From Gemini Observatory: “Can Exoplanets Form in a Binary Star System?”

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Gemini Observatory
From Gemini Observatory

May 31, 2018

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Artist interpretation of a close binary star system in which several planets orbit the brighter star. The fainter companion star looms brightly in the sky (upper right). A recent investigation confirms that the presence of a stellar pair does not interfere in planet formation. The study finds that approximately half of the stars harboring exoplanets are binary. Image credit: Robin Dienel, courtesy of the Carnegie Institution for Science.

A new study using Gemini data reveals that the ratio of binary stars in Kepler’s K2 exoplanet host stars is similar to that found elsewhere in our neighborhood of the Milky Way. According to lead author Dr. Rachel Matson of NASA’s Ames Research Center, “While we have known that about 50% of all stars are binary, to confirm a similar ratio in exoplanet host stars helps set some important constraints on the formation of potential exoplanets seen by Kepler.”

Until recently, astronomers generally focused on single exoplanet host stars, believing that planets form primarily around lone stars like our Sun. However, the research led by Matson, who’s team observed 206 star systems, demonstrates that the influence of a neighboring star does not appear to deter planet formation. The presence of a very close neighboring star produces enormous collateral effects on a planetary system, possibly ejecting planets into interstellar space, or gravitationally interfering with their formation and orbits.

“In our sample we did not find evidence that the proximity of a companion star suppresses the formation of exoplanets, even at distances as small as 50 Astronomical Units, which is similar to the distance between the Sun and the edge of the Kuiper belt,” explained Matson.

Dr. Steve Howell, Space Science & Astrobiology Division Chief at NASA Ames Research Center, a co-author of the study and leader of the Gemini Observatory high-resolution imaging effort, said, “We now have found that about half of the stars that host exoplanets are binary, both in the Kepler sample and now in the K2 sample, telling us we cannot ignore such systems and need to take them into account in our exoplanet studies.“

The researchers used observations from the Gemini North and South telescopes, and the WIYN telescope using the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI), for the high-resolution imaging of the K2 stars.

NOAO WIYN telescope DSSI Differential Speckle Survey Instrument


NOAO WIYN 3.5 meter telescope at Kitt Peak, AZ, USA, Altitude 2,096 m (6,877 ft)

The paper is accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal.

A preprint of the paper can be found here.

See the full article here .


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Gemini/North telescope at Maunakea, Hawaii, USA,4,207 m (13,802 ft) above sea level

Gemini South telescope, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) campus near La Serena, Chile, at an altitude of 7200 feet

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Gemini’s mission is to advance our knowledge of the Universe by providing the international Gemini Community with forefront access to the entire sky.

The Gemini Observatory is an international collaboration with two identical 8-meter telescopes. The Frederick C. Gillett Gemini Telescope is located on Mauna Kea, Hawai’i (Gemini North) and the other telescope on Cerro Pachón in central Chile (Gemini South); together the twin telescopes provide full coverage over both hemispheres of the sky. The telescopes incorporate technologies that allow large, relatively thin mirrors, under active control, to collect and focus both visible and infrared radiation from space.

The Gemini Observatory provides the astronomical communities in six partner countries with state-of-the-art astronomical facilities that allocate observing time in proportion to each country’s contribution. In addition to financial support, each country also contributes significant scientific and technical resources. The national research agencies that form the Gemini partnership include: the US National Science Foundation (NSF), the Canadian National Research Council (NRC), the Chilean Comisión Nacional de Investigación Cientifica y Tecnológica (CONICYT), the Australian Research Council (ARC), the Argentinean Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva, and the Brazilian Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação. The observatory is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the NSF. The NSF also serves as the executive agency for the international partnership.