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  • richardmitnick 9:46 pm on May 22, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From Fermilab: “International Linear Collider makes progress in siting, R&D” 

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Friday, May 16, 2014
    No Writer Credit

    This week, members of the Linear Collider Collaboration met at Fermilab to discuss the progress and future of the proposed International Linear Collider, as well as of CERN’s Compact Linear Collider, during the Americas Workshop on Linear Colliders.

    ILC schematic
    ILC schematic proposal


    At the workshop, scientists and engineers involved in the ILC discussed both their recent successes and the work still to be done to make the 18-mile-long electron-positron collider a reality.

    One recent breakthrough took place at KEK. At the Japanese laboratory’s Accelerator Test Facility, scientists achieved an electron beam height of 55 nanometers at the final focus, or the point where the collision would occur. This is the smallest electron beam ever produced. It was a demonstration that the techniques scientists used to shrink the beam would be transferable to the ILC, whose aim is an electron beam height of 5 nanometers.

    “The ATF at KEK is an essential element in the R&D activity toward a linear collider,” said Linear Collider Collaboration Director Lyn Evans. “The latest results give great confidence that the design parameters of a linear collider can be reached.”

    That electron beam would travel through accelerator cavities — long, hollow niobium structures that look like strings of pearls. Scientists at Fermilab have made significant advancements on this front, achieving world-record quality factors. The so-called quality factor is a measure of how effectively the cavities store energy. The more efficient they are, the lower the cost of refrigeration, which is needed to keep the superconducting cavities cold.

    “This workshop at Fermilab gives us the perfect opportunity to interact with the SRF community here at the lab,” said ILC Director Mike Harrison. “We take advantage of the workshop to catch up on the latest results at the lab.”

    For the first time, ILC researchers actively discussed the International Linear Collider in the context of a precise, geographical home — the Kitakami mountains in the Japan’s Iwate prefecture. Site pictures and films at the workshop included actual accelerator and detector locations among hills and trees.

    “This really gives a sense of reality to the project,” said Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer. “Now the site-specific design work needed to put the ILC in that location can begin in earnest. This has been a long time coming, and we are very pleased with this step forward.”

    See the full article here.

    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.

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  • richardmitnick 12:41 pm on April 17, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From LC Newsline: “The ILC design evolves” 

    Linear Collider Collaboration header

    17 April 2014
    Mike Harrison

    The ILC baseline design as described in the Technical Design Report and its associated cost estimate was finalised in 2012. Since that time the design has been relatively static while the global high-energy physics community absorbed and responded to this information. During the past 12 months, significant progress in Japan has resulted in the choice of a preferred site together with a proposal to consider implementing the ILC project in a series of discrete energy stages rather than an initial 500- gigaelectronvolt (GeV) centre-of-mass energy. Thus the time is fitting to evolve the TDR baseline in response to these new eventualities. An initial step in this direction was taken recently in a three-day meeting at the University of Tokyo, which involved a joint team from the conventional facilities and accelerator design and integration groups.

    LC Linnear Collider
    Projected design of the Linear Collider

    The goals of the meeting were described thus: “This meeting will examine the scope of the pre-project CFS work, the schedule, and necessary resources. The detector hall concept at the proposed site, and the impact of energy phasing will also be addressed. The pre-project CFS timeline will likely drive many aspects of the accelerator design work in the next few years thus it is important to understand these constraints. In order to derive a site dependent ILC design and address long lead-time CFS activities then we need to assess what design information needs to be available to the CFS group and when. The ILC technical design in the TDR relied on a generic site description which is inadequate to proceed much further in the site specific design.”

    During the LCWS13 meeting last November, it became apparent that in order to be consistent with a construction project which can start in 2018, a multi-year pre-construction programme centred around the conventional facilities work in Japan needed to start soon. In turn, this programme would need timely input from the site-specific accelerator design. Although three days is insufficient time to finalise anything, a consensus was achieved on many items which provides the necessary framework for how to proceed during the next few years. Next month’s Americas Workshop on Linear Collider to be held at Fermilab will build on this work.

    Conventional facilities preparation for a construction project covers not only the detailed design of the tunnel, associated enclosures and the interaction region/damping ring complex but also such green-field related topics as land acquisition, environmental impact, geological and topographical studies. The schedule for this work depends to a certain degree on the available resources but it will require a minimum of several years. The meeting discussed the work scope and how best to proceed but there was little dissent from the conclusion that we need to start soon to remain consistent with a construction start in 2018 or thereabouts. This topic will provide the basis of a funding request for the long lead-time elements.

    Intermediate energy operation at values less than 500 GeV is based on a partial installation of the main linac and has ramifications on many aspects of the project execution including such programme aspects as the cryomodule production rate, funding profiles and minor design changes to best accommodate lower energies. The exact details depend on the desired energy points and the associated integrated luminosity at these values. These specifications are currently under study by the parameters working group, but one critical conclusion from the meeting was the recognition that all the major convention construction needs to be completed as part of the first phase of any project. This result will now be used as input for subsequent planning.

    A partial linac can be implemented in several ways. The basic variants consist of “missing” cryomodules at the upstream end, the downstream end or interspersed along the length. All of these approaches require the full injector complex, the complete beam delivery system and transport sections in the main tunnel. Emittance growth minimisation requires an initial accelerating section of at least 50 Ge,V which argues against a missing linac on the upstream end. Most discussions involved a solution which has the location of the accelerating sections determined by the baseline cryogenic infrastructure which satisfies the beam dynamics requirements and allows for some operational flexibility. This approach will be used for the future energy scaling discussions.

    The preferred site has re-opened debate on the possibility of a vertical access shaft (or shafts) for the detector hall as opposed to, or in addition to, the baseline design which involved a horizontal access tunnel. This is complicated issue involving the detector construction technique, personnel safety, and exact location of interaction point as well as old favourites such as cost and schedule. More work is necessary before an optimal decision can be made but in order to start to restrict the potential phase space of solutions we decided to use the TDR baseline (horizontal) and the so-called Hybrid A (CMS
    -like) as the models for further study. The goal in this area is to converge on a solution by the end of this calendar year.

    Several other topics such as the role of the central campus, safety issues arising from the tunnel design, and short-term activities were also part of the meeting. The looming LC NewsLine deadline suggests that these items be left for a later date – the talks are posted on the aforementioned web site for those of you who can’t bear to wait. The upcoming Fermilab workshop will provide the next forum for further face-to-face dialogue.

    On behalf of the meeting participants I would like to thank the University of Tokyo and the support staff for arranging the meeting, the facilities, the excellent weather, the cherry blossom in bloom, and a damn good meal which appeared to materialise in a mysterious and spontaneous fashion courtesy of the physics department.

    See the full article here.

    The Linear Collider Collaboration is an organisation that brings the two most likely candidates, the Compact Linear Collider Study (CLIC) and the International Liner Collider (ILC), together under one roof. Headed by former LHC Project Manager Lyn Evans, it strives to coordinate the research and development work that is being done for accelerators and detectors around the world and to take the project linear collider to the next step: a decision that it will be built, and where.

    Some 2000 scientists – particle physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers – are involved in the ILC or in CLIC, and often in both projects. They work on state-of-the-art detector technologies, new acceleration techniques, the civil engineering aspect of building a straight tunnel of at least 30 kilometres in length, a reliable cost estimate and many more aspects that projects of this scale require. The Linear Collider Collaboration ensures that synergies between the two friendly competitors are used to the maximum.

    Linear Collider Colaboration Banner

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  • richardmitnick 4:31 pm on July 15, 2013 Permalink | Reply
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    From CERN Courier: “The case for a circular e+e– Higgs factory” 

    Jul 12, 2013
    John Ellis, King’s College London and CERN.

    “Options for a future facility to study Higgs bosons in detail include a larger, more powerful reincarnation of LEP.


    The discovery of a Higgs boson by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the LHC has opened new perspectives on accelerator-based particle physics. While much else might well be discovered at the LHC as its energy and luminosity are increased, one item on the agenda of future accelerators is surely a Higgs factory capable of studying this new particle in as much detail as possible. Various options for such a facility are under active consideration and circular electron–positron (e+e–) colliders are now among them.

    In a real sense, a Higgs factory already exists in the form of the LHC, which has already produced millions of Higgs bosons and could produce hundreds of millions more with the high-luminosity upgrade planned for the 2020s. However, the experimental conditions at the LHC restrict the range of Higgs decay modes that can be observed directly and measured accurately. For example, decays of the Higgs boson into charm quarks are unlikely to be measurable at the LHC. On the one hand, decays into gluons can be measured only indirectly via the rate of Higgs production by gluon–gluon collisions and it will be difficult to quantify accurately invisible Higgs decays at the LHC. On the other hand, the large statistics at the LHC will enable accurate measurements of distinctive subdominant Higgs decays such as those into photon pairs or ZZ*. The rare decay of the Higgs into muon pairs will also be accessible. The task for a Higgs factory will be to make measurements that complement or are even more precise than those possible with the LHC.

    Attractive options

    Cleaner experimental conditions are offered by e+e– collisions. Prominent among other contenders for a future Higgs factory are the design studies for a linear e+e– collider: the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). In addition to running at the centre-of-mass energy of 240 GeV that is desirable for Higgs production, these also offer prospects for higher-energy collisions, e.g. at the top–antitop threshold of 350 GeV and at 500 GeV or 1000 GeV in the case of the ILC, or even higher energies at CLIC. These would become particularly attractive options if future, higher-energy LHC running reveals additional new physics within their energy reach. High-energy e+e– collisions would also offer prospects for determining the triple-Higgs coupling, something that could be measured at the LHC only if it is operated at the highest possible luminosity.


    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in the capabilities of circular e+e– colliders being used as Higgs factories following a suggestion by Alain Blondel and Frank Zimmermann in December 2011 (Blondel and Zimmermann 2011). It used to be thought that the Large Electron–Positron (LEP) collider would be the largest and highest-energy circular e+e– collider and that linear colliders would be more cost-efficient at higher energies. However, advances in accelerator technology since LEP was designed have challenged this view. In particular, the development of top-up injection at B factories and synchrotron radiation sources, as well as advances in superconducting RF and in beam-focusing techniques at interaction points, raise the possibility of achieving collision rates at each interaction point at a circular Higgs factory that could be more than two orders of magnitude larger than those achieved at LEP. Moreover, it would be possible to operate such a collider with as many as four interaction points simultaneously, as at LEP.

    One attractive option would be to envisage a future circular e+e– collider as part of a future, very large collider complex. For example, a tunnel with a circumference of 80–100 km could also accommodate a proton–proton collider capable of collisions at 80–100 TeV in the centre of mass, which would also open up the option of very-high-energy electron–proton collisions. This could be an appealing vision for accelerator particle physics at the energy frontier for much of the 21st century. Such a complex would fit naturally into the updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, which has recently been approved.”

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 12:49 pm on June 12, 2013 Permalink | Reply
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    From CERN: “International Linear Collider ready for construction” 

    CERN New Masthead

    12 Jun 2013
    Cian O’Luanaigh

    “Today the Linear Collider Collaboration published its Technical Design Report [PDF] for the International Linear Collider (ILC) – a proposed 31-kilometre electron-positron collider that will both complement and advance beyond the physics of the Large Hadron Collider.

    A schematic of the layout of the International Linear Collider – note the soccer pitch for scale (Image: Pablo Vazquez )

    In three consecutive ceremonies in Asia, Europe and the Americas, the authors officially handed the report over to the international oversight board for projects in particle physics, the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). The report presents the latest, most technologically advanced and most thoroughly scrutinized design for the ILC.

    The ILC will accelerate and collide electrons and their antiparticles, positrons. Collisions will occur roughly 7000 times per second at the collision energy of 500 GeV. Some 16,000 superconducting cavities will be needed to drive the ILC’s particle beams. The report also includes details of two state-of-the-art detectors that will record the collisions, as well as an extensive outline of the geological and civil engineering studies conducted for siting the ILC.

    ‘The Technical Design Report is an impressive piece of work that shows maturity, scrutiny and boldness,’ says Lyn Evans, director of the Linear Collider Collaboration. ‘The International Linear Collider should be next on the agenda for global particle physics.'”

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 2:22 pm on March 11, 2013 Permalink | Reply
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    From Symmetry: “Linear collider focus gets down to size” 

    In a display of timing worthy of a blockbuster movie, a multinational team of accelerator physicists focused a beam of electrons down to the tiny size needed for a future linear collider the same week that the linear collider board formed.

    March 11, 2013
    Lori Ann White

    “In late 2012, Toshiaki Tauchi clicked the send button on an email with the subject line ’70nm achieved at ATF2!’ It signaled a major success for Tauchi, an accelerator physicist at KEK, and his colleagues at the Japanese lab’s Accelerator Test Facility 2: They had shown they could focus a beam of electrons down to the tiny size required by a future linear collider.

    Photo: Nobu Toge, KEK

    Tauchi is a member of the executive committee overseeing the global design effort for the International Linear Collider, and the timing of his announcement could not have been better.

    Just the day before, Fermilab Director Pier Oddone, in his role as chair of the International Committee for Future Accelerators, announced the formation of a Linear Collider Board to shepherd the global effort to build a linear collider capable of pushing back the frontiers of high-energy physics revealed by the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. With Japan expressing interest in hosting such a facility and the even more recent formation of a Linear Collider Collaboration to coordinate and advance global plans, momentum seems to be building for the construction of the giant electron-positron collider.”

    See the full article here.

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.

  • richardmitnick 12:18 pm on August 9, 2012 Permalink | Reply
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    From ilc newsline: “Superconducting radio-frequency” 

    9 August 2012
    Daisy Yuhas

    How do you accelerate particles in a particle collider? One answer is superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) cavities. To give particles energy as they move through an accelerator, physicists use cavities containing electric fields that oscillate. The changes in electric field help push the particles from one cavity to the next. These oscillations occur with the same frequency as radio waves, which is why this form of acceleration is called radio-frequency.

    Image: Rey.Hori

    Superconducting refers to the way in which electric current is carried through these accelerating cavities. Electric current in a cavity may create friction—unless the cavity is created using special metals called superconductors. ‘Some metals have no resistance below a critical temperature,’ says Fermilab scientist Camille Ginsburg. This means that these metals conduct electricity perfectly. Even in a superconductor, if electric current passing through a cavity encounters any bumps or impurities, the flow of electricity is interrupted and energy can be lost as heat. This is why cavities must be very clean and polished to a smooth finish. In proposed accelerators such as the ILC, the metal used is niobium, which becomes superconducting at temperatures below 9.2 Kelvin (-264°C). Keeping cool isn’t easy, however. To do this, each cavity is kept in a large thermos structure holding frigid liquid helium, typically at 2 Kelvin (-271°C).”

    See the full post here.


  • richardmitnick 12:41 pm on April 19, 2012 Permalink | Reply
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    From ILC Newsline: “Doing the cryomodule shuffle” 

    ilc – International Linear Collider

    Leah Hesla
    19 April 2012

    Fermilab researchers will soon take a quantum step towards the realisation of an ILC-type cryomodule.

    Next week the newly assembled cryomodule RFCA002, familiarly referred to as CM2, will replace CM1 in the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at the laboratory’s NML test facility. The change-out is a rung up on the R&D ladder, and not only because it is the second eight-cavity cryomodule to come out of the laboratory. Far more than the first, CM2 resembles an ILC-type cryomodule in its components and cavity test performance.

    ‘The hope for CM2 is that it will be the first cryomodule to reach the average ILC specification gradient at Fermilab,” said lead engineer Tug Arkan. The so-called S1 goal of the ILC programme is to achieve an average gradient of 31.5 megavolts per metre over eight metre-long cavities. “That’s the goal to demonstrate. We haven’t yet proved it at Fermilab.’”

    Cryomodule 2 in the Fermilab Industrial Center Building. Image: Reidar Hahn

    See the full article here.

  • richardmitnick 3:10 pm on April 11, 2012 Permalink | Reply
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    From Symmetry/Breaking: “Two proposed linear collider programs to be joined under new governance” 

    Leah Hesla
    April 11, 2012

    “The world’s two most mature proposals for a collider complementary to the Large Hadron Collider are joining collaborative forces.

    The two proposed electron-positron collider projects, the Compact Linear Collider Study and the International Linear Collider, have traditionally been viewed as casual rivals–both in the running to be built as the future complement to CERN’s proton-smashing machine, the LHC.

    Now CLIC and the ILC are joining organizational forces under the linear collider umbrella. The new organizational structure, announced in February by the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) Chair Pier Oddone [Director of Fermilab], is still in its very early stages, but those involved hope to finalize the governance framework by July, implementing the new plan gradually over the following year. The plan is for ICFA, which currently oversees the ILC Global Design Effort, to establish a Linear Collider Board, which would in turn govern CLIC, the ILC, and a third program that focuses on detector research for both machines.

    The CLIC and the ILC programs are joining organizational forces within the framework of the International Committee for Future Accelerators. ICFA plans to establish a Linear Collider Board.

    ‘As we move into the next phase in the evolution of linear colliders it is important to bring the ILC and CLIC efforts under unified leadership,’ Oddone said.”

    Symmetrybreaking is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication

  • richardmitnick 5:13 pm on December 9, 2011 Permalink | Reply
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    From ilc newsline: “LCIO 2.0 improves simulation coordination’ 

    Leah Hesla
    8 December 2011

    “The data model that transformed the linear collider detector community from a computational Tower of Babel into a group that inputs with one voice has gotten an update.

    ILC software developers released LCIO. 2.0 this autumn. The new version of LCIO, a particle event data model, includes features that help scientists cope with the increasingly sophisticated data being fed into particle event simulations.

    ‘We considerably improved the data model – in particular for the description of charged particle tracks – and put in little things from users’ requests or features we thought would improve physicists’ lives,’ said DESY’s Frank Gaede, one of the main developers of LCIO and coordinator of ILCSoft, one of two software packages for which LCIO is the core.”

    Illustration of the way LCIO works with multiple software formats. Image: DESY

    A t t event simulated and reconstructed using ILCSoft, one of two software programs with LCIO at its core. Image: DESY

    See the full article here.

  • richardmitnick 12:50 pm on December 8, 2011 Permalink | Reply
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    From ILC Newsline: Several Interesting and Important Articles 

    Today’s news release is here.

    Here are the links and some images to stimulate your curiosity.

    Light As A Feather
    Perrine Royole-Degieux

    “A group of European physicists, the PLUME collaboration, aims to prototype an ultra-light device intended to equip one of the thinnest and lightest elements at the inner heart of the ILC detectors: the vertex detector. At CERN one month ago, a full-scale prototype equipped with CMOS pixel sensors was successfully tested in beam.”

    See this full article here.

    LCIO 2.0 improves simulation coordination

    Leah Hesla
    “Over the years, the linear collider input/output event data model has facilitated data sharing between the world’s linear collider detector groups
    A new version of linear collider data storage software was released this past autumn to accommodate detector scientists’ increasing sophistication in simulating particle events. LCIO (the name comes from ‘linear collider input/output’) continues to facilitate agreement among the world’s linear collider groups with a common event data model and file format for data exchange.”



    See this full article here.

    Pondering the future of particle physics

    Barry Barish

    “The International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) sponsors a meeting every three years on Future Perspectives in High Energy Physics. This year the ICFA seminar was held at CERN and it broadly covered plans and ideas for future facilities for our field. This meeting was particularly timely, as it coincided both with the completion of the impressive first year of running of the LHC and with the kickoff of the update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics to be completed in 2013.”

    See this full article here.

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