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  • richardmitnick 4:31 pm on July 15, 2013 Permalink | Reply
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    From CERN Courier: “The case for a circular e+e– Higgs factory” 

    Jul 12, 2013
    John Ellis, King’s College London and CERN.

    “Options for a future facility to study Higgs bosons in detail include a larger, more powerful reincarnation of LEP.


    The discovery of a Higgs boson by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the LHC has opened new perspectives on accelerator-based particle physics. While much else might well be discovered at the LHC as its energy and luminosity are increased, one item on the agenda of future accelerators is surely a Higgs factory capable of studying this new particle in as much detail as possible. Various options for such a facility are under active consideration and circular electron–positron (e+e–) colliders are now among them.

    In a real sense, a Higgs factory already exists in the form of the LHC, which has already produced millions of Higgs bosons and could produce hundreds of millions more with the high-luminosity upgrade planned for the 2020s. However, the experimental conditions at the LHC restrict the range of Higgs decay modes that can be observed directly and measured accurately. For example, decays of the Higgs boson into charm quarks are unlikely to be measurable at the LHC. On the one hand, decays into gluons can be measured only indirectly via the rate of Higgs production by gluon–gluon collisions and it will be difficult to quantify accurately invisible Higgs decays at the LHC. On the other hand, the large statistics at the LHC will enable accurate measurements of distinctive subdominant Higgs decays such as those into photon pairs or ZZ*. The rare decay of the Higgs into muon pairs will also be accessible. The task for a Higgs factory will be to make measurements that complement or are even more precise than those possible with the LHC.

    Attractive options

    Cleaner experimental conditions are offered by e+e– collisions. Prominent among other contenders for a future Higgs factory are the design studies for a linear e+e– collider: the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). In addition to running at the centre-of-mass energy of 240 GeV that is desirable for Higgs production, these also offer prospects for higher-energy collisions, e.g. at the top–antitop threshold of 350 GeV and at 500 GeV or 1000 GeV in the case of the ILC, or even higher energies at CLIC. These would become particularly attractive options if future, higher-energy LHC running reveals additional new physics within their energy reach. High-energy e+e– collisions would also offer prospects for determining the triple-Higgs coupling, something that could be measured at the LHC only if it is operated at the highest possible luminosity.


    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in the capabilities of circular e+e– colliders being used as Higgs factories following a suggestion by Alain Blondel and Frank Zimmermann in December 2011 (Blondel and Zimmermann 2011). It used to be thought that the Large Electron–Positron (LEP) collider would be the largest and highest-energy circular e+e– collider and that linear colliders would be more cost-efficient at higher energies. However, advances in accelerator technology since LEP was designed have challenged this view. In particular, the development of top-up injection at B factories and synchrotron radiation sources, as well as advances in superconducting RF and in beam-focusing techniques at interaction points, raise the possibility of achieving collision rates at each interaction point at a circular Higgs factory that could be more than two orders of magnitude larger than those achieved at LEP. Moreover, it would be possible to operate such a collider with as many as four interaction points simultaneously, as at LEP.

    One attractive option would be to envisage a future circular e+e– collider as part of a future, very large collider complex. For example, a tunnel with a circumference of 80–100 km could also accommodate a proton–proton collider capable of collisions at 80–100 TeV in the centre of mass, which would also open up the option of very-high-energy electron–proton collisions. This could be an appealing vision for accelerator particle physics at the energy frontier for much of the 21st century. Such a complex would fit naturally into the updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, which has recently been approved.”

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 12:49 pm on June 12, 2013 Permalink | Reply
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    From CERN: “International Linear Collider ready for construction” 

    CERN New Masthead

    12 Jun 2013
    Cian O’Luanaigh

    “Today the Linear Collider Collaboration published its Technical Design Report [PDF] for the International Linear Collider (ILC) – a proposed 31-kilometre electron-positron collider that will both complement and advance beyond the physics of the Large Hadron Collider.

    A schematic of the layout of the International Linear Collider – note the soccer pitch for scale (Image: Pablo Vazquez )

    In three consecutive ceremonies in Asia, Europe and the Americas, the authors officially handed the report over to the international oversight board for projects in particle physics, the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). The report presents the latest, most technologically advanced and most thoroughly scrutinized design for the ILC.

    The ILC will accelerate and collide electrons and their antiparticles, positrons. Collisions will occur roughly 7000 times per second at the collision energy of 500 GeV. Some 16,000 superconducting cavities will be needed to drive the ILC’s particle beams. The report also includes details of two state-of-the-art detectors that will record the collisions, as well as an extensive outline of the geological and civil engineering studies conducted for siting the ILC.

    ‘The Technical Design Report is an impressive piece of work that shows maturity, scrutiny and boldness,’ says Lyn Evans, director of the Linear Collider Collaboration. ‘The International Linear Collider should be next on the agenda for global particle physics.’”

    See the full article here.

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Cern Courier




    CERN CMS New

    CERN LHCb New


    CERN LHC New

    LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

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  • richardmitnick 2:22 pm on March 11, 2013 Permalink | Reply
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    From Symmetry: “Linear collider focus gets down to size” 

    In a display of timing worthy of a blockbuster movie, a multinational team of accelerator physicists focused a beam of electrons down to the tiny size needed for a future linear collider the same week that the linear collider board formed.

    March 11, 2013
    Lori Ann White

    “In late 2012, Toshiaki Tauchi clicked the send button on an email with the subject line ’70nm achieved at ATF2!’ It signaled a major success for Tauchi, an accelerator physicist at KEK, and his colleagues at the Japanese lab’s Accelerator Test Facility 2: They had shown they could focus a beam of electrons down to the tiny size required by a future linear collider.

    Photo: Nobu Toge, KEK

    Tauchi is a member of the executive committee overseeing the global design effort for the International Linear Collider, and the timing of his announcement could not have been better.

    Just the day before, Fermilab Director Pier Oddone, in his role as chair of the International Committee for Future Accelerators, announced the formation of a Linear Collider Board to shepherd the global effort to build a linear collider capable of pushing back the frontiers of high-energy physics revealed by the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. With Japan expressing interest in hosting such a facility and the even more recent formation of a Linear Collider Collaboration to coordinate and advance global plans, momentum seems to be building for the construction of the giant electron-positron collider.”

    See the full article here.

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.

  • richardmitnick 12:18 pm on August 9, 2012 Permalink | Reply
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    From ilc newsline: “Superconducting radio-frequency” 

    9 August 2012
    Daisy Yuhas

    How do you accelerate particles in a particle collider? One answer is superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) cavities. To give particles energy as they move through an accelerator, physicists use cavities containing electric fields that oscillate. The changes in electric field help push the particles from one cavity to the next. These oscillations occur with the same frequency as radio waves, which is why this form of acceleration is called radio-frequency.

    Image: Rey.Hori

    Superconducting refers to the way in which electric current is carried through these accelerating cavities. Electric current in a cavity may create friction—unless the cavity is created using special metals called superconductors. ‘Some metals have no resistance below a critical temperature,’ says Fermilab scientist Camille Ginsburg. This means that these metals conduct electricity perfectly. Even in a superconductor, if electric current passing through a cavity encounters any bumps or impurities, the flow of electricity is interrupted and energy can be lost as heat. This is why cavities must be very clean and polished to a smooth finish. In proposed accelerators such as the ILC, the metal used is niobium, which becomes superconducting at temperatures below 9.2 Kelvin (-264°C). Keeping cool isn’t easy, however. To do this, each cavity is kept in a large thermos structure holding frigid liquid helium, typically at 2 Kelvin (-271°C).”

    See the full post here.


  • richardmitnick 12:41 pm on April 19, 2012 Permalink | Reply
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    From ILC Newsline: “Doing the cryomodule shuffle” 

    ilc – International Linear Collider

    Leah Hesla
    19 April 2012

    Fermilab researchers will soon take a quantum step towards the realisation of an ILC-type cryomodule.

    Next week the newly assembled cryomodule RFCA002, familiarly referred to as CM2, will replace CM1 in the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at the laboratory’s NML test facility. The change-out is a rung up on the R&D ladder, and not only because it is the second eight-cavity cryomodule to come out of the laboratory. Far more than the first, CM2 resembles an ILC-type cryomodule in its components and cavity test performance.

    ‘The hope for CM2 is that it will be the first cryomodule to reach the average ILC specification gradient at Fermilab,” said lead engineer Tug Arkan. The so-called S1 goal of the ILC programme is to achieve an average gradient of 31.5 megavolts per metre over eight metre-long cavities. “That’s the goal to demonstrate. We haven’t yet proved it at Fermilab.’”

    Cryomodule 2 in the Fermilab Industrial Center Building. Image: Reidar Hahn

    See the full article here.

  • richardmitnick 3:10 pm on April 11, 2012 Permalink | Reply
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    From Symmetry/Breaking: “Two proposed linear collider programs to be joined under new governance” 

    Leah Hesla
    April 11, 2012

    “The world’s two most mature proposals for a collider complementary to the Large Hadron Collider are joining collaborative forces.

    The two proposed electron-positron collider projects, the Compact Linear Collider Study and the International Linear Collider, have traditionally been viewed as casual rivals–both in the running to be built as the future complement to CERN’s proton-smashing machine, the LHC.

    Now CLIC and the ILC are joining organizational forces under the linear collider umbrella. The new organizational structure, announced in February by the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) Chair Pier Oddone [Director of Fermilab], is still in its very early stages, but those involved hope to finalize the governance framework by July, implementing the new plan gradually over the following year. The plan is for ICFA, which currently oversees the ILC Global Design Effort, to establish a Linear Collider Board, which would in turn govern CLIC, the ILC, and a third program that focuses on detector research for both machines.

    The CLIC and the ILC programs are joining organizational forces within the framework of the International Committee for Future Accelerators. ICFA plans to establish a Linear Collider Board.

    ‘As we move into the next phase in the evolution of linear colliders it is important to bring the ILC and CLIC efforts under unified leadership,’ Oddone said.”

    Symmetrybreaking is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication

  • richardmitnick 5:13 pm on December 9, 2011 Permalink | Reply
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    From ilc newsline: “LCIO 2.0 improves simulation coordination’ 

    Leah Hesla
    8 December 2011

    “The data model that transformed the linear collider detector community from a computational Tower of Babel into a group that inputs with one voice has gotten an update.

    ILC software developers released LCIO. 2.0 this autumn. The new version of LCIO, a particle event data model, includes features that help scientists cope with the increasingly sophisticated data being fed into particle event simulations.

    ‘We considerably improved the data model – in particular for the description of charged particle tracks – and put in little things from users’ requests or features we thought would improve physicists’ lives,’ said DESY’s Frank Gaede, one of the main developers of LCIO and coordinator of ILCSoft, one of two software packages for which LCIO is the core.”

    Illustration of the way LCIO works with multiple software formats. Image: DESY

    A t t event simulated and reconstructed using ILCSoft, one of two software programs with LCIO at its core. Image: DESY

    See the full article here.

  • richardmitnick 12:50 pm on December 8, 2011 Permalink | Reply
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    From ILC Newsline: Several Interesting and Important Articles 

    Today’s news release is here.

    Here are the links and some images to stimulate your curiosity.

    Light As A Feather
    Perrine Royole-Degieux

    “A group of European physicists, the PLUME collaboration, aims to prototype an ultra-light device intended to equip one of the thinnest and lightest elements at the inner heart of the ILC detectors: the vertex detector. At CERN one month ago, a full-scale prototype equipped with CMOS pixel sensors was successfully tested in beam.”

    See this full article here.

    LCIO 2.0 improves simulation coordination

    Leah Hesla
    “Over the years, the linear collider input/output event data model has facilitated data sharing between the world’s linear collider detector groups
    A new version of linear collider data storage software was released this past autumn to accommodate detector scientists’ increasing sophistication in simulating particle events. LCIO (the name comes from ‘linear collider input/output’) continues to facilitate agreement among the world’s linear collider groups with a common event data model and file format for data exchange.”



    See this full article here.

    Pondering the future of particle physics

    Barry Barish

    “The International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) sponsors a meeting every three years on Future Perspectives in High Energy Physics. This year the ICFA seminar was held at CERN and it broadly covered plans and ideas for future facilities for our field. This meeting was particularly timely, as it coincided both with the completion of the impressive first year of running of the LHC and with the kickoff of the update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics to be completed in 2013.”

    See this full article here.

  • richardmitnick 1:22 pm on October 27, 2011 Permalink | Reply
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    From CERN Bulletin via ILC Newsline: “Detectors on the drawing board” 

    Katarina Anthony
    Monday 24 October 2011

    ” ‘While the LHC experiments remain the pinnacle of detector technology, you may be surprised to realise that the design and expertise behind them is well over 10 years old,’ says Lucie Linssen, CERN’s Linear Collider Detector (LCD) project manager whose group is pushing the envelope of detector design. “The next generation of detectors will have to surpass the achievements of the LHC experiments. It’s not an easy task but, by observing detectors currently in operation and exploiting a decade’s worth of technological advancements, we’ve made meaningful progress.”

    The LCD team is currently working on detectors for the CLIC experiment. “Electron-positron colliders like CLIC demand detectors with significantly more precision than those at the LHC,” explains Lucie. “We’ve studied a variety of techniques to cope with this precision and other CLIC-specific issues. Many of these were pioneered for earlier linear colliders, but have since been adapted to fit CLIC’s unique parameters.” The team’s work has culminated in two detector designs, published in the CLIC Conceptual Design Report.

    A simulated event display in one of the new generation detectors.

    There is a lot of interesting information in this post. See the full article here. This article at ILC newsline is a bit of a surprise to me, as the CLIC is in direct competition with the ILC itself for future funding ans use.

  • richardmitnick 12:17 pm on October 13, 2011 Permalink | Reply
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    From ilc newsline: “CERN balances linear collider studies” 

    [What did that guy in L.A., Rodney King, say? "Can't we all get along?"]

    “The forces behind the two most mature proposals for a next-generation collider, the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study , have been steadily coming together, with scientists from both communities sharing ideas and information across the technology divide. In at least nominal support of cooperation between the two, CERN in Switzerland, where most CLIC research takes place, recently converted the project-specific position of CLIC Study Leader to the concept-based Linear Collider Study Leader.

    Though not very much involved with superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) technology, where ILC researchers have made significant advances, CERN participates in many aspects of ILC-related studies through combined working groups, site studies and detector and physics activities.

    The second conference held jointly by ILC and CLIC collaborations was held this year in Granada, Spain.

    See the full article here.

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