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  • richardmitnick 3:03 pm on September 25, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "New technique speeds measurement of ultrafast pulses", , Single-pixel imaging,   

    From University of Rochester (US): “New technique speeds measurement of ultrafast pulses” 

    From University of Rochester (US)

    9.24.21

    1
    Comparison of single-pixel imaging, at left, and time-domain single-pixel imaging (TSPI) at right. In a typical single-pixel imaging configuration the photodiode detector has only one pixel and hence provides no spatial resolution. In TPSI, the photodiode, which lacks the temporal bandwidth to resolve ultrafast signals by itself, works as the “single-pixel” detector in the time domain and is used in conjunction with a programmable temporal fan-out gate based on a digital micromirror device. (Illustration by Jiapeng Zhao.)

    2
    Schematics of the experimental setup showing a temporal fan out (TFO) gate represented by the yellow dashed box, which includes a digital micromirror device. The propagation direction of prepared input ultrafast pulse, originating in blue dashed box, is shown in pink. Dark red lines represent the corresponding pulse front. (Illustration by Jiapeng Zhao.)

    Rochester researchers next will aim for a combination of spatial, temporal imaging.

    When we look at an object with our eyes, or with a camera, we can automatically gather enough pixels of light at visible wavelengths to have a clear image of what we see.

    However, to visualize a quantum object or phenomenon where the illumination is weak, or emanating from nonvisible infrared or far infrared wavelengths, scientists need far more sensitive tools. For example, they have developed single-pixel imaging in the spatial domain as a way to pack and spatially structure as many photons as possible onto a single pixel detector and then create an image using computational algorithms.

    Similarly, in the time domain, when an unknown ultrafast signal is either weak, or in the infrared or far infrared wavelengths, the ability of single-pixel imaging to visualize it is reduced. Based on the spatio-temporal duality of light pulses, University of Rochester researchers have developed a time-domain single-pixel imaging technique, described in Optica, that solves this problem, detecting 5 femtojoule ultrafast light pulses with a temporal sampling size down to 16 femtoseconds. This time-domain analogy of the single-pixel imaging shows similar advantages to its spatial counterparts: a good measurement efficiency, a high sensitivity, robustness against temporal distortions and the compatibility at multiple wavelengths.

    Lead author Jiapeng Zhao, a PhD student in optics at the University of Rochester, says possible applications include a highly accurate spectrographic tool, demonstrated to achieve 97.5 percent accuracy in identifying samples using a convolutional neural network with this technique.

    The technique can also be combined with single-pixel imaging to create a computational hyperspectral imaging system, says Zhao, who works in the Rochester research group of Robert Boyd, professor of optics. The system can greatly speed up the detection and analysis of images at broad frequency bands. This could be especially useful for medical applications, where detection of nonvisible light emanating from human tissue at different wavelengths can indicate disorders such as high blood pressure.

    “By coupling our technique with single pixel imaging in the spatial domain, we can have good hyperspectral image within a few seconds. That’s much faster than what people have done before,” Zhao says.

    Other coauthors include Boyd and Xi-Cheng Zhang at Rochester, Jianming Dai at Tianjin University[天津大學](CN), and Boris Braverman at The University of Ottawa (CA).

    This project was supported with funding from the Office of Naval Research, the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the National Key Research and Development Program of China.

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Rochester (US) is a private research university in Rochester, New York. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees.

    The University of Rochester (US) enrolls approximately 6,800 undergraduates and 5,000 graduate students. Its 158 buildings house over 200 academic majors. According to the National Science Foundation (US), Rochester spent $370 million on research and development in 2018, ranking it 68th in the nation. The university is the 7th largest employer in the Finger lakes region of New York.

    The College of Arts, Sciences, and Engineering is home to departments and divisions of note. The Institute of Optics was founded in 1929 through a grant from Eastman Kodak and Bausch and Lomb as the first educational program in the US devoted exclusively to optics and awards approximately half of all optics degrees nationwide and is widely regarded as the premier optics program in the nation and among the best in the world. The Departments of Political Science and Economics have made a significant and consistent impact on positivist social science since the 1960s and historically rank in the top 5 in their fields. The Department of Chemistry is noted for its contributions to synthetic organic chemistry, including the first lab based synthesis of morphine. The Rossell Hope Robbins Library serves as the university’s resource for Old and Middle English texts and expertise. The university is also home to Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics, a Department of Energy (US) supported national laboratory.

    The University of Rochester’s Eastman School of Music (US) ranks first among undergraduate music schools in the U.S. The Sibley Music Library at Eastman is the largest academic music library in North America and holds the third largest collection in the United States.

    In its history university alumni and faculty have earned 13 Nobel Prizes; 13 Pulitzer Prizes; 45 Grammy Awards; 20 Guggenheim Awards; 5 National Academy of Sciences; 4 National Academy of Engineering; 3 Rhodes Scholarships; 3 National Academy of Inventors; and 1 National Academy of Inventors Hall of Fame.

    History

    Early history

    The University of Rochester traces its origins to The First Baptist Church of Hamilton (New York) which was founded in 1796. The church established the Baptist Education Society of the State of New York later renamed the Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution in 1817. This institution gave birth to both Colgate University(US) and the University of Rochester. Its function was to train clergy in the Baptist tradition. When it aspired to grant higher degrees it created a collegiate division separate from the theological division.

    The collegiate division was granted a charter by the State of New York in 1846 after which its name was changed to Madison University. John Wilder and the Baptist Education Society urged that the new university be moved to Rochester, New York. However, legal action prevented the move. In response, dissenting faculty, students, and trustees defected and departed for Rochester, where they sought a new charter for a new university.

    Madison University was eventually renamed as Colgate University (US).

    Founding

    Asahel C. Kendrick- professor of Greek- was among the faculty that departed Madison University for Rochester. Kendrick served as acting president while a national search was conducted. He reprised this role until 1853 when Martin Brewer Anderson of the Newton Theological Seminary in Massachusetts was selected to fill the inaugural posting.

    The University of Rochester’s new charter was awarded by the Regents of the State of New York on January 31, 1850. The charter stipulated that the university have $100,000 in endowment within five years upon which the charter would be reaffirmed. An initial gift of $10,000 was pledged by John Wilder which helped catalyze significant gifts from individuals and institutions.

    Classes began that November with approximately 60 students enrolled including 28 transfers from Madison. From 1850 to 1862 the university was housed in the old United States Hotel in downtown Rochester on Buffalo Street near Elizabeth Street- today West Main Street near the I-490 overpass. On a February 1851 visit Ralph Waldo Emerson said of the university:

    “They had bought a hotel, once a railroad terminus depot, for $8,500, turned the dining room into a chapel by putting up a pulpit on one side, made the barroom into a Pythologian Society’s Hall, & the chambers into Recitation rooms, Libraries, & professors’ apartments, all for $700 a year. They had brought an omnibus load of professors down from Madison bag and baggage… called in a painter and sent him up the ladder to paint the title “University of Rochester” on the wall, and they had runners on the road to catch students. And they are confident of graduating a class of ten by the time green peas are ripe.

    For the next 10 years the college expanded its scope and secured its future through an expanding endowment; student body; and faculty. In parallel a gift of 8 acres of farmland from local businessman and Congressman Azariah Boody secured the first campus of the university upon which Anderson Hall was constructed and dedicated in 1862. Over the next sixty years this Prince Street Campus grew by a further 17 acres and was developed to include fraternities houses; dormitories; and academic buildings including Anderson Hall; Sibley Library; Eastman and Carnegie Laboratories the Memorial Art Gallery and Cutler Union.

    Twentieth century

    Coeducation

    The first female students were admitted in 1900- the result of an effort led by Susan B. Anthony and Helen Barrett Montgomery. During the 1890s a number of women took classes and labs at the university as “visitors” but were not officially enrolled nor were their records included in the college register. President David Jayne Hill allowed the first woman- Helen E. Wilkinson- to enroll as a normal student although she was not allowed to matriculate or to pursue a degree. Thirty-three women enrolled among the first class in 1900 and Ella S. Wilcoxen was the first to receive a degree in 1901. The first female member of the faculty was Elizabeth Denio who retired as Professor Emeritus in 1917. Male students moved to River Campus upon its completion in 1930 while the female students remained on the Prince Street campus until 1955.

    Expansion

    Major growth occurred under the leadership of Benjamin Rush Rhees over his 1900-1935 tenure. During this period George Eastman became a major donor giving more than $50 million to the university during his life. Under the patronage of Eastman the Eastman School of Music (US) was created in 1921. In 1925 at the behest of the General Education Board and with significant support for John D. Rockefeller George Eastman and Henry A. Strong’s family medical and dental schools were created. The university award its first Ph.D that same year.

    During World War II Rochester was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. In 1942, the university was invited to join the Association of American Universities(US) as an affiliate member and it was made a full member by 1944. Between 1946 and 1947 in infamous uranium experiments researchers at the university injected uranium-234 and uranium-235 into six people to study how much uranium their kidneys could tolerate before becoming damaged.

    In 1955 the separate colleges for men and women were merged into The College on the River Campus. In 1958 three new schools were created in engineering; business administration and education. The Graduate School of Management was named after William E. Simon- former Secretary of the Treasury in 1986. He committed significant funds to the school because of his belief in the school’s free market philosophy and grounding in economic analysis.

    Financial decline and name change controversy

    Following the princely gifts given throughout his life George Eastman left the entirety of his estate to the university after his death by suicide. The total of these gifts surpassed $100 million before inflation and as such Rochester enjoyed a privileged position amongst the most well endowed universities. During the expansion years between 1936 and 1976 the University of Rochester’s financial position ranked third, near Harvard University’s(US) endowment and the University of Texas (US) System’s Permanent University Fund. Due to a decline in the value of large investments and a lack of portfolio diversity the university’s place dropped to the top 25 by the end of the 1980s. At the same time the preeminence of the city of Rochester’s major employers began to decline.

    In response the University commissioned a study to determine if the name of the institution should be changed to “Eastman University” or “Eastman Rochester University”. The study concluded a name change could be beneficial because the use of a place name in the title led respondents to incorrectly believe it was a public university, and because the name “Rochester” connoted a “cold and distant outpost.” Reports of the latter conclusion led to controversy and criticism in the Rochester community. Ultimately, the name “University of Rochester” was retained.

    Renaissance Plan

    In 1995 university president Thomas H. Jackson announced the launch of a “Renaissance Plan” for The College that reduced enrollment from 4,500 to 3,600 creating a more selective admissions process. The plan also revised the undergraduate curriculum significantly creating the current system with only one required course and only a few distribution requirements known as clusters. Part of this plan called for the end of graduate doctoral studies in chemical engineering; comparative literature; linguistics; and mathematics the last of which was met by national outcry. The plan was largely scrapped and mathematics exists as a graduate course of study to this day.

    Twenty-first century

    Meliora Challenge

    Shortly after taking office university president Joel Seligman commenced the private phase of the “Meliora Challenge”- a $1.2 billion capital campaign- in 2005. The campaign reached its goal in 2015- a year before the campaign was slated to conclude. In 2016, the university announced the Meliora Challenge had exceeded its goal and surpassed $1.36 billion. These funds were allocated to support over 100 new endowed faculty positions and nearly 400 new scholarships.

    The Mangelsdorf Years

    On December 17, 2018 the University of Rochester announced that Sarah C. Mangelsdorf would succeed Richard Feldman as President of the University. Her term started in July 2019 with a formal inauguration following in October during Meliora Weekend. Mangelsdorf is the first woman to serve as President of the University and the first person with a degree in psychology to be appointed to Rochester’s highest office.

    In 2019 students from China mobilized by the Chinese Students and Scholars Association (CSSA) defaced murals in the University’s access tunnels which had expressed support for the 2019 Hong Kong Protests, condemned the oppression of the Uighurs, and advocated for Taiwanese independence. The act was widely seen as a continuation of overseas censorship of Chinese issues. In response a large group of students recreated the original murals. There have also been calls for Chinese government run CSSA to be banned from campus.

    Research

    Rochester is a member of the Association of American Universities (US) and is classified among “R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity”. Rochester had a research expenditure of $370 million in 2018. In 2008 Rochester ranked 44th nationally in research spending but this ranking has declined gradually to 68 in 2018. Some of the major research centers include the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, a laser-based nuclear fusion facility, and the extensive research facilities at the University of Rochester Medical Center. Recently the university has also engaged in a series of new initiatives to expand its programs in biomedical engineering and optics including the construction of the new $37 million Robert B. Goergen Hall for Biomedical Engineering and Optics on the River Campus. Other new research initiatives include a cancer stem cell program and a Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute. UR also has the ninth highest technology revenue among U.S. higher education institutions with $46 million being paid for commercial rights to university technology and research in 2009. Notable patents include Zoloft and Gardasil. WeBWorK, a web-based system for checking homework and providing immediate feedback for students was developed by University of Rochester professors Gage and Pizer. The system is now in use at over 800 universities and colleges as well as several secondary and primary schools. Rochester scientists work in diverse areas. For example, physicists developed a technique for etching metal surfaces such as platinum; titanium; and brass with powerful lasers enabling self-cleaning surfaces that repel water droplets and will not rust if tilted at a 4 degree angle; and medical researchers are exploring how brains rid themselves of toxic waste during sleep.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:23 pm on September 25, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "X-ray microscopy with 1000 tomograms per second", , Tomoscopy is an imaging method in which three-dimensional images of the inside of materials are reconstructed in rapid succession.   

    From Paul Scherrer Institute [Paul Scherrer Institut] (CH) : “X-ray microscopy with 1000 tomograms per second” 

    From Paul Scherrer Institute [Paul Scherrer Institut] (CH)

    24 September 2021

    Dr. Christian Schlepütz
    X-ray Tomography Group
    Paul Scherrer Institute
    +41 56 310 40 95
    christian.schlepuetz@psi.ch [German, English]

    1
    Christian Schlepütz at the Tomcat beamline of the Swiss Light Source SLS, where a team of scientists have developed a 3D imaging method capable of recording 1,000 tomograms per second.
    (Photo: Mahir Dzambegovic/Paul Scherrer Institute.

    Tomoscopy is an imaging method in which three-dimensional images of the inside of materials are reconstructed in rapid succession. A new world record has now been set at the Swiss Light Source at the Paul Scherrer Institute: with 1000 tomograms per second, it is now possible to non-destructively capture very fast processes and structural changes in materials on the micrometre scale, such as the burning of a sparkler or the foaming of a metal alloy for the production of stable lightweight materials.

    Most people are familiar with computed tomography from medicine: a part of the body is X-rayed from all sides and a three-dimensional image is then calculated, from which any sectional images can be created for diagnosis.

    This method is also very useful for material analysis, non-destructive quality testing or in the development of new functional materials. However, to examine such materials with high spatial resolution and in the shortest possible time, the particularly intense X-ray light of a synchrotron light source is required. In the synchrotron light, even rapid changes and processes in material samples can be visualised if it is possible to capture 3-dimensional images in a very short time sequence.

    A team led by Francisco García Moreno from the Berlin Helmholtz Center for Materials and Energy [Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie] (HZB) (DE) is working on this, together with researchers from the Swiss Light Source SLS at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI).

    Two years ago, they managed a record 200 tomograms per second, calling the method of fast imaging “tomoscopy”. Now the team has achieved a new world record: with 1000 tomograms per second, they can now record even faster processes in materials or during the manufacturing process. This is achieved without any major compromises in the other parameters: the spatial resolution is still very good at several micrometres, the field of view is several square millimetres and continuous recording periods of up to several minutes are possible.

    Special table reaches 500 rotations per second

    For the X-ray images, the sample is placed on a high-speed rotary table developed in-house, whose angular speed can be perfectly synchronised with the camera’s acquisition speed. “We used particularly lightweight components for this rotary table so that it can turn around its axis 500 times per second and still remain stable,” García Moreno explains.

    Creating a 3D image from 40 projections per millisecond

    At the Tomcat beamline at the SLS, which is specialised in time-resolved X-ray imaging, PSI physicist Christian Schlepütz used a new high-speed camera and special optics. “This increases the sensitivity very significantly, so that we can take 40 2D projections in one millisecond, from which we create a tomogram,” Schlepütz explains. One 3D image is therefore created every millisecond, in other words 1,000 3D images per second. With the planned SLS2.0 upgrade, even faster measurements with higher spatial resolution should be possible from 2025.

    The team demonstrated the power of tomoscopy with various examples from materials research: the images show the extremely rapid changes during the burning of a sparkler, the formation of dendrites during the solidification of casting alloys or the growth and coalescence of bubbles in a liquid metal foam. Such metal foams based on aluminium alloys are being investigated as lightweight materials, for example for the construction of electric cars. The morphology, size and cross-linking of the bubbles are important to achieve the desired mechanical properties such as strength and stiffness in large components.

    “This method opens a door for the non-destructive study of fast processes in materials, which is what many research groups and also industry have been waiting for,” says García Moreno.

    See the full article here.

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The Paul Scherrer Institute [Paul Scherrer Institut] (CH) is the largest research institute for natural and engineering sciences within Switzerland. We perform world-class research in three main subject areas: Matter and Material; Energy and the Environment; and Human Health. By conducting fundamental and applied research, we work on long-term solutions for major challenges facing society, industry and science.

    The Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a multi-disciplinary research institute for natural and engineering sciences in Switzerland. It is located in the Canton of Aargau in the municipalities Villigen and Würenlingen on either side of the River Aare, and covers an area over 35 hectares in size. Like ETH Zurich [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zürich [Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich)](CH) and EPFL [EPFL (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne) [École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne](CH)], PSI belongs to the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology Domain of the Swiss Confederation [https://www.sbfi.admin.ch/sbfi/en/home/ihe/higher-education/domain-of-the-federal-institutes-of-technology/bodies-and-institutes-within-the-eth-domain.html]. The PSI employs around 2100 people. It conducts basic and applied research in the fields of matter and materials, human health, and energy and the environment. About 37% of PSI’s research activities focus on material sciences, 24% on life sciences, 19% on general energy, 11% on nuclear energy and safety, and 9% on particle physics.

    PSI develops, builds and operates large and complex research facilities and makes them available to the national and international scientific communities. In 2017, for example, more than 2500 researchers from 60 different countries came to PSI to take advantage of the concentration of large-scale research facilities in the same location, which is unique worldwide. About 1900 experiments are conducted each year at the approximately 40 measuring stations in these facilities.

    In recent years, the institute has been one of the largest recipients of money from the Swiss lottery fund.

    Research and specialist areas

    PSI develops, builds and operates several accelerator facilities, e. g. a 590 MeV high-current cyclotron, which in normal operation supplies a beam current of about 2.2 mA. PSI also operates four large-scale research facilities: a synchrotron light source (SLS), which is particularly brilliant and stable, a spallation neutron source (SINQ), a muon source (SμS) and an X-ray free-electron laser (SwissFEL). This makes PSI currently (2020) the only institute in the world to provide the four most important probes for researching the structure and dynamics of condensed matter (neutrons, muons and synchrotron radiation) on a campus for the international user community. In addition, HIPA’s target facilities also produce pions that feed the muon source and the Ultracold Neutron source UCN produces very slow, ultracold neutrons. All these particle types are used for research in particle physics.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:30 pm on September 25, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Researchers develop new method for detecting superfluid motion", , , , The techniques used to detect gravitational waves predicted by Einstein inspired the new method.   

    From Rochester Institute of Technology (US) : “Researchers develop new method for detecting superfluid motion” 

    From Rochester Institute of Technology (US)

    September 24, 2021
    Luke Auburn
    luke.auburn@rit.edu

    Scientists hope the method leads to breakthroughs in sensing and information processing.

    1
    A team of scientists led by Associate Professor Mishkat Bhattacharya proposed a new method for detecting superfluid motion in an article published in Physical Review Letters. Credit: A. Sue Weisler.

    Researchers at Rochester Institute of Technology are part of a new study that could help unlock the potential of superfluids—essentially frictionless special substances capable of unstopped motion once initiated. A team of scientists led by Mishkat Bhattacharya, an associate professor at RIT’s School of Physics and Astronomy and Future Photon Initiative, proposed a new method for detecting superfluid motion in an article published in Physical Review Letters.

    Scientists have previously created superfluids in liquids, solids, and gases, and hope harnessing superfluids’ properties could help lead to discoveries such as a superconductor that works at room temperature. Bhattacharya said such a discovery could revolutionize the electronics industry, where loss of energy due to resistive heating of wires incurs major costs.

    However, one of the main problems with studying superfluids is that all available methods of measuring the delicate superfluid rotation bring the motion to a halt. Bhattacharya and his team of RIT postdoctoral researchers teamed up with scientists in Japan, Taiwan, and India to propose a new detection method that is minimally destructive, in situ, and in real-time.

    Bhattacharya said the techniques used to detect gravitational waves predicted by Einstein inspired the new method. The basic idea is to pass laser light through the rotating superfluid. The light that emerged would then pick up a modulation at the frequency of superfluid rotation. Detecting this frequency in the light beam using existing technology yielded knowledge of the superfluid motion. The challenge was to ensure the laser beam did not disturb the superflow, which the team accomplished by choosing a light wavelength different from any that would be absorbed by the atoms.

    “Our proposed method is the first to ensure minimally destructive measurement and is a thousand times more sensitive than any available technique,” said Bhattacharya. “This is a very exciting development, as the combination of optics with atomic superflow promises entirely new possibilities for sensing and information processing.”

    Bhattacharya and his colleagues also showed that the light beam could actively manipulate supercurrents. In particular, they showed that the light could create quantum entanglement between two currents flowing in the same gas. Such entanglement could be useful for storing and processing quantum information.

    Bhattacharya’s theoretical team on the paper consisted of RIT postdoctoral researchers Pardeep Kumar and Tushar Biswas, and alumnus Kristian Feliz ’21 (physics). The international collaborators consisted of professors Rina Kanamoto from Meiji University [明治大学](JP), Ming-Shien Chang from The Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics(TW), and Anand Jha from The Indian Institute of Technology [भारतीय प्रौद्योगिकी संस्थान](IN). Bhattacharya’s work was supported by a CAREER Award from The National Science Foundation (US).

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Rochester Institute of Technology (US) is a private doctoral university within the town of Henrietta in the Rochester, New York metropolitan area.

    RIT is composed of nine academic colleges, including National Technical Institute for the Deaf(RIT)(US). The Institute is one of only a small number of engineering institutes in the State of New York, including New York Institute of Technology, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute(US). It is most widely known for its fine arts, computing, engineering, and imaging science programs; several fine arts programs routinely rank in the national “Top 10” according to US News & World Report.

    The university offers undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees and online masters as well.

    The university was founded in 1829 and is the tenth largest private university in the country in terms of full-time students. It is internationally known for its science; computer; engineering; and art programs as well as for the National Technical Institute for the Deaf- a leading deaf-education institution that provides educational opportunities to more than 1000 deaf and hard-of-hearing students. RIT is known for its Co-op program that gives students professional and industrial experience. It has the fourth oldest and one of the largest Co-op programs in the world. It is classified among “R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity”.

    RIT’s student population is approximately 19,000 students, about 16,000 undergraduate and 3000 graduate. Demographically, students attend from all 50 states in the United States and from more than 100 countries around the world. The university has more than 4000 active faculty and staff members who engage with the students in a wide range of academic activities and research projects. It also has branches abroad, its global campuses, located in China, Croatia and United Arab Emirates (Dubai).

    Fourteen RIT alumni and faculty members have been recipients of the Pulitzer Prize.

