From Space.com: “Gallery: Planck Spacecraft Sees Big Bang Relics”

space-dot-com logo

SPACE.com

ESA’s Planck Spacecraft
1
Credit: ESA – C. Carreau
The European Space Agency’s Planck observatory peered back into the universe’s history to study the cosmic microwave background, the oldest light in the universe. See images from Planck’s prolific mission in this Space.com gallery. Here: An artist’s view of Planck with the cosmic microwave background as a backdrop.

Milky Way Galaxy in Microwaves
temp0
Credit: ESA/NASA/JPL-Caltech
A view of the Milky Way galaxy in microwaves, captured by the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite. The different colors correspond to different elements, including gas, dust, and energetic particles.

Milky Way Dust – Planck Map
3
Credit: ESA/NASA/JPL-Caltech
This map of the Milky Way shows the distribution of interstellar dust across the galaxy as seen by the Planck space observatory, a mission by the European Space Agency. ESA and NASA unveiled the image on Feb. 5, 2015.

A View of the Milky Way in Microwaves
4
Credit: ESA/NASA/JPL-Caltech
Each of the four bottom) show a specific subset of Planck observations that make up the combined view (top). Of the subsets, they show: Top left is dust, top right is gas, bottom right is light from charged particle interactions, and bottom right shows charged particles moving along the galaxy’s magnetic field.

All the Matter in the Universe by Planck
5
Credit: ESA/NASA/JPL-Caltech
All of the matter between Earth and the edge of the observable universe is shown in this image based on data from the European Space Agency’s Planck space observatory. This map was released on Feb. 5, 2015.

Planck’s All-Sky Map: Cosmic Microwave Background
6
Credit: ESA and the Planck Collaboration
This image unveiled March 21, 2013, shows the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as observed by the European Space Agency’s Planck space observatory. The CMB is a snapshot of the oldest light in our Universe, imprinted on the sky when the Universe was just 380 000 years old. It shows tiny temperature fluctuations that correspond to regions of slightly different densities, representing the seeds of all future structure: the stars and galaxies of today.

Planck’s Ingredients of the Universe
7
Credit: ESA and the Planck Collaboration
This European Space Agency graphic depicts the most refined values yet of the Universe’s ingredients, based on the first all-sky map of the cosmic microwave background by the Planck space observatory unveiled on March 21, 2013. Normal matter that makes up stars and galaxies contributes 4.9 percent of the Universe’s mass/energy inventory. Dark matter occupies 26.8 percent, while dark energy accounts for 68.3 percent.

Planck’s All-Sky Map: Cosmic Microwave Background Anomalies
8
Credit: ESA and the Planck Collaboration
Two Cosmic Microwave Background anomalies hinted at by the Planck observatory’s predecessor, NASA’s WMAP, are confirmed in new high-precision data revealed on March 21, 2013. In this image, the two anomalous regions have been enhanced with red and blue shading to make them more clearly visible.

Planck’s All-Sky Map vs. Standard Model
9
This European Space Agency graphic shows a map of the universe that depicts the anomalies seen when comparing the Planck space observatory’s map of the universe’s cosmic microwave background and the standard model of the cosmos. Image released March 21, 2013.

Planck All-Sky Image of Carbon Monoxide
10
Credit: ESA/Planck Collaboration
This all-sky image shows the distribution of carbon monoxide (CO), a molecule used by astronomers to trace molecular clouds across the sky, as seen by Planck. Image released February 13, 2012.

Galactic Haze Seen by Planck and Galactic ‘Bubbles’ Seen by Fermi
11
Credit: ESA/Planck Collaboration (microwave); NASA/DOE/Fermi LAT/D. Finkbeiner et al. (gamma rays)
This all-sky image shows the distribution of the galactic haze seen by ESA’s Planck mission at microwave frequencies…

Galactic Haze Seen by Planck
12
Credit: ESA/Planck Collaboration
his all-sky image shows the spatial distribution over the whole sky of the galactic haze at 30 and 44 GHz, extracted from the Planck observations. Image released February 13, 2012.

Planck All-Sky Image Superimposition
13
Credit: ESA/Planck Collaboration; T. Dame et al.
This all-sky image shows the distribution of carbon monoxide (CO), a molecule used by astronomers to trace molecular clouds across the sky, as seen by Planck (blue). A compilation of previous surveys (Dame et al. (2001)), which left large areas of the sky unobserved, has been superimposed for comparison (red). The outlines identify the portions of the sky covered by these surveys. Image released February 13, 2012.

