Tagged: Hubble Space Telescope Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 3:24 pm on October 23, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Hubble Space Telescope   

    From BBC: “New galaxy ‘most distant’ yet discovered” 

    bbc
    23 October 2013
    Rebecca Morelle

    An international team of astronomers has detected the most
    distant galaxy yet.

    galaxy
    z8_GND_5296

    The galaxy is about 30 billion light-years away and is helping scientists shed light on the period that immediately followed the Big Bang.

    It was found using the Hubble Space Telescope and its distance was then confirmed with the ground-based Keck Observatory in Hawaii.

    The study is published in the journal Nature.

    Because it takes light so long to travel from the outer edge of the Universe to us, the galaxy appears as it was 13.1 billion years ago.

    Lead researcher Steven Finkelstein, from the University of Texas at Austin, US, said: “This is the most distant galaxy we’ve confirmed. We are seeing this galaxy as it was 700 million years after the Big Bang.”

    The far-off galaxy goes by the catchy name of z8_GND_5296.

    See the full article here.


    ScienceSprings is powered by MAINGEAR computers

     
  • richardmitnick 10:15 am on August 15, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Hubble Space Telescope,   

    From NASA/ESA Hubble: “Hubble explores the origins of modern galaxies” 

    15 August 2013
    Contacts

    BoMee Lee
    University of Massachusetts
    Massachusetts, USA
    Tel: +1-413-545-0731
    Email: bomee@astro.umass.edu

    Arjen van der Wel
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
    Heidelberg, Germany
    Tel: +49-6221-528-461
    Email: vdwel@mpia.de

    Mauro Giavalisco
    University of Massachusetts
    Massachusetts, USA
    Tel: +1-413-545-4767
    Email: mauro@astro.umass.edu

    Nicky Guttridge
    Hubble/ESA
    Garching, Germany
    Tel: +49-89-3200-6855
    Email: nguttrid@partner.eso.org

    Astronomers see true shapes of galaxies 11 billion years back in time

    Astronomers have used observations from Hubble’s CANDELS survey to explore the sizes, shapes, and colours of distant galaxies over the last 80% of the Universe’s history. In the Universe today galaxies come in a variety of different forms, and are classified via a system known as the Hubble Sequence — and it turns out that this sequence was already in place as early as 11 billion years ago.

    candles

    The Hubble Sequence classifies galaxies according to their morphology and star-forming activity, organising them into a cosmic zoo of spiral, elliptical, and irregular shapes with whirling arms, fuzzy haloes and bright central bulges. Two main types of galaxy are identified in this sequence: elliptical and spiral, with a third type, lenticular, settling somewhere between the two.

    This accurately describes what we see in the region of space around us, but how does galaxy morphology change as we look further back in time, to when the Universe was very young?

    ‘This is a key question: when and over what timescale did the Hubble Sequence form?’ says BoMee Lee of the University of Massachusetts, USA, lead author of a new paper exploring the sequence. ‘To do this you need to peer at distant galaxies and compare them to their closer relatives, to see if they too can be described in the same way.’

    The astronomers used Hubble to look 11 billion years back in time to when the Universe was very young, exploring the anatomy of distant galaxies.

    While it was known that the Hubble Sequence holds true as far back as around 8 billion years ago, these new observations push a further 2.5 billion years back in cosmic time, covering a huge 80% of the past history of the Universe. Previous studies had also reached into this epoch of the cosmos to study lower-mass galaxies, but none had conclusively also looked at large, mature galaxies like the Milky Way. The new CANDELS observations confirm that all galaxies this far back — big and small alike — fit into the different classifications of the sequence.

    ‘This is the only comprehensive study to date of the visual appearance of the large, massive galaxies that existed so far back in time,’ says co-author Arjen van der Wel of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany. ‘The galaxies look remarkably mature, which is not predicted by galaxy formation models to be the case that early on in the history of the Universe.’

    The galaxies at these earlier times appear to be split between blue star-forming galaxies with a complex structure — including discs, bulges, and messy clumps — and massive red galaxies that are no longer forming stars, as seen in the nearby Universe.

    Galaxies as massive as the Milky Way or more are rather rare in the young Universe. This scarcity has prevented previous studies from being able to gather a large enough sample of mature galaxies to properly describe their characteristics.

    What was needed was a systematic set of observations such as those from Hubble’s CANDELS survey, which was large enough to allow the astronomers to analyse a larger number of these galaxies consistently, and in detail. With Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), the astronomers were able to observe in the infrared part of the spectrum to see how the galaxies appeared in their visible rest-frame [4], which is easier to compare with galaxies in our neighbourhood.

    ‘The huge CANDELS dataset was a great resource for us to use in order to consistently study ancient galaxies in the early Universe,’ concludes Lee. ‘And the resolution and sensitivity of Hubble’s WFC3 is second to none in the infrared wavelengths needed to carry out this study. The Hubble Sequence underpins a lot of what we know about how galaxies form and evolve — finding it to be in place this far back is a significant discovery.'”

    See the full article, with more images and explanatory notes here.

    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), is a free-standing science center, located on the campus of The Johns Hopkins University and operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA, conducts Hubble science operations.

    ESA icon

    ScienceSprings is powered by MAINGEAR computers

     
  • richardmitnick 12:14 pm on August 7, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Hubble Space Telescope,   

    From NASA/ESA Hubble: “Hubble Finds ‘Smoking Gun’ After Gamma-Ray Blast” 

    CONTACT
    Donna Weaver / Ray Villard
    Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.
    410-338-4493 / 410-339-4514
    dweaver@stsci.edu / villard@stsci.edu

    Nial Tanvir
    University of Leicester, Leicester, U.K.
    011-44-7980-136499
    nrt3@le.ac.uk

    Andy Fruchter
    Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.
    410-338-5018
    fruchter@stsci.edu

    NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope has provided the strongest evidence yet that short-duration gamma-ray bursts are triggered by the merger of two small, super-dense stellar objects, such as a pair of neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole.

    grb
    Credit: NASA, ESA, N. Tanvir (University of Leicester), A. Fruchter (STScI), and A. Levan (University of Warwick)
    Release Date: July 30, 2013

    The definitive evidence came from Hubble observations in near-infrared light of the fading fireball produced in the aftermath of a short gamma-ray burst (GRB). The afterglow reveals for the first time a new kind of stellar blast called a kilonova, an explosion predicted to accompany a short-duration GRB.

    A kilonova is about 1,000 times brighter than a nova, which is caused by the eruption of a white dwarf. Such a stellar blast, however, is only 1/10th to 1/100th the brightness of a typical supernova, the self-detonation of a massive star.

    Gamma-ray bursts are mysterious flashes of intense high-energy radiation that appear from random directions in space. Short-duration blasts last at most a few seconds, but they sometimes generate faint afterglows in visible and near-infrared light that continue for several hours or days.

    The afterglows have helped astronomers determine that GRBs lie in distant galaxies. The cause of short-duration GRBs, however, remains a mystery. The most popular theory is that astronomers are witnessing the energy released as two compact objects crash together. But, until now, astronomers have not gathered enough strong evidence to prove it, say researchers.

    A team of researchers led by Nial Tanvir of the University of Leicester in the United Kingdom has used Hubble to study a recent short-duration burst in near-infrared light. The observations revealed the fading afterglow of a kilonova explosion, providing the “smoking gun” evidence for the merger hypothesis.

    ‘This observation finally solves the mystery of the origin of short gamma-ray bursts,’ Tanvir said. ‘Many astronomers, including our group, have already provided a great deal of evidence that long-duration gamma-ray bursts (those lasting more than two seconds) are produced by the collapse of extremely massive stars. But we only had weak circumstantial evidence that short bursts were produced by the merger of compact objects. This result now appears to provide definitive proof supporting that scenario.’

    In a recent science paper Jennifer Barnes and Daniel Kasen of the University of California, Berkeley, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory presented new calculations predicting how kilonovas should look. They predicted that the same hot plasma producing the radiation will also act to block the visible light, causing the gusher of energy from the kilonova to flood out in near-infrared light over several days.

    An unexpected opportunity to test this model came on June 3 when NASA’s Swift Space Telescope picked up the extremely bright gamma-ray burst, cataloged as GRB 130603B, in a galaxy located almost 4 billion light-years away. Although the initial blast of gamma rays lasted just one-tenth of a second, it was roughly 100 billion times brighter than the subsequent kilonova flash.

    The visible-light afterglow was detected at the William Herschel Telescope and its distance was determined with the Gran Telescopio Canarias, both located in the Canary Islands.

    ‘We quickly realized this was a chance to test Barnes’ and Kasen’s new theory by using Hubble to hunt for a kilonova in near-infrared light,’ Tanvir said. The calculations suggested that the light would most likely be brightest in near-infrared wavelengths about 3 to 11 days after the initial blast. The researchers needed to act quickly before the light faded, so they requested Director’s Discretionary Observing Time with Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3.

    On June 12-13 Hubble searched the location of the initial burst, spotting a faint red object. An independent analysis of the data from another research team confirmed the detection. Subsequent Hubble observations three weeks later, on July 3, revealed that the source had faded away, therefore providing the key evidence it was the fireball from an explosive event.”

    See the full article here.

    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), is a free-standing science center, located on the campus of The Johns Hopkins University and operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA, conducts Hubble science operations.


    ESA Icon II


    ScienceSprings is powered by MAINGEAR computers

     
  • richardmitnick 1:37 pm on August 5, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Hubble Space Telescope,   

    From NASA/ESA Hubble: “Sunset in Mordor” 

    “Don’t be fooled by the title; the mysterious, almost mystical bright light emerging from these thick, ominous clouds is actually a telltale sign of star formation. Here, a very young star is being born in the guts of the dark cloud LDN 43 — a massive blob of gas, dust, and ices, gathered 520 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Ophiuchus (The Serpent Bearer).

    pro
    Release date: 5 August 2013, 10:00
    Credit: NASA/ESA Hubble

    This image is based on data gathered by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. A version of this image was entered into the Hubble’s Hidden Treasures image processing competition by contestant Judy Schmidt.

    Stars are born from cosmic dust and gas, which floats freely in space until gravity forces it to bind together. The hidden newborn star in this image, revealed only by light reflected onto the plumes of the dark cloud, is named RNO 91. It is what astronomers call a pre-main sequence star, meaning that it has not yet started burning hydrogen in its core.

    The energy that allows RNO 91 to shine comes from gravitational contraction. The star is being compressed by its own weight until, at some point, a critical mass will be reached and hydrogen, its main component, will begin to fuse together, releasing huge amounts of energy in the process. This will mark the beginning of adulthood for the star. But even before this happens the adolescent star is bright enough to shine and generate powerful stellar winds, emitting intense X-ray and radio emission.

    RNO 91 is a variable star around half the mass of the Sun. Astronomers have been able to observe the existence of a dusty, icy disc surrounding it, stretching out to over 1700 times the distance from Earth to the Sun. It is believed that this disc may host protoplanets — planets in the process of being formed — and will eventually evolve into a fully-fledged planetary system.”

    ec
    A photogenic variable star, Eta Carinae, embedded in the Carina Nebula.

    See the full article here.

    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), is a free-standing science center, located on the campus of The Johns Hopkins University and operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA, conducts Hubble science operations.


    ESA Icon II


    ScienceSprings is powered by MAINGEAR computers

     
  • richardmitnick 12:25 pm on July 30, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Hubble Space Telescope,   

    From NASA/ESA Hubble: “Doing cartwheels to celebrate the end of an era” 

    Article is undated.
    No Writer Credit

    “An image of the Cartwheel Galaxy taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has been reprocessed using the latest techniques to mark the closure of the Space Telescope European Coordination Facility (ST-ECF), based near Munich in Germany, and to celebrate its achievements in supporting Hubble science in Europe over the past 26 years.

    cartwheel
    Release date: 27 December 2010, 10:00

    Lying about 500 million light-years away in the constellation of Sculptor, the cartwheel shape of this galaxy is the result of a violent galactic collision. A smaller galaxy has passed right through a large disc galaxy and produced shock waves that swept up gas and dust — much like the ripples produced when a stone is dropped into a lake — and sparked regions of intense star formation (appearing blue). The outermost ring of the galaxy, which is 1.5 times the size of our Milky Way, marks the shock wave’s leading edge. This object is one of the most dramatic examples of the small class of ring galaxies.

    This image was produced after Hubble data was reprocessed using the free open source software FITS Liberator 3, which was developed at the ST-ECF. Careful use of this widely used state-of-the-art tool on the original Hubble observations of the Cartwheel Galaxy has brought out more detail in the image than ever before.

    Although the ST-ECF is closing, ESA’s mission to bring amazing Hubble discoveries to the public will be unaffected, with Hubblecasts, press and photo releases, and Hubble Pictures of the Week continuing to be regularly posted on spacetelescope.org.”

    See the full article here.

    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), is a free-standing science center, located on the campus of The Johns Hopkins University and operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA, conducts Hubble science operations.


    ESA Icon II


    ScienceSprings is powered by MAINGEAR computers

     
  • richardmitnick 10:40 am on July 19, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Hubble Space Telescope,   

    From NASA/ESA Hubble: “A stranger in the crowd” 

    This article is undated.
    No Writer Credit

    “The constellation of Virgo (The Virgin) is the largest of the Zodiac constellations, and the second largest overall after Hydra (The Water Snake). Its most appealing feature, however, is the sheer number of galaxies that lie within it. In this picture, among a crowd of face- and edge-on spiral, elliptical, and irregular galaxies, lies NGC 4866, a lenticular galaxy situated about 80 million light-years from Earth.

    ngc4886
    NGC4886 Image Credit: European Space Agency
    Release date: 15 July 2013, 10:00

    Lenticular galaxies are somewhere between spirals and ellipticals in terms of shape and properties. From the picture, we can appreciate the bright central bulge of NGC 4886, which contains primarily old stars, but no spiral arms are visible. The galaxy is seen from Earth as almost edge-on, meaning that the disc structure — a feature not present in elliptical galaxies — is clearly visible. Faint dust lanes trace across NGC 4866 in this image, obscuring part of the galaxy’s light.

    To the right of the galaxy is a very bright star that appears to lie within NGC 4886’s halo. However, this star actually lies much closer to us; in front of the galaxy, along our line of sight. These kinds of perspective tricks are common when observing, and can initially deceive astronomers as to the true nature and position of objects such as galaxies, stars, and clusters.

    This sharp image of NGC 4866 was captured by the Advanced Camera for Surveys, an instrument on the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope.”

    See the full article here.

    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), is a free-standing science center, located on the campus of The Johns Hopkins University and operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA, conducts Hubble science operations.

    ESA icon


    ScienceSprings is powered by MAINGEAR computers

     
  • richardmitnick 11:18 am on July 11, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Hubble Space Telescope,   

    From NASA/ESA Hubble: “Hubble Finds a True Blue Planet “ 

    “Astronomers making visible-light observations with NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope have deduced the actual color of a planet orbiting another star 63 light-years away.

    The planet is HD 189733b, one of the closest exoplanets that can be seen crossing the face of its star.

    Hubble’s Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph measured changes in the color of light from the planet before, during and after a pass behind its star. There was a small drop in light and a slight change in the color of the light. ‘We saw the light becoming less bright in the blue but not in the green or red. Light was missing in the blue but not in the red when it was hidden,’ said research team member Frederic Pont of the University of Exeter in South West England. ‘This means that the object that disappeared was blue.’

    blue

    Earlier observations have reported evidence for scattering of blue light on the planet. The latest Hubble observation confirms the evidence.

    If seen directly, this planet would look like a deep blue dot, reminiscent of Earth’s color as seen from space. That is where the comparison ends.

    On this turbulent alien world, the daytime temperature is nearly 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit, and it possibly rains glass — sideways — in howling, 4,500-mph winds. The cobalt blue color comes not from the reflection of a tropical ocean as it does on Earth, but rather a hazy, blow-torched atmosphere containing high clouds laced with silicate particles. Silicates condensing in the heat could form very small drops of glass that scatter blue light more than red light.

    Hubble and other observatories have made intensive studies of HD 189733b and found its atmosphere to be changeable and exotic.

    HD 189733b is among a bizarre class of planets called hot Jupiters, which orbit precariously close to their parent stars. The observations yield new insights into the chemical composition and cloud structure of the entire class.

    In 2007, NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope measured the infrared light, or heat, from the planet, leading to one of the first temperature maps for an exoplanet. The map shows day side and night side temperatures on HD 189733b differ by about 500 degrees Fahrenheit. This should cause fierce winds to roar from the day side to the night side.

    See the full article here.

    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), is a free-standing science center, located on the campus of The Johns Hopkins University and operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA, conducts Hubble science operations.

    ESA icon


    ScienceSprings is powered by MAINGEAR computers

     
  • richardmitnick 12:16 pm on July 6, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , Hubble Space Telescope, ,   

    This is The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope 

    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), is a free-standing science center, located on the campus of The Johns Hopkins University and operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA, conducts Hubble science operations.


    ESA Icon II


    ScienceSprings is powered by MAINGEAR computers

     
    • jacob 1:28 pm on July 16, 2013 Permalink | Reply

      Thanks for this blog. That’s most I can declare. You most surely have made this site into something thats eyesight opening along with important. You clearly know so much about the subject, youve covered so many facets. Great things from this part of the internet. Again, thank you for this site.

      Like

  • richardmitnick 2:05 pm on April 30, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , Hubble Space Telescope,   

    From NASA/ESA Hubble: “Violent star formation episodes in dwarf galaxies” 

    The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has imaged the faint irregular galaxy NGC 3738, a starburst galaxy. The galaxy is in the midst of a violent episode of star formation, during which it is converting reservoirs of hydrogen gas harboured in the galaxy’s centre into stars. Hubble spots this gas glowing red around NGC 3738, one of the most distinctive signs of ongoing star formation.

    star
    Release date: 22 October 2012, 10:00

    Lying in the constellation of Ursa Major (The Great Bear), NGC 3738 is located about 12 million light-years from the Sun, and belongs to the Messier 81 group of galaxies. This galaxy — first observed by astronomer William Herschel back in 1789 — is a nearby example of a blue compact dwarf, the faintest type of starburst galaxy. Blue compact dwarfs are small compared to large spiral galaxies — NGC 3738 is around 10 000 light-years across, just one tenth of the size of the Milky Way.

    m81
    Messier 81

    See the full article here.

    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), is a free-standing science center, located on the campus of The Johns Hopkins University and operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA, conducts Hubble science operations.


    ESA Icon II


    ScienceSprings is powered by MAINGEAR computers

     
  • richardmitnick 10:21 am on April 19, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , , , , , Hubble Space Telescope   

    From ESA Herschel: “Herschel and Hubble see the Horsehead in new light” Spectacular – Don’t Miss It 

    ESA Planck
    Planck
    XMM Newton
    XMM-Newton

    herschel
    Herschel

    19 April 2013

    “New views of the Horsehead Nebula and its turbulent environment have been unveiled by ESA’s Herschel space observatory and the NASA/ESA Hubble space telescope.

    hh2
    Herschel’s view
    Stunning new far-infrared view from ESA’s Herschel space observatory of the iconic Horsehead Nebula in the context of its surroundings. The image is a composite of the wavelengths of 70 microns (blue), 160 microns (green) and 250 microns (red), and covers 4.5×1.5 degrees. The image is oriented with northeast towards the left of the image and southwest towards the right.

    hh
    Hubble’s view of the Horsehead Nebula

    The Horsehead Nebula lies in the constellation Orion, about 1300 light-years away, and is a popular target for amateur and professional astronomers alike. It sits just to the south of star Alnitak, the easternmost of Orion’s famous three-star belt, and is part of the vast Orion Molecular Cloud complex.

    omc
    Nebula-Barnard’s-Loop

    The new far-infrared Herschel view shows in spectacular detail the scene playing out around the Horsehead Nebula at the right-hand side of the image, where it seems to surf like a ‘white horse’ in the waves of turbulent star-forming clouds.

    It appears to be riding towards another favourite stopping point for astrophotographers: NGC 2024, also known as the Flame Nebula. This star-forming region appears obscured by dark dust lanes in visible light images, but blazes in full glory in the far-infrared Herschel view.

    Here is a neat video to complete the picture.

    See the full article here.

    Markus Bauer
    ESA Science and Robotic Exploration Communication Officer
    Tel: +31 71 565 6799
    Mob: +31 61 594 3 954
    Email: markus.bauer@esa.int

    Göran Pilbratt
    ESA Herschel Project Scientist
    Tel: +31 71 565 3621
    Email: gpilbratt@rssd.esa.int

    The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1975, is an intergovernmental organization dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 19 member states. Headquartered in Paris, ESA has a staff of more than 2,000. ESA’s space flight program includes human spaceflight, mainly through the participation in the International Space Station program, the launch and operations of unmanned exploration missions to other planets and the Moon, Earth observation, science, telecommunication as well as maintaining a major spaceport, the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou, French Guiana, and designing launch vehicles. ESA science missions are based at ESTEC in Noordwijk, Netherlands, Earth Observation missions at ESRIN in Frascati, Italy, ESA Mission Control (ESOC) is in Darmstadt, Germany, the European Astronaut Centre (EAC) that trains astronauts for future missions is situated in Cologne, Germany, and the European Space Astronomy Centre is located in Villanueva de la Cañada, Spain.

    ESA Space Science Banner

    ScienceSprings is powered by MAINGEAR computers

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 345 other followers

%d bloggers like this: