From Department of Energy (US) : “DOE Invests $93 Million for New Discoveries in High Energy Physics”

From Department of Energy (US)

6.28.21

71 University-Led Projects Will Explore the Fundamental Physics that Fuels Modern Innovations.

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced $93 million in funding for 71 research projects that will spur new discoveries in High Energy Physics (HEP). [Better late than never. The Department of Energy (US) and the National Science Foundation (US) NSF left us out of the picture when they allowed for the cancellation by Congress in 1993 of the Superconducting Super Collider [SSC] (US) in Waxahachie, Texas without a fight. The SSC was the follow-on to the end of life for the Fermilab Tevatron which could just not reach the TeV required to find the Higgs Boson, barely reaching up to almost 2 TeV.The SSC would have reached a combined 40 TeV with its planned ring circumference of 87.1 kilometers (54.1 mi) (I have been told that the demise of the SSC was because California wanted the project and pulled out of supporting the project in Texas, taking a couple of other states out with it. In the end we got nothing. This left HEP to Europe’s European Organization for Nuclear Research [Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire] [Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung](CH) [CERN], the building of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the finding of the Higgs Boson in Europe. The U.S has not been totally gone in HEP. The ATLAS Project has 600 scientists at DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory (US); The CMS project has 1000 scientists at DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (US) . Many of the magnets used at the LHC are built by DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (US), Brookhaven and Fermilab. The SSC was a US$12 billion project. It could have happened if a few of our Bill Gates type billionaires had directed attention to keeping the project going here. Now, we are doing the same thing in Radio Astronomy. The NSF defunded the now collapsed Arecibo Radio Telescope. They are slowly pulling out of support for the Green Bank Radio Telescope. Meanwhile, Europe has committed €20 billion to Radio Astronomy. So, again, I say for HEP, better late than never. Maybe we will wake up in time for the saving of Radio Astronomy.]

The projects—housed at 50 colleges and universities across 29 states—are exploring the basics of energy science that underlie technological advancements in medicine, computing, energy technologies, manufacturing, national security and more.

“Particle physics plays a role in many major innovations of the 21st century, and to keep our competitive edge [what competitive edge] America must invest in the scientists and engineers that are advancing basic physical science today to create the breakthroughs of tomorrow,” said Secretary of Energy Jennifer M. Granholm. “The Department of Energy is proud to be the nation’s leading funder of physical sciences, leading to life-changing medicines, technologies and solutions that create a better future.”

Serving as a cornerstone of America’s science efforts, DOE’s High Energy Physics program plays a major role in nurturing top scientific talent and building and sustaining the nation’s scientific workforce. For example, the pharmaceutical industry uses X-ray beams created by DOE’s particle accelerators to develop more effective drugs to fight disease, and DOE’s particle accelerators helped create the heat shrink wrap used by households and businesses across the world to keep food and produce fresh. The High Energy Physics program’s principal goal is to provide a deeper understanding of how our universe works at its most fundamental level. Particle accelerators and other tools developed in pursuing this goal often meet other needs of society.

Projects selected in today’s announcement cover a wide range of topics at the frontiers of particle physics, including Higgs boson, neutrinos, dark matter, dark energy, quantum theory, and the search for new physics. A sample of the projects include:

• Study of Dark Matter and the Expansion of the Universe — Researchers at the Pennsylvania State University (US) will advance the search for dark matter with the LZ (LUX-ZEPLIN) experiment one mile below the Black Hills of South Dakota (Award amount: $1,145,000).

The Scientists at Cornell University (US) (Award amount: $100,000) and the University of Wyoming (US) (Award amount: $240,000) will utilize The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (US) to measure the effect of dark energy on the expansion of the universe.

• Develop particle physics theory, advanced particle accelerators, and new detector technologies — Researchers at the University of Michigan (US) (Award amount: $1,060,000) are exploring particle beam acceleration. The University of Colorado (US) will develop information on elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena (Award amount: $4,163,000).