Cepheus Molecular Cloud Complex
14
Credit: ESA/Planck Collaboration; T. Dame et al., 2001
This image shows the Cepheus molecular cloud complex as seen through the glow of carbon monoxide (CO) with Planck (blue). The same region is shown as imaged by previous CO surveys (Dame et al., 2001) for comparison (red). Image released February 13, 2012.

All-Sky Distribution of Carbon Monoxide
15
Credit: ESA/Planck Collaboration
This all-sky image shows the distribution of carbon monoxide (CO), a molecule used by astronomers to trace molecular clouds across the sky, as seen by Planck. The inserts provide a zoomed-in view onto three individual regions on the sky where Planck has detected concentrations of CO: Cepheus, Taurus and Pegasus, respectively. Image released February 13, 2012.

All-sky Distribution of Carbon Monoxide (CO).
16
Credit: ESA/Planck Collaboration; T. Dame et al., 2001
This all-sky image shows the distribution of carbon monoxide (CO), a molecule used by astronomers to trace molecular clouds across the sky, as seen by Planck (blue). A compilation of previous surveys (Dame et al. (2001)), which left large areas of the sky unobserved, is shown for comparison (red). Image released February 13, 2012.

Taurus Molecular Cloud Complex
17
Credit: ESA/Planck Collaboration; T. Dame et al., 2001
This image shows the Taurus molecular cloud complex as seen through the glow of carbon monoxide (CO) with Planck (blue). The same region is shown as imaged by previous CO surveys (Dame et al., 2001) for comparison (red). Image released February 13, 2012.

Molecular Clouds in the Pegasus Region
18
Credit: ESA/Planck Collaboration
This image shows molecular clouds in the Pegasus region as seen through the glow of carbon monoxide (CO) with Planck (blue). Image released February 13, 2012.

Planck’s Microwave Sky
19
Credit: ESA/ LFI & HFI Consortia
This multi-frequency all-sky image of the microwave sky has been composed using data from Planck covering the electromagnetic spectrum from 30 GHz to 857 GHz. This image was released on July 5, 2010. The mottled structure of the cosmic microwave background, with its tiny temperature fluctuations reflecting the primordial density variations from which today’s cosmic structure originated, is clearly visible in the high-latitude regions of the map. The central band is the plane of our Galaxy. A large portion of the image is dominated by the diffuse emission from its gas and dust. The image was derived from data collected by Planck during its first all-sky survey and comes from observations taken between August 2009 and June 2010. This image is a low- resolution version of the full data set.

Planck’s Orbit at L2
20
Credit: ESA
Planck’s orbit around L2, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth system.

Sky Tapestry by Planck Spacecraft
21
Credit: ESA and the HFI Consortium, IRAS
The image spans about 50 degrees of the sky. It is a three-colour combination constructed from Planck’s two highest frequency channels (557 and 857 GHz, corresponding to wavelengths of 540 and 350 micrometres), and an image at the shorter wavelength of 100 micrometres made by the IRAS satellite. It was released on March 17, 2010.

Planck’s View of Orion Nebula (Close-Up)
27
Credit: ESA/LFI & HFI Consortia
An active star-formation region in the Orion Nebula, as seen By Planck. This image covers a region of 13×13 degrees. It is a three-colour combination constructed from three of Planck’s nine frequency channels: 30, 353 and 857 GHz. This image was released on April 26, 2010.

New Sky Map Could Help Reveal How Universe Formed
28
Credit: ESA/ LFI & HFI Consortia
The microwave sky as seen by ESA’s Planck satellite. Light from the main disk of the Milky Way is seen across the center band, while radiation left over from the Big Bang is visible on the outskirts of the image.

Planck View of Milky Way – Jan. 11, 2011
29
Credit: ESA/Planck Collaboration
This image shows the location of the first six fields used to detect and study the Cosmic Infrared Background. The fields, named N1, AG, SP, LH2, Boötes 1 and Boötes 2, respectively, are all located at a relatively high galactic latitude, where the foreground contamination due to the Milky Way’s diffuse emission is less dramatic. It was released on Jan. 11, 2011.

Clumps of Star-forming Cores Across the Sky
30
Credit: ESA/NASA/JPL-Caltech
This map illustrates the numerous star-forming clouds, called cold cores, that Planck observed throughout our Milky Way galaxy. Planck, a European Space Agency mission with significant NASA participation, detected around 10,000 of these cores, thousands of which had never been seen before.

32
Credit: ESA/LFI & HFI Consortia
Star-formation Region in the Constellation Perseus

See the full article here.

Please help promote STEM in your local schools.

STEM Icon

Stem Education Coalition