    History

    The university began as a result of an 1891 merger between Rochester Athenæum, a literary society founded in 1829 by Colonel Nathaniel Rochester and associates and The Mechanics Institute- a Rochester school of practical technical training for local residents founded in 1885 by a consortium of local businessmen including Captain Henry Lomb- co-founder of Bausch & Lomb. The name of the merged institution at the time was called Rochester Athenæum and Mechanics Institute (RAMI). The Mechanics Institute however, was considered as the surviving school by taking over The Rochester Athenaeum’s charter. From the time of the merger until 1944 RAMI celebrated The former Mechanics Institute’s 1885 founding charter. In 1944 the school changed its name to Rochester Institute of Technology and re-established The Athenaeum’s 1829 founding charter and became a full-fledged research university.

    The university originally resided within the city of Rochester, New York, proper, on a block bounded by the Erie Canal; South Plymouth Avenue; Spring Street; and South Washington Street (approximately 43.152632°N 77.615157°W). Its art department was originally located in the Bevier Memorial Building. By the middle of the twentieth century, RIT began to outgrow its facilities, and surrounding land was scarce and expensive. Additionally in 1959 the New York Department of Public Works announced a new freeway- the Inner Loop- was to be built through the city along a path that bisected the university’s campus and required demolition of key university buildings. In 1961 an unanticipated donation of $3.27 million ($27,977,071 today) from local Grace Watson (for whom RIT’s dining hall was later named) allowed the university to purchase land for a new 1,300-acre (5.3 km^2) campus several miles south along the east bank of the Genesee River in suburban Henrietta. Upon completion in 1968 the university moved to the new suburban campus, where it resides today.

    In 1966 RIT was selected by the Federal government to be the site of the newly founded National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID). NTID admitted its first students in 1968 concurrent with RIT’s transition to the Henrietta campus.

    In 1979 RIT took over Eisenhower College- a liberal arts college located in Seneca Falls, New York. Despite making a 5-year commitment to keep Eisenhower open RIT announced in July 1982 that the college would close immediately. One final year of operation by Eisenhower’s academic program took place in the 1982–83 school year on the Henrietta campus. The final Eisenhower graduation took place in May 1983 back in Seneca Falls.

    In 1990 RIT started its first PhD program in Imaging Science – the first PhD program of its kind in the U.S. RIT subsequently established PhD programs in six other fields: Astrophysical Sciences and Technology; Computing and Information Sciences; Color Science; Microsystems Engineering; Sustainability; and Engineering. In 1996 RIT became the first college in the U.S to offer a Software Engineering degree at the undergraduate level.

    Colleges

    RIT has nine colleges:

    RIT College of Engineering Technology
    Saunders College of Business
    B. Thomas Golisano College of Computing and Information Sciences
    Kate Gleason College of Engineering
    RIT College of Health Sciences and Technology
    College of Art and Design
    RIT College of Liberal Arts
    RIT College of Science
    National Technical Institute for the Deaf

    There are also three smaller academic units that grant degrees but do not have full college faculties:

    RIT Center for Multidisciplinary Studies
    Golisano Institute for Sustainability
    University Studies

    In addition to these colleges, RIT operates three branch campuses in Europe, one in the Middle East and one in East Asia:

    RIT Croatia (formerly the American College of Management and Technology) in Dubrovnik and Zagreb, Croatia
    RIT Kosovo (formerly the American University in Kosovo) in Pristina, Kosovo
    RIT Dubai in Dubai, United Arab Emirates
    RIT China-Weihai Campus

    RIT also has international partnerships with the following schools:

    Yeditepe University İstanbul Eğitim ve Kültür Vakfı] (TR) in Istanbul, Turkey
    Birla Institute of Technology and Science [बिरला इंस्टिट्यूट ऑफ़ टेक्नोलॉजी एंड साइंस] (IN) in India
    Mother and Teacher Pontifical Catholic University[Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra] (DO)
    Santo Domingo Institute of Technology[Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo – INTEC] (DO) in Dominican Republic
    Central American Technological University [La universidad global de Honduras] (HN)
    University of the North [Universidad del Norte] (COL)in Colombia
    Peruvian University of Applied Sciences [Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas] (PE) (UPC) in Peru
    Research

    RIT’s research programs are rapidly expanding. The total value of research grants to university faculty for fiscal year 2007–2008 totaled $48.5 million- an increase of more than twenty-two percent over the grants from the previous year. The university currently offers eight PhD programs: Imaging science; Microsystems Engineering; Computing and Information Sciences; Color science; Astrophysical Sciences and Technology; Sustainability; Engineering; and Mathematical modeling.

    In 1986 RIT founded the Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science and started its first doctoral program in Imaging Science in 1989. The Imaging Science department also offers the only Bachelors (BS) and Masters (MS) degree programs in imaging science in the country. The Carlson Center features a diverse research portfolio; its major research areas include Digital Image Restoration; Remote Sensing; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Printing Systems Research; Color Science; Nanoimaging; Imaging Detectors; Astronomical Imaging; Visual Perception; and Ultrasonic Imaging.

    The Center for Microelectronic and Computer Engineering was founded by RIT in 1986. The university was the first university to offer a bachelor’s degree in Microelectronic Engineering. The Center’s facilities include 50,000 square feet (4,600 m^2) of building space with 10,000 square feet (930 m^2) of clean room space. The building will undergo an expansion later this year. Its research programs include nano-imaging; nano-lithography; nano-power; micro-optical devices; photonics subsystems integration; high-fidelity modeling and heterogeneous simulation; microelectronic manufacturing; microsystems integration; and micro-optical networks for computational applications.

    The Center for Advancing the Study of CyberInfrastructure (CASCI) is a multidisciplinary center housed in the College of Computing and Information Sciences. The Departments of Computer science; Software Engineering; Information technology; Computer engineering; Imaging Science; and Bioinformatics collaborate in a variety of research programs at this center. RIT was the first university to launch a Bachelor’s program in Information technology in 1991; the first university to launch a Bachelor’s program in Software Engineering in 1996 and was also among the first universities to launch a Computer science Bachelor’s program in 1972. RIT helped standardize the Forth programming language and developed the CLAWS software package.

    The Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation was founded in 2007. The CCRG comprises faculty and postdoctoral research associates working in the areas of general relativity; gravitational waves; and galactic dynamics. Computing facilities in the CCRG include gravitySimulator, a novel 32-node supercomputer that uses special-purpose hardware to achieve speeds of 4TFlops in gravitational N-body calculations, and newHorizons [image N/A], a state-of-the art 85-node Linux cluster for numerical relativity simulations.

    2
    Gravity Simulator at the Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, RIT, Rochester, New York, USA.

    The Center for Detectors was founded in 2010. The CfD designs; develops; and implements new advanced sensor technologies through collaboration with academic researchers; industry engineers; government scientists; and university/college students. The CfD operates four laboratories and has approximately a dozen funded projects to advance detectors in a broad array of applications, e.g. astrophysics; biomedical imaging; Earth system science; and inter-planetary travel. Center members span eight departments and four colleges.

    RIT has collaborated with many industry players in the field of research as well, including IBM; Xerox; Rochester’s Democrat and Chronicle; Siemens; National Aeronautics Space Agency(US); and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (US) (DARPA). In 2005, it was announced by Russell W. Bessette- Executive Director New York State Office of Science Technology & Academic Research (NYSTAR), that RIT will lead the SUNY University at Buffalo (US) and Alfred University (US) in an initiative to create key technologies in microsystems; photonics; nanomaterials; and remote sensing systems and to integrate next generation IT systems. In addition, the collaboratory is tasked with helping to facilitate economic development and tech transfer in New York State. More than 35 other notable organizations have joined the collaboratory, including Boeing, Eastman Kodak, IBM, Intel, SEMATECH, ITT, Motorola, Xerox, and several Federal agencies, including as NASA.

    RIT has emerged as a national leader in manufacturing research. In 2017, the U.S. Department of Energy selected RIT to lead its Reducing Embodied-Energy and Decreasing Emissions (REMADE) Institute aimed at forging new clean energy measures through the Manufacturing USA initiative. RIT also participates in five other Manufacturing USA research institutes.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:59 pm on September 25, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Misfit Meteorite Sheds Light on Solar System History", , , , , The Nedagolla meteorite   

    From Sky & Telescope : “Misfit Meteorite Sheds Light on Solar System History” 

    From Sky & Telescope

    September 21, 2021
    Jure Japelj

    Scientists have discovered the first meteorite that doesn’t fall into one of two fundamental groups. The meteorite provides a unique glimpse into the era of asteroid formation and migration.

    1
    Artist’s impression of the asteroid belt. Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech (US).

    The meteorite would be just another one among thousands found on Earth if it weren’t for its unusual composition. Researchers have long tried to understand its origin, and now they might have solved the mystery. In a recent study to be published in Meteoritics & Planetary Science, scientists found that the Nedagolla meteorite is a product of a collision between two asteroids of distinct origin. Its unique history opens up a new window into the research of the early stages of solar system formation.

    Two Meteorite Families

    Meteorites are time capsules that illuminate the era of planet formation. The solar system formed from a cloud of interstellar gas and dust that collapsed under its own gravity. Particles within the resulting protoplanetary disk collided and stuck, forming ever larger planetesimals, which became the parent bodies of the meteorites found on Earth.

    Meteorites come in different flavors [Space Science Reviews]. Depending on whether iron or silicates dominate, meteorites are traditionally classified as iron, stony, or stony-iron. Composition also depends on whether the meteorites originate from bodies that underwent melting, or whether the parent body was unmelted and therefore more pristine. By these classifiers, Nedagolla is an ungrouped iron meteorite.

    But one can also look at isotopes. Isotopes are elements with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons, and they can carry a lot of information, including the time of a rock’s formation.

    “About 10 years ago, the community realized that there is an isotopic dichotomy in meteoritic material,” says graduate student Fridolin Spitzer (University of Münster [Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster] (DE)), who was first author of the new study. Cosmochemists thus use isotopes to classify meteorites of all sorts, regardless of their chemical composition, as either non-carbonaceous chondrite (NC) or the carbonaceous chondrite (CC). (These groups were initially differentiated by the amount of carbon, but now the terms are used more generally.)

    There is only one exception: “Nedagolla is the first one that does not consistently fall into one of the two categories but seems to fall in between,” says Spitzer.

    Scientists suspect that the two isotope classes formed in two different parts of the protoplanetary disk: The NCs in the disk’s inner part and the CCs in the outer solar system, beyond the Jupiter´s orbit. So where does that put the Nedagolla meteorite?

    Scientists have discovered the first meteorite that doesn’t fall into one of two fundamental groups. The meteorite provides a unique glimpse into the era of asteroid formation and migration.
    Artist’s impression of the asteroid belt
    NASA / JPL-Caltech

    A fireball embellished the night sky over India on January 23, 1870. Accompanied by a thunderous detonation, the fiery mass crashed in the village of Nedagolla with enough force to leave the bystanders stunned. The impact left behind a bit over 4 kilograms of cosmic rock — the Nedagolla meteorite.

    The meteorite would be just another one among thousands found on Earth if it weren’t for its unusual composition. Researchers have long tried to understand its origin, and now they might have solved the mystery. In a recent study to be published in Meteoritics & Planetary Science (preprint available here), scientists found that the Nedagolla meteorite is a product of a collision between two asteroids of distinct origin. Its unique history opens up a new window into the research of the early stages of solar system formation.
    Two Meteorite Families

    Meteorites are time capsules that illuminate the era of planet formation. The solar system formed from a cloud of interstellar gas and dust that collapsed under its own gravity. Particles within the resulting protoplanetary disk collided and stuck, forming ever larger planetesimals, which became the parent bodies of the meteorites found on Earth.

    Meteorites come in different flavors. Depending on whether iron or silicates dominate, meteorites are traditionally classified as iron, stony, or stony-iron. Composition also depends on whether the meteorites originate from bodies that underwent melting, or whether the parent body was unmelted and therefore more pristine. By these classifiers, Nedagolla is an ungrouped iron meteorite.

    But one can also look at isotopes. Isotopes are elements with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons, and they can carry a lot of information, including the time of a rock’s formation.

    “About 10 years ago, the community realized that there is an isotopic dichotomy in meteoritic material,” says graduate student Fridolin Spitzer (University of Münster, Germany), who was first author of the new study. Cosmochemists thus use isotopes to classify meteorites of all sorts, regardless of their chemical composition, as either non-carbonaceous chondrite (NC) or the carbonaceous chondrite (CC). (These groups were initially differentiated by the amount of carbon, but now the terms are used more generally.)

    There is only one exception: “Nedagolla is the first one that does not consistently fall into one of the two categories but seems to fall in between,” says Spitzer.

    Scientists suspect that the two isotope classes formed in two different parts of the protoplanetary disk: The NCs in the disk’s inner part and the CCs in the outer solar system, beyond the Jupiter´s orbit. So where does that put the Nedagolla meteorite?

    Asteroid Migrations and Collisions

    After performing a new and independent analysis of the meteorite’s composition, the team proposes that its unique isotopic imprint comes from a collision of NC and CC planetesimals. “The two bodies collided, and this induced melting because of high impact velocities, and it induced mixing of materials from these two bodies,” explains Spitzer.

    Here things become interesting. Most meteorites originate from the asteroid belt, a region between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. So, the CC-type meteorites had to migrate to the inner part of the solar system at some point, otherwise the Nedagolla meteorite wouldn´t exist.

    1
    A schematic view of the protoplanetary disk in the first few million years after its formation. The NC (red) and CC (blue) planetesimals formed in the inner and outer disk, respectively. The growing Jupiter might have separated the two classes. Credit: Bermingham et al. 2020.

    “The reason why we have any CC material to analyze on Earth, which is in itself an NC body, is because, during the disk evolution, planets like Jupiter migrated inwards and outwards, scattering material around the Solar System,” says Katherine Bermingham (Rutgers University).

    But the details are still murky. For example, did Jupiter’s movements create the isotopic divide? And why did one region of the disk have a consistently different mixture of material compared to the other?

    With the Nedagolla meteorite, scientists obtained the first isotopic evidence that the NC and CC bodies mingled. Its composition suggests that at least the CC body had a metallic core. Furthermore, the formative collision couldn’t have happened earlier than about 7 million years after the disk’s formation.

    Such information measured for a larger sample of similar meteorites would be invaluable. “I think it is important that the community does more of this kind of work to see if we can figure out better time constraints on NC-CC mixing,” says Bermingham. “There are a lot of ungrouped iron meteorites out there, and maybe this signature will be found in those that we haven’t studied yet.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    Sky & Telescope, founded in 1941 by Charles A. Federer Jr. and Helen Spence Federer, has the largest, most experienced staff of any astronomy magazine in the world. Its editors are virtually all amateur or professional astronomers, and every one has built a telescope, written a book, done original research, developed a new product, or otherwise distinguished him or herself.

    Sky & Telescope magazine, now in its eighth decade, came about because of some happy accidents. Its earliest known ancestor was a four-page bulletin called The Amateur Astronomer, which was begun in 1929 by the Amateur Astronomers Association in New York City. Then, in 1935, the American Museum of Natural History opened its Hayden Planetarium and began to issue a monthly bulletin that became a full-size magazine called The Sky within a year. Under the editorship of Hans Christian Adamson, The Sky featured large illustrations and articles from astronomers all over the globe. It immediately absorbed The Amateur Astronomer.

    Despite initial success, by 1939 the planetarium found itself unable to continue financial support of The Sky. Charles A. Federer, who would become the dominant force behind Sky & Telescope, was then working as a lecturer at the planetarium. He was asked to take over publishing The Sky. Federer agreed and started an independent publishing corporation in New York.

    “Our first issue came out in January 1940,” he noted. “We dropped from 32 to 24 pages, used cheaper quality paper…but editorially we further defined the departments and tried to squeeze as much information as possible between the covers.” Federer was The Sky’s editor, and his wife, Helen, served as managing editor. In that January 1940 issue, they stated their goal: “We shall try to make the magazine meet the needs of amateur astronomy, so that amateur astronomers will come to regard it as essential to their pursuit, and professionals to consider it a worthwhile medium in which to bring their work before the public.”

     
  • richardmitnick 12:12 pm on September 25, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Infant 'Hot Neptune' Provides Clues to Its Birth", , , , , , The mysterious exoplanet AU Microscopii b   

    From Sky & Telescope : “Infant ‘Hot Neptune’ Provides Clues to Its Birth” 

    From Sky & Telescope

    September 20, 2021
    Arwen Rimmer

    How’d a nice young ice giant end up in such a hot orbit? Scientists investigate the mysterious exoplanet AU Microscopii b.


    Animation Depicting an Approach to AU Mic b

    AU Microscopii is a baby red dwarf star about 32 light-years away in the southern constellation Microscopium, the Microscope. It’s only 22 million years old and surrounded by a planetary debris field, first observed in 2004. Just within the last year, independent teams have discovered two exoplanets (AU Mic b and c) orbiting the star.

    A series of follow-up studies focused on AU Mic b, a young, Neptune-mass planet that whips around its star every 8½ days. This giant couldn’t have formed where it now orbits. To help determine how it got there, astronomers have sought to measure the alignment between the planet’s orbit and its host star’s spin.

    There are many things that might cause a planet’s orbit to change, such as a large body passing near the system or interactions with the planet-forming disk around the star. Over the past year, multiple measurements made with various telescopes and methods have shown that AU Mic b’s orbit is still aligned with its star’s spin. While the individual measurements are more uncertain, the evidence is mounting that a more peaceful transition occurred, like disk interactions, rather than gravitational ping-pong.

    How’d a nice young ice giant end up in such a hot orbit? Scientists investigate the mysterious exoplanet AU Microscopii b.

    AU Microscopii is a baby red dwarf star about 32 light-years away in the southern constellation Microscopium, the Microscope. It’s only 22 million years old and surrounded by a planetary debris field, first observed in 2004. Just within the last year, independent teams have discovered two exoplanets (AU Mic b and c) orbiting the star.

    A series of follow-up studies focused on AU Mic b, a young, Neptune-mass planet that whips around its star every 8½ days. This giant couldn’t have formed where it now orbits. To help determine how it got there, astronomers have sought to measure the alignment between the planet’s orbit and its host star’s spin.

    There are many things that might cause a planet’s orbit to change, such as a large body passing near the system or interactions with the planet-forming disk around the star. Over the past year, multiple measurements made with various telescopes and methods have shown that AU Mic b’s orbit is still aligned with its star’s spin. While the individual measurements are more uncertain, the evidence is mounting that a more peaceful transition occurred, like disk interactions, rather than gravitational ping-pong.

    Pinning Down Spin

    The first of the studies was led by Teruyuki Hirano (Tokyo Institute of Technology [(東京工業大学](JP)) and published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters in August 2020. His team used the Subaru telescope to obtain the first tentative proof that AU Mic b’s orbit is aligned with its star’s spin.

    Then, one month later, Eder Martioli (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris) published the same good spin-orbit alignment using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, reporting their results in the September 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics.

    In a third study published October 2020 in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Enric Pallé (Institute of Astrophysics of the Canaries[Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias] (ES)) and colleagues took spectroscopy measurements with the Very Large Telescope in Chile.

    Using a couple different techniques to check Mic b’s spin-orbit angle, they again found good alignment.

    The latest of these studies appears in the October 1st The Astronomical Journal. Brett Addison (University of Southern Queensland (AU)) led the project, using radial velocity measurements from the Minerva-Australis telescope array to compare the angle of the planet’s orbit with the spin-axis of its host star.

    Minerva-Australis telescope array operated by the University of Southern Queensland (AU) located at USQ’s Mount Kent Observatory

    2
    An artist’s concept shows one interpretation of planet AU Mic b.
    Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center / Chris Smith (Universities Space Research Association (US))

    AU Microscopii is so young, it hasn’t even begun fusing hydrogen into helium in its core, and a massive planetary debris field surrounds it. But it already has two fully formed gas giants, both of which probably made a long trek from beyond the “ice line,” where they must have formed, into very close orbits around the host star. The temperatures close to a star are too hot for gases like water and methane to condense during planet formation, and most of the hydrogen and helium gets blown away by solar winds. But on the outer edges of the star system, all this material is free to accrete on a truly massive scale.

    It’s impossible to watch planets form and migrate in real time. But if we can observe many different, comparable systems at various stages of development, then we have the next best thing: snapshots of planets’ development over time. The age and current arrangement of the AU Microscopii system thus contributes to a working knowledge of migration and timescales in the formation process. In this case, a star near the beginning of its lifespan has already had enough time to spin out two planets, both of which have apparently taken a stroll into completely different orbits.

    Scott Gaudi (Thee Ohio State University (US)), who was not involved with these studies, says that making these kinds of observations is very difficult because the spin-orbit alignment has to be observed during a transit. And in the case of Addison’s study, the telescopes used were relatively small (an array for four 0.7-meter telescopes), which affected the quality of the data.

    “The other AU Mic b studies provided a more definitive answer because they were taken with larger telescopes,” Gaudi says. “The bigger the view, the more photons you can collect, the better your data.”

    Right now, the easiest kind of planet to see is a gas giant very close to a small star. But with the next generation of dedicated exoplanet telescopes coming online in the next decade, it should be possible to detect worlds beyond the “ice line”, closer to their birth sites. Gaudi looks forward to using the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope, which begins operations in 2025, to find more planetary systems which look like our own.

    “It’s one of the big open questions in planetary science,” Gaudi says. “At the moment we see lots of big planets that appear to have migrated, especially those called hot Jupiters. But the solar system looks different and no one knows why. The Roman telescope should give us a better idea of how we fit into the big picture.”

    See the full article here .

    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.


    Stem Education Coalition

    Sky & Telescope, founded in 1941 by Charles A. Federer Jr. and Helen Spence Federer, has the largest, most experienced staff of any astronomy magazine in the world. Its editors are virtually all amateur or professional astronomers, and every one has built a telescope, written a book, done original research, developed a new product, or otherwise distinguished him or herself.

    Sky & Telescope magazine, now in its eighth decade, came about because of some happy accidents. Its earliest known ancestor was a four-page bulletin called The Amateur Astronomer, which was begun in 1929 by the Amateur Astronomers Association in New York City. Then, in 1935, the American Museum of Natural History opened its Hayden Planetarium and began to issue a monthly bulletin that became a full-size magazine called The Sky within a year. Under the editorship of Hans Christian Adamson, The Sky featured large illustrations and articles from astronomers all over the globe. It immediately absorbed The Amateur Astronomer.

    Despite initial success, by 1939 the planetarium found itself unable to continue financial support of The Sky. Charles A. Federer, who would become the dominant force behind Sky & Telescope, was then working as a lecturer at the planetarium. He was asked to take over publishing The Sky. Federer agreed and started an independent publishing corporation in New York.

    “Our first issue came out in January 1940,” he noted. “We dropped from 32 to 24 pages, used cheaper quality paper…but editorially we further defined the departments and tried to squeeze as much information as possible between the covers.” Federer was The Sky’s editor, and his wife, Helen, served as managing editor. In that January 1940 issue, they stated their goal: “We shall try to make the magazine meet the needs of amateur astronomy, so that amateur astronomers will come to regard it as essential to their pursuit, and professionals to consider it a worthwhile medium in which to bring their work before the public.”

     
  • richardmitnick 11:11 am on September 25, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "The Search for Another Earth", Astronomer Sara Seager, ,   

    From University of Toronto (CA) : “The Search for Another Earth” 

    From University of Toronto (CA)

    September 23, 2021
    Dan Falk

    1
    Astronomer Sara Seager believes there are other planets that support life. She’s dedicated much of her career to finding them.

    A few years ago, Sara Seager (BSc 1994 UC) decided that the colourful, fantasy-travel posters published by The Jet Propulsion Laboratory [NASA] at Caltech (US) would be perfect for the hallway just outside her office in The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US)’s department of earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences. The posters show fanciful depictions of not only the planets in our own solar system but also of far-away worlds discovered only in the last few decades. (The tag-line for Kepler 16b, a planet that orbits a double-star system: “Where your shadow always has company.”) Whether humans will ever visit these distant worlds is anybody’s guess; even travelling at the speed of light, getting to Kepler 16b would take 200 years. But to Seager, these worlds feel much closer. Astronomers have now catalogued more than 4,500 of these “exoplanets,” some of which may not be too different from our own world. The flurry of discovery has made Seager confident that life, of some sort, is likely to be found beyond our home planet.

    “We know that small, rocky exoplanets are common; we know they’re out there, and there are a lot of them,” she told me on a call from her home in Concord, Massachusetts. A photograph of the constellation Orion, the mighty hunter, hung on the Zoom background behind her.

    “We also suspect the ingredients for life – at least, life as we know it – are very common as well. And water – we think it’s very abundant. So the ingredients for life are there, and the planets are there, and really they just need to come together the right way.”

    Seager, 50, has been described by The New York Times as “the woman who might find us another Earth,” while NASA has called her “an astronomical Indiana Jones.”

    2
    Sara Seager. Credit. Credit: Noah Kalina.

    In late 2020, Seager was appointed to the Order of Canada. She is now at the top of her field, but her journey has not been an easy one, as she recounts in her widely praised memoir, The Smallest Lights in the Universe, published last year. There has been love, and also loss, and – at the risk of giving away the book’s ending – love once again.

    3
    Sara Seager. Photo by Tony Luong.

    Born and raised in Toronto, Seager fell in love with the stars after a camping trip to Bon Echo Provincial Park, in rural eastern Ontario. She knew about the stars from books, of course, and from visits to the McLaughlin Planetarium; and she had glimpsed them in a modest way even from light-polluted Toronto. But she had never seen them like this. “It was just so shocking to me,” she recalls. “It was so incredible and so touching – and I wondered why no one had told me about it.”

    A second life-changing moment happened as she was cutting across U of T’s St. George campus one day, on her daily trek from her mother’s home in the Annex to her high school, Jarvis Collegiate, on the other side of Yonge Street. She happened to see an advertisement for a campus-wide open house. That weekend, she headed to the astronomy department, at that time housed in the upper floors of the Burton Tower. She emerged from the elevator and saw a table staffed by a professor and some students; they were handing out pamphlets and talking about the stars. Suddenly, it clicked. Astronomy was an actual thing you could study; there were people who had made a career out of it, and she could do that too.

    Though her classes were challenging, she has fond memories of her time as an undergrad at U of T, where she majored in math and physics, but also learned about astronomy at every chance. She recalls that “the opportunities for undergrad research were really great.” For Seager, that included two summers spent studying variable stars – ones that grow brighter and dimmer over time in a regular cycle – at The David Dunlap Observatory, just north of the city. She also served as president of the Royal Canadian Institute’s Youth Science Academy.

    Before heading to Harvard University (US) for graduate school, Seager was determined to have the adventure of a lifetime, far from Toronto’s urban bustle. She joined the Wilderness Canoe Association and prepared for a two-month expedition in Canada’s Far North. It was through the club that she met Mike Wevrick, a young man with a beard and a “mop of ginger hair,” as she put it in her memoir. They married in 1998. By that time, they were already living in Massachusetts, where Seager was hard at work on her PhD – but they came back to Toronto for the wedding, holding a small ceremony in U of T’s Hart House.

    Seager’s supervisor at Harvard was Dimitar Sasselov, who had earned his PhD in astronomy from U of T in 1990. Her dream of becoming an astronomer was taking shape. Yet she often felt that she didn’t quite fit in. As an undergrad, even if she had trouble making friends, she had the familiarity of her home city to fall back on. “Graduate school,” she writes in her memoir, “made it harder for me to imagine my way out of my solitude.” She watched her fellow students “the way biologists might observe a family of apes. They formed bonds with each other, but I couldn’t figure out how or when.”

    But she had Mike, and a few years later she had two sons as well. Work was challenging, but at least she was contributing to a burgeoning field, one with plenty of room for discovery. When Seager started at U of T in 1990, the only planets that astronomers were certain of were the nine that circled our own sun (Pluto had not yet been “demoted”). Soon, however, the hunt for exoplanets began to heat up. The main challenge in observing a planet in a distant solar system is that its feeble light is overwhelmed by the light of its host star. So astronomers found workarounds. First, they learned how to infer the presence of these planets via the gravitational tug they exert on their star. Later, many hundreds of exoplanets were found using the Kepler Space Telescope, which was able to detect the regular dimming of distant stars as an unseen planet passed in front.

    Initially, no one knew how important this new field would be. “At the time, it was quite risky because there were only a few planets known, and many in the community weren’t sure if they were planets,” Seager recalls. “But by the end of the 1990s, exoplanets were here to stay.”

    Seager has investigated many different kinds of these distant worlds. Some of them, she’s found, have both Earth-like properties while also resembling a gas-giant planet, such as Jupiter. Composed mainly of hydrogen and helium, these hybrid planets are called “gas dwarfs.” She has also studied the atmospheres of these planets, developing techniques to analyze their chemical composition from the feeble light astronomers are able to collect from them. Her work on exoplanet atmospheres earned her the Helen B. Warner Prize from The American Astronomical Society (US) in 2007, and the Sackler Prize in the Physical Sciences in 2012. She is also interested – not surprisingly – in whether anything might be alive on any of these worlds, and if so, what evidence of it astronomers might be able to detect, perhaps by looking for unusual chemistry in a planet’s atmosphere. This is known as the hunt for “biosignature gases.” Seager is developing computer models to simulate all manner of possible planetary atmospheres, to see what combinations of gases might hint at life down below.

    Further recognition followed. Seager was a tenured professor at MIT by her mid-30s; she was awarded a MacArthur “genius” fellowship a few years later. But her intense commitment to her work took a toll; as she relates in her memoir, she and Mike were drifting apart. And then things got worse. They learned that Mike was suffering from a rare type of intestine cancer. He died just a few days after Seager’s 40th birthday. His passing left her distraught and disoriented: “When you lose someone,” she writes in The Smallest Lights, “their dying doesn’t stop with their death. You lose them a thousand times in a thousand ways. You say a thousand goodbyes. You hold a thousand funerals.” With the help of a group of local women who had also lost their husbands – she calls the informal club the Widows of Concord – she found the strength to carry on.

    How can one get a better look at an exoplanet? One obvious idea – obvious on paper, at least – is to somehow block out the light from the host star. For more than a decade now, Seager has been part of a team pushing for a project called Starshade – an ambitious venture that would see a large, flower-shaped disk, perhaps 30 metres across, launched into space.

    It would work in tandem with a space-based observatory, such as the planned Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope.

    The telescope would aim at a particular star, while Starshade, positioned strategically some 30,000 kilometres away but exactly in line with the star, would block out the star’s light, revealing the adjacent planet. (Why the unusual shape? Because, physicists have shown, a sunflower-like shape minimizes the amount of diffracted light, yielding the sharpest image.) Starshade would be costly, of course. Seager is hopeful that the project is reasonably high on NASA’s list of priorities – but U.S. astronomers are currently in the middle of a once-per-decade project review and it remains to be seen which proposals get the green light. Seager is hopeful. “I’m going to do my very best to make Starshade, or something like it, a reality.”

    While Seager’s focus has been the search for habitable worlds beyond our solar system, she also believes there are potential discoveries to be made closer to home. Last fall, she was part of the team that claimed to have detected the chemical phosphine in the atmosphere of Venus. While that claim is still being scrutinized, it seems that something unusual is happening in the planet’s clouds. (On Earth, phosphine is typically associated with microorganisms, but the team acknowledged that the gas might be created by some unknown chemical process.) Whatever is going on, it was enough to spark the interest of Breakthrough Initiatives, a group established by tech billionaire Yuri Milner. The organization recently provided funding for Seager to lead a planned project to study Venus’s atmosphere in more detail. Whatever they find on Venus, Seager is certain the investigation will be an invaluable warm-up for the future study of exoplanet atmospheres and any signs of life they may harbour.

    Seager is a popular draw on the science lecture circuit, and in 2013 The Royal Astronomical Society (CA), a nation-wide collective of amateur astronomy clubs, asked Seager if she would speak at their annual general assembly, to be held that summer in Thunder Bay, Ontario. She eagerly accepted – and that’s where she met a tall, handsome man named Charles Darrow. Like Seager, Darrow was a long-time night sky enthusiast, though he was happy enough to pursue it as a hobby, gazing at the stars from his cottage on Georgian Bay. With Darrow in southern Ontario and Seager in Massachusetts, their relationship began via phone calls and Skype. “We were pioneers of virtual dating,” Darrow jokes. They married in 2015.

    While Seager’s research has focused on distant stars and planets, she has also discovered things about herself – including the very recent realization that she is autistic. The revelation came following a 2016 New York Times Magazine profile in which the reporter described Seager’s solitary nature, her disinterest in small talk, and her ability to latch onto every new project with laser-like intensity. A friend whose wife is an autism specialist emailed her after reading the article. Seager’s first thought, as she writes in her memoir, was that she was “too old not to know such a basic fact” about herself – but she consulted with a specialist, who soon confirmed it. “It was a huge relief,” she recounted over Zoom. “I’m still awkward and different, but I’m happy to have the diagnosis.” She says she’s often approached by young scientists, especially women, who tell her about their own concerns about fitting in, as a result of being diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Seager does what she can to encourage and support them. She also believes her condition has helped her excel in science. “I’m so good at my job, probably because I have autism.”

    Our conversation turns once again to the stars. Through all the highs and lows, they have been there. They will always be there, instilling awe and providing a measure of solace. “It just somehow feels comforting,” she says. “It feels wonderful, to know that there’s something bigger than all of us.”

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    The University of Toronto (CA) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen’s Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King’s College, the oldest university in the province of Ontario.

    Originally controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed its present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution.

    As a collegiate university, it comprises eleven colleges each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs and significant differences in character and history. The university also operates two satellite campuses located in Scarborough and Mississauga.

    University of Toronto has evolved into Canada’s leading institution of learning, discovery and knowledge creation. We are proud to be one of the world’s top research-intensive universities, driven to invent and innovate.

    Our students have the opportunity to learn from and work with preeminent thought leaders through our multidisciplinary network of teaching and research faculty, alumni and partners.

    The ideas, innovations and actions of more than 560,000 graduates continue to have a positive impact on the world.

    Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, known collectively as the Toronto School.

    The university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research, and was the site of the first electron microscope in North America; the identification of the first black hole Cygnus X-1; multi-touch technology, and the development of the theory of NP-completeness.

    The university was one of several universities involved in early research of deep learning. It receives the most annual scientific research funding of any Canadian university and is one of two members of the Association of American Universities (US) outside the United States, the other being McGill(CA).

    The Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with ties to gridiron football, rowing and ice hockey. The earliest recorded instance of gridiron football occurred at University of Toronto’s University College in November 1861.

    The university’s Hart House is an early example of the North American student centre, simultaneously serving cultural, intellectual, and recreational interests within its large Gothic-revival complex.

    The University of Toronto has educated three Governors General of Canada, four Prime Ministers of Canada, three foreign leaders, and fourteen Justices of the Supreme Court. As of March 2019, ten Nobel laureates, five Turing Award winners, 94 Rhodes Scholars, and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university.

    Early history

    The founding of a colonial college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada and founder of York, the colonial capital. As an University of Oxford (UK)-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, Simcoe believed a college was needed to counter the spread of republicanism from the United States. The Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 that a college be established in York.

    On March 15, 1827, a royal charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming “from this time one College, with the style and privileges of a University … for the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, and for their instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature … to continue for ever, to be called King’s College.” The granting of the charter was largely the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the college’s first president. The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queen’s Park.

