From ESOblog: “Brown Dwarf Formation Hints at Billions of New Neighbours”

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ESOblog

1 December 2017

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Is it a star? Is it a planet? No, it’s a brown dwarf! More massive than Jupiter but smaller than the Sun, these fascinating astronomical objects are difficult to observe due to their dim nature, but studying them can tell us a lot about our Universe. In this blog post, astronomer and brown dwarf expert Koraljka Muzic discusses her latest research, which led her to discover something surprising about how brown dwarfs form.

Q: Firstly, what exactly is a brown dwarf, and why did you want to study them in this context?

A: For a long time, people have known about two well-separated classes of objects — stars and planets. Brown dwarfs are kind of a missing link between them: in terms of mass, they are somewhere between stars and planets. The transition from a brown dwarf to a star happens at 0.075 solar masses (around 80 times the mass of Jupiter), but setting a boundary between brown dwarfs and planets isn’t so straightforward. The smallest brown dwarfs discovered so far are about five times as massive as Jupiter, similar to some giant exoplanets. But these brown dwarfs don’t orbit any star; we call them free-floating planetary-mass objects.

For us, the big question is: are brown dwarfs formed like stars or like planets?

While most of the evidence today points to a star-like formation scenario for more massive brown dwarfs, we’re still questioning how low-mass brown dwarfs form; they could be formed in a similar way as giant planets.

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Artist’s impression of the relative sizes of brown dwarfs compared to stars and gas giant planets. Using Jupiter as a comparison, the brown dwarf is 10 times more massive, the low-mass star is 100 times more massive, and the Sun is approximately 1000 times more massive.
Credit: Carnegie Institution for Science

Q. The existence of brown dwarfs was only confirmed about 20 years ago. How far has our knowledge of them developed since that discovery?

A: Quite a bit! Brown dwarfs have existed in theory since the 1960s and were observed for the first time in the 1990s. Since then, we’ve discovered a few thousand of them with progressively cooler effective temperatures, leading to the definition of new stellar types.

But observing brown dwarfs is challenging because they’re very faint and very cool, which means we’re always pushing the limits of instrument sensitivity. Our progress is strongly linked to technological development — firstly, we saw this with the arrival of infrared instrumentation that could study cool, young objects surrounded by dust. Nowadays, technological progress mostly involves building bigger mirrors on the ground and in space to detect fainter objects that are even less massive and more distant. The Milky Way contains billions of brown dwarfs, so there’s still a long way to go!

Q: What’s our current understanding of how brown dwarfs form?

A: We think that massive brown dwarfs are formed like stars, through the gravitational collapse of molecular clouds. This collapse causes the temperature at the cloud’s core to soar, and at a few million degrees, hydrogen starts fusing into helium — a star has been born! But if the object is not massive enough, the collapse will stop before it reaches the hydrogen fusion temperature, and the result is a brown dwarf.

The key point for our research is that after gravitational collapse stops, the brown dwarf keeps cooling down and becoming fainter and fainter — so we want to study them while they’re young and relatively bright. This is one of the reasons we looked for brown dwarfs in a star forming region: the young cluster RCW 38.

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The objects that astronomers call brown dwarfs sit somewhere between the definition of a planet and a star. They are balls of gas with more mass than a planet, but not enough mass to sustain stable hydrogen fusion like a star. Because they hardly emit any visible light, they were only first discovered in 1995 and up until today the majority of known brown dwarfs are within 1500 light-years of us.

Now, astronomers using the NACO adaptive optics infrared camera on ESO’s Very Large Telescope have observed the star cluster RCW 38 in the constellation Vela (the Sail), about 5500 light-years away. This Picture of the Week shows the central part of RCW 38; the inserts on the sides show a subset of the brown dwarf candidates detected within the cluster.

The scientists found half as many brown dwarfs as stars in the cluster. From these results and from studying other star clusters, the astronomers estimate that the Milky Way contains at least between 25 to 100 billion brown dwarfs. RCW 38 probably contains even more less massive, fainter brown dwarfs, which are beyond the detection limits of this image — so this new estimate could actually be a significant underestimation. Further surveys will reveal the true number of brown dwarfs lurking in the Milky Way.

Credit: ESO/Koraljka Muzic (University of Lisbon), Aleks Scholz (University of St Andrews), Rainer Schoedel (Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía), Vincent Geers (UKATC), Ray Jayawardhana (York University), Joana Ascenso (University of Porto & University of Lisbon) & Lucas Cieza (University Diego Portales)

Q: What were the other reasons for choosing to observe RCW 38?