The projects are managed by the Office of High Energy Physics within the DOE Office of Science (US).

The full list of projects and more information can be found here.

See the full article here.

five-ways-keep-your-child-safe-school-shootings

Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

Stem Education Coalition

The Department of Energy (US) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States’ policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material. Its responsibilities include the nation’s nuclear weapons program; nuclear reactor production for the United States Navy; energy conservation; energy-related research; radioactive waste disposal; and domestic energy production. It also directs research in genomics. the Human Genome Project originated in a DOE initiative. DOE sponsors more research in the physical sciences than any other U.S. federal agency, the majority of which is conducted through its system of National Laboratories. The agency is led by the United States Secretary of Energy, and its headquarters are located in Southwest Washington, D.C., on Independence Avenue in the James V. Forrestal Building, named for James Forrestal, as well as in Germantown, Maryland.

Formation and consolidation

In 1942, during World War II, the United States started the Manhattan Project, a project to develop the atomic bomb, under the eye of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. After the war in 1946, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was created to control the future of the project. The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 also created the framework for the first National Laboratories. Among other nuclear projects, the AEC produced fabricated uranium fuel cores at locations such as Fernald Feed Materials Production Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1974, the AEC gave way to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which was tasked with regulating the nuclear power industry and the Energy Research and Development Administration, which was tasked to manage the nuclear weapon; naval reactor; and energy development programs.

The 1973 oil crisis called attention to the need to consolidate energy policy. On August 4, 1977, President Jimmy Carter signed into law The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Pub.L. 95–91, 91 Stat. 565, enacted August 4, 1977), which created the Department of Energy(US). The new agency, which began operations on October 1, 1977, consolidated the Federal Energy Administration; the Energy Research and Development Administration; the Federal Power Commission; and programs of various other agencies. Former Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger, who served under Presidents Nixon and Ford during the Vietnam War, was appointed as the first secretary.

President Carter created the Department of Energy with the goal of promoting energy conservation and developing alternative sources of energy. He wanted to not be dependent on foreign oil and reduce the use of fossil fuels. With international energy’s future uncertain for America, Carter acted quickly to have the department come into action the first year of his presidency. This was an extremely important issue of the time as the oil crisis was causing shortages and inflation. With the Three-Mile Island disaster, Carter was able to intervene with the help of the department. Carter made switches within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in this case to fix the management and procedures. This was possible as nuclear energy and weapons are responsibility of the Department of Energy.

Recent

On March 28, 2017, a supervisor in the Office of International Climate and Clean Energy asked staff to avoid the phrases “climate change,” “emissions reduction,” or “Paris Agreement” in written memos, briefings or other written communication. A DOE spokesperson denied that phrases had been banned.

In a May 2019 press release concerning natural gas exports from a Texas facility, the DOE used the term ‘freedom gas’ to refer to natural gas. The phrase originated from a speech made by Secretary Rick Perry in Brussels earlier that month. Washington Governor Jay Inslee decried the term “a joke”.

Facilities

The Department of Energy operates a system of national laboratories and technical facilities for research and development, as follows:

Ames Laboratory
Argonne National Laboratory
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Idaho National Laboratory
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Los Alamos National Laboratory
National Energy Technology Laboratory
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
Sandia National Laboratories
Savannah River National Laboratory
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

Other major DOE facilities include:
Albany Research Center
Bannister Federal Complex
Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory – focuses on the design and development of nuclear power for the U.S. Navy
Kansas City Plant
Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory – operates for Naval Reactors Program Research under the DOE (not a National Laboratory)
National Petroleum Technology Office
Nevada Test Site
New Brunswick Laboratory
Office of Fossil Energy[32]
Office of River Protection[33]
Pantex
Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory
Y-12 National Security Complex
Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository
Other:

Pahute Mesa Airstrip – Nye County, Nevada, in supporting Nevada National Security Site