    Under Strachan’s stewardship, King’s College was a religious institution closely aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact. Reformist politicians opposed the clergy’s control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized. In 1849, after a lengthy and heated debate, the newly elected responsible government of the Province of Canada voted to rename King’s College as the University of Toronto and severed the school’s ties with the church. Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary. University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. During the American Civil War the threat of Union blockade on British North America prompted the creation of the University Rifle Corps which saw battle in resisting the Fenian raids on the Niagara border in 1866. The Corps was part of the Reserve Militia lead by Professor Henry Croft.

    Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was the precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering which has been nicknamed Skule since its earliest days. While the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843 medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887 when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile the university continued to set examinations and confer medical degrees. The university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888 when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884.

    A devastating fire in 1890 gutted the interior of University College and destroyed 33,000 volumes from the library but the university restored the building and replenished its library within two years. Over the next two decades a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges including Strachan’s Trinity College in 1904. The university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991 and the Royal Ontario Museum from 1912 to 1968; both still retain close ties with the university as independent institutions. The University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canada’s first academic publishing house. The Faculty of Forestry founded in 1907 with Bernhard Fernow as dean was Canada’s first university faculty devoted to forest science. In 1910, the Faculty of Education opened its laboratory school, the University of Toronto Schools.

    World wars and post-war years

    The First and Second World Wars curtailed some university activities as undergraduate and graduate men eagerly enlisted. Intercollegiate athletic competitions and the Hart House Debates were suspended although exhibition and interfaculty games were still held. The David Dunlap Observatory in Richmond Hill opened in 1935 followed by the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies in 1949. The university opened satellite campuses in Scarborough in 1964 and in Mississauga in 1967. The university’s former affiliated schools at the Ontario Agricultural College and Glendon Hall became fully independent of the University of Toronto and became part of University of Guelph (CA) in 1964 and York University (CA) in 1965 respectively. Beginning in the 1980s reductions in government funding prompted more rigorous fundraising efforts.

    Since 2000

    In 2000 Kin-Yip Chun was reinstated as a professor of the university after he launched an unsuccessful lawsuit against the university alleging racial discrimination. In 2017 a human rights application was filed against the University by one of its students for allegedly delaying the investigation of sexual assault and being dismissive of their concerns. In 2018 the university cleared one of its professors of allegations of discrimination and antisemitism in an internal investigation after a complaint was filed by one of its students.

    The University of Toronto was the first Canadian university to amass a financial endowment greater than c. $1 billion in 2007. On September 24, 2020 the university announced a $250 million gift to the Faculty of Medicine from businessman and philanthropist James C. Temerty- the largest single philanthropic donation in Canadian history. This broke the previous record for the school set in 2019 when Gerry Schwartz and Heather Reisman jointly donated $100 million for the creation of a 750,000-square foot innovation and artificial intelligence centre.

    Research

    Since 1926 the University of Toronto has been a member of the Association of American Universities (US) a consortium of the leading North American research universities. The university manages by far the largest annual research budget of any university in Canada with sponsored direct-cost expenditures of $878 million in 2010. In 2018 the University of Toronto was named the top research university in Canada by Research Infosource with a sponsored research income (external sources of funding) of $1,147.584 million in 2017. In the same year the university’s faculty averaged a sponsored research income of $428,200 while graduate students averaged a sponsored research income of $63,700. The federal government was the largest source of funding with grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council; and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council amounting to about one-third of the research budget. About eight percent of research funding came from corporations- mostly in the healthcare industry.

    The first practical electron microscope was built by the physics department in 1938. During World War II the university developed the G-suit- a life-saving garment worn by Allied fighter plane pilots later adopted for use by astronauts.Development of the infrared chemiluminescence technique improved analyses of energy behaviours in chemical reactions. In 1963 the asteroid 2104 Toronto was discovered in the David Dunlap Observatory (CA) in Richmond Hill and is named after the university. In 1972 studies on Cygnus X-1 led to the publication of the first observational evidence proving the existence of black holes. Toronto astronomers have also discovered the Uranian moons of Caliban and Sycorax; the dwarf galaxies of Andromeda I, II and III; and the supernova SN 1987A. A pioneer in computing technology the university designed and built UTEC- one of the world’s first operational computers- and later purchased Ferut- the second commercial computer after UNIVAC I. Multi-touch technology was developed at Toronto with applications ranging from handheld devices to collaboration walls. The AeroVelo Atlas which won the Igor I. Sikorsky Human Powered Helicopter Competition in 2013 was developed by the university’s team of students and graduates and was tested in Vaughan.

    The discovery of insulin at the University of Toronto in 1921 is considered among the most significant events in the history of medicine. The stem cell was discovered at the university in 1963 forming the basis for bone marrow transplantation and all subsequent research on adult and embryonic stem cells. This was the first of many findings at Toronto relating to stem cells including the identification of pancreatic and retinal stem cells. The cancer stem cell was first identified in 1997 by Toronto researchers who have since found stem cell associations in leukemia; brain tumors; and colorectal cancer. Medical inventions developed at Toronto include the glycaemic index; the infant cereal Pablum; the use of protective hypothermia in open heart surgery; and the first artificial cardiac pacemaker. The first successful single-lung transplant was performed at Toronto in 1981 followed by the first nerve transplant in 1988; and the first double-lung transplant in 1989. Researchers identified the maturation promoting factor that regulates cell division and discovered the T-cell receptor which triggers responses of the immune system. The university is credited with isolating the genes that cause Fanconi anemia; cystic fibrosis; and early-onset Alzheimer’s disease among numerous other diseases. Between 1914 and 1972 the university operated the Connaught Medical Research Laboratories- now part of the pharmaceutical corporation Sanofi-Aventis. Among the research conducted at the laboratory was the development of gel electrophoresis.

    The University of Toronto is the primary research presence that supports one of the world’s largest concentrations of biotechnology firms. More than 5,000 principal investigators reside within 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the university grounds in Toronto’s Discovery District conducting $1 billion of medical research annually. MaRS Discovery District is a research park that serves commercial enterprises and the university’s technology transfer ventures. In 2008, the university disclosed 159 inventions and had 114 active start-up companies. Its SciNet Consortium operates the most powerful supercomputer in Canada.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:59 am on September 25, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Lawrence Livermore researchers focus on fast flows in thermonuclear fusion", , ,   

    From DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (US) : “Lawrence Livermore researchers focus on fast flows in thermonuclear fusion” 

    From DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (US)

    9.24.21

    Michael Padilla
    padilla37@llnl.gov
    925-341-8692

    1
    Multi-part figure showing measured and simulated flows within an imploding ICF hot spot. (a) Time-resolved x-ray emission is used to track the bright “tracer” particle during an implosion. (b) Horizontal and (c) vertical flow velocity for three asymmetry drives: Upward (▲) and downward (▼) driven implosions show strong large vertical flows. (d) Streamline data of internal flows from downward (▼) drive, overlaid on flow field from 2D HYDRA simulation at tbang + 65 ps.

    Imagine having a balloon between both hands and trying to squeeze it with the same force on all sides so that it uniformly shrinks down. However, if you push on one side harder than the other the balloon won’t compress uniformly and will, in fact, move away from the hand that is pushing harder.

    The same thing happens when the drive pushing on an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule is imbalanced — if it pushes harder on the top than on the bottom the capsule will move downward. This motion detracts from the energy heating the capsule and generating fusion. A short leap is to imagine two pistons compressing this gas instead of hands.

    That is how Dave Schlossberg, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) staff scientist, explains the effect of laser drive asymmetry. Schlossberg is the lead author in a recently published paper in in Physical Review LettersImagine having a balloon between both hands and trying to squeeze it with the same force on all sides so that it uniformly shrinks down. However, if you push on one side harder than the other the balloon won’t compress uniformly and will, in fact, move away from the hand that is pushing harder.

    The same thing happens when the drive pushing on an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule is imbalanced — if it pushes harder on the top than on the bottom the capsule will move downward. This motion detracts from the energy heating the capsule and generating fusion. A short leap is to imagine two pistons compressing this gas instead of hands [Physics of Plasmas].

    That is how Dave Schlossberg, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) staff scientist, explains the effect of laser drive asymmetry. Schlossberg is the lead author in a recently published paper in Physical Review Letters.

    The team conducted experiments at the National Ignition Facility [below] to investigate a “low-mode” laser asymmetry that was significantly degrading performance. The results from the work led to a detailed understanding of this degradation from the very small-scale up to the largest scale.

    “With this knowledge it’s possible to reduce asymmetries and increase performance — which was recently accomplished,” he said, adding that this is one in a series of experiments over the last several years remediating degradations from radiative losses [Physical Review Letters], engineering features [Physical Review Letters] and ablator asymmetries[Physical Review Letters].

    Characterizing measurements

    There are four key findings from this work that include: measured signatures of asymmetric laser drive; agreement between simulation and experiment; quantification of Doppler-broadening in apparent ion temperature with increased bulk plasma motion; and relating observed, driven hot spot flows to macroscopic input parameters.

    “In experimental science we only know what we can measure — so first we needed to characterize the measurements that show these implosions suffered from laser drive asymmetry,” he explained. “The natural next step was to compare these measurements with models and see if they agreed, and they did.”

    One product of deuterium-tritium fusion is a neutron traveling 51,234 km/s in the center-of-mass frame — that’s ~17 percent the speed of light. If the plasma producing these neutrons also is moving with some velocity, then that velocity is added to the neutron. The team showed that small variances in this neutron velocity directly related to broadening of the measured, time-of-flight neutron spectrum.

    “Think of it as measuring the arrival time of a bullet fired from a gun, where a bullet represents a neutron,” he proposed. “If you’re a precision sharpshooter standing absolutely still every time you fire a bullet, it will arrive at the target at exactly the same time. But, now say you’re running and firing, then some bullets arrive sooner and some later depending how fast you’re moving each time you fire the gun.”

    Schlossberg said the same thing is true in the imploding, fusing plasma that’s producing neutrons while it’s moving. The neutron time-of-flight diagnostic precisely measures neutron arrival times and relates them to the plasma’s internal energy. If there’s additional spread in the arrival times because the plasma is moving, that’s an important consideration when inferring the plasma thermal temperature. This work characterized how the apparent ion temperature increases due to variance in the deuterium-tritium velocities.

    Mapping flows in fusing plasma

    The final finding of this work is direct measurement of the flowing deuterium-tritium ions within the fusing hot spot.

    “Here we got a bit lucky, since some of the tungsten used to dope the capsule was injected into the hot plasma and lit up brightly in the X-ray range,” Schlossberg acknowledged.

    It served as a tracer particle for these internal flows. By tracking the motion of this tracer particle over time, the team mapped out a flow line while the plasma was fusing. This is important since these flows are the cause of the increased apparent temperature, and it showed consistency between both measurements.

    The team used this measurement to connect flows within the microscopic hot spot to asymmetries in the macroscopic laser-drive. When they balanced the laser drive these flows disappeared (see Bal. trace ● in figure). These findings combine to provide a comprehensive understanding of the effects of laser drive asymmetry on implosion performance, and shows agreement across experiment, simulation and theory. This provides confidence for future work to identify and reduce these asymmetries in laser drive, leading to overall improved performance.

    “When we saw preliminary time-resolved, X-ray imaging soon after the first shot we were immediately intrigued — something spectacular was showing up, which ended up being the time-resolved motion of the tracer particle traveling through the hot spot,” Schlossberg said. “This material was traveling ~0.1 percent the speed of light through material ~10 times denser than solid material.”

    “It’s truly a team effort, and I’m thrilled and humbled to be part of such a great group of people,” Schlossberg expressed, adding that work was done by a team of NIF scientists and engineers spanning across groups that handle data analysis, target fabrication, operations and diagnostics.

