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  • richardmitnick 3:30 pm on March 25, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Linear Colliders, , ,   

    From SLAC Lab: “A New Way to Tune X-ray Laser Pulses” 

    [New policies at SLAC are resulting in my bringing the lab’s news later than necessary. SLAC is working on improving the situation.]

    March 10, 2014
    Glenn Roberts Jr.

    A new system at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory’s X-ray laser narrows a rainbow spectrum of X-ray colors to a more intense band of light, creating a much more powerful way to view fine details in samples at the scale of atoms and molecules.

    “It’s like going from regular television to HDTV,” said Norbert Holtkamp, SLAC deputy director and leader of the lab’s Accelerator Directorate.

    Designed and installed at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Switzerland’s Paul Scherrer Institute, it is the world’s first “self-seeding” system for enhancing lower-energy or “soft” X-rays.

    Scientists had to overcome a series of engineering challenges to build it, and it is already drawing international interest for its potential use at other X-ray free-electron lasers.

    “Because this system delivers more intense soft X-ray light at the precise energy we want for experiments, we can make measurements at a far faster rate,” said Bill Schlotter, an LCLS staff scientist. “It will open new possibilities, from exploring exotic materials and biological and chemical samples in greater detail to improving our view of the behavior of atoms and molecules.”

    Cutting Through the Noise

    LCLS’s laser pulses vary in intensity and color, and this randomness or “noise,” like fuzzy reception on a TV, sometimes complicates experiments and data analysis. Self-seeding cuts through this noise by providing a stronger and more consistent intensity peak within each laser pulse.

    “We’re taking something that’s in a range of colors and trying to select a single color and pack as much power in as we can,” said Daniel Ratner, an associate staff scientist at SLAC and lead scientist on the project. “We’re going from the randomness of a typical pulse to a nice, clean, narrow profile that is well-understood.”

    Scientists had installed another self-seeding system at LCLS in 2012 for higher-energy “hard” X-rays. It has been put to use in studies of matter under extreme temperatures and pressures, the structure of biological molecules and electron motions in materials, for example.

    Extending self-seeding to soft X-rays was a logical next step. LCLS scientists Yiping Feng, Daniele Cocco and others designed a compact X-ray optics system that was key to the success of the project, which was led by SLAC’s Jerry Hastings and Zhirong Huang.

    The team achieved self-seeding with soft X-rays in December, and conducted follow-up tests in January and February. They are working to improve the system and to make it available to visiting scientists.

    LCLS X-ray pulses are powered by an electron beam from SLAC’s linear accelerator. The electrons wiggle through a series of powerful magnets, called undulators. This forces them to emit X-ray light, and that light grows in intensity as it moves through the undulator chain.

    SLAC Linear Accelerator
    SLAC Linear Accelerator

    The new system, installed about a quarter of the way down the undulator chain, diverts a narrow, purified slice of the X-ray laser light and briefly and precisely overlaps it with the beam of electrons traveling through the undulators. This produces a “seed” – a spike of high-intensity light in a single color – that is amplified as the X-ray pulses move through the remaining undulators toward LCLS experimental stations.

    Engineering Challenge

    “A big technical challenge was to fit everything in one 13-foot-long undulator section,” including a complex network of cabling, optics, magnets and mechanical systems, said SLAC’s Paul Montanez, project manager and lead engineer for the system. “A tremendous number of people pulled this project together, from administrative, technical and professional staff to scientists.”

    feeder
    A view of the soft X-ray self-seeding system during installation in the Undulator Hall at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser. (Brad Plummer/SLAC)

    man
    Ziga Oven monitors the installation of the soft X-ray self-seeding system in the Undulator Hall at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser. (Brad Plummer/SLAC)

    The Berkeley Lab team designed and built the hardware that diverts and refines the X-ray light, as well as mechanical systems that align the X-rays and electrons, adjust the X-ray energy and retract components out of the path of X-rays when not in use. The Paul Scherrer team designed and built the optical equipment for the system. SLAC was responsible for integrating the components and building the controls that automate the system.

    “This project was pretty challenging in that we were designing and developing and installing this equipment in an operating facility, with little time for the actual installation,” said Ken Chow, the lead engineer for the Berkeley Lab effort. He noted that the project required many custom parts, such as a movable mirror that must rotate with incredible precision – “It’s like taking a meter stick and moving one end one-half millionth of a meter,” he said.

    Next Steps

    SLAC scientists are hoping to use the seeding system, coupled with an intricate tuning of the magnets in the undulators, to produce even higher-intensity pulses for the next generation of X-ray lasers.

    Already, collaborators from the Paul Scherrer Institute are considering a similar self-seeding system for a planned soft X-ray laser in Switzerland, and there has been great interest in such a system for other X-ray laser projects in the works.

    “We would like to learn and profit from this for our own project, the SwissFEL,” said Uwe Flechsig, who led the Paul Scherrer team that was responsible for delivering the system’s optics.

    See the full article here.

    SLAC Campus
    SLAC is a multi-program laboratory exploring frontier questions in photon science, astrophysics, particle physics and accelerator research. Located in Menlo Park, California, SLAC is operated by Stanford University for the DOE’s Office of Science.
    i1


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  • richardmitnick 1:25 pm on August 8, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Linear Colliders, ,   

    From Linear Collider Collaboration: “The ILC in 2 minutes” 

    Linear Collider Collaboration header

    For fans of the Linear Collider, a short video:

    Enjoy, and, stay tuned. The future is going to be exciting.

    The Linear Collider Collaboration is an organisation that brings the two most likely candidates, the Compact Linear Collider Study (CLIC) and the International Liner Collider (ILC), together under one roof. Headed by former LHC Project Manager Lyn Evans, it strives to coordinate the research and development work that is being done for accelerators and detectors around the world and to take the project linear collider to the next step: a decision that it will be built, and where.

    Some 2000 scientists – particle physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers – are involved in the ILC or in CLIC, and often in both projects. They work on state-of-the-art detector technologies, new acceleration techniques, the civil engineering aspect of building a straight tunnel of at least 30 kilometres in length, a reliable cost estimate and many more aspects that projects of this scale require. The Linear Collider Collaboration ensures that synergies between the two friendly competitors are used to the maximum.

    Linear Collider Colaboration Banner


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  • richardmitnick 11:23 am on July 12, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Linear Colliders, ,   

    From LC: “On the way to SiD: testing a novel calorimeter” 

    Linear Collider Colaboration Banner

    11 July 2013
    Julianne Wyrick

    “Researchers are taking a step towards the realisation of the International Linear Collider’s (ILC) SiD detector with a test beam of a SiD-specific electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) planned for this month at SLAC.

    collider
    Engineering drawing of the electromagnetic calorimeter at SLAC. This drawing shows the full depth of the ECAL, but unlike the real calorimeter, it is only one sensor wide. The sensor, though not visible in the drawing, is located underneath the hexagonal brown cable. Image courtesy of Marco Oriunno.

    This initial test beam could actually be considered a ‘test’ test beam, as this run will utilise a partial calorimeter. Researchers involved in the SLAC, University of Oregon, UC Davis and UC Santa Cruz (US) collaboration hope to identify any early problems with the beam and the calorimeter’s sensors and electronics. They plan to conduct the initial test on 23 July and hope to complete the second ‘real’ run by the end of the year.

    ‘The (initial) beam test is a focus on pulling things together enough to see what the next steps are going to be,’ said Marty Breidenbach, SLAC researcher and member of the SiD Executive Committee. ‘We don’t expect it to be a good calorimeter, but we expect to see what the issues are.’

    Work on this silicon-tungsten ECAL began prior to the selection of the ILC design in 2004, when SLAC was still working toward its Next Linear Collider design. Major steps along the way have involved developing the current sensors, which convert the energy of particles into electronic signals, and the readout electronics, which process these signals.

    The current SLAC ECAL system is a prototype for the ECAL needed for SiD, one of the ILC’s two proposed detectors. Both detectors will use an algorithm called particle flow to identify and measure the energy of the jets of particles formed when the electrons and positrons collide in the ILC. The role of the ECAL system is to measure the energy and direction of certain particles – photons, electrons and positrons – as they hit the calorimeter. To do this, the ECAL must have very high spatial resolution and good energy resolution to distinguish the location and energy of different particles.

    For the SLAC ECAL, achieving this high resolution while remaining compact and cost-effective involves several innovative features. Two of these features are the small pixel size of the sensors and the small gaps between the calorimeter’s tungsten plates, where the sensors are located. Each of the calorimeter’s sensors has 1024 pixels, and the gaps in the test calorimeter are only 1.25 millimetres wide, though researchers hope to reduce them to 1 millimetre. Keeping the pixel size and the gaps small allows the particles depositing energy in the calorimeter to be more easily distinguished from one another.

    In addition, the ECAL’s readout electronic chips are attached directly to the sensors, a setup that saves space by removing the need for bulky signal cables.

    Connecting these electronic chips to the sensors through a method known as bump bonding has been one of the recent challenges in the preparation of the calorimeter for the test beam. In fact, this challenge is one reason the calorimeter will be only partially assembled at the time of the first test, having only 12 of the 31 sensors that it will ultimately include.

    In addition to testing the function of the beam and electronics, the researchers plan to use the initial test beam to evaluate the calorimeter’s signal-to-noise ratio.

    ‘These are very small signals that we deal with,’ said Breidenbach. ‘We have to see if everything can work at this low level.’

    The initial test will take place in SLAC’s End Station A, with 5 pulses per second of beam taken from SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) laser.”

    See the full article here.

    What is the Linear Collider Collaboration?

    While the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is producing exciting results like the discovery of a new particle that could be the Higgs boson, scientists around the world are already planning the next big collider to take the discoveries to the next level. Even though there is no decision yet which collider will be built or where, there is consensus in the scientific community that the results from the LHC will have to be complemented by a collider that can study the discoveries in greater detail by producing different kinds of collisions.

    The Linear Collider Collaboration is an organisation that brings the two most likely candidates, the Compact Linear Collider Study (CLIC) and the International Liner Collider (ILC), together under one roof. Headed by former LHC Project Manager Lyn Evans, it strives to coordinate the research and development work that is being done for accelerators and detectors around the world and to take the project linear collider to the next step: a decision that it will be built, and where.

    Some 2000 scientists — particle physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers — are involved in the ILC or in CLIC, and often in both projects. They work on state-of-the-art detector technologies, new acceleration techniques, the civil engineering aspect of building a straight tunnel of at least 30 kilometres in length, a reliable cost estimate and many more aspects that projects of this scale require. The Linear Collider Collaboration ensures that synergies between the two friendly competitors are used to the maximum.


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  • richardmitnick 12:54 pm on May 30, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Linear Colliders, ,   

    From The Linear Collider: “Setting the course for European particle physics” 

    Linear Collider Colaboration Banner

    Strategy for particle physics adopted by CERN Council in Brussels

    30 May 2013
    Barbara Warmbein

    “According to the paper, top priority is given to the continued operation of the LHC and its future upgrade for operation at higher luminosities, to ensure the exploitation of its full scientific potential. Other priorities for large-scale physics facilities are the development of a post-LHC accelerator project at CERN with global contribution, the European participation in the linear accelerator ILC if hosted by Japan and the development of a European neutrino research programme.

    lc
    The ILC is explicitly mentioned as a top priority in the update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics. Image: Rey.Hori

    Moreover, the European Strategy recommends the continuation of a strong and diversified theory programme, studies in specific areas of particle physics in Europe and other regions with European participation, extension of research and development of innovative detector technologies and close collaboration with neighbouring fields such as astroparticle physics and nuclear physics.

    The strategy stresses the importance of global collaboration in the field of particle physics and the coordinating role of CERN; this includes the strengthening of cooperation between the community of particle physicists and the European Commission. It also emphasises the social benefits and the research field’s responsibility: it is important to ensure that central scientific activities such as communication and outreach will become part of all projects, that technology transfer is supported and that young scientists will always get a good training.

    The European Strategy is regularly updated on the basis of current scientific results. With the discovery of the Higgs-like particle in summer 2012, the already planned update for this year had become even more urgent and concrete. The strategy is developed by the CERN Council Strategy Group, appointed by the CERN Council. It consists of representatives of all CERN member states, eight members of the European Committee for Future Accelerators ECFA and of the CERN Scientific Policy Committee (SPC), representatives of observer states and the directors of the largest European research centres.

    The Strategy Group is headed by former ECFA chairman Tatsuya Nakada. In the past months, the group gathered recommendations from many projects, groups, countries and collaborations and, after consultation with the European community of particle physicists at a symposium in Cracow of several days, they wrote up a summary of about 15 recommendations.

    See the full article here. The article includes links to other material.

    What is the Linear Collider Collaboration?

    While the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is producing exciting results like the discovery of a new particle that could be the Higgs boson, scientists around the world are already planning the next big collider to take the discoveries to the next level. Even though there is no decision yet which collider will be built or where, there is consensus in the scientific community that the results from the LHC will have to be complemented by a collider that can study the discoveries in greater detail by producing different kinds of collisions.

    The Linear Collider Collaboration is an organisation that brings the two most likely candidates, the Compact Linear Collider Study (CLIC) and the International Liner Collider (ILC), together under one roof. Headed by former LHC Project Manager Lyn Evans, it strives to coordinate the research and development work that is being done for accelerators and detectors around the world and to take the project linear collider to the next step: a decision that it will be built, and where.

    Some 2000 scientists — particle physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers — are involved in the ILC or in CLIC, and often in both projects. They work on state-of-the-art detector technologies, new acceleration techniques, the civil engineering aspect of building a straight tunnel of at least 30 kilometres in length, a reliable cost estimate and many more aspects that projects of this scale require. The Linear Collider Collaboration ensures that synergies between the two friendly competitors are used to the maximum.


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  • richardmitnick 8:21 pm on April 26, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Linear Colliders,   

    From Symmetry: “SLAC’s historic ‘End Station A’ hosts electron beams again” 

    April 26, 2013
    Mike Ross

    A new facility opens for experiments this week in SLAC’s historic End Station A, where the first evidence for quarks was discovered.

    Electrons are once again streaming into SLAC’s End Station A, setting the stage for a new facility in the huge, concrete hall where the first evidence for quarks was discovered.

    It was there that a research team including SLAC and MIT physicists used SLAC’s electron beam to discover that protons in the atomic nucleus were composed of smaller entities called quarks. That research led to the 1990 Nobel Prize in Physics.

    The new facility, called the End Station Test Beam, will host experiments that test detector parts and experiments that will aid in the design of a proposed international linear collider project.

    ilc
    ILC

    The first experiment, which will be carried out by SLAC researchers as part of the commissioning process, is being installed this week. The first outside users are expected to arrive in about a month.

    Researchers will use a new beamline fed by billion-particle bunches of high-energy electrons diverted from the laboratory’s Linac Coherent Light Source. LCLS uses the energetic electrons to create a powerful X-ray laser beam for research that reveals unprecedented detail on the atomic scale.”

    See the full article here.

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


     
  • richardmitnick 2:41 pm on March 21, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Linear Colliders, ,   

    From LC Newsline: “Final focus” 

    Linear Collider Collaboration header

    21 March 2013
    Daisy Yuhas

    As hundreds of particle bunches pass through an accelerator, physicists need to steer them into collision at specific locations within the detector’s centre. But given how tiny these particles are, it can happen that beams of particles cross and yet no collisions occur. To maximise the chances of collision at the interaction point, the beams are focused by a series of quadrupole magnets as they approach the desired collision location. Physicists refer to the series of magnets that create this focus as the ‘final focus.’

    mags
    These quadrupoles at the ATF2 test facility at KEK in Japan get the beam down to the required size. Image: KEK

    You can imagine the need for focusing by envisioning a street corner. If this is an intersection of two wide avenues, people can probably walk past each with little chance of collision. But if it’s a very narrow space with just enough of a crowd, people may be forced into each other. As it’s these collisions that scientists are after, the particle bunches need to travel in a tight pathway to increase the collisions achieved. For a more scientific analogy of how this funnelling of the beam’s path is achieved, Fermilab scientist Elvin Harms likens final focus to a telescope. ‘You might say the final focus quadrupole circuits are like a telescope. There is strong focusing near the collision point—much like an objective lens—and weaker focusing—like an eyepiece—further away,’ Harms says.

    This series of quadrupole magnets spans roughly a kilometre of space in the International Linear Collider design with the interaction point at its centre. Scientists can adjust each magnet to either focus or defocus, winnowing down or expanding space within the vertical or horizontal planes. At the ILC a doublet—or two quadrupole magnets—will be placed on either side of the interaction point. By the time particles collide they will each travel in a stream far smaller than a human hair, a scant 5.9 nanometres vertically and 474 nanometres horizontally.

    ATF2 is a test facility at the KEK laboratory in Japan which contains a prototype of an advanced optics design of the final focus for use at any future linear collider. In December last year, scientists achieved a squeezed beam size as small as 70 nanometeres at ATF2. Scientists aim to achieve as final goal a spot size of 37 nanometres – the beam size to meet the ILC requirements.”

    See the full article here.

    The Linear Collider Collaboration is an organisation that brings the two most likely candidates, the Compact Linear Collider Study (CLIC) and the International Liner Collider (ILC), together under one roof. Headed by former LHC Project Manager Lyn Evans, it strives to coordinate the research and development work that is being done for accelerators and detectors around the world and to take the project linear collider to the next step: a decision that it will be built, and where.

    Some 2000 scientists – particle physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers – are involved in the ILC or in CLIC, and often in both projects. They work on state-of-the-art detector technologies, new acceleration techniques, the civil engineering aspect of building a straight tunnel of at least 30 kilometres in length, a reliable cost estimate and many more aspects that projects of this scale require. The Linear Collider Collaboration ensures that synergies between the two friendly competitors are used to the maximum.

    Linear Collider Colaboration Banner


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  • richardmitnick 9:59 am on July 16, 2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Linear Colliders, , ,   

    From SLAC Today: “FACET Promises to Improve Power, Efficiency of Particle Accelerators” 

    July 16, 2012
    Lori Ann White

    The Department of Energy’s newest user facility – a cutting-edge particle accelerator available to scientists from all over the world – is a radical new chapter in the history of the world’s longest, most powerful linear accelerator.

    lcls
    SLAC LCLS

    For more than four decades, the two-mile-long linac at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory fueled Nobel-winning particle-physics research. Now it’s been repurposed – one might even say reimagined – in ways that keep it at the forefront of discovery, and not just in particle physics.

    The final third of the linac now powers the Linac Coherent Light Source, the world’s first hard X-ray laser. Researchers from around the world use LCLS’s unique ability to take crisp pictures of atomic motion and changes in chemical bonds to drive applications in energy and environmental sciences, bioscience and materials engineering.

    And the remaining two-thirds of the accelerator have been claimed by FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests, which is revving up the 50-year-old equipment and packing the final section with state-of-the-art instruments. The result is a test bed for technology that promises to improve the power and efficiency of today’s particle accelerators and expand their roles in medicine, materials and biological science, high-energy physics and more.”

    See the full article here.

    SLAC is a multi-program laboratory exploring frontier questions in photon science, astrophysics, particle physics and accelerator research. Located in Menlo Park, California, SLAC is operated by Stanford University for the DOE’s Office of Science.
    i1

     
  • richardmitnick 12:50 pm on December 8, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Linear Colliders, ,   

    From ILC Newsline: Several Interesting and Important Articles 

    Today’s news release is here.

    Here are the links and some images to stimulate your curiosity.

    Light As A Feather
    Perrine Royole-Degieux

    i1
    “A group of European physicists, the PLUME collaboration, aims to prototype an ultra-light device intended to equip one of the thinnest and lightest elements at the inner heart of the ILC detectors: the vertex detector. At CERN one month ago, a full-scale prototype equipped with CMOS pixel sensors was successfully tested in beam.”

    See this full article here.

    LCIO 2.0 improves simulation coordination

    Leah Hesla
    “Over the years, the linear collider input/output event data model has facilitated data sharing between the world’s linear collider detector groups
    A new version of linear collider data storage software was released this past autumn to accommodate detector scientists’ increasing sophistication in simulating particle events. LCIO (the name comes from ‘linear collider input/output’) continues to facilitate agreement among the world’s linear collider groups with a common event data model and file format for data exchange.”

    i2

    i3

    See this full article here.

    Pondering the future of particle physics

    Barry Barish

    “The International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) sponsors a meeting every three years on Future Perspectives in High Energy Physics. This year the ICFA seminar was held at CERN and it broadly covered plans and ideas for future facilities for our field. This meeting was particularly timely, as it coincided both with the completion of the impressive first year of running of the LHC and with the kickoff of the update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics to be completed in 2013.”
    i3

    See this full article here.

     
  • richardmitnick 3:19 pm on November 30, 2010 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Linear Colliders,   

    From FermiLab Today: “Fermilab begins operation of first SRF cryomodule” 

    Portents for the future, maybe the International Linear Collider, the next major machine after the LHC.

    “At particle physics laboratories around the world, people have closely followed a much anticipated cooldown at Fermilab.

    Years of effort by more than 100 staff members at Fermilab have led to the cooldown of Cryomodule 1 at the laboratory’s SRF Accelerator Test Facility. At 11 a.m. on Nov. 22, liquid helium flowed through CM1, cooling it to 2 Kelvin (-271° C).

    It was the ‘lift-off’ moment for the facility, which will conduct tests on superconducting radiofrequency cavity modules, the chief pioneering technology for future accelerators. During the next couple of years, Fermilab plans to use cryomodules such as this one to accelerate particle beams for experimentation.”

    i1
    Cryomodule 1 is the only eight-cavity SRF cryomodule in the United States. It was successfully cooled to 2 Kelvin (-271° C) on Nov. 22. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    Watch a video of the installation of the first SRF cryomodule at Fermilab.

    See the full article here.

     
  • richardmitnick 9:23 am on November 30, 2010 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Linear Colliders,   

    From CERN Courier: Linear Colliders 

    Nov 30, 2010
    The global linear collider comes together in Geneva

    The International Workshop on Linear Colliders (IWLC2010) recently brought together many experts involved in research and development for an electron–positron linear collider – the favoured future facility to complement the LHC. Organized by the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) and hosted by CERN, the meeting took place on 18–22 October and attracted 479 registered participants.

    Two complementary technologies are currently being developed for a future linear collider: the International Linear Collider (ILC), based on superconducting RF technology in the tera-electron-volt energy range for colliding beams; and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), based on a novel scheme of two-beam acceleration to extend to energies of multi-tera-electron-volts. Taking advantage of a large number of synergies, the two studies are already collaborating closely on a number of technical subjects. These include: beam-delivery systems and machine-detector interfaces; physics and detectors; positron generation; beam dynamics; damping rings; civil engineering and conventional facilities; and cost and schedule.”


    The ILC in one minute

    i4
    Prototype state-of-the-art copper accelerating structures for high gradient CLIC studies

    i2
    Depiction of CLIC – sorry, I could not find a video

    Read the the full article here.

     
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