I AM DISMAYED AT THE APPARENT LACK OF UNDERSTANDING OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE END OF ACTIVE TEVATRON AT FERMILAB. SO, I WENT TO THE FERMILAB WEB SITE AND COPIED OUT EVERY BIT OF TEXT I COULD FIND TO EXPLICATE THE IMPORTANCE AND FUTURE OF THIS BASTION OF THE U.S. CONTRIBUTION TO BASIC SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH WORLD WIDE. I ADDED IN SOME GRAPHICS, THE BEST I COULD FIND FOR THEIR SUBJECTS. BUT ALL OF THE TEXT IS FROM THE FERMILAB WEB SITE.
Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.
“Frontiers of Particle Physics
Three frontiers: energy, intensity and cosmic
At Fermilab, a robust scientific program pushes forward on three interrelated frontiers. Each frontier has a unique approach to making discoveries, and all three are essential to answering key questions about the laws of nature and the cosmos. Some questions can only be addressed by experiments at one frontier, but others require investigation on multiple fronts to create a complete picture.
At the Energy Frontier, scientists build advanced particle accelerators to explore the fundamental constituents and architecture of the universe. There they expect to encounter new phenomena not seen since the immediate aftermath of the big bang. Subatomic collisions at the energy frontier will produce particles that signal these new phenomena, from the origin of mass to the existence of extra dimensions.
At the Intensity Frontier, scientists use accelerators to create intense beams of trillions of particles for neutrino experiments and measurements of ultra-rare processes in nature. Measurements of the mass and other properties of the neutrinos are key to the understanding of new physics beyond today’s models and have critical implications for the evolution of the universe. Precise observations of rare processes provide a way to explore high energies, providing an alternate, powerful window to the nature of fundamental interactions.
At the Cosmic Frontier, astrophysicists use the cosmos as a laboratory to investigate the fundamental laws of physics from a perspective that complements experiments at particle accelerators. Thus far, astrophysical observations, including the bending of light known as gravitational lensing and the properties of supernovae, reveal a universe consisting mostly of dark matter and dark energy. A combination of underground experiments and telescopes, both ground- and space-based, will explore these mysterious dark phenomena that constitute 95 percent of the universe.
These scientific frontiers form an interlocking framework that addresses fundamental questions about the laws of nature and the cosmos.
Research at the Three Frontiers
Research at Fermilab explores the fundamental physics of the world around us at each of the three frontiers of particle physics. Scientists from across the country and around the world [have]collaborate[d] on the CDF and DZero experiments at the Tevatron collider. Fermilab hosts a remote operations center, an analysis center and a computing center for more than 1,000 U.S. physicists collaborating on the CMS experiment at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland. Fermilab produces the world’s most intense high-energy beam of neutrinos for experiments to lay bare the secrets of these enigmatic particles. Fermilab is a leader in the search for dark matter and dark energy at both underground detectors and ground-based telescopes. Most of Fermilab’s 10 accelerators will continue to operate after the Tevatron shuts down. Fermilab is constructing new facilities and conducting R&D for next-generation tools for the particle physics research of tomorrow.
Experiments at the Energy Frontier
At the Energy Frontier high-energy particle collisions reveal new phenomena. The Tevatron [has] produce[ed] the world’s highest-energy proton-antiproton collisions until the 26-year-old collider shuts down in 2011 [today]. The physicists of the CDF and DZero collaborations will continue to search the Tevatron data for signals of new particles and phenomena. Fermilab serves as host laboratory for more than 1,000 U.S. scientists on the Compact Muon Solenoid, or CMS, experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland. Accelerator scientists at Fermilab, who helped construct the LHC accelerator, will push the boundaries of accelerator R&D for the LHC upgrades.
Experiments at the Intensity Frontier
Fermilab’s accelerator complex produces the world’s most intense beam of neutrinos, whose unique properties appear to be at the crux of many questions about the universe. The MINOS experiment uses a high-energy beam of neutrinos and underground detectors at Fermilab and in Minnesota to measure the phenomenon of neutrino oscillation. The MiniBooNE experiment uses a lower-energy neutrino beam to study neutrino mass. The MINERvA experiment explores nuclear and particle physics through neutrino scattering.
Fermilab scientists are now building the next generation of neutrino experiments. The NOvA experiment will study the morphing of muon neutrinos into electron neutrinos and aims to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. NOvA detectors are now under construction at Fermilab and in Soudan, Minnesota. R&D is underway for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will use liquid-argon technology to measure low-energy neutrino phenomena and investigate anomalies observed by the MiniBooNE experiment. A group of scientists and engineers is developing plans for the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment, or LBNE.