    In addition to Schlossberg, co-authors include: Gary Grim, Dan Casey, Alastair Moore, Ryan Nora, Ben Bachmann, Laura Robin Benedetti, Richard Bionta, Mark Eckart, John Field, David Fittinghoff, Edward Hartouni, Robert Hatarik, Warren Hsing, Leonard Charles Jarrott, Shahab Khan, Otto Landen, Brian MacGowan, Andrew Mackinnon, David Munro, Sabrina Nagel, Art Pak, Prav Patel, Brian Spears, and Chris Young from LLNL; Maria Gatu-Johnson from The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (US); Verena Geppert-Kleinrath and Kevin Meaney from DOE’s Los Alamos National Laboratory (US); and Joseph Kilkenny from General Atomics (US).

    See the full article here .


    five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

    Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

    Stem Education Coalition

    Operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration

    DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (US) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California-Berkeley (US) in 1952. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), it is primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a partnership of the University of California, Bechtel, BWX Technologies, AECOM, and Battelle Memorial Institute in affiliation with the Texas A&M University System (US). In 2012, the laboratory had the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it.

    LLNL is self-described as “a premier research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security.” Its principal responsibility is ensuring the safety, security and reliability of the nation’s nuclear weapons through the application of advanced science, engineering and technology. The Laboratory also applies its special expertise and multidisciplinary capabilities to preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction, bolstering homeland security and solving other nationally important problems, including energy and environmental security, basic science and economic competitiveness.

    The Laboratory is located on a one-square-mile (2.6 km^2) site at the eastern edge of Livermore. It also operates a 7,000 acres (28 km2) remote experimental test site, called Site 300, situated about 15 miles (24 km) southeast of the main lab site. LLNL has an annual budget of about $1.5 billion and a staff of roughly 5,800 employees.

    LLNL was established in 1952 as the University of California Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, an offshoot of the existing UC Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. It was intended to spur innovation and provide competition to the nuclear weapon design laboratory at Los Alamos in New Mexico, home of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic weapons. Edward Teller and Ernest Lawrence, director of the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, are regarded as the co-founders of the Livermore facility.

    The new laboratory was sited at a former naval air station of World War II. It was already home to several UC Radiation Laboratory projects that were too large for its location in the Berkeley Hills above the UC campus, including one of the first experiments in the magnetic approach to confined thermonuclear reactions (i.e. fusion). About half an hour southeast of Berkeley, the Livermore site provided much greater security for classified projects than an urban university campus.

    Lawrence tapped 32-year-old Herbert York, a former graduate student of his, to run Livermore. Under York, the Lab had four main programs: Project Sherwood (the magnetic-fusion program), Project Whitney (the weapons-design program), diagnostic weapon experiments (both for the DOE’s Los Alamos National Laboratory(US) and Livermore laboratories), and a basic physics program. York and the new lab embraced the Lawrence “big science” approach, tackling challenging projects with physicists, chemists, engineers, and computational scientists working together in multidisciplinary teams. Lawrence died in August 1958 and shortly after, the university’s board of regents named both laboratories for him, as the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory.

    Historically, the DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (US) and Livermore laboratories have had very close relationships on research projects, business operations, and staff. The Livermore Lab was established initially as a branch of the Berkeley laboratory. The Livermore lab was not officially severed administratively from the Berkeley lab until 1971. To this day, in official planning documents and records, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is designated as Site 100, Lawrence Livermore National Lab as Site 200, and LLNL’s remote test location as Site 300.

    The laboratory was renamed Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) in 1971. On October 1, 2007 LLNS assumed management of LLNL from the University of California, which had exclusively managed and operated the Laboratory since its inception 55 years before. The laboratory was honored in 2012 by having the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it. The LLNS takeover of the laboratory has been controversial. In May 2013, an Alameda County jury awarded over $2.7 million to five former laboratory employees who were among 430 employees LLNS laid off during 2008.The jury found that LLNS breached a contractual obligation to terminate the employees only for “reasonable cause.” The five plaintiffs also have pending age discrimination claims against LLNS, which will be heard by a different jury in a separate trial.[6] There are 125 co-plaintiffs awaiting trial on similar claims against LLNS. The May 2008 layoff was the first layoff at the laboratory in nearly 40 years.

    On March 14, 2011, the City of Livermore officially expanded the city’s boundaries to annex LLNL and move it within the city limits. The unanimous vote by the Livermore city council expanded Livermore’s southeastern boundaries to cover 15 land parcels covering 1,057 acres (4.28 km^2) that comprise the LLNL site. The site was formerly an unincorporated area of Alameda County. The LLNL campus continues to be owned by the federal government.


    NNSA

     
  • richardmitnick 1:44 pm on September 24, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Our Milky Way? Not well stirred!", A team of astronomers has recently measured for the very first time the composition of the gas flowing between the stars in the Milky Way., , , , , , The “interstellar medium” is not well mixed as previously assumed., The interstellar medium remains inhomogeneous with pockets that contain low amounts of chemical elements., The science team picked 25 nearby stars and observed them with the NASA/ESA Hubble analysing the spectral signatures left by different elements between those stars and us.   

    From ESOblog (EU): “Our Milky Way? Not well stirred!” 

    From ESOblog (EU)

    At

    ESO 50 Large

    European Southern Observatory [Observatoire européen austral][Europäische Südsternwarte] (EU) (CL)

    1
    Science@ESO
    24 September 2021
    Artist impression showing clouds and streams of cosmic pristine gas (magenta) falling onto the Milky Way. This gas does not efficiently mix with the gas already present in the galactic disc, as highlighted for the Solar neighborhood (zoom-in). The interstellar medium remains inhomogeneous with pockets that contain low amounts of chemical elements.
    Credit: M. A. Garlick. This image isn’t under ESO’s CC-BY-4.0 license.

    As Carl Sagan put it, “we are all made of star stuff”. But what is the star stuff made up of? A team of astronomers has recently measured for the very first time the composition of the gas flowing between the stars in the Milky Way. The research, which used archive data from ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) and Hubble Space Telescope observations, reveals that this “interstellar medium” is not well mixed, as previously assumed. Instead, different amounts of chemical elements are spread in different areas much like a swirl of milk in a cup of coffee. The star stuff that we are made of is not well stirred in our galactic neighbourhood, but why?

    4
    Thea Elvin.

    Biography of Thea Elvin

    Thea Elvin is a science journalism intern at ESO. She has completed an undergraduate degree in Natural Sciences at the University of Cambridge (UK) and a master’s degree in Climate and Atmospheric Science at The University of Leeds (UK) and is currently pursuing a career in science communications.

    2
    Simulation of the cosmic web, which is a network of filaments stretching between galaxies, believed by many astronomers to form the basis of the Universe. Credit: National Aeronautics Space Agency (US), The European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU) and E. Hallman (The University of Colorado-Boulder (US).

    The interstellar medium is the stuff between the stars in a galaxy –– a complex mixture of gas and dust. It is also one of the ingredients required to make a galaxy. Gas flows in from the cosmic web –– fine threads of matter that connect all the galaxies in the Universe, also known as intergalactic medium. This gas is pristine, meaning it is mainly made up from hydrogen and helium, the lightest elements in the Universe, and contains few metals (which, for astronomers, are any chemical element heavier than helium).

    From this gas, the galaxy’s stars begin to form. The stars produce heavier chemical elements during their life cycles, which are released back into the interstellar medium as the stars reach the end of their lives. New stars are formed from the interstellar medium, now enriched with metals from their ancestors, and the sequence begins again.

    The chemical elements blown out by the stars also go on to form everything else in the galaxy, such as dust (which is formed by tiny particles of solid material), planets and, in Earth’s case, the creatures that live on them. Understanding how a galaxy forms and evolves from a chemical perspective can thus shed light on the life cycle of chemical elements that eventually allow life on Earth.

    Up until now, it was assumed that the interstellar medium was a smoothly blended mixture of the pristine gas from the cosmic web and the enriched gas given out by dying stars. Therefore, stars born at the same time in the same area of the galaxy should have the same chemical composition.

    But is the interstellar medium really this well mixed? No one had actually been able to measure the real abundance of metals in the interstellar medium before, but Annalisa De Cia, an astronomer at The University of Geneva [Université de Genève](CH), had an idea about how to change this.

    To probe the interstellar medium, astronomers use a technique called spectroscopy. As the light of a star passes through the interstellar gas, the atoms in it will absorb very specific colours or wavelengths. Looking at the light from a star using spectroscopy produces a spectrum –– a “barcode” that tells us what the intervening medium is made of.

    3
    When the light of a star goes through an intervening gas gloud, the metals in it leave absorption lines in the star’s spectrum. By pointing telescopes to different stars it’s possible to map the abundance of metals in different clouds.
    Credit: J. K. Krogager. This image isn’t under ESO’s CC-BY-4.0 license.

    But there is a hitch. Only the gaseous part of the interstellar medium can be “seen” in ultraviolet/optical spectroscopy; atoms in dust grains don’t leave a spectral fingerprint. To calculate how metallic the interstellar medium really is, we need to account for the elements that are more likely to condense into dust and will therefore be absent from the spectrum.

    De Cia’s background studying the gas in distant galaxies came in handy for this new research. Working out the metallicity of the interstellar medium in galaxies far away is incredibly difficult as astronomers are not able to observe individual stars and therefore have much less information to work with. De Cia pioneered a technique that compares the abundances of elements with different propensity to condense into dust grains. She then realised that this technique could be used a lot closer to home, to determine the metallicity of the interstellar medium in the Milky Way, including the “unseen” elements locked up in dust grains.

    De Cia and her team picked 25 nearby stars and observed them with the NASA/ESA Hubble, analysing the spectral signatures left by different elements between those stars and us. One of the elements key to this method is titanium, which has a strong propensity to go into dust grains. It also happens to produce spectral features that are in exactly the range observable with the UVES instrument on ESO’s VLT, located at Paranal Observatory in Chile’s Atacama Desert.

    UVES spectrograph mounted on the VLT at the Nasmyth B focus of UT2.

    UVES spectrograph mounted on the VLT at the Nasmyth B focus of UT2.

    Looking in the archive of data collected over the years with UVES, the astronomers found that, of the 25 stars they had chosen to study with Hubble, there was information on titanium available for 16 of them. And the good news didn’t end there. “All the UVES data that had been taken for those stars was already processed and ready to use for science,” said De Cia. A key titanium-shaped piece of the puzzle had fallen perfectly into place.

    Combining the Hubble and UVES data, the team was able to measure the metallicity of the gas towards the 25 stars in their sample. The results, published recently in Nature, turned out to be surprising: the chemical elements were not evenly mixed inside the interstellar medium as previously assumed, but instead there was a large variation in their abundances, even over the small area they probed. Astronomers had previously assumed that our surrounding interstellar medium would have a composition similar to that of the Sun, but the actual metallicity was found to be about 55% that of the Sun; and in some regions it was as low as 17%.

    “There are pockets of low metallicity, places where there are less chemical elements than we thought,” explains De Cia. “It’s like if you have a cup of coffee and you pour in milk, it doesn’t start out completely mixed. It still has little bits of pristine gas in it” says Andrew J. Fox (ESA/Space Telescope Science Institute (US)), who also participated in this study.

    These low-metal pockets are likely due to the contribution of pristine gas flowing in from the cosmic web, the same gas that sustains galaxies and allows them to go on forming new stars.

    These results are exciting because they also help to explain some observations that previously puzzled astronomers, such as the spread in metallicities of stars of the same age which were expected to have similar abundances of metals. De Cia also hopes that this new finding will change the way astronomical modelling is done, with scientists moving to incorporate this unmixed interstellar medium measurement into models that predict the chemical evolution of the galaxy.

    Follow-up research is now in the pipeline, hoping to build on this surprising result. Hubble and ESPRESSO, another instrument on the VLT, is currently obtaining data for use in these studies.

    ESPRESSO — the Echelle SPectrograph for Rocky Exoplanet and Stable Spectroscopic Observations. ESPRESSO will use the light from any one, or all four, of the Unit Telescopes of the Very large Telescope to extend our capability to find planets around other stars and to measure the fundamental constants of physics.

    Espresso Layout

    ESO/ESPRESSO on the VLT installed at the incoherent combined Coudé facility of the VLT. It is an ultra-stable fibre-fed échelle high-resolution spectrograph (R~140,000, 190,000, or 70,000) which collects the light from either a single UT or the four UTs simultaneously via the so-called UT Coudé trains.

    “In an individual direction towards one star, we probably observed many clouds along one line of sight, so we would like to explore that diversity along one specific direction. For that we need high spectral resolution, and that’s where ESPRESSO will come in,” says De Cia.

    The team is also looking forward to the first light of ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), later this decade. The ELT is set to be the largest optical and infrared telescope in the world and will allow astronomers to see further than ever before. Spectrographic instruments on the ELT such as HIRES will have a high enough spectral resolution to study the chemical signatures imprinted by the first population of stars on the intergalactic and interstellar medium and will prove to be game changers in understanding the chemical evolution of distant galaxies.

    When tomorrow morning you pour milk into your cup of coffee, remember that out there in space there is a similarly swirling interstellar medium, full of the star stuff that led to your existence.

    See the full article here .


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    European Southern Observatory [Observatoire européen austral][Europäische Südsternwarte] (EU) is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It is supported by 16 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world’s most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and two survey telescopes. VISTA works in the infrared and is the world’s largest survey telescope and the VLT Survey Telescope is the largest telescope designed to exclusively survey the skies in visible light. ESO is a major partner in ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. And on Cerro Armazones, close to Paranal, ESO is building the 39-metre European Extremely Large Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become “the world’s biggest eye on the sky”.

    European Southern Observatory [Observatoire européen austral][Europäische Südsternwarte] (EU) is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It is supported by 16 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design,

    European Southern Observatory(EU) La Silla HELIOS (HARPS Experiment for Light Integrated Over the Sun)

    ESO 3.6m telescope & HARPS atCerro LaSilla, Chile, 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    MPG Institute for Astronomy [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie](DE) 2.2 meter telescope at/European Southern Observatory(EU) Cerro La Silla, Chile, 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    European Southern Observatory(EU)La Silla Observatory 600 km north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    European Southern Observatory(EU) , Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert •ANTU (UT1; The Sun ) •KUEYEN (UT2; The Moon ) •MELIPAL (UT3; The Southern Cross ), and •YEPUN (UT4; Venus – as evening star). Elevation 2,635 m (8,645 ft) from above Credit J.L. Dauvergne & G. Hüdepohl atacama photo.

    European Southern Observatory(EU)VLTI Interferometer image, Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level, •ANTU (UT1; The Sun ),
    •KUEYEN (UT2; The Moon ),
    •MELIPAL (UT3; The Southern Cross ), and•YEPUN (UT4; Venus – as evening.

    ESO Very Large Telescope 4 lasers on Yepun (CL)

    Glistening against the awesome backdrop of the night sky above ESO’s Paranal Observatory, four laser beams project out into the darkness from Unit Telescope 4 UT4 of the VLT, a major asset of the Adaptive Optics system.

    ESO/NTT NTT at Cerro La Silla , Chile, at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    Part of ESO’s Paranal Observatory, the VLT Survey Telescope (VISTA) observes the brilliantly clear skies above the Atacama Desert of Chile. It is the largest survey telescope in the world in visible light, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level.

    European Southern Observatory/National Radio Astronomy Observatory(US)/National Astronomical Observatory of Japan(JP) ALMA Array in Chile in the Atacama at Chajnantor plateau, at 5,000 metres.

    European Southern Observatory(EU) ELT 39 meter telescope to be on top of Cerro Armazones in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. located at the summit of the mountain at an altitude of 3,060 metres (10,040 ft).

    European Southern Observatory(EU)/MPG Institute for Radio Astronomy [MPG Institut für Radioastronomie](DE) ESO’s Atacama Pathfinder Experiment(CL) high on the Chajnantor plateau in Chile’s Atacama region, at an altitude of over 4,800 m (15,700 ft).

    Leiden MASCARA instrument cabinet at Cerro La Silla, located in the southern Atacama Desert 600 kilometres (370 mi) north of Santiago de Chile at an altitude of 2,400 metres (7,900 ft).

    ESO Next Generation Transit Survey telescopes, an array of twelve robotic 20-centimetre telescopes at Cerro Paranal,(CL) 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level.

    <img src="https://sciencesprings.files.wordpress.com/2019/02/eso-speculoos-telescopes-four-1m-diameter-robotic-telescopes-at-eso-paranal-observatory-2635-metres-8645-ft-above-sea-level-1.jpg&quot; alt="" width="632" height="356" class="size-full wp-image-77534" Speculoos telescopes four 1m-diameter robotic telescopes at ESO Paranal Observatory 2635 metres 8645 ft above sea level.

    TAROT telescope at Cerro LaSilla, 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level.

    European Southern Observatory(EU) ExTrA telescopes at erro LaSilla at an altitude of 2400 metres.

    A novel gamma ray telescope under construction on Mount Hopkins, Arizona. A large project known as the Čerenkov Telescope Array composed of hundreds of similar telescopes to be situated in the Canary Islands and Chile at, ESO Cerro Paranal site The telescope on Mount Hopkins will be fitted with a prototype high-speed camera, assembled at the. University of Wisconsin–Madison and capable of taking pictures at a billion frames per second. Credit: Vladimir Vassiliev.

    European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU), The new Test-Bed Telescope 2is housed inside the shiny white dome shown in this picture, at ESO’s LaSilla Facility in Chile. The telescope has now started operations and will assist its northern-hemisphere twin in protecting us from potentially hazardous, near-Earth objects.The domes of ESO’s 0.5 m and the Danish 0.5 m telescopes are visible in the background of this image.Part of the world-wide effort to scan and identify near-Earth objects, the European Space Agency’s Test-Bed Telescope 2 (TBT2), a technology demonstrator hosted at ESO’s La Silla Observatory in Chile, has now started operating. Working alongside its northern-hemisphere partner telescope, TBT2 will keep a close eye on the sky for asteroids that could pose a risk to Earth, testing hardware and software for a future telescope network.

    European Space Agency [Agence spatiale européenne][Europäische Weltraumorganisation](EU) The open dome of The black telescope structure of the‘s Test-Bed Telescope 2 peers out of its open dome in front of the rolling desert landscape. The telescope is located at ESO’s La Silla Observatory, which sits at a 2400 metre altitude in the Chilean Atacama desert.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:40 pm on September 24, 2021 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: "Processes in Earth’s Mantle and Surface Connections", A better understanding of these deep-mantle material cycles and their impact on the long-term evolution of our planet requires integrated approaches that involve all disciplines in the Earth sciences., A book recently published by AGU: "Mantle Convection and Surface Expressions", Despite the common call for transdisciplinary research only little work has been done that truly and quantitatively integrates different approaches., , Our book aimed to unify researchers with expertise in different Earth science disciplines., The connection between chemical variations and physical property changes needs to be quantified by experimental and theoretical mineral physics., The motion of material in Earth’s mantle powered by heat from the deep interior moves tectonic plates on our planet’s surface.   

    From Eos: “Processes in Earth’s Mantle and Surface Connections” 

    From AGU
    Eos news bloc

    From Eos

    9.24.21

    Hauke Marquardt
    hauke.marquardt@earth.ox.ac.uk
    Maxim Ballmer
    Sanne Cottaar
    Jasper Konter

    A new AGU book presents a multidisciplinary perspective on the dynamic processes occurring in Earth’s mantle.

    1
    A synchrotron X-ray diffraction image collected in a high-pressure/-temperature diamond-anvil cell experiment to determine the deformation behavior of ferropericlase. Credit: © Hauke Marquardt.

    The motion of material in Earth’s mantle powered by heat from the deep interior moves tectonic plates on our planet’s surface. This motion generates earthquakes, fuels volcanic activity, and shapes surface landscapes. Furthermore, chemical exchanges between the surface and Earth’s mantle possibly stabilize the oceans and atmosphere on geologic timescales. A book recently published by AGU, Mantle Convection and Surface Expressions, gathers perspectives from observational geophysics, numerical modelling, geochemistry, and mineral physics to construct a holistic picture of the deep Earth. We asked the book’s editors some questions about what readers can expect from this monograph.

    In simple terms for a non-expert, can you start by explaining what the mantle is, how material moves around the mantle, and the effects of this on Earth’s surface?

    The mantle is the largest region in our planet, connecting the hot liquid outer core to Earth’s surface. Convection in the Earth’s mantle is linked to plate tectonic processes and controls the fluxes of heat and material between deep mantle reservoirs and the atmosphere over time. A better understanding of these deep-mantle material cycles and their impact on the long-term evolution of our planet requires integrated approaches that involve all disciplines in the Earth sciences.

    For example, geochemical observations on the surface suggest different chemical reservoirs within the lower mantle. This would imply potentially widespread variations in physical properties driven by the chemical differences between materials.

    The connection between chemical variations and physical property changes needs to be quantified by experimental and theoretical mineral physics. In turn, the constrained variations in physical properties provide the basis for self-consistent state-of-the-art geodynamic models of mantle convection.

    Finally, the predictions of geodynamic models can be quantitatively tested by geophysical observations, which constrain the geometry of sinking slabs and rising plumes, as well as geochemical data.

    Any such models rooted by observational and theoretical constraints can be applied to study the evolution of the mantle over billions of years, thereby linking the accretion of our planet to the present-day. Indeed, such an interdisciplinary effort can even provide insight into the conditions for planetary habitability and sustainability of higher life.

    What motivated you to write a book on mantle processes and surface expressions?

    Our book aimed to unify researchers with expertise in different Earth science disciplines, including observational geophysics, numerical modelling, geochemistry, and mineral physics, to outline current concepts on dynamic processes occurring in the mantle and associated material cycles. We believe that real progress is increasingly made at the intersection between different sub-disciplines and, ultimately, only the synergy between disciplines can truly overcome the limitations of each individual approach. Our book is motivated by the vision of a new holistic picture of deep Earth sciences.

    How is your book structured?

    The overarching idea of the book is to bridge between disciplines. The sub-sections of the book are not sorted by discipline, but rather by research topic. The first part describes key mantle domains and basic properties of the Earth’s mantle. The second part presents reviews and new research related to the dynamic aspects of deep Earth material cycles, integrating all relevant geoscientific disciplines. The third part aims to place the preceding chapters in a broader context, trying to summarize ideas and stimulate new concepts on how the Earth’s deep mantle is connected to our planet’s surface and atmosphere, and how processes might work on other planets.

    What value did you find in bringing together perspectives from different scientific disciplines in your book?

    Several high-profile papers have been published relating to mantle convection and surface connections during the past decade, including materials cycles through the deep Earth interior and its impact on the evolution of the atmosphere.

    Progress has been significant, but often work still falls mostly within one discipline. Some initial progress in multidisciplinary work has been made, but is still often complicated by gaps in knowledge, jargon, and networks.

    The value that our book adds is to summarize existing multidisciplinary work and foster future research across the boundaries.

    How do you hope that your book will inspire further transdisciplinary research?

    Despite the common call for transdisciplinary research only little work has been done that truly and quantitatively integrates different approaches. Sometimes, just the lack of a common language, with different jargon across discipline boundaries, prevents any directed and sustainable progress.

    We are convinced that our book can help to bridge the gaps between different Earth Science communities, resolve some semantic issues, and foster promising future collaborations. In order to achieve this, we took particular care that chapters are written in a style that makes them accessible for researchers from all sub-disciplines (i.e., jargon and pre-conceptions are explained).

    The topic Mantle Convection and Surface Expressions covers an area of central importance for all target research disciplines and is central to our understanding of the evolution of our planet. Thus, we feel that the topic is not only a ‘hot-topic’ of cross-disciplinary importance but is also ideally suited to unify researchers and trigger fruitful future work.

    See the full article here .

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    Eos is the leading source for trustworthy news and perspectives about the Earth and space sciences and their impact. Its namesake is Eos, the Greek goddess of the dawn, who represents the light shed on understanding our planet and its environment in space by the Earth and space sciences.

     
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