A: Several theories of brown dwarf formation predict that in places where lots of stars are packed in close together, more brown dwarfs form relative to stars. Brown dwarfs can also form close to massive stars — these stars blast a growing pre-stellar core with ionising radiation, evaporating their outer layers and leaving a small fragment behind: a brown dwarf. So in our survey SONYC (Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters), we extensively studied brown dwarfs in several nearby star-forming regions in the near-infrared. These are excellent spots for studying young brown dwarfs, but overall they’re not very dense and they contain very few massive stars.

We wanted to observe a cluster that’s significantly different to these regions in order to compare different kinds of environments. That’s how we decided on RCW 38 — it’s probably the most massive and densest cluster containing brown dwarfs detectable with our current technology. We went on to investigate RCW 38 using NACO on ESO’s Very Large Telescope.

ESO/NACO

ESO/VLT at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level

Q: What did you find out? Were your results surprising?

A: We found that RCW 38 forms approximately one brown dwarf for every two newborn stars, which is very similar to what we found in less dense clusters — for example, in NGC 1333. NGC 1333 is about 10 times less dense than RCW 38 but the number of brown dwarfs formed compared to stars seems to be the same as in RCW 38. This allows us to estimate that the Milky Way contains at least between 25 to 100 billion brown dwarfs! And it’s likely that RCW 38 contains even more less massive, fainter brown dwarfs that we couldn’t spot.

The result was unexpected because it didn’t match theoretical predictions, and was especially surprising because previous observations hinted that the stellar density should affect the number ratio of brown dwarfs to stars…but in this case, it didn’t!

Q: What excites you most about your area of research?

A: I love thinking about the next steps we could take to give us new information about the properties of brown dwarfs, or details about their formation. I get really excited when a new opportunity arises to do something that we simply couldn’t have done before, like use a new instrument or a state-of-the-art technique. Recently, there was a call for science research proposals for the NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Thinking that in just a few years we might be able to use this fantastic new instrument to observe Jupiter-like free-floating objects in young clusters is just incredibly exciting!

Q: What are the next big questions in this area of astronomy?

A: One of the big questions I’m particularly interested in is how low a brown dwarf’s mass can be — is there a limit at which brown dwarfs stop forming? This could tell us more about how these objects are born. The lowest mass brown dwarfs we observed in young clusters are only about five times more massive than Jupiter, but to see lower masses we’ll have to wait for the next generation telescopes such as the JWST and ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope. Another big question is whether brown dwarfs can host planetary systems. Observations at longer wavelengths, in mid-infrared and submillimetre, reveal that they can be surrounded by discs. The lowest mass object observed to host a disc is OTS44, a young brown dwarf of only about 10–15 Jupiter masses. And, fun fact: when the VLT took the first image of an exoplanet in 2004, it was a planet that was orbiting a brown dwarf!

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The reflection nebula NGC 1333, located in the constellation of Perseus.
Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/S.Wolk et al; Optical: DSS & NOAO/AURA/NSF; Infrared: NASA/JPL-Caltech

NASA/Chandra Telescope

NRAO/Karl V Jansky VLA, on the Plains of San Agustin fifty miles west of Socorro, NM, USA, at an elevation of 6970 ft (2124 m)

NASA/Spitzer Infrared Telescope

Q: To study RCW 38, you used the Very Large Telescope at ESO’s Paranal Observatory in Chile. What was it like to work at Paranal?

A: I worked at Paranal for three years as an ESO Fellow. Observatories in general are wonderful places, and although it can be pretty tiring, I love spending time at them because you glimpse the many complexities that lie behind astronomical observations. Building and running an observatory is an enormous effort, involving a huge number of people with different skills and expertise. It’s like a giant mechanical clock where everything has to work in perfect order to ensure astronomers around the world get the best data possible.

Science paper:
The low-mass content of the massive young star cluster RCW38 Koraljka Muzic, Rainer Schodel, Alexander Scholz, Vincent C. Geers, Ray Jayawardhana, Joana Ascenso and Lucas A. Cieza

See the full article here .

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ESO is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It is supported by 16 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world’s most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and two survey telescopes. VISTA works in the infrared and is the world’s largest survey telescope and the VLT Survey Telescope is the largest telescope designed to exclusively survey the skies in visible light. ESO is a major partner in ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. And on Cerro Armazones, close to Paranal, ESO is building the 39-metre European Extremely Large Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become “the world’s biggest eye on the sky”.

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ESO/Vista Telescope at Cerro Paranal, with an elevation of 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level.

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ESO TAROT telescope at Paranal, 2,635 metres (8,645 ft) above sea level