NOvA experiment looking north
Ongoing R&D prepares Fermilab to break new ground in research on revelatory rare phenomena with the muon-to-electron conversion, or Mu2e, and g-2 experiments. Accelerator R&D at Fermilab and the construction of a test accelerator help develop the technologies needed for the next generation of accelerators.
Experiments at the Cosmic Frontier
Fermilab physicists bring the perspectives and technologies of particle physics to the search for dark matter and dark energy, and to the construction and operation of large-scale ground and space telescopes. Fermilab plays a prominent role in the study of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays through the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. Fermilab led the construction of the Dark Energy Camera for the Dark Energy Survey [DES]. In 2011, DES will begin to install the digital camera, among the world’s largest, on a telescope in Chile to explore the nature of dark energy. Using the largest optical survey power in the world, DES will map about one-tenth of the sky and carry out the largest galaxy survey to date.
Dark Energy Camera
The CDMS experiment looks for particles of dark matter using a germanium-crystal detector in a mine in Minnesota, while COUPP uses an underground bubble chamber in Canada’s SNOLAB. Pioneering Fermilab R&D will develop critical zero-background technology for future dark-matter detectors.
Physicists of the Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics conduct R&D for future experiments, including a Holographic Interferometer, or Holometer, to test a particular idea about how matter, energy, space and time behave on the smallest scales.
New experiments at the Frontiers
From 2012 to 2014, Fermilab’s primary research focus will shift from the Energy Frontier to the Intensity Frontier, with the construction of new experiments and preparation for new large-scale projects. In 2012, the laboratory will upgrade several of its 10 detectors. At the Cosmic Frontier, the search will continue for dark-matter particles and the origins of dark energy. Fermilab will also pursue R&D for future particle accelerators and detectors to advance technology, enable future experiments and create innovations for the benefit of society.
Making discoveries at the Energy Frontier
During the next several years, scientists on Fermilab’s CDF and DZero experiments will continue to analyze Tevatron data, searching for signs of the Higgs boson and matter-antimatter asymmetries. Fermilab will also remain a strong partner for U.S. collaborators on the Large Hadron Collider experiments at CERN. Fermilab’s Remote Operations Center and Grid Computing Center provide access to the LHC’s collision data for U.S. scientists.
Advancing research at the Intensity Frontier
Certain particle physics experiments require particle beams with incredibly large numbers of particles:
The Intensity Frontier.
To prepare for new experiments at the Intensity Frontier, Fermilab will upgrade its accelerator complex in 2012. Scientists will retool the complex to create intense particle beams for experiments such as NOvA and MicroBooNE that will explore neutrino interactions and rare subatomic processes.
When the accelerator upgrades are complete, Fermilab will use the world’s most intense neutrino beam for the NOvA experiment, a 15,000-ton detector under construction in Minnesota. NOvA scientists expect to record the first neutrino data in 2013. Simultaneously, physicists are advancing the MicroBooNE experiment. It will use a liquid-argon detector to study neutrinos at lower energy than NOvA. Scientists expect construction of the MicroBooNE detector to begin in 2013 and to have first data in 2015.
Exploring the Cosmic Frontier
Using the cosmos as a laboratory, Fermilab scientists will continue to investigate dark matter and dark energy with underground experiments and ground-based telescopes. In 2012, Fermilab will start up the 570-megapixel Dark Energy Camera, mounted on a telescope in Chile. Scanning about 12 percent of the southern sky, the camera will seek the origins of dark energy by photographing galaxies when they were only a few billion years old. The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina will continue to search for the origin of the highest-energy cosmic rays.
Operating particle detectors deep underground, Fermilab scientists will continue to search for dark matter. Scientists working on the CDMS experiment at the Soudan Mine in Minnesota will upgrade its detector, making the experiment more sensitive to dark-matter particles. Meanwhile, members of the COUPP collaboration will start operating a 60-kg bubble chamber at Canada’s SNOLAB to look for dark-matter particles.
Creating next-generation accelerator technology
Future Fermilab accelerator R&D will focus on superconducting radio-frequency technology[SRF]. Fermilab will break ground in fall 2011 for the Illinois Accelerator Research Center, a state-of-the-art facility where scientists and engineers from Fermilab, Argonne and Illinois universities will work side by side with industrial partners to research and develop breakthroughs in accelerator science and translate them into applications for the nation’s health, wealth and security. In 2013, the laboratory will complete an SRF accelerator test facility, the first of its kind in the United States. In collaboration with industry and other DOE national laboratories, scientists will use SRF components to accelerate a particle beam in this facility. By 2014, Fermilab plans to complete the technical design for the proposed Project X, a linear accelerator that would use SRF technology to explore new physics at the Intensity Frontier.
