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  • richardmitnick 8:50 pm on December 15, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From Isaac Newton Group: “Astronomers Release Most Detailed Catalogue Ever Made of the Visible Milky Way” 

    Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes Logo
    Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes

    16 September, 2014
    Contacts:

    Dr Geert Barentsen
    University of Hertfordshire
    Tel: +44 (0)17 0728 4603
    Mob: +44 (0)75 4700 3148
    g.barentsenherts.ac.uk

    Prof Janet Drew
    University of Hertfordshire
    Tel: +44 (0)1707 286576
    Mob: +44 (0)7758 918823
    j.drewherts.ac.uk

    A new catalogue of the visible part of the northern part of our home galaxy, the Milky Way, includes no fewer than 219 million stars. Geert Barentsen of the University of Hertfordshire led a team who assembled the catalogue in a ten year programme using the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) on La Palma in the Canary Islands. Their work appears today in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

    Isaac Newton 2.5m telescope
    Isaac Newton 2.5m telescope interior
    INT

    From dark sky sites on Earth, the Milky Way appears as a glowing band stretching across the sky. To astronomers, it is the disk of our own galaxy, a system stretching across 100,000 light-years, seen edge-on from our vantage point orbiting the Sun. The disk contains the majority of the stars in the galaxy, including the Sun, and the densest concentrations of dust and gas.

    The unaided human eye struggles to distinguish individual objects in this crowded region of the sky, but the 2.5-m mirror of the INT enabled the scientists to resolve and chart 219 million separate stars. The INT programme charted all the stars brighter than 20th magnitude – or almost 1 million times fainter than can be seen with the human eye.

    Using the catalogue, the scientists have put together an extraordinarily detailed map of the disk of the galaxy that shows how the density of stars varies, giving them a new and vivid insight into the structure of this vast system of stars, gas and dust.

    The image included here, a cut-out from a stellar density map mined directly from the released catalogue, illustrates the new view obtained. The Turner-like brush strokes of dust shadows would grace the wall of any art gallery. Maps like these also stand as useful tests of new-generation models for the Milky Way.

    m

    A density map of part of the Milky Way disk, constructed from IPHAS data. The scales show galactic latitude and longitude, coordinates that relate to the position of the centre of the galaxy. The mapped data are the counts of stars brighter than 20th magnitude detected in Sloan i, the longer (redder) wavelength broad band of the survey. Although this is just a small section of the full map, it portrays in exquisite detail the complex patterns of obscuration due to interstellar dust. This image contains 600 × 2400 independent data points, each of which represents the star count within 1 × 1 square arcminute cells (1 arcminute is 1/60th of a degree). At the level of the original exposed images, each cell is itself made up of 32,000 pixels. The typical effective angular resolution of the data is close to 1 arcsecond (1/3600th of a degree or about 10 original image pixels). The section shown features the edge of the Sagittarius spiral arm (near longitude 60 degrees) and the Cygnus-X molecular cloud complex (at around 80 degrees longitude). Both of these appear as regions of reduced star counts due to the obscuring effect of higher dust concentrations. Credit: The stellar density map has been produced by Hywel Farnhill as part of his PhD project at the University of Hertfordshire. Copper colour scale image of the density map: Linear count scale [ labelled | borderless ], square-root count scale [ labelled | borderless ].

    The production of the catalogue, IPHAS DR2 (the second release from the survey programme The INT Photometric H-alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane or IPHAS), is an example of modern astronomy’s exploitation of ‘big data’ – it contains information on the 219 million detected objects, each of which is summarised in 99 attributes.

    With this catalogue release, the team are offering the world community free access to measurements taken through two broad band filters capturing light at the red end of the visible spectrum, and in a narrowband capturing the brightest hydrogen emission line, H-alpha. The inclusion of H-alpha also enables exquisite imaging of the nebulae (glowing clouds of gas) found in greatest number within the disk of the Milky Way. The stellar density map illustrated here is derived from the longest (reddest) wavelength band in which the darkening effect of the dust is moderated in a way that brings out more of its structural detail, compared to maps built at shorter (bluer) wavelengths.

    The new work appears in Barentsen et al, 2014, The second data release of the INT Photometric Hα Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS DR2)“, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 444, 3230, published by Oxford University Press. A preprint version is available on the arXiv server.

    The catalogue is accessible in queryable form via the VizieR service at the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. The processed IPHAS images it is derived from are also publically available. The preparation of the catalogue was funded by the Science and Technology Facilities Council.

    IPHAS is the acronym standing for “The INT Photometric H-alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane” (see the IPHAS survey website). IPHAS, in combination with its follow-on sister survey UVEX, imaging the Milky Way using complementary blue filters, has used the Wide Field Camera on the INT in observing campaigns stretching over more than 500 allocated nights since August 2003. Together with another survey, VPHAS+, now in progress on a telescope in Chile, these ambitious observational programmes are collectively known as the European Galactic Plane Surveys (EGAPS). They are exploiting modern high-resolution CCD imaging technology and the growth in computing power to map the entire disk of our galaxy in visible light and at high angular resolution for the first time.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 11:14 am on September 16, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From RAS: “219 million stars: a detailed catalogue of the visible Milky Way” 

    Royal Astronomical Society

    Royal Astronomical Society

    16 September 2014
    Media contact

    Dr Robert Massey
    Royal Astronomical Society
    Tel: +44 (0)20 7734 3307
    Mob: +44 (0)794 124 8035
    rm@ras.org.uk

    Science contacts

    Dr Geert Barentsen
    University of Hertfordshire
    Tel: +44 (0)1707 284603
    g.barentsen@herts.ac.uk

    Prof. Janet Drew
    University of Hertfordshire
    Tel: +44 (0)1707 286576
    j.drew@herts.ac.uk

    A new catalogue of the visible part of the northern part of our home Galaxy, the Milky Way, includes no fewer than 219 million stars. Geert Barentsen of the University of Hertfordshire led a team who assembled the catalogue in a ten year programme using the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) on La Palma in the Canary Islands. Their work appears today in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

    Isaac Newton 2.5m telescope
    Isaac Newton 2.5m telescope interior
    Isaac Newton Telescope

    dense
    A density map of part of the Milky Way disk, constructed from IPHAS data. The axes show galactic latitude and longitude, coordinates that relate to the position of the centre of the galaxy. The mapped data are the counts of stars detected in i, the longer (redder) wavelength broad band of the survey, down to a faint limit of 19th magnitude. Although this is just a small section of the full map, it portrays in exquisite detail the complex patterns of obscuration due to interstellar dust. Credit: Hywel Farnhill, University of Hertfordshire.

    From dark sky sites on Earth, the Milky Way appears as a glowing band stretching across the sky. To astronomers, it is the disk of our own galaxy, a system stretching across 100,000 light-years, seen edge-on from our vantage point orbiting the Sun. The disk contains the majority of the stars in the galaxy, including the Sun, and the densest concentrations of dust and gas.

    The unaided human eye struggles to distinguish individual objects in this crowded region of the sky, but the 2.5-metre mirror of the INT enabled the scientists to resolve and chart 219 million separate stars. The INT programme charted all the stars brighter than 20th magnitude – or 1 million times fainter than can be seen with the human eye.

    Using the catalogue, the scientists have put together an extraordinarily detailed map of the disk of the Galaxy that shows how the density of stars varies, giving them a new and vivid insight into the structure of this vast system of stars, gas and dust.

    The image included here, a cut-out from a stellar density map mined directly from the released catalogue, illustrates the new view obtained. The Turner-like brush strokes of dust shadows would grace the wall of any art gallery. Maps like these also stand as useful tests of new-generation models for the Milky Way.

    The production of the catalogue, IPHAS DR2 (the second data release from the survey programme The INT Photometric H-alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane, IPHAS), is an example of modern astronomy’s exploitation of ‘big data’. It contains information on 219 million detected objects, each of which is summarised in 99 different attributes.

    With this catalogue release, the team are offering the world community free access to measurements taken through two broad band filters capturing light at the red end of the visible spectrum, and in a narrow band capturing the brightest hydrogen emission line, H-alpha. The inclusion of H-alpha also enables exquisite imaging of the nebulae (glowing clouds of gas) found in greatest number within the disk of the Milky Way. The stellar density map illustrated here is derived from the longest (reddest) wavelength band in which the darkening effect of the dust is moderated in a way that brings out more of its structural detail, compared to maps built at shorter (bluer) wavelengths.

    See the full article here.

    The Royal Astronomical Society (RAS), founded in 1820, encourages and promotes the study of astronomy, solar-system science, geophysics and closely related branches of science.

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  • richardmitnick 2:21 pm on August 20, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From Isaac Newton Group: “Ou4: A Giant Squid Nebula” 

    Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes Logo
    Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes

    Highly bipolar-collimated outflow Ou4 nebula. Shown here is the whole mosaic as obtained using the Isaac Newton Telescope, where red is Hα+[NII], green is [OIII], and blue is the Sloan g broadband filter.
    squid
    Credits: Romano Corradi (IAC), Nicolas Grosso, Agnès Acker, Robert Greimel, Patrick Guillout. Image processing by Gabriel Pérez (IAC) [ JPEG | TIFF ].

    Note that the outflow, also nicknamed “the Giant Squid”, has an extension of 2.5 full moons on the sky.

    Ou4 is a recently discovered bipolar outflow with a projected size of more than one degree in the plane of the sky. It is apparently centred on a young stellar cluster — whose most massive representative is the triple system HR 8119 — inside the HII region Sh 2-129. The apparent position of Ou4 and the properties deduced in this study are consistent with the hypothesis that Ou4 is located inside the Sh 2-129 HII region, suggesting that it was launched some 90,000 yrs ago by HR 8119.

    See the full article here.
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  • richardmitnick 5:21 am on July 1, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From Isaac Newton Group: “Discovery of Near Earth Asteroid 2014 LU14 with the Isaac Newton Telescope” 

    Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes Logo
    Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes

    30 June, 2014
    No Writer Credit

    Born in 2006 at IMCCE Observatoire de Paris, the European Near Earth Asteroid Research project (EURONEAR) aims to grow the European contribution in studying of Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs). Our first aim has been to ameliorate the NEA orbits via astrometry derived from new observations and archive data mining, while another more recent aim is to study physical properties of NEAs via photometry and spectroscopy.

    Fifteen telescopes (from 30cm to 4m diameter) accessible to the EURONEAR network from Spain, Chile, France, Romania and Germany have been used for NEA observations, including since 2009 the 2.5m diameter Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) endowed at its prime focus with the relatively wide field mosaic camera WFC (34×34 arcmin field), the INT is a very good facility to recover important NEAs not observed for years, as faint as limiting magnitude R~23.0, beyond the limit of the current NEA surveys.

    Isaac Newton 2.5m telescope
    INT

    Besides follow-up work which succeeded in improving about 1500 NEA orbits during the last 8 years via EURONEAR, some important incidental survey work has been carried and published thanks to the involvement of many amateur astronomers and students working mostly remotely who carefully blinked thousands of CCD images to search and measure all moving objects using the Astrometrica software written by Austrian amateur astronomer Herbert Raab. Together, a few thousand orbits of known main belt asteroids (MBAs) falling in the observed fields have been improved, while a few other thousand unknown MBAs have been reported by EURONEAR using mostly three telescopes, namely the INT 2.5m from La Palma, ESO/MPG 2.2m and Blanco 4m from Chile. Among the unknown moving objects, about 20 became best NEA candidates, unfortunately lost mostly due to lack of any follow-up telescope time.

    ESO 2.2 meter telescope
    ESO 2.2m telescope at LaSilla

    CTIO Victor M Blanco Terlescope
    CTIO Victor M Blanco 4m Telescope

    This situation was improved in the semester 2014A, when Dr. Ovidiu Vaduvescu (EURONEAR founder, ING astronomer, IAC and IMCCE associated) was awarded by the Spanish time allocation committee 30 hours INT target of opportunity (ToO) time for recovery of important NEAs (one opposition fainter objects less accessible to major surveys) and rapid follow-up of important new NEAs and eventual discoveries. Part of this C136 program carried out in a team comprising a few amateurs and students mostly from Romania and the ING, during 1 hour of the 1/2 June 2014 night the ING student Vlad Tudor observed a few fields with the aim of recovering four important NEAs. In one of the observed fields, the amateur astronomer Lucian Hudin based in Cluj Napoca, Romania, identified and measured a few other unknown asteroids among which the faint R=21.6 magnitude object baptized EUHT171 was clearly detected at signal to noise S/N=6 in good conditions (dark and clear night with good INT seeing 1.2″). Moving faster and in a different direction than all other main belt objects in the field, he could flag immediately EUHT171 as a very probable NEA (score 100%). We include in Figure 1 an animation of the discovery frames (field 6.5’x5′ in normal sky orientation) marking the 2014 LU14 NEA (in red circle) in comparison with the known main belt asteroid (7204) Ondrejov (marked with a green circle) moving slowly and in a different direction.

    movie
    Figure 1. Movie made of 6 frames where NEA 2014 LU14 can be easily spotted. Credit: Lucian Hudin. [ animated GIF ].

    Thanks to the extremely rapid data reduction by the observer student Vlad Tudor (in almost real time) combined with the very fast and keen visual detection and accurate measurement and classification of all moving objects by amateur astronomer Lucian Hudin, after only 3 hours we reported this finding to the Minor Planet Centre (MPC) as “New NEO Candidate (EUHT171) from 950 – La Palma while recovering 2012 MR7″. Although this object was rapidly posted on the MPC NEO confirmation list during next four days, no other observatory could recover it, thus during the following few nights using same ToO time, we recovered the object and promptly reported the astrometry data to MPC. Finally, following five nights astrometry of EUHT171 collected during one week, the MPC linked all our 31 observations in a NEA orbit and assigned the number 2014 LU14 to EUHT171, these findings being published in the MPS 518060 and MPEC L49 circulars. Thus, EUHT171, now officially known as 2014 LU14, became the first NEA discovered and secured by EURONEAR, the first NEA discovered from La Palma, the first NEA discovered using the INT and also the first NEA discovered by three astronomers of Romanian origin, thanks to an excellent collaboration between professionals, amateurs and student astronomers and to the Spanish ToO time.

    2014 LU14, one of the ~10,000 NEAs known today, thanks to five major American surveys, is an Apollo NEA which resides quite close to the Earth orbit (semi-major axis a=1.29 AU, minimum orbital intersection distance MOID=0.197 AU) revolving around the Sun every 1.5 years in an elongated orbit (eccentricity e=0.45) quite tilted with respect to the Earth equator (inclination i=25 deg). Figure 2 shows its orbit and position at discovery in relation to the Earth and other planets. Having an absolute magnitude of H=18.6, the discovered NEA has an estimated size of about half a kilometer (assuming a mean albedo of 0.2), and will become better visible in July 2014 (estimated magnitude V=20).

    map
    Figure 2. Orbit of NEA 2014 LU14. Credit: NASA/JPL NEO program. [ GIF ].

    Besides Ovidiu Vaduvescu (ING, IAC and IMCCE associated), the whole team comprises Vlad Tudor and Teo Mocnik (ING students), Lucian Hudin (amateur astronomer, ROASTERR-1 Observatory, Romania), Andrei Marian Stoian (amateur astronomer, Schela Observatory, Romania), Stefan Mihalea (amateur astronomer, SARM Romania), Farid Char (Universidad de Antofagasta, Chile), Mansour Karami (IPM and BA Tehran and former ING student), Javier Licandro (IAC and ULL, Tenerife), Alexandru Tudorica (PhD student, Bonn), Marcel Popescu (Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy and IMCCE Paris) and Ruxandra Toma (PhD student Armagh Observatory and SARM Romania).

    See the full article here.
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  • richardmitnick 6:39 am on June 24, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From Isaac Newton: “Spectro-Astrometry of V1515 Cygni with Adaptive Optics” 

    Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes Logo
    Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes

    13 June, 2014
    No Writer Credit

    FU Orionis objects are a class of young stars with powerful bursts in luminosity that show evidence of accretion and ejection activity. It is generally accepted that they are surrounded by a Keplerian circumstellar disk and an infalling envelope. The outburst occurs because of a sudden increase in the accretion rate through the disk. In this scenario, all young stars experience FU Ori phases during their evolution. Despite the evidence of winds/outflows and accretion activity in these objects, a detailed study of their physical properties has been difficult to carry out with high-resolution instruments manly due to the faintness and the distance to these objects.

    Using the integral field spectrograph OASIS, at the William Herschel Telescope, combined with the adaptive optics module NAOMI, astronomers obtained optical observations of the FU Ori star V1515 Cyg with an angular resolution of 0.7 arcseconds (Gaussian core FWHM). From the analysis of the data they find evidence for the existence of a surrounding disk in V1515, being this one of the few spatial inferences of a disk observed in an FU Ori object.

    Isaac Newton William Herschel Telescope
    William Herschel Telescope

    Isaac Newton Herschel OASIS
    OASIS

    They applied a spectro-astrometry technique to both spatial directions. A two-dimensional circular Gaussian was fitted to each image of the data cube, with a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The wavelength-dependent Gaussian centers and Gaussian full width at half maximum (FWHM) are the spectro-astrometric signal. Figure 1 shows, for one of the individual exposures, the detected spectro-astrometric signal in the spatial directions for the spectral region around the Hα 6562Å line. A small spectro-astrometric signal is detected in the horizontal direction. However, considering the error bars, the signal in the vertical direction is clearly detected at blueshifted velocities of ∼-100 km s-1.

    graphs
    For the first individual exposure, Gaussian centers of the spectro- astrometric signal as a function of the velocity in both the W-E (east for ΔX > 0) and S-N (north for ΔY > 0) directions, in top and middle panels, respectively. Bottom panel shows the differential FWHM. The Hα line profile is overplotted in blue showing a clear P Cygni profile [ GIF ].

    In order to ruled out the possibility of a bias due to a deficient wavelength calibration, a model fitting between each spectrum in the field and the one at the stellar position was carried out. The top panel in Figure 2 shows the spatially distribution of the measured shift for the same exposures as in Figure 1. A clear structure is seen in the center of the field with an approximate size of ∼2 arcseconds in both spatial directions.

    The astronomers identify two clear distinct regions, one showing redshifted velocities and the other blueshifted, almost symmetrical to the previous one. This structure, similar to 12CO observations in several T Tauri stars suggests scattering coming from a disk surrounding the star.

    graph2
    Top: shift in velocity obtained from a cross-correlation of the P Cygni profile between the spectrum at the position of the star and each individual spectra in the field, for exposure 1. Color scale is km s-1. The continuum emission center is marked as a black cross. The physical orientation is also given. Bottom: error in the shift also in km s-1 [ PNG ].

    See the full article here.
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  • richardmitnick 8:30 pm on May 12, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From Isaac Newton Group: “Discovery of Circularly Polarised Light in a GRB Afterglow” 

    Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes Logo
    Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes

    12 May, 2014
    No Writer Credit

    A large international team led by Klaas Wiersema from the University of Leicester has discovered circularly polarised optical emission in the afterglow of GRB* 121024A. The study, published in Nature, used data mainly from FORS2 on the http://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/vlt/, but also ACAM on the WHT**. The ACAM data allowed the team to correctly identify a break in the light curve that confirmed the long standing prediction that an abrupt change of 90 degrees in the GRB linear polarisation happens when the Lorentz factor of the outwards jet decreases below a critical value.

    ESO FORS1
    ESO/VLT/FORS

    ESO VLT
    ESO VLT

    Isaac Newton WHT ACAM
    ING ACAM on WHT

    Isaac Newton William Herschel Telescope
    William Herschel Telescope

    The authors acquired a dozen linear polarisation measurements starting at 2.7 hours after the GRB, and finishing 29 hours later, when the afterglow became too faint for accurate polarimetry. At 3.5 hours after the GRB they acquired a deep circular polarimetry measurement as well. At this time the afterglow light originates from the forward shock of the relativistic blast wave. Theoretical modelling has always predicted a very low level of circular polarisation at optical wavelengths for forward shocks, and far below the reach of the instrumentation.

    not sure
    The WHT ACAM Sloan r-band detection of the host galaxy of GRB 121024A. This detection allowed the subtraction of the host galaxy contribution off the afterglow light curve, which showed the presence of a jet break in the data

    However, the measurements showed the contrary: a circular polarisation of 0.6% was detected. The simultaneous linear polarimetry gave a ratio of circular to linear polarisation of Pcir/Plin~0.15, nearly four orders of magnitudes larger than predicted by models. The nature of this strong circular polarisation is unclear, the authors speculate that it is related to the way electron acceleration takes place in the afterglow forward shock, giving us a first glance at the details of the microphysics inside these highly relativistic shocks.

    Linear polarimetry provided another surprise: the first confirmation of a long standing prediction that the polarisation angle should show an abrupt 90-degree angle change close to the time that a jet break is visible (the jet break is a break in the light curve when the Lorentz factor of the jet decreases below a critical value). This first detection of a 90-degree angle change relied on the correct identification of a light curve break in the optical light curves. Here the WHT provided its contribution: using ACAM the host galaxy brightness could be determined accurately, and subtracted off the afterglow light curves to reveal a break in the light curves.

    This paper is part of a large effort to better characterise polarisation behaviour in GRB afterglows and similar relativistic jet transients (like jets producing tidal disruption events), with the aim of using statistics of linear polarisation values to determine viewing angle and jet opening angle distributions. The WHT offers a unique contribution to this effort, through LIRIS infrared imaging polarimetry of afterglows, using ToO observations, which has produced several papers already (e.g. Wiersema et al., 2012, MNRAS, 421, 1942).

    K. Wiersema, S. Covino, K. Toma, A. J. van der Horst, K. Varela, M. Min, J. Greiner, R. L. C. Starling, N. R. Tanvir, R. A. M. J. Wijers, S. Campana, P. A. Curran, Y. Fan, J. P. U. Fynbo, J. Gorosabel, A. Gomboc, D. Götz, J. Hjorth, Z. P. Jin, S. Kobayashi, C. Kouveliotou, C. Mundell, P. T. O’Brien, E. Pian, A. Rowlinson, D. M. Russell, R. Salvaterra, S. di Serego Alighieri, G. Tagliaferri, S. D. Vergani, J. Elliott, C. Fariña, O. E. Hartoog, R. Karjalainen, S. Klose, F. Knust, A. J. Levan, P. Schady, V. Sudilovsky & R. Willingale, 2014, Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A, Nature, 509, 201

    • Gamma Ray Burst

    ** William Herschel Telescope

    See the full article here.
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