Tagged: Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 10:03 am on September 20, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider,   

    From Brookhaven Lab: “Supercomputing the Transition from Ordinary to Extraordinary Forms of Matter” 

    Brookhaven Lab

    September 18, 2013
    Karen McNulty Walsh

    Calculations plus experimental data help map nuclear phase diagram, offering insight into transition that mimics formation of visible matter in universe today

    To get a better understanding of the subatomic soup that filled the early universe, and how it “froze out” to form the atoms of today’s world, scientists are taking a closer look at the nuclear phase diagram. Like a map that describes how the physical state of water morphs from solid ice to liquid to steam with changes in temperature and pressure, the nuclear phase diagram maps out different phases of the components of atomic nuclei—from the free quarks and gluons that existed at the dawn of time to the clusters of protons and neutrons that make up the cores of atoms today.

    But “melting” atoms and their subatomic building blocks is far more difficult than taking an ice cube out of the freezer on a warm day. It requires huge particle accelerators like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, a nuclear physics scientific user facility at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory, to smash atomic nuclei together at close to the speed of light, and sophisticated detectors and powerful supercomputers to help physicists make sense of what comes out. By studying the collision debris and comparing those experimental observations with predictions from complex calculations, physicists at Brookhaven are plotting specific points on the nuclear phase diagram to reveal details of this extraordinary transition and other characteristics of matter created at RHIC.

    plot
    Nuclear Phase Diagram: This diagram maps out the different phases of nuclear matter physicists expect to exist at a range of high temperatures and densities, but the lines on this map are just a guess. Experiments have detected fluctuations in particle production that hint at where the lines might be; supercomputing calculations are helping to pin down the data points so scientists can make a more accurate map of the transition from the hadrons that make up ordinary atomic nuclei to the quark-gluon plasma of the early universe. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory (RHIC) sits in the “sweet spot” for studying this transition and for detecting a possible critical point (yellow dot) at which the transition changes from continuous to discontinuous. No image credit.

    “At RHIC’s top energy, where we know we’ve essentially “melted” the protons and neutrons to produce a plasma of quarks and gluons—similar to what existed some 13.8 billion years ago—protons and antiprotons are produced in nearly equal amounts,” said Frithjof Karsch, a theoretical physicist mapping out this new terrain. “But as you go to lower energies, where a denser quark soup is produced, we expect to see more protons than antiprotons, with the excess number of protons fluctuating from collision to collision.”

    By looking at millions of collision events over a wide range of energies—essentially conducting a beam energy scan—RHIC’s detectors can pick up the fluctuations as likely signatures of the transition. But they can’t measure precisely the temperatures or densities at which those fluctuations were produced—the data you need to plot points on the phase diagram map.

    “That’s where the supercomputers come in,” says Karsch.

    And, this is where we leave it to the professionals. See the full article here.

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. The Laboratory’s almost 3,000 scientists, engineers, and support staff are joined each year by more than 5,000 visiting researchers from around the world.Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.
    i1


    ScienceSprings is powered by MAINGEAR computers

     
  • richardmitnick 7:38 pm on July 19, 2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider,   

    From Brookhaven Lab: “Hot Nuclear Matter Featured in Science” 

    Brookhaven Lab

    Prelude to new RHIC/LHC findings to be presented at Quark Matter 2012

    July 19, 2012
    Karen McNulty Walsh

    A review article appearing in the July 20, 2012, issue of the journal Science describes groundbreaking discoveries that have emerged from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, synergies with the heavy-ion program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Europe, and the compelling questions that will drive this research forward on both sides of the Atlantic. With details that help enlighten our understanding of the hot nuclear matter that permeated the early universe, the article is a prelude to the latest findings scientists from both facilities will present at the next gathering of physicists dedicated to this research — Quark Matter 2012, August 12-18 in Washington, D.C.

    rh
    RHIC’s two large experiments, STAR and PHENIX, have multiple detector components and complex electronics for tracking and identifying the particles that fly out after ions collide at nearly the speed of light.

    This Brookhaven article then proceeds to provide us with what looks to be the article from The Journal Science.

    See the full Brookhaven article here.

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

    i1

     
  • richardmitnick 12:07 pm on July 3, 2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider   

    From Brookhaven Lab: “Brookhaven Lab Collider Crucial to Future of Nuclear Physics” 

    Brookhaven Lab

    National Research Council report details breakthroughs at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and its key role in the field over the next decade

    July 3, 2012
    Karen McNulty Walsh
    Peter Genzer

    In a new report on the current status and future of nuclear physics, the National Research Council (NRC) highlights the “spectacular” performance and critical future role of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory.

    Central to the past decade’s experimental milestones and future innovations sits Brookhaven Lab’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a 2.4-mile accelerator that produces states of matter unseen since the first moments after the Big Bang.

    As the report states, ‘Experiments at RHIC allow nuclear scientists (in the United States, at 59 universities and six national laboratories in 29 states) to answer questions about the microsecond-old universe that cannot be answered by any conceivable astronomical observations made with telescopes and satellites.’

    The leading conclusion of the decadal report recommends that “exploiting strategic investments should be an essential component of the U.S. nuclear science program in the coming decade.” The existing infrastructure and expansive versatility of RHIC place Brookhaven’s accelerator in an ideal position to fulfill that mission.

    ‘We are especially encouraged because the recently completed upgrade of RHIC luminosities is one of two strategic investments explicitly called out in the preamble to that conclusion,’ said physicist Steven Vigdor, head of Brookhaven’s nuclear and particle physics program. ‘We were able to complete that upgrade about five years faster and at one-seventh the cost envisioned in the 2007 Long Range Plan for U.S. Nuclear Science, thanks to advanced R&D on new accelerator technologies at RHIC.'”

    See the full article here.

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

    i1

     
  • richardmitnick 12:05 pm on June 25, 2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider   

    From Brookhaven Lab: “Brewing the World’s Hottest Guinness” 

    Brookhaven Lab

    June 25, 2012
    Justin Eure

    Brookhaven National Laboratory’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) smashes particles together to recreate the incredible conditions that only existed at the dawn of time. The 2.4-mile underground atomic “racetrack” at RHIC produces fundamental insights about the laws underlying all visible matter. But along the way, its particles also smashed a world record.

    event
    Protons, neutrons melt to produce ‘quark-gluon plasma’ at RHIC (no image credit)

    Guinness World Records, no longer encumbered by “book of,” recognized Brookhaven Lab for achieving the “Highest Man-Made Temperature.” When RHIC collides gold ions at nearly the speed of light, the impact energy becomes so intense that the neutrons and protons inside the gold nuclei “melt,” releasing fundamental quarks and gluons that then form a nearly friction-free primordial plasma that only existed in Nature about a millionth of one second after the Big Bang. RHIC discovered this primordial, liquid-like quark-gluon plasma and measured its temperature at around 4 trillion degrees Celsius – that’s 250,000 times hotter than the center of the sun.

    ‘There are many cool things about this ultra-hot matter,’ said physicist Steven Vigdor, who leads Brookhaven’s nuclear and particle physics program. ‘We expected to reach these temperatures – that is, after all, why RHIC was built – but we did not at all anticipate the nearly perfect liquid behavior.'”

    Cool video from the article.

    See the full article here.

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:50 am on July 29, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider,   

    From Fermilab Today: “Fermilab’s SiDet Facility aides PHENIX detector upgrade” 

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Ashley WennersHerron
    Friday, July 29, 2011

    “PHENIX, one of two major experiments located at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based at Brookhaven National Laboratory, is upgrading again with help from Fermilab’s Slicon Detector Facility (SiDet). Fermilab technicians finished assembling hundreds of forward silicon vertex tracker (FVTX) detector components in early July.

    The wedge-shaped components will be installed in PHENIX to help scientists study the properties of quark gluon plasma (QGP), which theorists believe made up the universe moments after the Big Bang.

    Eric Mannel, a physicist from Columbia University and one of about 450 PHENIX contributors, worked as an electronics project engineer overseeing the final stages of assembly at Fermilab.

    ‘ We want to understand how the universe evolved the way it did from the very beginning,” Mannel said. “The FVTX detector will provide a higher resolution for tracking of particles which will allow us to study the properties of QGP.’ “

    i2
    One of the hundreds of forward silicon vertex tracker (FVTX) components assembled at Fermilab’s Silicon Detector Facility. Photo: Vassili Papavassiliou, New Mexico State University

    See the full article here.


     
  • richardmitnick 10:25 am on July 29, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider   

    From Brookhaven Lab: “Quest for understanding perfect liquid continues” 

    Karen McNulty Walsh
    July 28, 2011

    “Over the past few years, scientists have seen an exciting convergence of three distinct lines of research on different kinds of extreme quantum matter. Two of these involve quantum fluids that can be studied in the laboratory: ultracold quantum gases and the quark-gluon plasma produced at Brookhaven’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Even though these two quantum fluids exist at vastly different energy scales — from near absolute zero to four trillion degrees — their physical properties are remarkably similar. The third line of research is based on the discovery of a new theoretical tool, derived from string theory, for investigating the properties of extreme quantum matter — namely holographic dualities, a mathematical relationship between quantum mechanical systems in our world and black holes that theoretically exist in a higher dimensional space.”

    i1
    RHIC’s perfect liquid, a.k.a. quark-gluon plasma

    This is a very exciting article. See the full article here.

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit, applied science and technology organization.
    i1

     
  • richardmitnick 3:29 pm on May 3, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider   

    From CERN Courier:”ALICE collaboration measures the size of the fireball in heavy-ion collisions’ 

    The ALICE collaboration has measured the size of the pion-emitting system in central lead–ion collisions at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon pair. The radii of the pion source were deduced from the shape of the Bose-Einstein peak in the two-pion correlation functions.

    In hadron and ion collisions, Bose-Einstein quantum statistics leads to enhanced production of bosons that are close together in phase space, and thus to an excess of pairs at low relative momentum. The width of the excess region is inversely proportional to the system size at decoupling, i.e. at the point when the majority of the particles stop interacting.

    An important finding at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven was that the QCD matter created there behaved like a fluid, with strong collective motions that are well described by hydrodynamic equations. The collective flow makes the size of the system appear smaller with increasing momentum of the pair. This behaviour is also clearly visible for the radii measured at the LHC in the ALICE experiment.”

    Read the full article here.

     
  • richardmitnick 10:36 am on April 20, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , , , Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider   

    Brookhaven Labs: A Celebration 

    i1

    All of the text and most of the graphics presented in this post are taken directly from the Brookhaven web pages. Brookhaven has a storied past and a vitality for the future. This post is in no way exhaustive. I urge any reader to visit the web site and just go exploring to learn more about Brookhaven.

    ABOUT BROOKHAVEN
    .
    Established in 1947 on Long Island, Upton, New York, Brookhaven is a multi-program national laboratory operated by Brookhaven Science Associates for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Seven Nobel Prizes have been awarded for discoveries made at the Lab.
    Brookhaven has a staff of approximately 3,000 scientists, engineers, technicians and support staff and over 4,000 guest researchers annually.
    Brookhaven National Laboratory’s role for the DOE is to produce excellent science and advanced technology with the cooperation, support, and appropriate involvement of our scientific and local communities. The fundamental elements of the Laboratory’s role in support of the four DOE strategic missions are the following:
    • To conceive, design, construct, and operate complex, leading edge, user-oriented facilities in response to the needs of the DOE and the international community of users.
    • To carry out basic and applied research in long-term, high-risk programs at the frontier of science.
    • To develop advanced technologies that address national needs and to transfer them to other organizations and to the commercial sector.
    • To disseminate technical knowledge, to educate new generations of scientists and engineers, to maintain technical capabilities in the nation’s workforce, and to encourage scientific awareness in the general public.

    Tour Brookhaven’s History

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has a history of outstanding scientific achievement that spans more than five decades. The Laboratory’s research staff has pioneered the fields of nuclear technology, high energy physics, medicine and more. Brookhaven has been home to three research reactors, numerous one-of-a-kind particle accelerators, and other amazing research machines. This web-based history of Brookhaven is designed to be browsed in any order you choose.

    The Founding of Brookhaven, a Laboratory for Peacetime Research

    In 1946, representatives from nine major eastern universities — Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, Johns Hopkins, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton, University of Pennsylvania, University of Rochester, and Yale — formed a nonprofit corporation to establish a new nuclear-science facility, and they chose a surplus army base “way out on Long Island” as the site. Thus, Brookhaven National Laboratory was born. On March 21, 1947, the U.S. War Department transferred the site of Camp Upton on Long Island to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), which was the federal agency that oversaw the founding of Brookhaven National Laboratory and was a predecessor to the present U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The AEC provided the initial funding for Brookhaven’s research into the peaceful uses of the atom, with the goal of improving public well-being.

    Brookhaven Lab was conceived to promote basic research in the physical, chemical, biological and engineering aspects of the atomic sciences. An equally important concept was the establishment of a national laboratory in the Northeast to design, construct and operate large scientific machines that individual institutions could not afford to develop on their own. The Laboratory was also to resemble a university to the greatest extent possible.

    Today, Brookhaven Lab is one of ten national laboratories under DOE’s Office of Science, which provides the majority of the Laboratory’s research dollars and direction. Founded in 1977 as the 12th cabinet-level department, DOE oversees much of the science research in this country through its Office of Science.

    Research Departments and Divisions

    Biology Department

    Brookhaven’s Biology Department has an extraordinary combination of strengths in molecular genetics, structural biology, genomics, enzymology, and biotechnology. Department researchers study a diverse set of problems in plant, microbial, and mammalian biology. Current areas of investigation include DNA damage recognition and repair, plant and microbial genomics and proteomics, enzyme engineering, the regulation of gene expression, and the exploration of complex biological structures. See the historic achievements of this department.

    Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Center for Functional Nanomaterials will provide researchers with state-of-the-art capabilities to fabricate and study nanoscale materials. Functional materials are those which exhibit a predetermined chemical or physical response to external stimuli. The Center’s focus is to achieve a basic understanding of how these materials respond when in nanoscale form. Nanomaterials–typically on the scale of billionths of a meter–offer different chemical and physical properties than bulk materials, and have the potential to form the basis of new technologies.

    Chemistry Department

    The Chemistry Department focuses on PET studies of the human brain, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis, studies of gas phase dynamics of reactive species, solar photoconversion and other chemistries.

    Collider-Accelerator Department

    The Collider-Accelerator Department includes the staff who work to improve the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, and the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators, and the physicists who use these tools in their research. See the historic achievements of this department.

    rhic
    RHIC

    Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science Department

    Major efforts of this department include the investigation of properties of superconducting oxides; methods of superconductor characterization and fabrication; the properties of advanced permanent-magnet materials; the synthesis of materials for advanced battery and fuel-cell applications; the investigation of mechanisms of metal passivation and localized corrosion; development and investigation of the properties of cementitious and glassy materials; and advanced methods of electron microscopy to characterize the nanoscale structure of advanced materials.

    Energy Sciences & Technology Department

    The Energy Sciences & Technology Department conducts basic and applied science, research and development, and technology implementation and deployment to support the DOE objectives of assuring adequate supplies of clean/affordable energy, reducing U.S. vulnerability to supply disruptions, advancing alternative and renewable energy technologies, and increasing energy choices, maintaining U.S. leadership in energy supply and use; and educating new generations of scientists.

    Medical Department

    BNL physicians work with chemists in the Center for Imaging & Neurosciences to explore the human brain using medical imaging techniques based on medical radioisotopes. Other research projects in the Medical Department are aimed at developing new nuclear medicine treatments and diagnostic agents, producing medical isotopes for clinical use, and understanding and treating cancer and heart disease.

    National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) Department

    The NSLS provides one of the world’s brightest continuous sources of x-ray and UV radiation for scientific research. This light is a beacon for more than 2,300 scientists from BNL, academia and industry annually, who use it to shed light on everything from the structure of molecules to microchips.


    AP-PRT is a facility dedicated to study x-ray scattering and diffraction of polymers at Beamline X27C at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL).

    Nonproliferation & National Security

    The mission of The Nonproliferation and National Security Department is to carry out research and development, provide technical support, and build prototype systems in order to further U.S. Government initiatives and policies in Nuclear materials safeguards and security, Arms control treaty verification, Nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction, Material Protection Control and Accountability initiatives for nuclear materials in Russia and the NIS, and related national security areas.

    Physics Department

    BNL physicists pursue experimental and theoretical discoveries in high-energy, nuclear and solid-state physics, and help design and build many of the world’s foremost physics facilities, both at Brookhaven and around the globe.

    Instrumentation Division

    The Division develops state-of-the-art instrumentation required for experimental research programs at BNL and maintains the expertise and facilities in specialized high technology areas essential for this work. Major areas of effort include semiconductor, gas, and cryogenic detectors, microelectronics, data acquisition hardware, micro and nano-fabrication, optical metrology, and laser and electro-optics. The Division also engages in collaborative research and technology transfer with selected industrial partners.

    Superconducting Magnet Division

    The BNL Superconducting Magnet Division constructs magnets for use in particle accelerators such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Superconducting magnets which must be cooled to temperatures near absolute zero produce stronger magnetic fields and consume less energy than conventional copper wire electromagnets. Building on the magnet designs and construction methods developed for RHIC, this Division is building magnets for use in Europe’s Large Hadron Collider and HERA accelerators.


    GSI001 cold mass, partly disassembled March 14, 2005

    Environmental Sciences Department

    Explores our natural environment, and turns scientific ideas into practical applications.

    Research Centers

    Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    This Center will provide researchers with state-of-the-art capabilities to fabricate and study nanoscale materials. The Center’s focus is to achieve a basic understanding of how these materials respond when in nanoscale form. Nanomaterials offer different chemical and physical properties than bulk materials, and have the potential to form the basis of new technologies.

    RIKEN BNL Research Center

    This Center, established by the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan (RIKEN) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, focuses on the physics program of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, hard Quantum Chromodynamic (QCD) / spin physics, lattice QCD and relativistic heavy ion physics.

    Computational Science Center

    The purpose of the CSC is to provide computational science capabilities through the use of powerful, state-of-the-art computers for researchers in biology, chemistry, physics, applied mathematics, medicine, and nanoscience Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science, the Center features Large Linux clusters and two QCDOC computers with with 12,288 processors each.

    Center for Radiation Chemistry Research

    This Center exploits pulse radiolysis techniques to study chemical reactions and other phenomena by subjecting samples to pulses of high-energy electrons. The reactions are followed by various methods of time-resolved spectroscopy and other detection techniques. The Center includes the new picosecond Laser-Electron Accelerator Facility, a 2 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator, and a cobalt-60 source.

    National Nuclear Data Center

    This Center provides information services in the fields of low and medium energy nuclear physics to users in the United States and Canada. In particular, the Center can provide information on neutron, charged-particle, and photonuclear reactions, nuclear structure, and decay data.
    Last Modified: July 21, 2009

    Brookhaven Discoveries

    Here are just a few of the many discoveries, developments, inventions and innovations that Brookhaven scientists have made in the last 50 years.
    Top Ten Scientific Discoveries
    • Seven Nobel Prizes, five in physics and two in chemistry
    • Courant-Snyder strong focusing principle, critical to the design of all modern particle accelerators
    • The Green-Chasman lattice, a design for electron storage rings that was first implemented at Brookhaven’s National Synchrotron Light Source and since adopted by many of the world’s synchrotron radiation facilities
    • Theories and experiments to determine the mechanisms underlying high-temperature superconductors
    • Study of the effects of radiation on biological systems, important to cancer treatment and prevention and to human space travel
    • A way to produce vast quantities of gene products, using a virus known as T7
    • Development of fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, or FDG-18, now used in nearly every clinical positron emission tomography scan done in hospitals around the world
    • Important studies of the brain, including those uncovering the roots of psychiatric disorders, brain metabolism and drug addiction
    • Large-scale studies of the effect of increased carbon dioxide on ecosystems
    • At Brookhaven’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, discovery of a perfect liquid – a type of matter thought by scientists to have existed microseconds after the Big Bang.

    Biomedical Sciences

    Advances in nuclear medicine, including:
    • The development of technetium-99m, now used to diagnose heart disease and other ailments in over 11 million Americans each year. BNL researchers have also developed a simple-to-use kit to allow doctors to easily label blood with Tc-99m; this kit is used over 200,000 times a year.
    • The development of thallium-201, now used in hundreds of thousands of heart stress-tests each year.
    • The development of tin-117m, a promising agent for easing the pain of bone cancer without sedation.
    Discoveries to aid pharmaceutical design, including:
    • Structural studies of the Lyme disease protein used in a new, effective vaccine
    • Development of a technique to study viral and bacterial proteins while they are embedded in the cellular membrane.
    • X-ray and neutron scattering facilities that have made possible countless studies of molecular structures important to disease.
    • Development of an effective database to store structural information about biomolecules that can be accessed by researchers in academia and industry to “rationally” design pharmaceuticals.
    Development of novel medical therapies and concepts, including:
    • Boron neutron capture therapy, currently showing promise for the treatment of brain tumors in a clinical trial.
    • Use of L-dopa for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (still the gold standard for treatment)
    • X-ray angiography for non-invasive heart imaging
    • Link between salt and hypertension
    • Studies on radiation-induced malignancies and DNA repair

    Important tools for biomedical research, including:

    • A way to produce vast quantities of gene products, using a virus known as T7
    • Tritiated thymidine, a way to tag molecules with short-lived radioactivity for easier examination
    • Methods for attaching heavy metal atoms to important molecules, such as antibodies, for easier imaging using electron microscopes
    • Techniques for sequencing large segments of DNA rapidly
    • Method for synthesizing insulin, paving the way for production of insulin by recombinant DNA

    Advances in medical imaging, and the use of imaging in research, including:

    • Development of some of the first agents for positron emission tomography scanning; one BNL-developed agent, 18-FDG, is now used in nearly every clinical PET scan done in hospitals around the world
    • Important studies of the brain, including the roots of drug addiction (e.g. first image of cocaine in the brain, discovery of enzyme deficit in smokers’ brains), psychiatric disorders, and brain metabolism

    Environmental Sciences

    • Response of plants and trees to radiation exposure
    • Metal hydrides for better hydrogen storage in fuel cells
    • Building and studying of demonstration houses with alternative-energy and energy-saving features
    • Invention of better, cleaner, more efficient oil burners and devices to aid clean and efficient oil burning
    • Development of chemically inert tracers and detectors to track the environmental impact of power plants
    • Better, safer, more convenient natural gas storage options for alternative-fuel vehicles
    • Facilities that allow studies of environmental technologies and phenomena: polymers used to clean up oil spills, examination of sandstone porosity for more efficient oil-field exploration, and the effect of cosmic radiation on tissue
    • Large-scale studies of the effect of increased carbon dioxide on ecosystems
    • Oceanographic studies of plankton populations to gauge ocean health and climate change potential; also research into the cause of mysterious “brown tide” algae blooms
    • Harnessing natural bacteria to clean up environmental pollution and purify crude oil
    • Studies of air pollution, including smog and particulates
    • Computer models of atmospheric radiation (important for climate change), groundwater movement, and energy use impact in developing nations
    • New techniques for encapsulating hazardous waste for storage and disposal, including glass, plastic and concrete

    Technology & Energy

    Advanced technology basic research and development, including:

    • Basic research on superconductors for better communications technology
    • Advanced computer chip design
    • Better batteries using advanced electrolyte materials
    • Magnetically levitated trains
    • Advanced coatings for corrosion prevention
    • Polymer composite materials for construction and road repair
    • Facility for testing the resistance of satellite computer circuits to cosmic ray damage
    • Polyplanar video display screen
    • World’s first video game

    Nuclear safety achievements, including:

    • Assistance to former Soviet states for safeguarding of nuclear materials
    • Reactor safety analysis, including safety systems and human error
    • Assistance to former Soviet states for reactor safety
    • Important early research on reactor physics that led to development of light-water reactors

    Top Ten Consumer-Oriented Discoveries

    • Technetium-99m, the leading radiotracer used in the diagnosis of heart disease and other ailments in millions of people each year
    • Synthetic insulin
    • Thallium-201, used in heart stress tests
    • Use of L-dopa to treat Parkinson’s disease
    • Link between salt and hypertension
    • Magnetically levitated trains
    • Environmentally cleaner, more efficient oil burners and devices to aid clean and efficient oil-burning
    • Advanced coatings for corrosion prevention
    • Advanced computer chip design
    • World’s first video game?

    Physical Sciences

    Discoveries that shaped our understanding of the atom and the universe, including:

    • Precise measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, or “muon g-2″. The value of muon g-2 is a very sensitive test of the validity of the Standard Model of particle physics.
    • First evidence for the exotic meson, a new breed of subatomic particle whose existence helps validate the central theory of modern physics, called the standard model.
    • Detection of a rare kaon decay, thought to happen only once or twice in every 10 billion decays and perhaps an indicator of new phenomena that cannot be explained by the Standard Model.
    • Pioneering solar neutrino studies that sought an answer to the mystery of the “missing” neutrinos from our solar system’s sun, and neutrino bursts from supernovae. BNL researcher Raymond Davis Jr.’s work in this area led to a Nobel Prize in 2002.
    • Discovery of the muon neutrino, which opened a new field of study and which won the Nobel Prize in 1988.
    • Discovery of CP violation, which showed a flaw in the belief that the universe is symmetrical, and which won the Nobel Prize in 1980.
    • Co-discovery of the J/psi particle, which won the Nobel Prize in 1976
    • Theoretical work on parity violation, based on data from BNL’s Cosmotron, which won the Nobel Prize in 1957
    • First examples of three dynamical symmetries in atomic nuclei, which opened up a new approach to studying the structure of the atomic nucleus.
    • First application of computing to study systems with many degrees of freedom, for studies of radiation damage to crystal structures and studies of magnetism.
    • Development of Monte Carlo methods for exploring the interaction of atoms and particles, and other systems with many variables.
    • First direct evidence for the existence of “glueballs”
    • Discovery of the K meson and the first vector meson.
    • Discovery of the Omega-minus particle in 1964.
    • Discovery of the charmed baryon particle in 1975.
    • Discovery of the neutral and negative sigma baryons.
    • Experimental confirmation of the theory of associated production of strange particles.
    • Discovery of the phi vector meson
    • Discovery of the the antiparticles anti-Xi-minus and anti-Xi-zero
    • At Brookhaven’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, discovery of a perfect liquid – a type of matter thought by scientists to have existed microseconds after the Big Bang.
    Important contributions to the development of accelerator technology for worldwide use in physics and other fields, including:
    • The Courant – Snyder strong focusing principle, crucial to the existence of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, and all modern circular accelerators.
    • The Green – Chasman lattice that optimizes photon source parameters, first implemented at the
    • National Synchrotron Light Source and since adopted by many of the world’s state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facilities.
    • The Palmer two-in-one magnet design has been chosen for the Large Hadron Collider, now under construction at CERN
    • The laser-photocathode RF gun developed at the Accelerator Test Facility, which has become a world-wide standard of high-brightness electron guns.

    Work that helped humankind understand and exploit the properties of existing and new solid materials, including:

    • Discovery of a new class of materials, called colossal magnetoresistive materials, that exhibit dramatic changes in electrical resistance when exposed to a magnetic field.
    • Theories and experiments to determine the mechanisms underlying high-temperature superconductors
    • Techniques for studying magnetism with X-rays and neutrons
    • Studies of metal hydrides and other organometallic compounds for various industrial uses, including storage of hydrogen gas for alternative-fuel vehicles
    • Structural studies of materials under extreme conditions
    • Pioneering work using X-rays and neutrons to study biological specimens, leading to the modern science of structural biology

    Important contributions to chemistry research, including:

    • Surface studies on metallic layers, adhesives, and more
    • Studies of chemical reactions using super-fast lasers
    • Studies of hydrogen bonding in biological molecules
    • Development of techniques for radiodating of art and artifacts using neutron activation

    Understanding of and uses for radiation, including:

    • Development of early irradiation facilities for food safety, plant breeding, and medical supply sterilization
    • Testing of the spaceworthiness of satellite and spacecraft parts with heavy ions produced in BNL accelerators
    • Studies of the effect of radiation on biologial systems important to manned space travel, and to cancer treatment and prevention
    • Measurement of radiation sensitivity and damage in metals, crystals, and living plant and animal tissue
    • Measurements of wear in engine parts, which led to the development of multi-grade motor oils such as 10W-30
    • Development of radionuclides for the life sciences and medicine

    Nobel Prizes

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is home to world-class research facilities and scientific departments which attract resident and visiting scientists in many fields. This outstanding mix of machine- and mind-power has on seven occasions produced research deemed worthy of the greatest honor in science: the Nobel Prize.
    ________________________________________

    2009 Steitz, Ramakrishnan
    2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, of the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK, a former employee in Brookhaven’s biology department, and a long-time user of Brookhaven’s National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University, also a long-time NSLS user, shared the prize with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science for studying the structure and function of the ribosome.

    2003 Roderick MacKinnon
    Roderick MacKinnon, M.D., a visiting researcher at Brookhaven National Laboratory, won one half of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for work explaining how a class of proteins helps to generate nerve impulses — the electrical activity that underlies all movement, sensation, and perhaps even thought.

    2002 Raymond Davis Jr.
    Raymond Davis Jr., a chemist at Brookhaven National Laboratory, won the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics for detecting solar neutrinos, ghostlike particles produced in the nuclear reactions that power the sun. Davis shared the prize with Masatoshi Koshiba of Japan, and Riccardo Giacconi of the U.S.

    1988 Lederman,Schwartz,Steinberger
    Leon Lederman, Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger received the 1988 Physics prize for their 1962 discovery of the muon-neutrino. At the time, only the electron-neutrino was known. Using Brookhaven’s Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, they detected a new type of the ghostlike particles that pass through everything.

    1980 Fitch and Cronin
    The 1980 physics Nobel was awarded to James W. Cronin and Val L. Fitch, both then of Princeton University, whose 1963 experiment at Brookhaven’s Alternating Gradient Synchrotron discovered a flaw in physics’ central belief that the universe is symmetrical. They discovered the phenomenon known as “CP violation”.

    1976 Samuel C. C. Ting
    The 1976 Nobel Prize in physics was shared by a Massachusetts Institute of Technology researcher who used Brookhaven’s Alternating Gradient Synchrotron to discover a new particle and confirm the existence of the charmed quark. Samuel C.C. Ting was credited for finding what he called the “J” particle, the same particle as the “psi” found at nearly the same time by Burton Richter.

    1957 C.N Yang, T.D. Lee
    In 1957, T. D. Lee, of Columbia University, and C. N. Yang, then of Brookhaven, interpreted results of particle decay experiments at Brookhaven’s Cosmotron particle accelerator. They discovered particles which had the same masses, lifetimes and scattering behaviors, but which decayed differently, proving that the fundamental and supposedly absolute law of parity conservation can be violated.

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 345 other followers

%d bloggers like this: