Tagged: SETI Institute Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 5:03 pm on September 8, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , SETI Institute   

    From SETI: “Moonlets Created and Destroyed in a Ring of Saturn” 


    SETI Institute

    Monday, September 08 2014

    Robert French
    SETI Institute
    E-mail: rfrench@seti.org
    Tel: +1 650 960-0239

    Mark Showalter
    SETI Institute
    E-mail: mshowalter@seti.org
    Tel: +1 650 960-0234

    Seth Shostak, Media Contact
    SETI Institute
    E-mail: seth@seti.org,
    Tel: +1 650 960-4530

    Preston Dyches, Media Contact
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
    E-mail: preston.dyches@jpl.nasa.gov
    Tel: +1 818 354-7013

    There is an ongoing drama in the Saturnian ring system that causes small moons to be born and then destroyed on time scales that are but an eyeblink in the history of the solar system. SETI Institute scientists Robert French and Mark Showalter have examined photos made by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft and compared them to 30 year-old pictures made by the Voyager mission. They find that there is a marked difference in the appearance of one of the rings, even over this cosmologically short interval, a difference that can be explained by the brief strut and fret of small moons.

    rings

    NASA Cassini Spacecraft
    NASA/CAssini-Huygens

    NASA Voyager 2
    NASA/Voyager

    “The F ring is a narrow, lumpy feature made entirely of water ice that lies just outside the broad, luminous rings A, B, and C,” notes French. “It has bright spots. But it has fundamentally changed its appearance since the time of Voyager. Today, there are fewer of the very bright lumps.”

    The bright spots come and go over the course of hours or days, a mystery that the two SETI Institute astronomers think they have solved.

    “We believe the most luminous knots occur when tiny moons, no bigger than a large mountain, collide with the densest part of the ring,” says French. “These moons are small enough to coalesce and then break apart in short order.”

    The F ring is at a special place in the ring system, at a distance known as the Roche limit, named for French astronomer Edouard Roche who first pointed out that if a moon orbits too close to a planet, the difference in gravitational tug on its near and far side can tear it apart. This happens at a distance dependent on the mass of the planet, and in the case of Saturn, happens to be at the location of the F ring. Consequently, material here is caught between the yin and yang of forming small moons, and having them pulled apart. The moons in question are typically no more than 3 miles (5 km) in size, and consequently can come together quickly.

    This chaotic region is given additional stir by Prometheus, a moon that’s roughly 60 miles (100 km) in size that orbits just inside the F ring. Every 17 years, Prometheus aligns with the F ring in a way that emphasizes its gravitational influence on the ring’s particles, precipitating the formation of the mini-moons, or moonlets.

    “These newborn moonlets will repeatedly crash through the F ring, like bumper cars, producing bright clumps as they careen through lanes of material,” says Showalter. “But this is self-destructive behavior, and the moons – being just at the Roche limit – are barely stable and quickly fragmented.”

    This scenario can explain the rapid variation in the number of bright clumps in the F ring, but is it true? If the periodic influence of Prometheus is causing the waxing and waning of the clumps, then there should be an increase in their prevalence over the next few years, a prediction that the astronomers will be checking with Cassini data.

    In addition to the drama of moons that come and go over less than a human lifetime, studies of the ring system give insight into how solar systems in general are built.

    “The sort of processes going on around Saturn are very similar to those that took place here 4.6 billion years ago, when the Earth and the other large planets were formed,” notes French. “It’s an important process to understand.”

    This research was published in the online edition of the journal Icarus on July 15, 2014.

    Link to paper: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103514003625

    The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

    See the full article here.

    SETI Institute – 189 Bernardo Ave., Suite 100
    Mountain View, CA 94043
    Phone 650.961.6633 – Fax 650-961-7099
    Privacy PolicyQuestions and Comments

    ScienceSprings relies on technology from

    MAINGEAR computers

    Lenovo
    Lenovo

    Dell
    Dell

     
  • richardmitnick 7:42 pm on September 1, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , SETI Institute   

    Seth Shostak of SETI Institute at his Eloquent Best. 


    SETI Institute

    Seth Shostak. ’nuff said.

    SETI Institute – 189 Bernardo Ave., Suite 100
    Mountain View, CA 94043
    Phone 650.961.6633 – Fax 650-961-7099
    Privacy PolicyQuestions and Comments

    ScienceSprings relies on technology from

    MAINGEAR computers

    Lenovo
    Lenovo

    Dell
    Dell

     
  • richardmitnick 7:47 am on August 29, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , SETI Institute   

    From SETI Institute: “How Can We Find Tiny Particles In Exoplanet Atmospheres?” 


    SETI Institute

    August 28 2014

    Adrian Brown
    SETI Institute
    E-mail: abrown@seti.org
    Tel: +1 650 960-4223

    Seth Shostak, Media Contact
    SETI Institute
    E-mail: seth@seti.org
    Tel: +1 650 960-4530

    It may seem like magic, but astronomers have worked out a scheme that will allow them to detect and measure particles ten times smaller than the width of a human hair, even at many light-years distance. They can do this by observing a blue tint in the light from far-off objects caused by the way in which small particles, no more than a micron in size (one-thousandth of a millimeter) scatter light.

    disc
    Credit: NASA/JPL

    In a recent study conducted by Adrian Brown of the SETI Institute, the broad outlines of this process have been worked out. “The effect is related to a familiar phenomenon known as Rayleigh scattering,” says Brown. “And that’s something everyone has seen: it makes the sky blue.”

    By analyzing spectroscopic data from the Cassini orbiter, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and ground-based telescopes, Brown has managed to document this blue enhancement in many nearby objects, including the rings of Saturn, its moons Dione and Epimetheus, Mars, the moon, and the tail of Comet 17P/Holmes.

    NASA Cassini Spacecraft
    NASA/Cassini

    mars
    NASA/ Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Brown’s theoretical study of the phenomenon showed that the spectral bluing occurs any time sufficiently small objects are in our field of view. In his studies, he considered particles between 0.1 and 1.0 microns in size. A human hair is roughly 17 microns in diameter.

    So why isn’t the ground beneath our feet blue? Brown’s research suggests that the effect is quickly damped by other objects that, despite being of the same type, have different size distributions. The effect depends on having many particles within a narrow range of size. In addition, too many tiny particles might turn objects white. As an example of the latter, a glass of milk appears white because of multiple scattering from fat globules, and clouds appear white due to multiple scattering from water aerosols (droplets).

    Consequently, the bluing effect requires some process that forms lots of particles of almost identical size. Simply establishing that such a process is present can give researchers clues to the history and conditions on extraterrestrial bodies.

    “This technique would, in principle, allow us to find extremely tiny particles in the atmospheres or on the surfaces of exoplanets that are tens or thousands of light-years away,” Brown says.

    The research was published in the September 1 issue of Icarus.

    See the full article here.

    SETI Institute – 189 Bernardo Ave., Suite 100
    Mountain View, CA 94043
    Phone 650.961.6633 – Fax 650-961-7099
    Privacy PolicyQuestions and Comments

    ScienceSprings relies on technology from

    MAINGEAR computers

    Lenovo
    Lenovo

    Dell
    Dell

     
  • richardmitnick 7:26 am on August 22, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , SETI Institute,   

    From Seth Shostak via SPACE.com: “6 Most Likely Places for Alien Life in the Solar System” 

    space-dot-com logo

    SPACE.com

    SETI Seth Shostak
    Seth Shostak, Senior Astronomer, SETI Institute

    We still don’t have hard evidence for any life that’s not of this Earth, but across our solar system there are some tantalizing possibilities for primitive life to find a haven. Some moons of Jupiter and Saturn are intriguing, and there’s also the chance for some surprises somewhere on Mars.

    Here are my top six candidates for the best spots to search for primitive alien life in our solar system.

    FIRST STOP: Enceladus

    encl

    In 2005, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft photographed geysers of frozen water spewing from cracks in Enceladus’ southern hemisphere. Scientists think reservoirs of liquid water lie beneath the frozen surface and are warmed by gravitational interactions between Enceladus and other moons around Saturn. The necessities for life are there, and maybe Enceladans are as well. The moon has a mean radius of 156.6 miles (252.1 km).

    NASA Cassini Spacecraft
    NASA/Cassini

    NEXT STOP: Mars

    mars

    Mars remains perennially popular for those hunting for otherworldly protoplasm. Particularly intriguing are the dark stripes that appear in the Martian summertime at Horowitz crater. These are likely to be salty meltwater only inches beneath Mars’ dusty epidermis. A relatively simple probe could sample this muddy environment. Mars has a diameter of about 4,212 miles (6,779 km)

    NEXT STOP: Titan

    tit

    Titan is Saturn’s largest moon and the only world in the solar system (besides Earth) known to sport liquid lakes. These are lakes of ethane and methane — liquid natural gas — endlessly topped up by hydrocarbon rain. Despite the odd ingredients and Titan’s gelid temperatures (minus 290 Fahrenheit, or minus 179 Celsius), it is a world where chemistry’s a happening enterprise. Titan possesses diameter of 3,200 miles (5,150 km).

    NEXT STOP: Europa

    europa

    Many would grant Europa a higher potential-life rating than I have, since there’s probably more liquid water here than in all of Earth’s oceans. The downside is that Europa’s vast, salty seas lie beneath roughly 10 miles of ice. Not only is it difficult get a probe beneath this icy armor, but Europa’s oceans are darker than a cave — which means photosynthesis won’t work. However, something down there may subsist on geothermal heat or complex molecules from the surface. Europa possesses a mean radius of 970 miles (1,560.8 km).

    NEXT STOP: Venus, the Hellish Planet

    venus

    A surprise entry in the exobiology sweepstakes is our sister planet, Venus, with its scorching surface temperatures (850 F, or 454 C). The planet is generally assumed to be as sterile as a boiled mule.

    But planetary scientist David Grinspoon, astrobiology curator at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, points out that high in the Venusian atmosphere temperatures are refreshingly tolerable. Atmospheric sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide might serve as food for floating microbes. Venus is 7,521 miles wide (12,104 km).

    NEXT STOP: Callisto and Ganymede of Jupiter

    calisto

    I considered these two moons of Jupiter together, as I feel they’re neck-and-neck candidates for biology. Like their more celebrated neighbor Europa, Ganymede and Callisto may have buried, liquid oceans. However, in the case of these two satellite siblings, briny deeps would underlie at least 60 miles (100 km) of rock. Finding inhabitants here is a shovel-ready project for our grandkids. Callisto has a diameter of more than 2,985 miles (4,800 km); Ganymede’s diameter is 3,270 miles (5,262.4 km).

    See the full article here.


    SETI Institute

    SETI Institute – 189 Bernardo Ave., Suite 100
    Mountain View, CA 94043
    Phone 650.961.6633 – Fax 650-961-7099

    ScienceSprings relies on technology from

    MAINGEAR computers

    Lenovo
    Lenovo

    Dell
    Dell

     
  • richardmitnick 11:44 am on August 20, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , SETI Institute   

    From Seth Shostak of SETI Institute via Huff Post: “Forget Space Travel: Build This Telescope” 


    SETI Institute

    SETI Seth Shostak
    Seth Shostak,Senior Astronomer, SETI Institute

    The first telescopes were toys, charming amusements. Sure, there were a few practical uses, such as observing distant ships coming into harbor. Doing so allowed merchants to hurry down to the docks ahead of their telescope-free competitors, and snag all the better goods. Military commanders occasionally found telescopes handy as well. And when they weren’t being used for commerce or conflict, these simple devices were undoubtedly helpful for checking out the personal parameters of careless neighbors.

    In 1609, Galileo turned a telescope skyward — a move that no one else seems to have considered. His instruments had lenses about the size of a half-dollar coin, and magnifications that were only about 20 times. Their simple optics had more aberrations than Vlad the Impaler.

    Today, you wouldn’t give a kid a telescope this lousy, unless you’re inspiring her to forsake science in favor of a more lucrative occupation, like starching shirts. But these low-grade constructions were good enough to see the bigger moons of Jupiter, the craters of the moon, and stars making up the Milky Way. They were, despite their pitiful specifications, arguably the most important astronomical telescopes of all time.

    Modern researchers would find Galileo’s ‘scopes useful only for batting Whiffle balls. They’ve moved on to bigger and better, and today are building some truly impressive instruments: a new generation of titanic telescopes that sport primary mirrors larger than tennis courts.

    ESO E-ELT
    ESO E-ELT

    Thirty Meter Telescope
    Thirty Meter Telescope.

    Giant Magellan Telescope
    Giant Magellan Telescope

    These will snag a million times as much light as Galileo’s instrument, which is really the motivation for their construction. But, thanks to an ability to undo a lot of the distortions caused by Earth’s shuddering atmosphere [adaptive optices, active optics], these new outsized ‘scopes will be about as hawkeyed as the famed Hubble instrument — able to see detail at a level of about 0.1 seconds of arc. That’s enough to just make out a dime a dozen miles away.

    exo
    Exoplanet

    Impressive, yes, but no one cares about examining far-off dimes. What about inspecting worlds around other stars, the so-called exoplanets that dominate a lot of astronomy news these days? Well, with these new giant telescopes, any Earth-size exoplanet would be smaller than one pixel in size. It would be a thoroughly unresolved pinpoint of light.

    Useful, but not entirely gratifying.

    I think it’s fair to say that, given your ‘druthers, you’d want an instrument that could map exoplanets in the kind of detail you get with Google Earth, with enough resolution to actually see the Great Wall of the Klingons, in case they’ve built one.

    Could we construct such a telescope … ever?

    Here’s what it takes: Let’s assume that all the alien worlds you wish to view up close and personal are no more than 100 light-years away. That might sound pretty cramped to astronomy nerds, but there are probably several hundred thousand planets within that distance – enough to gratify even the most spirited voyeur.

    At 100 light-years, something the size of a Honda Accord — which I propose as a standard imaging test object — subtends an angle of a half-trillionth of a second of arc. In case that number doesn’t speak to you, it’s roughly the apparent size of a cell nucleus on Pluto, as viewed from Earth.

    You will not be stunned to hear that resolving something that minuscule requires a telescope with a honking size. At ordinary optical wavelengths, “honking” works out to a mirror 100 million miles across. You could nicely fit a reflector that large between the orbits of Mercury and Mars. Big, yes, but it would permit you to examine exoplanets in incredible detail.

    The down side is obvious: Who could ever construct such a thing? Well, fortunately, no one has to. Instead, you could field a phalanx of small mirrors in space, spread out over 100 million miles. They wouldn’t even have to maintain a fixed pattern, as long as you could accurately keep track of their relative positions.

    No huge mirror: just a manageable number of small ones. The ability to see detail would be the same. And, of course, it’s a heck of a lot easier to turn an array of small instruments to different places on the sky than to pivot a 100 million-mile monstrosity.

    Of course, there are a few small problems of principle here. You need to collect enough light to make the imaging possible, and correct for the fact that the target exoplanet is both rotating and sliding across the sky. Both problems can be dealt with, at least in theory — which suggests that they can also be dealt with in practice, given sufficient effort.

    But think of the implications. There’s a lot of talk about interstellar travel, and whether we will ever be capable of rocketing to other stars. It’s a tough thing to do.

    However, if the type of telescope described here can be built, then the tyranny of distance is vanquished. You can forget deep space probes and their long travel times. We could explore alien worlds in the comfort of our own homes, as our laptops scroll and zoom through data sets collected by a mammoth, space-based telescope array.

    It would also, quite obviously, be a whole new way to search for extraterrestrial life … just look for it, or its artifacts (like cities).

    This is, to my mind, the ultimate telescope. It’s not for our generation to build, or even the next two. But after that …?

    See the full article here.

    SETI Institute – 189 Bernardo Ave., Suite 100
    Mountain View, CA 94043
    Phone 650.961.6633 – Fax 650-961-7099
    Privacy PolicyQuestions and Comments

    ScienceSprings relies on technology from

    MAINGEAR computers

    Lenovo
    Lenovo

    Dell
    Dell

     
  • richardmitnick 2:57 pm on August 19, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , SETI Institute   

    From The New York Times: “The Intelligent-Life Lottery” 

    New York Times

    The New York Times

    AUG. 18, 2014
    George Johnson

    Almost 20 years ago, in the pages of an obscure publication called Bioastronomy News, two giants in the world of science argued over whether SETI — the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence — had a chance of succeeding. Carl Sagan, as eloquent as ever, gave his standard answer. With billions of stars in our galaxy, there must be other civilizations capable of transmitting electromagnetic waves. By scouring the sky with radio telescopes, we just might intercept a signal.

    But Sagan’s opponent, the great evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr, thought the chances were close to zero. Against Sagan’s stellar billions, he posed his own astronomical numbers: Of the billions of species that have lived and died since life began, only one — Homo sapiens — had developed a science, a technology, and the curiosity to explore the stars. And that took about 3.5 billion years of evolution. High intelligence, Mayr concluded, must be extremely rare, here or anywhere. Earth’s most abundant life form is unicellular slime.

    Since the debate with Sagan, more than 1,700 planets have been discovered beyond the solar system — 700 just this year. Astronomers recently estimated that one of every five sunlike stars in the Milky Way might be orbited by a world capable of supporting some kind of life.

    That is about 40 billion potential habitats. But Mayr, who died in 2005 at the age of 100, probably wouldn’t have been impressed. By his reckoning, the odds would still be very low for anything much beyond slime worlds. No evidence has yet emerged to prove him wrong.

    Maybe we’re just not looking hard enough. Since SETI began in the early 1960s, it has struggled for the money it takes to monitor even a fraction of the sky. In an online essay for The Conversation last week, Seth Shostak, the senior astronomer at the SETI Institute, lamented how little has been allocated for the quest — just a fraction of NASA’s budget.

    “If you don’t ante up,” he wrote, “you will never win the jackpot. And that is a question of will.”

    Three years ago, SETI’s Allen Telescope Array in Northern California ran out of money and was closed for a while. Earlier this month, it was threatened by wildfire — another reminder of the precariousness of the search.

    Allen Telescope Array
    Allen Telescope Array

    It has been more than 3.5 billion years since the first simple cells arose, and it took another billion years or so for some of them to evolve and join symbiotically into primitive multicellular organisms. These biochemical hives, through random mutations and the blind explorations of evolution, eventually led to creatures with the ability to remember, to anticipate and — at least in the case of humans — to wonder what it is all about.

    Every step was a matter of happenstance, like the arbitrary combination of numbers — 3, 12, 31, 34, 51 and 24 — that qualified a Powerball winner for a $90 million prize this month. Some unknowing soul happened to enter a convenience store in Rifle, Colo., and — maybe with change from buying gasoline or a microwaved burrito — purchase a ticket just as the machine was about to spit out those particular numbers.

    According to the Powerball website, the chance of winning the grand prize is about one in 175 million. The emergence of humanlike intelligence, as Mayr saw it, was about as likely as if a Powerball winner kept buying tickets and — round after round — hit a bigger jackpot each time. One unlikelihood is piled on another, yielding a vanishingly rare event.

    In one of my favorite books, “Wonderful Life,” Stephen Jay Gould celebrated what he saw as the unlikelihood of our existence. Going further than Mayr, he ventured that if a slithering creature called Pikaia gracilens had not survived the Cambrian extinction, about half a billion years ago, the entire phylum called Chordata, which includes us vertebrates, might never have existed.

    Gould took his title from the Frank Capra movie in which George Bailey gets to see what the world might have been like without him — idyllic Bedford Falls is replaced by a bleak, Dickensian Pottersville.

    For Gould, the fact that any of our ancestral species might easily have been nipped in the bud should fill us “with a new kind of amazement” and “a frisson for the improbability of the event” — a fellow agnostic’s version of an epiphany.

    “We came this close (put your thumb about a millimeter away from your index finger), thousands and thousands of times, to erasure by the veering of history down another sensible channel,” he wrote. “Replay the tape a million times,” he proposed, “and I doubt that anything like Homo sapiens would ever evolve again. It is, indeed, a wonderful life.”

    Other biologists have disputed Gould’s conclusion. In the course of evolution, eyes and multicellularity arose independently a number of times. So why not vertebrae, spinal cords and brains? The more bags of tricks an organism has at its disposal, the greater its survival power may be. A biological arms race ensues, with complexity ratcheted ever higher.

    But those occasions are rare. Most organisms, as Daniel Dennett put it in “Darwin’s Dangerous Idea,” seem to have “hit upon a relatively simple solution to life’s problems at the outset and, having nailed it a billion years ago, have had nothing much to do in the way of design work ever since.” Our appreciation of complexity, he wrote, “may well be just an aesthetic preference.”

    In Five Billion Years of Solitude, by Lee Billings, published last year, the author visited Frank Drake, one of the SETI pioneers.

    “Right now, there could well be messages from the stars flying right through this room,” Dr. Drake told him. “Through you and me. And if we had the right receiver set up properly, we could detect them. I still get chills thinking about it.”

    He knew the odds of tuning in — at just the right frequency at the right place and time — were slim. But that just meant we needed to expand the search.

    “We’ve been playing the lottery only using a few tickets,” he said.

    See the full article here.

    ScienceSprings relies on technology from

    MAINGEAR computers

    Lenovo
    Lenovo

    Dell
    Dell

     
  • richardmitnick 4:14 pm on August 18, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , SETI Institute,   

    From Astrobiology: ” SETI Searches Kepler Candidates for Signals of Life” 

    Astrobiology Magazine

    Astrobiology Magazine

    Aug 18, 2014
    Nola Taylor Redd

    A recent search by the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) studied 86 candidates in the Kepler space observatory’s field for radio signals that could potentially indicate the presence of an intelligent civilization.

    Of course, no radio signals were found, but the search did identify the most promising Kepler objects for wide-band observations using the Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia.

    NRAO GBT
    NRAO Green Bank Telescope

    “The 86 target stars were selected because they hosted planets discovered by [the year] 2011 with properties that could be conducive to the development of life,” said Abhimat Gautam, of the University of California, Berkeley.

    Gautam, who just completed his senior undergratuate year at the University of California, Berkeley and was part of the Berkeley SETI Research Center, presented the results at the 224th summer meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Boston, Massachusetts in June.

    Widening the search

    By 2011, Kepler had revealed 1,235 planetary candidates (as of June 17, 2014, that number stands at 4,254, with 974 of them confirmed as planets). Gautam worked with Andrew Siemion and other scientists of the Berkeley SETI Research Center to select 86 planetary candidates that had surface temperatures between –50 and 100 degrees Celsius (-58 to 212 degrees Fahrenheit), a radius smaller than three times that of Earth, and an orbital period of more than 50 days. Such conditions placed the objects within the habitable zone around their stars, the region where liquid water can exist on the surface and where life might best be able to develop on a planet.

    k11
    Kepler-11, a sun-like star located approximately 2,000 light-years from Earth, hosts six transiting planets that were the target of a search for signals indicating advanced civilizations.

    The Green Bank Telescope (the world’s largest fully steerable radio telescope, located in Green Bank, West Virginia) targeted the parent stars using a wide-band signal. Scientists had performed previous searches of the Kepler field in the narrow-band with no success. Only 5 Hertz (Hz) wide on the radio spectrum, narrowband signals are only known to arise from artificial sources on Earth, Gautam said. The narrowband range is commonly used in SETI searches.

    By switching to wide-band, Gautam hoped for a number of benefits. Wide-band signals cover 2.5 Megahertz (MHz), which is half a billion times wider than previous searches. Increasing the region of the radio spectrum observed means that listening scientists can search for broader signals than those previously observed. The interstellar medium—the gas and dust between stars—can spread the signal out as it travels through the material, causing a delay that could provide a rough estimate of the distance to any detectable source and allowing SETI astronomers to track potential communications back to their origins.

    In addition, a wide-band signal may be more commonly used for intentional signaling, Gautam said.

    “An advanced alien civilization may even use a pulsar for signaling, which can be more easily and effectively detected in a wide-band search.”

    k22
    Located in the habitable zone around a sun-like star, Kepler-22b, shown in this artist’s interpretation, is 2.4 times the size of Earth. Credit: NASA/Ames/JPL-Caltech

    Gautam, who is pursuing a doctorate in astronomy at the University of California, Los Angeles, first took interest in SETI through theSETI@Home project while still in high school. He contacted Dan Werthimer, chief scientist for SETI@Home, in search of available research projects.

    SETI@home screensaver
    SETI @home

    “When UC Berkeley undergraduate students majoring in the physical sciences express an interest in continuing on for a graduate degree in their field, one of the first suggestions they receive is to seek out research opportunities,” SETI’s Andrew Siemion told Astrobiology Magazine in an email.

    Gautam presented the results while he was still an undergraduate student because“it was all his work,” Siemion said.

    “Abhimat [Gautam] was a fantastic member of our research group,” he said.

    Scanning the skies

    The SETI search focused both on active signals deliberately broadcast by a potential civilization, as well as passive signals such as those created by Earth’s television shows and airport radars.

    “We expect intentional, active signals to be brighter and easier to detect than non-intentional, passive signals,” Gautam said.

    With the Green Bank Telescope pointed at each target star, the radio beam would span approximately 4.2 light-years, wide enough to engulf the planetary system, including unknown bodies.

    According to Siemion’s SETI blog, the search also covered a region of the radio spectrum known as the “terrestrial microwave window,” which can travel through both interstellar space and Earth’s atmosphere with little distortion. Within that window, the SETI search covered the “water hole,” a region of the radio spectrum bounded by the two products of water — hydrogen and hydroxyl.

    “Some scientists have suggested that if an extraterrestrial intelligence were to deliberately signal other intelligent beings, they might chose this band,” Siemion wrote.

    The team found no sign of an intelligent civilization. They concluded that less than 1 percent of the stars in the region produce a radio signal greater than 60 times that of the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico.

    “The Arecibo Planetary Radar is the most powerful radio transmitter on Earth,” Gautam said.

    “This provides a good estimate for calculating estimates of the detectability of Earth-like technology in our search.”

    Arecibo
    Arecibo

    See the full article here.

    NASA

    ScienceSprings relies on technology from

    MAINGEAR computers

    Lenovo
    Lenovo

    Dell
    Dell

     
  • richardmitnick 2:49 pm on August 13, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , SETI Institute, ,   

    From SPACE.com: “Hairspray Chemical Could Aid Search for Alien Life” 

    space-dot-com logo

    SPACE.com

    August 13, 2014
    Charles Q. Choi

    Chemicals once found in hairspray may serve as signs of alien life on faraway worlds, researchers say.

    These compounds may reveal that extraterrestrials have disastrously altered their planets, scientists added.

    To detect biomarkers, or signs of life, on distant worlds, scientists have often focused on molecules such as oxygen, which theoretically disappears quickly from atmospheres unless life is present to provide a constant supply of the gas. By looking at light passing through atmospheres of alien worlds, past studies have suggested future instruments such as NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope could detect telltale traces of oxygen.

    But the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) has mostly concentrated on “technosignatures,” such as radio and other electromagnetic signals that alien civilizations might give off. Now researchers suggest that searches for atmospheric biomarkers could also look for industrial pollutants as potential signs of intelligent aliens.

    SETI ATA
    SETI Institute’s Allen Telescope Array

    SETI@home screensaver
    SETI@home, citizen science, Public Distributed Computing running on BOINC software

    Astronomers at Harvard University focused on tiny, superdense stars known as white dwarfs. More than 90 percent of all stars in the Milky Way, including our own sun, will one day end up as white dwarfs, which are made up of the dim, fading cores of stars.

    sirius
    Image of Sirius A and Sirius B taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. Sirius B, which is a white dwarf, can be seen as a faint pinprick of light to the lower left of the much brighter Sirius A.

    Though white dwarfs are quite cold for stars, they would still be warm enough to possess so-called habitable zones — orbits where liquid water can exist on the surfaces of circling planets. These zones are considered potential habitats for life, as there is life virtually everywhere there is liquid water on Earth.

    The scientists examined how Earth-size planets in the habitable zones of white dwarfs might look if they possessed industrial pollutants in their atmosphere. They focused on chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are entirely artificial compounds, with no known natural process capable of creating them in atmospheres.

    CFCs are nontoxic chemicals that were once used in hairspray and air conditioners, among many other products, before researchers discovered they were causing a hole in Earth’s ozone layer, which protects the planet from dangerous ultraviolet radiation.

    “Very hairy extraterrestrials may be a little easier to detect,” joked lead study author Henry Lin, a physicist at Harvard.

    CFCs are strong greenhouse gases, meaning they are very effective at absorbing heat. This means that if CFCs are in the atmosphere of a distant Earth-size planet, they could alter a white dwarf’s light when that world passes in front of that star — enough for the $8.8 billion James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), which is due to launch in 2018, to detect them.

    In addition, the researchers noted that CFCs are long-lived molecules, capable of lasting up to about 100,000 years in atmospheres. This means they could even serve as markers of long-dead alien civilizations. [10 Alien Encounters Debunked]

    The investigators simulated the amount of time it would take JWST to detect the fluorocarbon CF4 and the chlorofluorocarbon CCl3F in the atmosphere of an Earth-size planet in the habitable zone of a white dwarf. They modeled concentrations of these gases 100 times greater than the highs currently seen on Earth.

    The scientists found it would take JWST three days of looking at such a white dwarf to detect signs of CF4, and only a day and a half for CCl3F.

    NASA Webb Telescope
    NASA/Webb

    “The most exciting aspect of the results is that within the next decade we might be able to search for excessive industrial pollution in the atmospheres of Earth-like planets,” study co-author Abraham Loeb, a theoretical astrophysicist and chair of Harvard’s astronomy department, told Space.com.

    Ironically, “aliens are often referred to as green little creatures, but ‘green’ also means ‘environmentally friendly,'” Loeb said. “Detectable CFC-rich civilizations would not be ‘green.'”

    The scientists did caution that it would take much longer to detect these industrial pollutants than it would biomarkers such as oxygen, which JWST could find after about three hours of looking at such a planet. Astronomers should only attempt to discover technosignatures such as CFCs if initial searches for fundamental biomarkers like oxygen were successful, the research team suggested.

    The astronomers cautioned it would be 100 times more difficult to detect industrial pollutants on planets orbiting yellow dwarf stars like the sun, making such searches beyond the capabilities of JWST. It would also take an unrealistically long time to detect CFC levels on alien planets that match those currently found on Earth, Loeb said.

    One potentially sobering future discovery might be of alien worlds that possess long-lived industrial pollutants such as CFCs but no longer have any short-lived biomarkers such as oxygen.

    “If we find graveyards of other civilizations, most rational people would likely get engaged in protecting the Earth from a similar catastrophe,” Loeb said.

    “We call industrial pollution a biomarker for intelligent life, but perhaps a civilization much more advanced than us with their own exoplanet program will classify industrial pollution as a biomarker for unintelligent life,” Lin said

    However, if astronomers discover a world heavy with CFCs that exists outside the habitable zone of its star, that could mean an extraterrestrial civilization may have intentionally “terraformed” that planet, making it livably warmer “by polluting it with greenhouse gases,” Loeb said. Scientists have previously suggested terraforming Mars by warming and thickening the Red Planet’s atmosphere so that humans can roam its surface without having to wear spacesuits.

    The scientists detailed their findings in a paper submitted to the Astrophysical Journal.

    See the full article here.

    ScienceSprings relies on technology from

    MAINGEAR computers

    Lenovo
    Lenovo

    Dell
    Dell

     
  • richardmitnick 7:50 am on August 5, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , SETI Institute   

    From SETI Institute via The Why Files: “Planet discoveries boost LifeSearch 2.0″ 


    SETI Institute

    why

    31 July 2014
    David J. Tenenbaum

    The search for life in space — boosted half a century ago by a series of grade “C” sci-fi horror films — has been perking again lately, largely due to a gusher of newly found planets.

    “I think the field is very upbeat,” says David Black, president of the SETI Institute, a pioneering group devoted to finding intelligent life in space. “The detection of so many planets has buoyed enthusiasm, and more specifically, the detection of objects that are in some sense Earthlike, in the ‘habitable zone.’”

    mega
    A newly discovered planet dubbed “mega-Earth” is shown in an artist’s conception. Kepler-10c orbits a sun-like star, has a diameter of about 29,000 kilometers (2.3 times larger than Earth), and weighs 17 times more. The solid planet may have a thin atmosphere that is unlikely to support life. 10c is located about 560 light years away and orbits its star every 45 days.
    Photo: David A. Aguilar (Center for Astrophysics)

    That zone is defined as the range where liquid water — considered essential to all known life — can exist. In most uses, “habitable planet” implies a rocky one, like Earth or Mars, rather than a gas giant like Saturn or Jupiter.”

    Some hype may have entered the picture, Black concedes. “If you are really careful, what we are finding is many Venus-like analogs,” meaning rocky planets in hot orbits. “But the fact that we are finding objects that could potentially lead us to find life is exciting.”

    The first exoplanet — planet beyond the solar system — was found in 1995 by two Swiss astronomers. That made headlines. These days, exoplanets barely make news. That changed on April 14, 2014, when scientists announced the discovery of the first earth-size planet in the habitable zone.

    Since January, roughly 950 planets have been found, largely by the Kepler Space Telescope, which was launched in 2009 to detect the slight dimming that occurs when a planet “transits” across the face of its star.

    NASA Kepler Telescope
    NASA/Kepler

    These discoveries are helping fill in blanks in the Drake equation, an early effort to predict how many planets had invented powerful radios.

    goldi
    The habitable zone (green), where liquid water can exist, is farther from hot stars than cooler ones. Rollover image to see an artist’s view of star Kepler-186, about 500 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cygnus. Kepler-186 is an M dwarf star with half the mass of the sun. Kepler-186 has five known planets, including Kepler-186f, which orbits in the habitable zone.
    First: NASA/Kepler Mission/Dana Berry; second: NASA Ames/SETI Institute/JPL-Caltech

    A 2013 study, based on Kepler’s unwavering stare at 42,000 stars, found that 22 percent of sun-like stars in the Milky Way harbor Earth-like planets in the habitable zone.
    The habitable zone (green), where liquid water can exist, is farther from hot stars than cooler ones.

    A 2014 study concluded that 17 billion earth-like planets occur in the Milky Way alone — and our galaxy is one of roughly 100 billion others.

    Even the numero-numbskulls at The Why Files can calculate that: more than 100 billion billion earth-like planets could exist in the universe.
    Planets: Common yes, but alive?

    Granted, none of these discoveries prove that life exists beyond Earth, but they sure do jack up the odds.

    If planets are indeed so common, scientists are edging toward the conclusion that life is practically inevitable somewhere or other, especially given discoveries of life on Earth above the boiling point, in the sun-less, superheated deep sea, and in rocks buried a kilometer underground. “The likelihood that life exists out there, in my view, is almost certain,” Black says.

    Which is not to say that this life can be detected by today’s technology — or even tomorrow’s. Nor is it to say that these lost ecosystems are smarter than a bacteria-infested mudpot on the side of a sleeping volcano.

    eng
    NASA/JPL
    Photo of engineers in bunny suits examine Kepler, antenna, thrusters and solar cells visible.
    Kepler space telescope nears completion in a cleanroom at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Although Kepler is now hobbled by a severe guidance glitch, managers have figured out a two-year work-around to take advantage of its remaining capabilities.

    We asked Black why the quest for life has fascinated so many smart people. “At the root, we are curious about our origins. You can see this in people who worry about genealogy. This is cosmic genealogy. We are trying find out, not only our roots, but are there others with those roots too.”

    Finding life, Black adds, could “affect us in ways I don’t dare speculate. If you go back to the time when everybody thought Earth was the center of the universe, and poor Galileo looked through a telescope and found four moons going around a planet [Jupiter]. We found that we were going around the sun, and that removed us from the center of the universe. That had profound effects, it rippled through religion, and I think it speaks to how we as a species see ourselves in relation to the cosmos. Ultimately, this has to be viewed as one of the most profound questions: Are we alone?”

    So how do we search?

