From Imperial College London: “Scientists spot erupting jets of material as black hole tears a star apart”

Imperial College London
From Imperial College London

14 June 2018
Hayley Dunning

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NRAO/AUI/NSF

Astronomers have for the first time directly imaged a fast-moving jet of material ejected as a supermassive black hole consumed a star.

Scientists have previously detected a few cases of black holes destroying stars, but this is the first time they have imaged a bright jet of material from the event.

The way the jets were detected means researchers are hopeful they can spot more similar events. Such events may have been more common in the early universe, so studying them may help scientists understand the environment in which galaxies developed billions of years ago.

The results, led by the University of Turku in Finland and the Astrophysical Institute of Andalucia in Spain, and including Imperial College London researchers, are published online today in the journal Science.

Only a small number of this kind of stellar deaths, called tidal disruption events (TDEs), have been detected. Physicists thought that material pulled from the doomed star would form a rotating disk around the black hole, emitting intense X-rays and visible light, and also launch jets of material outward from the poles of the disk at nearly the speed of light.

Now, these jets have been observed as a black hole, which is 20 million times more massive than our Sun, shredded a star more than twice the Sun’s mass. Astronomers tracked the event with radio and infrared telescopes in a pair of colliding galaxies called Arp 299, nearly 150 million light-years from Earth.

Epic project

Dr Dave Clements, from the Department of Physics at Imperial, said: “This project has been quite an epic, with observations and analysis spanning 13 years. It all started when my colleague Professor Peter Meikle came into my office in 2005 and said ‘something odd is happening in Arp299’.”

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GIF by Imperial College London

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ARP299 by NASA/Chandra

Astronomers using the William Herschel Telescope in the Canary Islands had discovered a bright burst of infrared emission coming from one of the colliding galaxies in Arp 299.


ING 4 meter William Herschel Telescope at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma in the Canary Islands, 2,396 m (7,861 ft)

Follow-up observations with the National Science Foundation’s Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) revealed a new, distinct source of radio emission from the same location.

NRAO/VLBA

Infrared and radio waves are those emitted beyond the visible light spectrum. The astronomers had expected to see visible light and X-rays (below the visible spectrum) created by the TDE, but think they only observed infrared and radio waves because of the amount of dust in the galaxy.

See the full article here .


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