in the universe went through phase transitions billions of years ago, which dramatically changed its temperature. These phase transitions, known as cosmic reionization, occurred when the collective ultraviolet glow of all stars and quasars in the universe became intense enough to strip electrons off of the atoms in intergalactic space. How and when reionization occurred is one of the biggest open questions in the field of cosmology, and these new measurements provide important clues that will help narrate this chapter of the history of the universe.

    Telescopes in this study:

    Keck Observatory, Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA

    ESO/VLT at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    Carnegie 6.5 meter Magellan Baade and Clay Telescopes located at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

    See the full article here .

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    UCO Lick Shane Telescope
    UCO Lick Shane Telescope interior
    Shane Telescope at UCO Lick Observatory, UCSC

    Lick Automated Planet Finder telescope, Mount Hamilton, CA, USA

    Lick Automated Planet Finder telescope, Mount Hamilton, CA, USA

    UC Santa Cruz campus
    The University of California, Santa Cruz, opened in 1965 and grew, one college at a time, to its current (2008-09) enrollment of more than 16,000 students. Undergraduates pursue more than 60 majors supervised by divisional deans of humanities, physical & biological sciences, social sciences, and arts. Graduate students work toward graduate certificates, master’s degrees, or doctoral degrees in more than 30 academic fields under the supervision of the divisional and graduate deans. The dean of the Jack Baskin School of Engineering oversees the campus’s undergraduate and graduate engineering programs.

    UCSC is the home base for the Lick Observatory.

    Lick Observatory's Great Lick 91-centimeter (36-inch) telescope housed in the South (large) Dome of main building
    Lick Observatory’s Great Lick 91-centimeter (36-inch) telescope housed in the South (large) Dome of main building

    Search for extraterrestrial intelligence expands at Lick Observatory
    New instrument scans the sky for pulses of infrared light
    March 23, 2015
    By Hilary Lebow
    1
    The NIROSETI instrument saw first light on the Nickel 1-meter Telescope at Lick Observatory on March 15, 2015. (Photo by Laurie Hatch) UCSC Lick Nickel telescope

    Astronomers are expanding the search for extraterrestrial intelligence into a new realm with detectors tuned to infrared light at UC’s Lick Observatory. A new instrument, called NIROSETI, will soon scour the sky for messages from other worlds.

    “Infrared light would be an excellent means of interstellar communication,” said Shelley Wright, an assistant professor of physics at UC San Diego who led the development of the new instrument while at the University of Toronto’s Dunlap Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics.

    Wright worked on an earlier SETI project at Lick Observatory as a UC Santa Cruz undergraduate, when she built an optical instrument designed by UC Berkeley researchers. The infrared project takes advantage of new technology not available for that first optical search.

    Infrared light would be a good way for extraterrestrials to get our attention here on Earth, since pulses from a powerful infrared laser could outshine a star, if only for a billionth of a second. Interstellar gas and dust is almost transparent to near infrared, so these signals can be seen from great distances. It also takes less energy to send information using infrared signals than with visible light.

    5
    UCSC alumna Shelley Wright, now an assistant professor of physics at UC San Diego, discusses the dichroic filter of the NIROSETI instrument. (Photo by Laurie Hatch)

    Frank Drake, professor emeritus of astronomy and astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz and director emeritus of the SETI Institute, said there are several additional advantages to a search in the infrared realm.

    “The signals are so strong that we only need a small telescope to receive them. Smaller telescopes can offer more observational time, and that is good because we need to search many stars for a chance of success,” said Drake.

    The only downside is that extraterrestrials would need to be transmitting their signals in our direction, Drake said, though he sees this as a positive side to that limitation. “If we get a signal from someone who’s aiming for us, it could mean there’s altruism in the universe. I like that idea. If they want to be friendly, that’s who we will find.”

    Scientists have searched the skies for radio signals for more than 50 years and expanded their search into the optical realm more than a decade ago. The idea of searching in the infrared is not a new one, but instruments capable of capturing pulses of infrared light only recently became available.

    “We had to wait,” Wright said. “I spent eight years waiting and watching as new technology emerged.”

    Now that technology has caught up, the search will extend to stars thousands of light years away, rather than just hundreds. NIROSETI, or Near-Infrared Optical Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, could also uncover new information about the physical universe.

    “This is the first time Earthlings have looked at the universe at infrared wavelengths with nanosecond time scales,” said Dan Werthimer, UC Berkeley SETI Project Director. “The instrument could discover new astrophysical phenomena, or perhaps answer the question of whether we are alone.”

    NIROSETI will also gather more information than previous optical detectors by recording levels of light over time so that patterns can be analyzed for potential signs of other civilizations.

    “Searching for intelligent life in the universe is both thrilling and somewhat unorthodox,” said Claire Max, director of UC Observatories and professor of astronomy and astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz. “Lick Observatory has already been the site of several previous SETI searches, so this is a very exciting addition to the current research taking place.”

    NIROSETI will be fully operational by early summer and will scan the skies several times a week on the Nickel 1-meter telescope at Lick Observatory, located on Mt. Hamilton east of San Jose.

    The NIROSETI team also includes Geoffrey Marcy and Andrew Siemion from UC Berkeley; Patrick Dorval, a Dunlap undergraduate, and Elliot Meyer, a Dunlap graduate student; and Richard Treffers of Starman Systems. Funding for the project comes from the generous support of Bill and Susan Bloomfield.

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    UCSC is the home base for the Lick Observatory.

     
  • richardmitnick 6:45 am on April 28, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Pre-Med, Rutgers SAS, The Fair Side   

    From Rutgers SAS: “Pre-Med, The Fair Side” 

    Rutgers University
    Rutgers University

    SAS Honors Program Blog

    April 28, 2017
    Neelay Inamdar

    Many of you are likely familiar with the infamous rigor of the pre-med track here at Rutgers. With neurobiology, biochemistry, anatomy, and the dreaded organic chemistry, there is no telling how people manage to survive these dreaded encounters. On top of that, med schools expect to see other activities outside that involve experience in the clinical field, including shadowing, volunteering, building houses in Africa, which almost everybody does, so how in the world are you supposed to distinguish yourself?

    I know one thing for sure: complaining about it won’t help. I have adopted a new mantra to make myself stop complaining when things do not go my way because it is an unnecessary waste of time and energy that will not get you anywhere. Although this may seem obvious, when caught in the whirlwind of courses and grades and academia in such a competitive field, it is easy to even forget to brush your teeth in the morning, let alone give advice that should be beneficial. However, as the semester draws to a close, I will take it upon myself to remember internally the advice I set for myself and for others, to not complain and instead find a way around and look for a solution.

    One of those potential alternate solutions was, for me, to go to the Career and Internship Mega-Fair, on Thursday, February 2, and Friday, February 3.

    Unsurprisingly, this was a formal event, because when people look first to introduce themselves to potential recruiters and employers for big companies looking to hire employees or summer interns, they must look their best. Dressed in a button-down Calvin Klein white shirt, black dress pants, and a three-button blazer that I got as a present from the Raymond shop during my trip to Mumbai last year, I stepped off the bus at Livi and made my way to the Rec Center, also the site of my high school graduation. With my blazer, I was described by my friends who also went there as “straight from the 1970s”. Great way to stand out from the rest of the crowd who was dressed in more traditional business attire, I thought.

    I wasn’t looking for any company in particular, but I was there to observe how people network and look for jobs, and overall how they present themselves to the employers to make themselves sound like the perfect fit for the company. There were easily over 1,000 students waiting there, with hundreds waiting in line for the bigger companies like Johnson and Johnson, Google, and GlaxoSmithKline, all geared towards the same goal of expressing their interest and why they are the best fit for the company. Talk about competitive.

    1
    No image caption. No image credit

    All of them brought their resumes, two-sided, listing their best accomplishments. If this is starting to sound just like any other typical student trying to get a job after graduation or for the summer, let me emphasize one point: most of the other students I saw there were either finance, marketing, computer science, engineering, or data analysts (whatever that means), none were pre-med. Almost all of them had some idea of what skills they wanted to present to what companies in order to land co-ops or full-time careers, and many of them were even post-bacs or seniors looking for a place to work, but nobody I saw was pursuing a career in the biological sciences. Now I’m not saying there were no pre-med related companies there (Emergency Medical Associates came on that Friday), or that there were not any pre-med students. I am simply stressing how much I felt out-of-place there initially, since everybody was talking about their experience with programming languages like C++ or Java, their summer working for an engineering firm in Colorado or somewhere far away from home, or their summer internships as data analysts, R & D employees, or intensive paid or unpaid co-ops. All of that jargon seemed foreign to me, considering that all I had done during my past summer was shadow a doctor of geriatric medicine and looked for a job in a retail setting (Walgreens, for those of you who haven’t seen my previous post). This type of setting just didn’t seem fitting for pre-meds, even if they said “all majors welcome” on the online and print advertisements.

    But worried I was not. Mainly, in addition to an alternate pathway should there ever come a time when I feel pre-med is not for me, I also wanted to learn how to network. Potential new opportunities, as I learned last summer, don’t just come. You have to actively work to get them. I actively approached this fair as a potential to get involved with several companies during the summer, maybe to see the side of career choices that don’t come with clinical experience or to simply see how to communicate with people in a professional manner. I brought a few copies of my resume and proudly put my clinical experiences on them, despite not matching what others had for the companies I was standing in line for. I was determined to at least make a good impression and establish my interest in learning about networking and the company itself.

    My first, and most memorable stop, was Johnson and Johnson, one of the few places there that seemed to be of interest to me as a pre-med. When I finally talked to one of the recruiters, I initially told them that I was a pre-med major and looking for a chance to work with Johnson and Johnson, as an R & D. Even if I didn’t know what that meant, I managed to tailor my questions in a professional manner so the recruiter could explain to me all the terms without me seeming like I had no clue. I explained to her I was very interested and thought pharmaceuticals and medical devices was the field for me, which was exactly what Johnson and Johnson embodied, she said to me. I told her about the experiences on my resume as she skimmed over it, as a Teaching Intern and a blogger for the SASHP, telling her I was actively working to make a difference by teaching others, inspiring them, and hoping to do the same with Johnson and Johnson. To my surprise, after I was done, she told me I’d be a perfect fit!

    Although I initially made myself sound like I wanted to do a co-op for the summer, I ended up landing a volunteer position at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital for the summer before I seriously considered applying, but was thrilled to know that I successfully learned how to network and present myself in the best manner, and have a potential backup plan to continue going and networking at these fairs in case pre-med does not work out for me.

    My main point of advice to all you students who are or are not pre-meds is to not be afraid to network. Although I felt out of place there, I ended up making a better impression on other companies than I expected to, probably because of how confident I seemed despite my inner confusion and insecurity. This fair allowed me an opportunity to see what skill sets are required of other majors to land jobs and internships, since as a pre-med, I would naturally find myself trying to develop skills only for the sake of medicine through my shadowing and volunteer activities, and not necessarily have a good understanding of what people of other careers have to do to get their feet in the door.

    I told myself that, with this experience, I will never make myself feel like I don’t belong, and will keep an open mind, instead of complaining about how difficult the field I am entering is. Reflecting on my presence at the fair, I was surprised about what skills I possessed and what opportunities that I wasn’t expecting could suddenly become an important asset to my future, and overall, how to be confident and explore other areas other than the traditional routes that most other pre-med students tend to take.

    See the full article here .

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    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is a leading national research university and the state’s preeminent, comprehensive public institution of higher education. Rutgers is dedicated to teaching that meets the highest standards of excellence; to conducting research that breaks new ground; and to providing services, solutions, and clinical care that help individuals and the local, national, and global communities where they live.

    Founded in 1766, Rutgers teaches across the full educational spectrum: preschool to precollege; undergraduate to graduate; postdoctoral fellowships to residencies; and continuing education for professional and personal advancement.

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    As a ’67 graduate of University College, second in my class, I am proud to be a member of

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  • richardmitnick 6:34 am on April 28, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Boeing and CSIRO launch new AU$35M research program,   

    From CSIRO: “Boeing and CSIRO launch new AUD$35M research program” 

    CSIRO bloc

    Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

    CSIRO has signed a new, $AUD35 million research agreement with the world’s largest aerospace company, Boeing.

    1
    Sprayon topcoat for aircraft. Our costeffective topcoat technology is reducing environmental impact and improving worker safety in the aviation industry. No image credit.

    Over the next five years the organisations will work together on a broad range of areas of mutual interest including space sciences, advanced materials and manufacturing.

    It’s the latest step in a 28-year partnership between CSIRO and Boeing that has provided a huge boost for Australia in the global aviation industry.

    CSIRO Chief Executive Larry Marshall announced the new funding agreement at the American Chamber of Commerce in Australia’s G’day to Aussie innovation event in Sydney today.

    “With almost three decades of ground-breaking research that has created jobs and growth for Australia and the US, it’s hard to overstate the impact that our relationship with Boeing has had,” Dr Marshall said.

    “Adopting a global outlook for national benefit is a key pillar of CSIRO’s Strategy 2020, and it’s an approach that has yielded enormous benefits through our relationship with Boeing.”

    Earlier this month, Boeing named CSIRO as a 2016 Supplier of the Year.

    “Boeing celebrates 90 years in Australia this year, and for nearly a third of that time, we’ve partnered with CSIRO on advanced technologies that have made a real difference to the aerospace industry,” President of Boeing Australia, New Zealand and South Pacific, Maureen Dougherty said.

    “We’re excited to see that relationship move forward as a result of this new multi-year agreement.”

    CSIRO and Boeing celebrated their respective centenaries in 2016. Over the years the organisations have invested more than $AUD170 million on 190 joint research projects into everything from innovative new manufacturing processes, to fire retardants, biofuels and software.

    CSIRO’s “Paintbond” technology, for instance, has been applied to more than a thousand Boeing airplanes, including some in the skies above Australia, saving millions of dollars in maintenance costs.

    The strong relationship with CSIRO was a key factor in Boeing choosing Australia as the location for its largest research and development operation outside the United States.

    “We are proud to have worked with Boeing so closely and for so many years, helping them to deliver profound value to their customers.” Dr Marshall said.

    “Our relationship is a real success story of science partnering with industry to create impact, and we’re looking forward to growing that impact even further in the coming years.”

    See the full article here .

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    CSIRO, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, is Australia’s national science agency and one of the largest and most diverse research agencies in the world.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:18 pm on April 27, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , ,   

    From Universe Today: “Breakthrough Listen Publishes First Analysis Of 692 Stars In ET Search” 

    universe-today

    Universe Today

    27 Apr , 2017
    Matt Williams

    1
    Breakthrough Listen will monitor the 1 million closest stars to Earth over a ten year period. Credit: Breakthrough Initiatives

    In July of 2015, Breakthrough Initiatives – a non-profit dedicated to the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence, founded by Yuri Milner – announced the creation of Breakthrough Listen. A ten-year initiative costing $100 million, this program was aimed at using the latest in instrumentation and software to conduct the largest survey to date for extraterrestrial communications, encompassing the 1,000,000 closest stars and 100 closest galaxies.

    On Thursday, April. 20th, at the Breakthrough Discuss conference, the organization shared their analysis of the first year of Listen data. Gathered by the Green Bank Radio Telescope, this data included an analysis of 692 stars, as well as 11 events that have been ranked for having the highest significance. The results have been published on the project’s website, and will soon be published in the Astrophysical Journal.

    Since 2016, Breakthrough Listen has been gathering data with the Green Bank Radio Telescope in West Virginia, the Lick Observatory’s Automated Planet Finder on Mt. Hamilton in California, and the Parkes Radio Telescope in Australia. This data is analyzed by the Listen science team at the Berkeley SETI Research Center (BSRC), who rely on a specially-designed data pipeline to scan through billions of radio channels for any sign of unique signals.

    2
    The Green Bank Telescope (GBT), a radio telescope located at the Green Bank Observatory in West Virginia. Credit: greenbankobservatory.org

    While the results were not exactly definitive, this is just the first step in a program that will span a decade. As Dr. Andrew Siemion, the Director of the BSRC, explained in a BI press release:

    “With the submission of this paper, the first scientific results from Breakthrough Listen are now available for the world to review. Although the search has not yet detected a convincing signal from extraterrestrial intelligence, these are early days. The work that has been completed so far provides a launch pad for deeper and more comprehensive analysis to come.”

    The Green Bank Telescope searched for these signals using its “L-band” receiver, which gathers data in frequencies ranging from 1.1 to 1.9 GHz. At these frequencies, artificial signals can be distinguished from natural sources, which includes pulsars, quasars, radio galaxies and even the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Within these parameters, the BSRC team examined 692 stars from its primary target list.

    For each star, they conducting three five-minutes observation periods, while also conducting five-minute observations on a set of secondary targets. Combined with a Doppler drift search – a perceived difference in frequency caused by the motion of the source or receiver (i.e. the star and/or Earth) – the Listen science team identified channels where radio emission were seen for each target (aka. “hits”).

    3
    The Parkes radio telescope, one of the telescopes comprising CSIRO’s Australia Telescope National Facility. Credit: CSIRO/David McClenaghan

    This led to a combined 400 hours and 8 petabytes worth of observational data. All together, the team found millions of hits from the sample data as a whole, and eleven events that rose above the threshold for significance. These events (which are listed here) took place around eleven distant stars and ranged from to 25.4 to 3376.9 SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio).

    However, the vast majority of the overall hits were determined to be the result of radio frequency interference from local sources. What’s more, further analysis of the 11 events indicated that it was unlikely that any of the signals were artificial in nature. While these stars all exhibited their own unique radio “fingerprints”, this is not necessarily an indication that they are being broadcast by intelligent species.

    But of course, finding localized and unusual radio signals is an excellent way to select targets for follow-up examination. And if there is evidence to be found out there of intelligent species using radio signals to communicate, Breakthrough Listen is likely to be the one that finds them. Of all the SETI programs mounted to date, Listen is by far the most sophisticated.

    Not only do its radio surveys cover 10 times more sky than previous programs, but its instruments are 50 times more sensitive than telescopes that are currently engaged in the search for extra-terrestrial life. They also cover 5 times more of the radio spectrum, and at speeds that are 100 times as fast. Between now and when it concludes in the coming decade, the BSRC team plans to release updated Listen data once every six months.

    4
    The Automated Planet Finder (APF) is the newest telescope at UC’s Lick Observatory on Mt. Hamilton. (Photo by Laurie Hatch)

    In the meantime, they are actively engaging with signal processing and machine learning experts to develop more sophisticated algorithms to analyze the data they collect. And while they continue to listen for extra-solar sources of life, Breakthrough Starshot continues to develop the first concept for a laser-driven lightsail, which they hope will make the first interstellar voyage in the coming years.

    And of course, we here in the Solar System are looking forward to missions in the coming decade that will search for life right here, in our own backyard. These include missions to Europa, Enceladus, Titan, and other “ocean worlds” where life is believed to exist in some exotic form!

    Breakthrough Listen‘s data analysis can be found here. Director Andrew Siemion also took to Facebook Live on Thursday, April 20th, to presents the results of Listen’s first year of study.And be sure to check out this video that marked the launch of Breakthrough Initiatives:

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 2:44 pm on April 27, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , MPIA, The cosmic web, Use of pairs of quasars   

    From MPG: “Shedding light on the cosmic web” 

    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy

    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy

    Astronomers use the light of twin quasars to measure the structure of the universe.

    April 27, 2017

    Astronomers believe that matter in intergalactic space is distributed in a vast network of interconnected filamentary structures known as the cosmic web. Nearly all the atoms in the Universe reside in this web, vestigial material left over from the Big Bang. A team led by researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg have made the first measurements of small-scale fluctuations in the cosmic web just 2 billion years after the Big Bang. These measurements were enabled by a novel technique using pairs of quasars to probe the cosmic web along adjacent, closely separated lines of sight. They promise to help astronomers reconstruct an early chapter of cosmic history known as the epoch of reionization.

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    Snapshot of a supercomuter simulation showing part of the cosmic web, 11.5 billion years ago. The researchers created this and other models of the universe and directly compared them with quasar pair data in order to measure the small-scale ripples in the cosmic web. The cube is 24 million light-years on a side. © J. Oñorbe / MPIA

    The most barren regions of the Universe are the far-flung corners of intergalactic space. In these vast expanses between the galaxies there are only a few atoms per cubic meter – a diffuse haze of hydrogen gas left over from the Big Bang. Viewed on the largest scales, this diffuse material nevertheless accounts for the majority of atoms in the Universe, and fills the cosmic web, its tangled strands spanning billions of light years.

    Now, a team led by astronomers from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA) have made the first measurements of small-scale ripples in this primeval hydrogen gas. Although the regions of cosmic web they studied lie nearly 11 billion light years away, they were able to measure variations in its structure on scales a hundred thousand times smaller, comparable to the size of a single galaxy.

    Intergalactic gas is so tenuous that it emits no light of its own. Instead astronomers study it indirectly by observing how it selectively absorbs the light coming from faraway sources known as quasars. Quasars constitute a brief hyperluminous phase of the galactic life-cycle, powered by the infall of matter onto a galaxy’s central supermassive black hole.

    Quasars act like cosmic lighthouses – bright, distant beacons that allow astronomers to study intergalactic atoms residing between the quasars location and Earth. But because these hyperluminous episodes last only a tiny fraction of a galaxy’s lifetime, quasars are correspondingly rare on the sky, and are typically separated by hundreds of millions of light years from each other.

    2

    Schematic representation of the technique used to probe the small-scale structure of the cosmic web using light from a rare quasar pair. The spectra (bottom right) contain information about the hydrogen gas the light has encountered on its journey to Earth, as well as the distance of that gas. © J. Oñorbe / MPIA

    In order to probe the cosmic web on much smaller length scales, the astronomers exploited a fortuitous cosmic coincidence: They identified exceedingly rare pairs of quasars right next to each other on the sky, and measured subtle differences in the absorption of intergalactic atoms measured along the two sightlines.

    Alberto Rorai, a post-doctoral researcher at Cambridge university and the lead author of the study says: “One of the biggest challenges was developing the mathematical and statistical tools to quantify the tiny differences we measure in this new kind of data.”

    Rorai developed these tools as part of the research for his doctoral degree at the MPIA, and applied his tools to spectra of quasars obtained with the largest telescopes in the world, including the 10 meter diameter Keck telescopes at the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii, as well as ESO’s 8 meter diameter Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal, and the 6.5 meter diameter Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, both located in the Chilean Atacama Desert.

    Keck Observatory, Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA

    ESO/VLT at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

    Carnegie 6.5 meter Magellan Baade and Clay Telescopes located at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

    The astronomers compared their measurements to supercomputer models that simulate the formation of cosmic structures from the Big Bang to the present. “The input to our simulations are the laws of Physics and the output is an artificial Universe which can be directly compared to astronomical data. I was delighted to see that these new measurements agree with the well-established paradigm for how cosmic structures form,” says Jose Oñorbe, a post-doctoral researcher at the MPIA, who led the supercomputer simulation effort.

    On a single laptop, these complex calculations would have required almost a thousand years to complete, but modern supercomputers enabled the researchers to carry them out in just a few weeks.

    Joseph Hennawi, who leads the research group at MPIA responsible for the measurement, explains: “One reason why these small-scale fluctuations are so interesting is that they encode information about the temperature of gas in the cosmic web just a few billion years after the Big Bang.” According to the current level of knowledge, the universe had quite a mercurial youth: initially, about 400,000 years after the Big Bang, the universe had cooled down to such an extent that neutral hydrogen could arise. At that point, there were practically no heavenly bodies yet and therefore no light. It was not until few hundred million years later that this ‘dark age’ ended and a new era began, in which stars and quasars lit up and emitted energetic ultraviolet rays. The latter were so intense that they robbed atoms in the intergalactic space of their electrons – the gas was ionized again.

    How and when reionization occurred is one of the biggest open questions in the field of cosmology, and these new measurements provide important clues that will help narrate this chapter of cosmic history.

    Science paper:
    Measurement of the small-scale structure of the intergalactic medium using close quasar pairs

    See the full article here .

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  • richardmitnick 2:11 pm on April 27, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Also involved in LCLS II are FNAL JLab and ANL, , LBNL contribution, , ,   

    From LBNL: “Special Delivery: First Shipment of Magnetic Devices for Next-Gen X-Ray Laser” 

    Berkeley Logo

    Berkeley Lab

    April 27, 2017
    Glenn Roberts Jr.
    geroberts@lbl.gov
    (510) 486-5582

    Berkeley Lab is overseeing development of specialized undulators that will produce X-ray light at LCLS-II by wiggling electrons

    1

    2
    The first two undulator segments—devices that will be used to produce X-ray laser beams for a project known as LCLS-II—arrived at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in Menlo Park, Calif., on Wednesday. (Credit: SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)

    The first shipment of powerful magnetic devices for a next-generation laser project arrived at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory on Wednesday after a nearly 3,000-mile journey from a factory in New York to California in a customized delivery truck.

    The Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is overseeing the development and delivery of these devices, known as soft X-ray undulators. They are a key part of LCLS-II, a free-electron laser being built for SLAC by a partnership of SLAC and four other DOE national laboratories: Berkeley Lab, Fermilab, Jefferson Lab, and Argonne.

    The two devices that arrived this week to LCLS-II are the first of what will ultimately be a chain of 21 segments making up the complete soft X-ray undulator. They are at the heart of the free-electron laser, as they will cause the high-energy electron beam from a linear accelerator to emit laserlike beams of X-rays.

    The soft X-ray undulator units present an impressive combination of brute strength and fine precision. Each weighs about 6.5 tons and is about 11 feet long, with sturdy steel frames that are designed to withstand nearly 7 tons of force to keep the two rows of magnets precisely positioned as they try to repel each other. The distance between the rows can be adjusted within millionths of an inch to tune the properties of the X-ray laser light.

    3
    Workers at KTC, a company in Buffalo, N.Y., prepare the first powerful magnetic devices known as soft X-ray undulator segments for the cross-country journey to SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in Menlo Park, Calif. Berkeley Lab is overseeing the development and delivery of these segments for use in the LCLS-II project, an upgrade to SLAC’s X-ray laser. (Credit: Keller Technology Corp./KTC)

    LCLS-II is a major new facility and upgrade to the existing Linac Coherent Light Source [LCLS], a DOE Office of Science User Facility enabling higher performance, new capabilities, and higher capacity for new experiments.

    SLAC/LCLS

    In particular, LCLS-II will provide a continual stream of X-ray pulses that will enable studies at the atomic, molecular, and nano scales, with femtosecond (quadrillionths-of-a-second) time resolution. This knowledge is eagerly sought in fields ranging from biology to materials science.

    SLAC/LCLS II schematic

    “The delivery is ahead of schedule and below the baseline budget,” said John Corlett, a physicist who is Berkeley Lab’s senior team leader in the LCLS-II project collaboration.

    4
    A prototype LCLS-II soft X-ray undulator, which is designed to wiggle electrons, causing them to emit brilliant X-ray light, undergoes magnetic measurements at Berkeley Lab. (Credit: Roy Kaltschmidt/Berkeley Lab)

    Corlett added, “This is a major achievement—the culmination of years of work in designing the undulator, qualifying the design, and working with vendors.”

    Berkeley Lab is also overseeing the final design and mass production of a set of 32 hard X-ray undulator segments, The Lab collaborated with Argonne National Laboratory in the design and development of these segments. (“Hard” refers to higher-energy X-rays, and “soft” refers to lower-energy X-rays.) Undulators using permanent magnets were first used for storage ring light sources and are now in use for free-electron lasers. The late Klaus Halbach of Berkeley Lab was a pioneer in developing the permanent-magnet array used in these devices.

    Berkeley Lab is also fabricating a unique electron “gun” that kick-starts the rapid-fire electron bunches needed to produce intense electron beams for LCLS-II. The new gun is derived from the Advanced Photoinjector Experiment (APEX) gun, which was successfully developed at Berkeley Lab and is now being used for ultrafast electron experiments.

    6
    The APEX electron gun and test beamline at the Advanced Light Source’s Beam Test Facility.

    As the electron beams go through the undulators, the alternating magnetic fields inside will cause electrons to wiggle, giving off some of their energy in the form of light. As the beam goes through the long chain of undulator segments, each precisely spaced field adds to its intensity.

    The soft X-ray undulator will be capable of producing up to 1 million soft X-ray pulses per second, and the hard X-ray chain can produce X-ray laser pulses that are up to 10,000 times brighter, on average, than those of the existing LCLS.

    “Tremendous effort has gone into the design and development of these undulators at Berkeley Lab and across the project collaboration,” said James Symons, associate laboratory director of Physical Sciences at Berkeley Lab. He oversees both the Engineering and the Accelerator Technology and Applied Physics divisions, which worked together to design and prototype the undulators. “We, and the X-ray user community, are looking forward to their installation and to ‘first light’ at LCLS-II.”

    Wim Leemans, director of Berkeley Lab’s Accelerator Technology and Applied Physics Division, added, “It’s exciting to see the undulators move from the drawing board to the delivery truck after all those years of work. We are glad to contribute our expertise to this realization of a unique new tool for science.”

    Berkeley Lab engineer Matthaeus Leitner has key technical and budgetary responsibility for the undulators, while his colleague Steve Virostek plays the same role for the injector system. Other Berkeley Lab contributions to LCLS-II include accelerator physics and technology studies in beam dynamics, free-electron laser design, the low-level radiofrequency system, and the management and integration of cryogenics systems.

    John Galayda of SLAC, director of the LCLS-II project team, said, “The LBNL team’s performance has been crucial to the LCLS-II project’s good progress to date.”


    This movie introduces LCLS-II, a future X-ray light source. It will generate over 8,000 times more light pulses per second than today’s most powerful X-ray laser, LCLS, and produce an almost continuous X-ray beam. (Credit: SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)

    The soft X-ray undulator shipments will continue every six weeks to SLAC from their assembly at a vendor in Buffalo, N.Y. The shipments will wrap up in spring 2018. To prevent damage and misalignment during their coast-to-coast journey, the undulator segments are being shipped in a climate-controlled truck that includes a special shock-absorbing frame.

    Once delivered to SLAC, the undulator segments must be fine-tuned. “The undulators have been specially designed to allow for very rapid tuning,” said Henrik von der Lippe, Berkeley Lab’s Engineering Division director. “The process will require as little as two days, compared to the two weeks or more needed by earlier undulators.”

    Now that the soft-X-ray undulator segments are in production, engineers are now conducting magnetic tests on a pre-production version of a hard X-ray undulator segment. These segments will be assembled by vendors in Buffalo, N.Y., and in Los Angeles, and then shipped to Berkeley Lab for tuning before final delivery to SLAC.

    Work on the LCLS-II undulators is supported by the DOE Office of Science.

    See the full article here .

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    A U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory Operated by the University of California

    University of California Seal

    DOE Seal

     
  • richardmitnick 12:13 pm on April 27, 2017 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Crédit Agricole contributes computer power to WCG,   

    From WCG: ““It’s not just big data. It’s for the good of humanity.” 

    New WCG Logo

    WCGLarge

    World Community Grid (WCG)

    27 Apr 2017

    Summary
    Three co-workers wanted their company to support World Community Grid, but they knew they’d need to convince many people to make their vision a reality. Here’s how they did it.

    Each year, employees with SILCA (one of the information technology and services arms of Crédit Agricole, an international bank based in France) are invited to submit proposals for new company initiatives at Crédit Agricole’s Innovation Week. In 2015, a small group at SILCA presented a carefully crafted proposal to run World Community Grid on company computers. Their proposal led to a successful pilot project, and eventually a wide-scale implementation that currently includes more than 1,200 computers.

    1
    David Dubuis, Philippe Mangematin, and Stephane Douglay at Innovation Week 2017, after their successful pilot of World Community Grid won an Innovation Award. (Photo by Alain Goulard)

    A Carefully Planned Pilot

    Social responsibility, environmental responsibility, and solidarity are very strong values within SILCA. So when David Dubius, Philippe Mangematin, and Stephane Douglay learned about World Community Grid several years ago, they realized that this was an opportunity for their organization to donate unused computing power from its desktops for important humanitarian research.

    “First, we planned a pilot project that involved 10 computers,” explains David. “We presented a proposal for this pilot project to a jury at Innovation Week 2015, and it was considered one of the best proposals of the year.”

    As the IT department for a bank, SILCA is strongly committed to security at every level. To pre-emptively address security questions about World Community Grid, the pilot project team created a proof of concept plan. Their pilot project included communicating frequently with World Community Grid’s development team, and discussing any new security questions as they came up.

    The team also showed their colleagues at SILCA how much they could potentially contribute to research projects to combat AIDS, Ebola, Zika, cancer, and other diseases. “We monitored the data flow daily, and turned in weekly reports that detailed exactly what the computers in the pilot project were doing,” says David. They also enlisted the help of Dr. Alessandra Carbone, who led the Help Cure Muscular Dystrophy project. Dr. Carbone, who is based in France, worked with the team to create a podcast where she explained how useful and important World Community Grid was for her research, and for humanitarian science projects in general.

    An Award and an Expansion

    By January 2017, the team was ready to showcase the results of the pilot project at another Innovation Week. With their presentation “Desktop Grid, Soyons Solidaires,” they received a first-prize Innovation Award out of 60 projects presented within the Crédit Agricole group. Their message, “It’s not just big data, it’s for the good of humanity,” had once again resonated with the Innovation Week judges.

    SILCA formalized its collaboration with World Community Grid in December 2016, becoming an official partner and installing the World Community Grid app on 1,200 workstations of its employees.

    Plans for the Future

    The team is working on internal marketing efforts to continue to spread the word within SILCA, such as working with their communications team to put a World Community Grid widget on SILCA’s intranet site.

    The team would like to extend the project to other groups within Crédit Agricole. “SILCA is just one subsidiary of Crédit Agricole,” says David. “We are presenting the results of our project to other groups, and it would be a great victory if others would join.”

    See the full article here.

    Ways to access the blog:
    https://sciencesprings.wordpress.com
    http://facebook.com/sciencesprings

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    World Community Grid (WCG) brings people together from across the globe to create the largest non-profit computing grid benefiting humanity. It does this by pooling surplus computer processing power. We believe that innovation combined with visionary scientific research and large-scale volunteerism can help make the planet smarter. Our success depends on like-minded individuals – like you.”
    WCG projects run on BOINC software from UC Berkeley.
    BOINCLarge

    BOINC is a leader in the field(s) of Distributed Computing, Grid Computing and Citizen Cyberscience.BOINC is more properly the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing.

    BOINC WallPaper

    CAN ONE PERSON MAKE A DIFFERENCE? YOU BET!!

    My BOINC
    MyBOINC
    “Download and install secure, free software that captures your computer’s spare power when it is on, but idle. You will then be a World Community Grid volunteer. It’s that simple!” You can download the software at either WCG or BOINC.

    Please visit the project pages-

    FightAIDS@home Phase II

    FAAH Phase II
    OpenZika

    Rutgers Open Zika

    Help Stop TB
    WCG Help Stop TB
    Outsmart Ebola together

    Outsmart Ebola Together

    Mapping Cancer Markers
    mappingcancermarkers2

    Uncovering Genome Mysteries
    Uncovering Genome Mysteries

    Say No to Schistosoma

    GO Fight Against Malaria

    Drug Search for Leishmaniasis

    Computing for Clean Water

    The Clean Energy Project

    Discovering Dengue Drugs – Together

    Help Cure Muscular Dystrophy

    Help Fight Childhood Cancer

    Help Conquer Cancer

    Human Proteome Folding

    FightAIDS@Home

    faah-1-new-screen-saver

    faah-1-new

    World Community Grid is a social initiative of IBM Corporation
    IBM Corporation
    ibm

    IBM – Smarter Planet
    sp

     
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