    The many planets found by the Kepler spacecraft — suitably named for Johannes Kepler, who figured out the laws governing planetary orbits — could aid the design of the terrestrial planet finder, a plan for space telescope that could find and study Earth-like planets orbiting in the habitable zone.

    shade
    A sunflower-shaped “starshade” placed in front of a telescope could help a planet-finding telescope hunt for another Earth by blocking a blazing-bright star next to a faint planet.
    Illustration: NASA/JPL/Caltech

    Estimates for various types of stars say they average between 0.1 to 0.5 planets apiece.

    If planets are rare, “a greater number of stars would need examination, and they are going to be further and dimmer,” says James Kasting, professor of geoscience at Penn State. That would force an already-expensive telescope to be even bigger.

    Kasting says the planet finder’s aim is to find one habitable-zone Earth analog with 95 percent probability. The spacecraft would also use spectroscopic analysis to identify which elements and compounds are present.

    Planet Hunting 101

    The list of exoplanets is inflating like a Red Giant, to almost 1,800. In February, 2014, NASA announced 715 new exoplanets discovered by Kepler. What techniques are used to find planets beyond our solar system?

    graph
    Bar graph of planets found for different detection methods from 1988-2014. Confirmed planets in 2014 dwarf previous years.
    Planets can be found by different methods; Kepler space telescope has used the “transit” technique to produce a gusher of discoveries.
    Graph last updated Feb. 26, 2014, Aldaron

    Keck Observatory
    Keck Observatory studies stars and planets beyond our solar system. From a volcanic peak on Hawaii, Keck benefits from some of Earth’s darkest skies.
    Kepler: NASA/JPL

    The three designs under study must all cope with one blinding problem: seeing a planet right next door to a star that is vastly brighter (the sun, for example, is 10 billion times brighter than Earth).

    One of the two visible-light planet-finder designs would use a 50-meter star shade, flying roughly 50,000 kilometers in front of the telescope. This would entail, Kasting says with a bit of understatement, “a challenge of flying in formation.”

    NASA, short of money, cancelled planet finder in 2011, but some astronomers hope it could be resuscitated at a planning meeting in 2020. Don’t expect a launch before 2030, Kasting warns.

    The signature of life

    After a rocky planet in the habitable zone is discovered, what then? The closest stars are light-years away. Paying a visit would take decades, or more likely centuries. More feasible — though still difficult — is to search for evidence of life; a “biosignature,” in astrobio lingo. “When you look at Earth’s atmosphere, you see methane and oxygen that are totally out of chemical equilibrium,” says Black. Methane — the major compound in natural gas — is easily oxidized by oxygen atoms and radicals.

    The only reason our atmosphere contains 1.8 parts per million of methane is because “something is driving it, and that something is life,” Black says. Although some methane comes from geologic sources, more comes from organic sources, mainly bacteria in cows, rice paddies and other living locations.

    Other biosignatures are more subtle and may be impossible to analyze without feeding a sample into a heavy instrument, which entails the expensive and risky return of samples to Earth.

    Clark Johnson, professor of geoscience at University of Wisconsin-Madison and head of the Wisconsin Astrobiology Research Consortium, says the search for life on Mars and the moons of Jupiter and Saturn must begin on Earth, which “still remains the only place we can prove that life is.”

    The biosignature of a roadkill raccoon or even a million-year-old hominid femur is easy enough to identify. But on Mars, the supposed organic remains would have been bathed by solar radiation for three billion years, so “the likelihood of organic molecules remaining on the surface is very small,” Johnson says.

    Ozone in our atmosphere blocks a comparable UV assault, but there are other problems, he adds. “Ancient rocks on Earth have been subject to alteration through metamorphism [long-term heating, pressure and deformation], which tends to destroy organics.”

    cur
    Photo of Curiosity on barren Mars landscape with dusty atmosphere. Wide wheels and a forest of instruments are seen.
    As the Mars rover Curiosity drilled into sandstone, its arm-mounted camera took 55 images that were fused into this self-portrait. Due to clever manipulations of the arm and the camera turret, the robotic arm is invisible in this mosaic.
    April and May 2014, NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

    Organic material can, however, solidify into stone, and so Johnson’s research group studies 3.4 billion-year-old rocks in Australia and South Africa that have not been buried by tectonic movement or altered beyond recognition by metamorphism. Specifically, they look at isotopes in rocks that may have been formed from legions of microbes. Isotopes are atoms of a particular element with different masses that can be separated in a mass spectrometer. Isotopes allow one to recognize minerals with organic origin even after intense deformation.

    Johnson is especially interested in iron, which, scientists have recently deduced, played a major role in microbial metabolism more than three billion years ago.

    Microfossils — remains of microbes from the ancient rock record that might “hit you in the face with picture of an ancient microbe” — are extremely rare and highly contentious, Johnson says. By studying iron formations, he says, “We can show multiple locations around the world that were processed by microbes, and this gives a broader feel for the ecosystem.”

    The technique, he says, does not just show the existence of life, “but it shows what the life was doing, which sets it in an ecological context.” On Mars, Johnson says, “the earliest microbes could have been iron based, long before oxygenic photosynthesis.”

    The biosignature strategy, he says, is this: “Study Earth — it’s the only example of life. What did ancient, primitive life do to change Earth? How do we recognize that, and how would we recognize that when a sample is returned from Mars?”

    Three marvelous moons

    If liquid water is a requirement for life, hidden oceans on three distant moons have intrigued astrobiologists:

    r ice mixed with hydrated salts; the ridges and disrupted features may signify some geologic connection with a sub-surface ocean. Any mixing could have raised evidence of life to the surface.
    Mad about Mars!

    Mars — Earth’s twin — has long excited and frustrated life-seekers. More than a century ago, astronomer Percival Lowell thought the “canals” on its surface were the work of long-gone Venetian gondoliers.

    Since then, NASA and others have mounted an intensive search for life on Mars. Although the planet is dry and cold now, surface features indicate the presence of liquid water a couple of billion years ago. At that time, therefore, Mars was a rocky planet in the habitable zone.

    Theoretically, life could persist deep underground — or some fossilized remains may still remain on the surface. But so far, it’s no dice. Despite some early enthusiasm, Mars seems lifeless, dead.
    Did you lose their voice-mail? : )

    Decades ago, before other telescopes grew acute enough to detect planets, radio telescopes that detect faint signals across the galaxy were the main hope for detecting intelligent life. Although the decades-long search for radio signals from space has had promising moments, confirmed discoveries of extra-terrestrial intelligence are easy to count: zero.

    The search for extra-terrestrial intelligence is embodied in the name of the SETI Institute, and “The radio search is ongoing,” says Black, its leader. “We have the Allen array of telescopes at Hat Creek, California, with 42 dishes used for radio signals, and we are upgrading the feeds to make the system more sensitive and get a wider wavelength coverage.”

    Allen Telescope Array

    What does Black make of the empty result? “The most disappointing message is that there is not anybody out there.

    Or, they are out there, but everybody is listening and nobody is sending; it’s like a party of strangers, and they sit around the room, and nobody wants say anything. Or they are sending signals, and we have not been able to figure out what they are. We … have an idea what the signal might look like, but maybe we are being bathed in these signals but are not smart enough to notice.”

    We figure it’s inevitable, given an uncountable number of planets out there, that life — smart or dumb — must exist beyond Earth, and we asked Kasting if he agreed. “I would rephrase the question,” he responded. “Maybe if you count all the stars, galaxies in the universe, then life is inevitable somewhere, but that’s not testable. What is testable is, ‘Is there life in the region of the universe that we can search telescopically?’”

    “I’m not impressed by all these numbers,” Kasting continued. “If we want to be able to search for life in our lifetimes,” we need to know the expected number of planets per star “and look at 30 to 60 nearby stars, and also survey the planets in our own solar system.”

    See the full article here.

    SETI Institute – 189 Bernardo Ave., Suite 100
    Mountain View, CA 94043
    Phone 650.961.6633 – Fax 650-961-7099
    Privacy PolicyQuestions and Comments

    ScienceSprings relies on technology from

    MAINGEAR computers

    Lenovo
    Lenovo

    Dell
    Dell

     
  • richardmitnick 4:59 pm on July 31, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , SETI Institute   

    From Seth Shostak at SETI Institute: “Why the Aliens Want Earth” 


    SETI Institute

    July 31, 2014
    SETI Seth Shostak
    Seth Shostak, Senior Astronomer, Director of SETI Research

    Expedia’s galaxy-wide website must be offering Earth at a major discount. In one movie after another, aliens decide to pass up competing Milky Way attractions — including neutron stars, antimatter clouds, hot Jupiters, and a 4 billion-trillion-trillion-ton central black hole — in favor of our planet. The small speck of rock we inhabit is more popular with tourists than Disneyland.

    Even an abbreviated laundry list of invasion films will give you the idea: Independence Day, War of the Worlds, Superman II, Mars Attacks, The Day the Earth Stood Still, Killer Clowns from Outer Space … They all share a common premise, namely that Earth is the bee’s knees, cosmically speaking.

    But really, you’ve got to wonder what would motivate creatures from other worlds to suffer a journey of hundreds of trillions of miles to visit our planet? It’s a trip so relentlessly devoid of scenery, their spacecraft wouldn’t need windows. Why bother?

    I’ve been asked this question at least a half-dozen times by Hollywood writers, and the best answer I can muster is “I don’t know.”

    My impoverished reply is clearly disappointing, and the usual response by the filmmakers is to resort to two hackneyed incentives to rope in the aliens, namely (1) a quest for natural resources, and (2) breeding experiments.

    Frankly, and not to rain on anyone’s parade, neither makes sense.

    Consider the idea that the extraterrestrials want materials for their industrial needs. It’s nice to imagine that Earth is valuable as a mining claim, but what do we have that they don’t?

    A frequent suggestion is water. But that’s silly: The universe is awash in water, thanks to the abundance of its two atomic ingredients, hydrogen and oxygen. Like Kimye and Kanye, these two elements are everywhere. Heck, there’s more water on some of the moons of Jupiter than on Earth, and no one’s going to get ruffled if you opt to remove it. But really, you can save the tanker costs by finding water in your own solar system. There’s bound to be plenty.

    Digging up other minerals and metals is similarly unnecessary and inconvenient. The entire cosmos is made of the same elements (and more or less in the same proportions) as is our local neighborhood. You don’t need to import this stuff from light-years away.

    Maybe they just need farmland? Like Captain Bligh, perhaps aliens are hoping to find a place to grow breadfruit, or whatever the galactic equivalent might be. Again, this is the kind of incentive that might work if you don’t first need to traverse interstellar space. If you do, consider building orbiting greenhouses at home. They’ll be cheaper, and the produce will be fresher. And honestly, if Earth’s countryside is that attractive, why didn’t someone plant a flag (or Klingon breadfruit) millions or billions of years ago? It seems that terrestrial real estate is a dog on the market.

    Breeding experiments are even less plausible, even if many movie-goers feel like participating. Anyone who’s made it through tenth-grade biology will recognize that breeding with other species here on Earth — all of whom are card-carrying members of the DNA club, and therefore closely related to you — is not only difficult, it’s guaranteed to be fruitless. And possibly illegal.

    Trendy scenarists will often invoke the social concern du jour, and suggest that the extraterrestrials are here to save us from ourselves. Aside from the obvious fact that they don’t know of such contemporary problems as climate change or nuclear proliferation (our newscasts haven’t reached them yet), why would they be interested? I bet the dinosaurs would have wished for a bit of alien help in giving an asteroid a nudge 66 million years ago, but it seems the extraterrestrials couldn’t be bothered. Are we that much more deserving?

    No, the bottom line is that the only truly special things about Earth are likely to be our biota and our culture. They could learn a lot about either one by merely analyzing the spectral signature of our atmosphere or tuning in to our TV broadcasts, and they would save a king’s ransom on fuel by avoiding actual travel.

    Despite the dramas played out at the local cineplex, real aliens won’t be itching to visit. What we’ve got, they’ve already seen, and the doorbell won’t ring. We’re not on their bucket list.

    See the full article here.

    SETI Institute – 189 Bernardo Ave., Suite 100
    Mountain View, CA 94043
    Phone 650.961.6633 – Fax 650-961-7099
    Privacy PolicyQuestions and Comments


    ScienceSprings is powered by MAINGEAR computers

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 322 other followers

%d bloggers like this: