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  • richardmitnick 1:01 pm on May 9, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From CFA: “Clusters of Massive New Stars” 

    Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

    Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

    May 9, 2014
    No Writer Credit

    Over ninety percent of the stars in our galaxy were born in stellar nurseries, clusters of stars nestled deep within clouds of dust and molecular gas. These young natal environments are key targets for astronomers who study star formation because they retain imprints of the initial conditions that produced the stars and the dynamical environments under which they evolved. Clusters with massive stars (stars more than a few solar masses in size) are of particular interest since both the formation of massive stars and their impact on other cluster members are poorly understood, for several fundamental reasons. Massive stars begin hydrogen burning while they are still growing and hence quickly develop strong winds and ultraviolet radiation that inhibit their further growth while at the same time disrupting the nursery with shock waves and ionizing light. Moreover, because massive stars evolve quickly they do not linger in any particular stage of development long enough for easy study, and they remain obscured by the not-yet-disbursed natal dust. None of these issues applies to the formation of lower mass stars.

    clusters
    A Spitzer three-color infrared image of the massive star-forming cluster in the W5-East molecular cloud. CfA astronomers have used the infrared images to survey the populations of embedded young stars in this and four other regions. The contours show the extent of ionizing radiation from embedded stars; white arrows show radiation from external, hot stars. The scale marker indicates a length of 6.58 light-years.

    CfA astronomers Luis Chavarria, Joe Hora, Gus Muench, and Giovanni Fazio and two colleagues undertook a study of massive stellar clusters with the Spitzer Space Telescope, whose infrared camera can peer inside dusty regions. They chose five massive clusters relatively nearby (about six thousand light-years) and performed a detailed census of their populations using the infrared colors of the individual stars to characterize the clusters’ sizes and stages of development.

    NASA Spitzer Telescope
    NASA/Spitzer

    The astronomers report finding 3021 young stars in their set of five clusters, a large enough sample to draw significant conclusions. The youngest group of these stars, a subset of 539, are found in regions where the cloud material is densest, supporting the general picture of cluster formation. The scientists also find that massive young stars form preferentially in filamentary (rather than spherical) structures that subsequently fragment, probably due to turbulence effects.

    See the full article here.
    About CfA

    The Center for Astrophysics combines the resources and research facilities of the Harvard College Observatory and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under a single director to pursue studies of those basic physical processes that determine the nature and evolution of the universe. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, founded in 1890. The Harvard College Observatory (HCO), founded in 1839, is a research institution of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, and provides facilities and substantial other support for teaching activities of the Department of Astronomy. The long relationship between the two organizations, which began when the SAO moved its headquarters to Cambridge in 1955, was formalized by the establishment of a joint center in 1973. The CfA’s history of accomplishments in astronomy and astrophysics is reflected in a wide range of awards and prizes received by individual CfA scientists.

    Today, some 300 Smithsonian and Harvard scientists cooperate in broad programs of astrophysical research supported by Federal appropriations and University funds as well as contracts and grants from government agencies. These scientific investigations, touching on almost all major topics in astronomy, are organized into the following divisions, scientific departments and service groups.


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  • richardmitnick 9:39 am on August 22, 2012 Permalink | Reply
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    From isgtw: “How to grow a universe – just add a supercomputer” 

    August 22, 2012
    Andrew Purcell

    “Scientists using Harvard’s Odyssey high-performance supercomputer have created the most realistic simulation of cosmic evolution to date. The researchers, from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, have developed a new computational approach that can accurately model the birth and evolution of thousands of galaxies over billions of years. Produced using newly created software called Arepo, the simulation is significantly more detailed than previous attempts at modeling the evolution of our universe and could become a vital tool for cosmologists. In creating Arepo, the team basically took all the advantages of previous models and removed the disadvantages, explains Volker Springel, one of the astrophysicists who worked on the simulation.

    sc
    Odyssey Supercomputer, Dell Poweredge M600

    Using the observed afterglow of the big bang as input, Arepo is able to accurately simulate the evolution of portions of our universe to date. ‘We’ve created the full variety of galaxies we see in the local universe,’ says Mark Vogelsberger another member of the team.”

    Here is a short video presented by the team.

    How cool is that???

    See the full article here.

    iSGTW is an international weekly online publication that covers distributed computing and the research it enables.

    “We report on all aspects of distributed computing technology, such as grids and clouds. We also regularly feature articles on distributed computing-enabled research in a large variety of disciplines, including physics, biology, sociology, earth sciences, archaeology, medicine, disaster management, crime, and art. (Note that we do not cover stories that are purely about commercial technology.)

    In its current incarnation, iSGTW is also an online destination where you can host a profile and blog, and find and disseminate announcements and information about events, deadlines, and jobs. In the near future it will also be a place where you can network with colleagues.

    You can read iSGTW via our homepage, RSS, or email. For the complete iSGTW experience, sign up for an account or log in with OpenID and manage your email subscription from your account preferences. If you do not wish to access the website’s features, you can just subscribe to the weekly email.”


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