Illinois Accelerator Research Center
Fermilab’s research program for 2015 and beyond
New facilities at Fermilab, the nation’s dedicated particle physics laboratory, would provide thousands of scientists from across the United States and around the world with world-class scientific opportunities. In collaboration with the Department of Energy and the particle physics community, Fermilab is pursuing a strategic plan that addresses fundamental questions about the physical laws that govern matter, energy, space and time. Fermilab is advancing plans for the best facilities in the world for the exploration of neutrinos and rare subatomic processes, far beyond current global capabilities. The proposed construction of a two-megawatt high-intensity proton accelerator, Project X, would enable a comprehensive program of discovery at the Intensity Frontier and spur the development of accelerator technology for future energy-frontier accelerators. The proposed LBNE neutrino project [see above], which would use the world’s highest-intensity neutrino beam, would allow scientists to explore the role that neutrinos played in creating a universe of matter. And a new muon experiment, Mu2e, would aim to find out whether muons morph into electrons the way that quarks and neutrinos can transform into each other, with transformational implications for particle physics.
LBNE neutrino project
High-intensity particle beams
The proposed Project X accelerator would allow scientists to conduct a series of experiments at the Intensity Frontier with a 2-megawatt particle beam. The half-mile-long accelerator would accelerate a proton beam with almost seven times the beam intensity of Fermilab’s best accelerator performance in 2010. The beam would provide particles for kaon, muon, nuclear and neutrino experiments that would address key questions of 21st-century physics: How did the universe come to be? What happened to the antimatter? Do all the forces unify? These intensity-frontier measurements would open a doorway to realms of ultra-high energies beyond those that any particle collider could ever directly achieve.
The best neutrino experiment in the world
Are neutrinos the reason we exist? The roughly 300 scientists of the LBNE collaboration are advancing plans for the world’s best neutrino and proton decay experiment. It would send a high-intensity neutrino beam from Fermilab to a particle detector in South Dakota. Construction of the experiment, which received stage-one approval by DOE in 2010, could be underway in 2015. The experiment’s capabilities would far exceed those of the NOvA neutrino experiment, which will take data until 2019. Located underground, the LBNE detectors would determine whether neutrinos break the matter-antimatter symmetry, which could be the long-sought explanation for the dominance of matter over antimatter across the universe. Scientists also would use the ultra-sensitive detector to search for signs of proton decay, a phenomenon predicted by models for a Grand Unified Theory.
Using muons to look beyond the Standard Model
Physicists have found that quarks and neutrinos are notorious violators of flavor symmetry—a fundamental symmetry of the Standard Model of particles. So far, though, experiments have failed to observe flavor violation by electrons and muons. The Mu2e experiment [above], awarded first-stage approval by DOE in 2009 for a possible construction start by 2015, would search for the rare transformation of a muon into an electron, a clear signal of flavor symmetry violation—and unmistakable evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model.
The next-generation particle collider
In collaboration with industry and DOE national laboratories, Fermilab is developing superconducting acceleration technologies. These SRF technologies have future proton and electron beam applications, including Project X and next-generation energy-frontier particle colliders. Scientists are developing proposals for several future colliders, including the International Linear Collider and a muon collider (see animation). Discoveries at CERN’s LHC will soon determine which direction will best advance energy-frontier research. Beyond 2015, U.S. scientists will continue to make crucial contributions to the CMS experiment at the LHC thanks to Fermilab’s Grid Computing Center and LHC Remote Operations Center.
Research at the Cosmic Frontier
Ninety-five percent of the universe consists of unknown dark matter and dark energy. Fermilab conducts some of the world’s most advanced cosmic-frontier experiments to discover their nature and plans to remain a leader in the next generation of world-class projects. In 2015, the Dark Energy Survey will be in the middle of its initial 5-year run, and Fermilab scientists are planning upgrades to extend the operation of the Dark Energy Camera for an additional five years. The CDMS and COUPP collaborations are developing plans for larger-scale underground experiments, much more sensitive to dark-matter particles than any currently operating experiment. Fermilab scientists will work on the LSST collaboration to build a wide-field optical survey telescope to observe more than half the sky every four nights. The LSST identified as a top priority in the 2010 decadal study of the National Research Council, will explore dark energy, supernovae and time-variable phenomena.”