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  • richardmitnick 10:46 am on July 11, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , International Linear Collider (ilc), , ,   

    From LC Newsline: “Take two for cryomodule 2″ 

    Linear Collider Colaboration Banner

    Fermilab reinstalls CM2, plans to be ready for cooldown in July

    11 July 2013
    Julianne Wyrick

    “With the repair and reinstallation of the cryomodule known as CM2, researchers at Fermilab, US, are back on the road towards achieving the International Linear Collider’s R&D goal (named task force “S1”): operating a cryomodule at ILC gradient specifications.

    cryo
    CM2 in Fermilab’s NML facility. Image: Jerry Leibfritz

    Originally installed in May 2012 as a part of the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA)in Fermilab’s NML facility, CM2 is the first ILC-type cryomodule built in the United States with cavities expected to meet the ILC’s specifications. But a helium leak detected in the cryomodule put the project on hold until April 2013, when CM2 was reinstalled at NML.

    ‘We expect to be ready for cooldown of CM2 this month, ‘ said project engineer Jerry Leibfritz. ‘Then we’ll start testing the cavities after that.’

    In order to meet the ILC programme’s S1 goal, the average accelerating gradient over each of the cryomodule’s eight superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities will need to reach at least 31.5 megavolts per metre (MV/m) after installation and cooldown.

    A GDE team made an attempt to meet this goal in October 2010 at KEK, in a global collaboration known as the S1-Global experiment. They combined components from Fermilab, DESY (Germany), INFN (Italy), KEK (Japan) and SLAC (US) to build two short 4-cavity cryomodules that were then combined into an eight-cavity cryomodule. The cavities in this cryomodule fell slightly short of the goal, achieving an average gradient of 30.0 MV/m before installation and 26.0 MV/m for simultaneous operation of seven cavities after cooldown, as one cavity did not work properly. S1-Global showed that it is possible to operate a cryomodule close to ILC specifications, and Fermilab researchers hope CM2 will take the achievement one step further by meeting the requirements.

    See the full article here.

    What is the Linear Collider Collaboration?

    While the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is producing exciting results like the discovery of a new particle that could be the Higgs boson, scientists around the world are already planning the next big collider to take the discoveries to the next level. Even though there is no decision yet which collider will be built or where, there is consensus in the scientific community that the results from the LHC will have to be complemented by a collider that can study the discoveries in greater detail by producing different kinds of collisions.

    The Linear Collider Collaboration is an organisation that brings the two most likely candidates, the Compact Linear Collider Study (CLIC) and the International Liner Collider (ILC), together under one roof. Headed by former LHC Project Manager Lyn Evans, it strives to coordinate the research and development work that is being done for accelerators and detectors around the world and to take the project linear collider to the next step: a decision that it will be built, and where.

    Some 2000 scientists — particle physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers — are involved in the ILC or in CLIC, and often in both projects. They work on state-of-the-art detector technologies, new acceleration techniques, the civil engineering aspect of building a straight tunnel of at least 30 kilometres in length, a reliable cost estimate and many more aspects that projects of this scale require. The Linear Collider Collaboration ensures that synergies between the two friendly competitors are used to the maximum.


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  • richardmitnick 2:26 pm on March 21, 2013 Permalink | Reply
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    From LC Newsline: “Forming a united front of the LC physics and detector community” 

    Linear Collider Collaboration header

    Director’s Corner

    21 March 2013
    Hitoshi Yamamoto

    The Linear Collider Collaboration (LCC) officially started at the Vancouver Linear Collider Board (LCB) meeting in February 2013, and the new organisation is slowly taking shape. I was appointed Associate Director for the Physics & Detector portion of the new structure. LCC director Lyn Evans told us that he thought the task assigned to this post would be the most difficult one.

    meeting
    The global ILC and CLIC communities, including Physics and Detectors, met last time in Arlington, US, for the LCWS12 workshop in October 2012. Image: University of Texas Arlington.

    1. Physics case

    As the LHC keeps on producing impressing physics output, the physics case for an LC needs to be continuously updated. There is also a clear hope that further LHC running at full energy might open the doors to results beyond the Standard Model, providing significant additional opportunities within the energy range of linear colliders. The physics capabilities of the ILC and those of the CLIC option with a centre-of-mass energy below 1 TeV are very similar, and both communities can and should join their forces together for this goal.

    2. Detector R&D

    As we move from conceptual to engineering design of the LC detectors, unfinished necessary detector R&D should be completed. Here again, there is a large area of efforts common to both CLIC and ILC, and they have to be coordinated in a more formal and visible way. In addition, the detector R&D for a linear collider has been raising the standards of the high-energy physics detector technologies in general and we should make sure that it will continue to do so. In coordinating such efforts, we should make sure that voices of detector R&D groups, including small groups, are heard effectively by the management.

    See the full article here.

    ilc
    CILC

    ilc
    ILC

    The Linear Collider Collaboration is an organisation that brings the two most likely candidates, the Compact Linear Collider Study (CLIC) and the International Liner Collider (ILC), together under one roof. Headed by former LHC Project Manager Lyn Evans, it strives to coordinate the research and development work that is being done for accelerators and detectors around the world and to take the project linear collider to the next step: a decision that it will be built, and where.

    Some 2000 scientists – particle physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers – are involved in the ILC or in CLIC, and often in both projects. They work on state-of-the-art detector technologies, new acceleration techniques, the civil engineering aspect of building a straight tunnel of at least 30 kilometres in length, a reliable cost estimate and many more aspects that projects of this scale require. The Linear Collider Collaboration ensures that synergies between the two friendly competitors are used to the maximum.

    Linear Collider Colaboration Banner


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  • richardmitnick 12:28 pm on January 10, 2013 Permalink | Reply
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    From ilc News Line: “Cavity gradient” 

    Daisy Yuhas
    10 January 2013

    The term cavity gradient is used to describe the electric field that accelerates a particle. This reflects the most basic purpose of each cavity. ‘What you want out of a cavity is to give a particle more energy than it had before,’ says Fermilab physicist Andy Hocker. Cavity gradient determines the rate of this change: the increase in energy with distance as it passes through the cavity.

    image

    At the ILC, the goal is for particles to enter one end of an accelerating cavity and emerge from the other having gained more than 32 million electron volts of energy. The change is sometimes illustrated with a graph. On the y-axis is the energy of particles and on the x-axis, distance. The resulting picture looks like a ramp: As the particles pass through the cavity, their energy increases.

    Gradient is based on both the cavity’s design and how much power is put into the cavity. Therefore, this variable is not a characteristic of the cavity itself but a function of how the cavity is operated: put more radiofrequency power into a cavity and increase its gradient . The cavity gradient at the ILC will reach 31.5 million volts per metre. This is a very high gradient, which means fewer cavities will be needed and the accelerator can be more compact. However, these gradients do have limits based on the cavity’s quality factor and quenching limitations.”

    See the original article here.

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed linear particle accelerator.It is planned to have a collision energy of 500 GeV initially, with the possibility for a later upgrade to 1000 GeV (1 TeV). The host country for the accelerator has not yet been chosen and proposed locations are Japan, Europe (CERN) and the USA (Fermilab). Japan is considered the most likely candidate, as the Japanese government is willing to contribute half of the costs, according to a representative for the European Commission on Future Accelerators.Construction could begin in 2015 or 2016 and will not be completed before 2026.


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  • richardmitnick 12:31 pm on December 20, 2012 Permalink | Reply
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    From ILC Newsline: “Director’s Corner – Mitigating electron cloud effects for the ILC” 

    20 December 2012

    bb
    Director Barry Barrish
    Barry C. Barish is presently the Director of the Global Design Effort for the International Linear Collider (ILC) and Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology.

    “The next generation of particle accelerators will contain intense bunches of particle beams. These intense beams have the disadvantage that they create electron clouds that result from beam scattering off residual molecules in the vacuum chambers. The concern is that the presence of electron clouds can reduce performance by scattering and defocusing the incoming particle beams. Quantitative information on electron cloud effects has been rather limited. Therefore, a key goal of the ILC R&D programme has been to carry out experimental studies of electron cloud effects in an ILC-like low-emittance ring and test various mitigation schemes that could be employed in the ILC positron damping ring.

    The CesrTA programme began by reconfiguring the Cornell Electron-Positron Storage Ring (CESR) into a low emittance ILC-like ring and instrumenting it to perform electron cloud studies. The resulting R&D programme has been highly successful in providing detailed data that has led more generally to a better understanding of electron cloud effects. In addition, various proposed mitigation schemes have been tested and reliable mitigation strategies have been developed for the ILC positron damping rings. The CesrTA collaboration has recently released a detailed report (60 MB) that will be very valuable to the next generation of particle accelerators, not just for the ILC.”

    cesr
    CESR on the campus of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York.

    cserr
    The Cornell Electron-positron Storage Ring (CESR) is an electron-positron collider with a circumference of 768 meters, located 12 meters below a parking lot and an athletic field on the scenic Cornell University campus. It is capable of producing collisions between electrons and their anti-particles, positrons, with center-of-mass energies between 9 and 12 GeV. When an electron and positron collide and annihilate, the flash of energy results in the creation of of new matter, sometimes exotic and unfamiliar. The products of these collisions are studied with a large and complex detection apparatus, called the CLEO detector.

    See Director Barrish’s full article here.

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed linear particle accelerator.It is planned to have a collision energy of 500 GeV initially, with the possibility for a later upgrade to 1000 GeV (1 TeV). The host country for the accelerator has not yet been chosen and proposed locations are Japan, Europe (CERN) and the USA (Fermilab). Japan is considered the most likely candidate, as the Japanese government is willing to contribute half of the costs, according to a representative for the European Commission on Future Accelerators.Construction could begin in 2015 or 2016 and will not be completed before 2026.


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  • richardmitnick 4:01 pm on November 21, 2012 Permalink | Reply
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    From ILC Newsline: “Cryo conveyor belt” 

    An industrial study commissioned by the Global Design Effort in collaboration with experts from CERN gives a clearer picture of how cryomodules for the ILC could be mass-produced by industry.

    cryo
    Having a good look at cryomodule production: an industrial study produced interesting results. Pictured: a cryomodule for the European XFEL under construction at CEA Saclay. Image: DESY / Heiner Müller-Elsner.

    The study, whose results were recently presented at a meeting between accelerator experts from different labs. A similar study has looked at cavity serial production. One of the scientists leading the cryomodule study, Vittorio Parma from CERN, was the driving force behind the cryostat assembly for 2000 cryomagnets for CERN’s Large Hadron Collider between 2003 and 2008 and thus predestined to lend his experience to the project.”

    If you are interested in the future of particle colliders, this is very important.

    See the full article here.

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed linear particle accelerator.It is planned to have a collision energy of 500 GeV initially, with the possibility for a later upgrade to 1000 GeV (1 TeV). The host country for the accelerator has not yet been chosen and proposed locations are Japan, Europe (CERN) and the USA (Fermilab). Japan is considered the most likely candidate, as the Japanese government is willing to contribute half of the costs, according to a representative for the European Commission on Future Accelerators.Construction could begin in 2015 or 2016 and will not be completed before 2026.


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  • richardmitnick 7:33 am on November 21, 2012 Permalink | Reply
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    From Symmetry- “A bouquet of options: Higgs factory ideas bloom” 

    November 20, 2012
    Signe Brewster

    Now that a Higgs-like boson has been discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, proposals to build colliders that churn out the new particle are gathering momentum.

    higgs
    One possible signature of a Higgs boson from a simulated collision between two protons. It decays almost immediately into two jets of hadrons and two electrons, visible as lines.

    “If you hurl two oranges together at close to the speed of light, there’s going to be a lot of pulp. But, somewhere in the gooey mess will be the rare splinters left over from two seeds colliding.The Large Hadron Collider at CERN works in a similar way. Protons, each made of quarks and gluons, collide and produce other particles. Roughly once every 5 billion proton collisions, everything aligns and a Higgs-like boson pops out.

    Now that a boson with Higgs-like qualities has been found, physicists are calling for something more precise: a Higgs factory that would collide elementary particles to produce Higgs bosons in droves without all the distracting pulp. By colliding particles that don’t break down into composite parts as they produce Higgs-like particles, a Higgs factory could allow a more precise view of the new boson.

    Now that the Higgs-like particle is known to have a mass of about 125 billion electronvolts, scientists know that it is within reach of a variety of proposed colliders, both small and large. As a result, proposals for Higgs factories have emerged for colliders that smash electrons with positrons, muons with muons, or photons with photons.

    Linear electron–positron colliders are among the largest and most expensive Higgs factories because they are designed to be versatile. Two proposed machines, known as the International Linear Collider and the Compact Linear Collider, would be 3.4 miles and 1.35 miles long respectively. It would cost at least $5 billion to build the ILC or CLIC…

    lic
    A view of the two beam lines in the CLIC experimental hall.

    Electron–positron colliders can also be circular. The LHC tunnel was originally built for the Large Electron–Positron collider, which produced the first precise measurements of the W and Z bosons in the 1980s. One proposal, called LEP3, would build a Higgs factory in the LHC tunnel, most likely after the LHC shuts down. It would cut costs by using existing infrastructure, such as some of the particle detectors and the cryogenics system.”

    lep
    LEP, preceded the LHC at CERN

    See the full article here. There is much more important material here.

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.

     
  • richardmitnick 5:12 pm on September 20, 2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , International Linear Collider (ilc), ,   

    From ilc Newsline: “A potential US site for the ILC” 

    “One of the largest challenges in designing the ILC is maintaining the ability to site the facility in different countries with candidate sites that have very different characteristics. Our approach to taking this into account for the reference design was to develop a single baseline design having site requirements that could be satisfied by most candidate sites. To accomplish this goal, we asked for detailed data on three ‘sample’ sites in Asia, Europe and the Americas. A very encouraging result was that the ILC Reference Design Report design requirements are compatible with siting the ILC in any of the three sites, and for similar costs.

    Now, a suggestion has been made by David Asner of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that a shallow site at the Hanford DOE Laboratory be considered for siting the ILC.

    hanford
    Potential sites have less than 100 metres change in elevation over 30 kilometres.

    lab site
    A shallow underground laboratory at the DOE Hanford Laboratory.

    Since the discovery of a Higgs-like particle at 125 GeV was announced this summer, ideas for a staged ILC, beginning with a Higgs factory, are being discussed. This has opened the dialogue in many directions, and even though a US site is not actively being considered, the Hanford possibility is a welcome addition to the global possibilities for siting either a Higgs factory or the full ILC. “

    See the full article here.


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  • richardmitnick 3:12 pm on August 2, 2012 Permalink | Reply
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    From ilc Newsline: “ILC positron target benefits from Chinese technology” 

    ilc

    A group of Chinese scientists, headed by Xuejun Jia from the Institute of Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, recently finished the design of the remote handling of the ILC positron target. The target forms part of the positron source and is the place where positrons are produced and then accelerated before they collide with their antiparticles, the electrons.

    image
    General layout of the positron target’s remote handling concept

    Before Jia and his teammates joined in the design work, experts from Britain and America proposed a preliminary design. Since it stayed in a very initial stage, the design was comparatively sketchy and complicated. In Jia’s design, a long and expensive shaft and a pre-designed hot-cell were no longer needed. These new improvements have led to a reduction of construction cost, which could be about $30-40 million. ‘We did not minimise the budget; exactly speaking, we made a more precise calculation.’”

    See the full article here.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:18 pm on May 17, 2012 Permalink | Reply
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    From ilc newsline: “Large-scale powering scheme has scientists’ pulses racing” 

    International Linear Collider

    May 17, 2012
    No writer credit

    For the first time, a large-scale calorimeter prototype for the ILC, fully equipped with embedded power-pulsed electronics, successfully passed a test beam at CERN a few weeks ago. A prototype of more than one cubic metre in size of CALICE’s Semi-Digital Hadronic Calorimeter successfully recorded and tracked 1 million particles from CERN’s SPS accelerator beam (muons and pions). Thanks to power pulsing, the detector front-end electronics was periodically disabled and enabled, following the beam cycle.

    ilc
    CALICE‘s Semi-Digital Hadronic Calorimeter prototype during April 2012 test beam at CERN. Image: IPNL

    This module is pretty close to what a future ILC hadronic calorimeter could look like, totalling 460 000 electronic channels.

    See the full current article here.

     
  • richardmitnick 1:59 pm on March 1, 2012 Permalink | Reply
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    From ilc newsline: “The incredible shrinking pixel sensor” 

    Leah Hesla
    1 March 2012

    “Inside your pocket-sized mobile device, there likely sits a Lego-brick-sized camera inside of which lies a thumbnail-sized sensor. The sensor, sliver though it is, is on its way to being smaller.

    ILC researchers have been developing more compact pixel sensors, similar to those in cell-phone cameras, for detecting particle showers. The sensor’s diminished size is thanks to a semiconductor innovation called vertical integration, more familiarly known as 3-D sensor technology.

    ‘The 3-D technique lets you build the sensor up rather than across,’ said Fermilab’s Ron Lipton, who works on detector R&D for the ILC. Like skyscrapers, these newer sensors create and make use of vertically available real estate, enabling tighter connections between components and freeing up the horizontal space for still more sensors.

    Or as Lipton put it, ‘It makes a horizontal sandwich.'”

    Interested? Read the full article here.

     
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