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  • richardmitnick 12:07 pm on November 20, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From FNAL: “Physics in a Nutshell – Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and Wi-Fi 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Thursday, Nov. 20, 2014
    Jim Pivarski

    When I first started teaching, I was stumped by a student who asked me if quantum mechanics affected anything in daily life. I said that the universe is fundamentally quantum mechanical and therefore it affects everything, but this didn’t satisfy him. Since then, I’ve been noticing examples everywhere.

    rad
    Bandwidth, or the spreading of a radio station onto multiple, neighboring frequencies, is related to uncertainty in quantum mechanics.

    One surprising example is the effect of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle on Wi-Fi communication (wireless internet). Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is usually described as a limit on knowledge of a particle’s position and speed: The better you know its position, the worse you know its speed. However, it is a general principle with many consequences. The most common in particle physics is that the shorter a particle’s lifetime, the worse you know its mass. Both of these formulations are far removed from everyday life, though.

    In everyday life, the wave nature of most particles is too small to see. The biggest exception is radio and light, which are wave-like in daily life and only particle-like (photons) in the quantum realm. In radio terminology, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is called the bandwidth theorem, and it states that the rate at which information is carried over a radio band is proportional to the width of that band. Bandwidth is the reason that radio stations with nearly the same central frequency can sometimes be heard simultaneously: Each is broadcasting over a range of frequencies, and those ranges overlap. If you try to send shorter pulses of data at a higher rate, the range of frequencies broadens.

    Although this theorem was developed in the context of Morse code over telegraph systems, it applies just as well to computer data over Wi-Fi networks. A typical Wi-Fi network transmits 54 million bits per second, or 18.5 nanoseconds per bit (zero or one). Through the bandwidth theorem, this implies a frequency spread of about 25 MHz, but the whole Wi-Fi radio dial is only 72 MHz across. In practice, only three bands can be distinguished, so only three different networks can fill the same airwaves at the same time. As the bit rate of Wi-Fi gets faster, the bandwidth gets broader, crowding the radio dial even more.

    Mathematically, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is just a special case of the bandwidth theorem, and we can see this relationship by comparing units. The lifetime of a particle can be measured in nanoseconds, just like the time for a computer to emit a zero or a one. A particle’s mass, which is a form of energy, can be expressed as a frequency (for example, 1 GeV is a quarter of a trillion trillion Hz). Uncertainty in mass is therefore a frequency spread, which is to say, bandwidth.

    Although it’s fundamentally the same thing, the numerical scale is staggering. A computer network comprising decaying Z bosons could emit 75 million petabytes per second, and its bandwidth would be 600 trillion GHz wide.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 3:06 pm on November 13, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From FNAL- “Frontier Science Result: DZero Sharing the momentum” 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Thursday, Nov. 13, 2014
    Leo Bellantoni

    The parts inside of a proton are called, in a not terribly imaginative terminology, partons. The partons that we tend to think of first and foremost are quarks — two up quarks and a down quark in each proton — but there are other kinds of partons as well.

    Each parton in a moving proton carries some momentum, which is a fraction of the total momentum of the proton. Because the partons interact with each other constantly, the momentum of a parton keeps changing. So at any particular time, there is some probability that the down quark is carrying, say, half the momentum of the proton, and later it might be a quarter of the total momentum. The fraction is called x. When the down quark is carrying half the momentum of the proton, it has an x of 0.5. These probabilities are key ingredients in calculating what happens in a hadron collider and can only be deduced from experiment.

    olot
    This plot shows the probabilities of finding up and down quarks with different fractions of a proton’s momentum. The vertical axis is arbitrary and different for the two curves. No image credit.

    The figure shows plots of the probabilities of finding up or down quarks at particular values of x. The vertical scale is a little arbitrary, but that won’t matter for us. Notice how the curve for down quarks, in blue, peaks at the left, at low values of x. That means that at any instant, the down quark tends to have a relatively small fraction of the proton’s momentum. The up quark curve, in red, has a ledge, a sort of bump in the generally downward slope at x around 0.2 or so. That means that the chances of an up quark having more momentum than a down quark are really pretty good.

    When a proton with a higher-momentum up quark hits an antiproton with a lower-momentum down antiquark, then these two partons can form a W+ boson, and that W+ boson is headed in the direction of the higher momentum. In a collision of an up antiquark and a down quark, a W- boson can be created that tends to travel in the antiproton direction. Things get a little more complicated when a W+ boson decays to a positron or a W- decays to electrons, but the positron and electron directions still carry information about the x-values of the colliding quarks.

    So the curves in the figure can be measured — or measured better — by looking at events in the Tevatron where a W+ or W- is produced and decays into a positron or electron and measuring the difference, or asymmetry, in the final electron and positron directions.

    DZero has measured the asymmetry in electron and positron directions relative to the direction of the proton’s motion when it collides with antiprotons in the Tevatron. The result is the most precise measurement of this asymmetry to date and provides important information about the momentum of the partons of protons. That information is critical in predicting what happens in all sorts of collisions involving protons, such as those at neutrino and LHC experiments.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 12:56 pm on November 8, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From Don Lincoln at Fermilab: “Higgs Boson: The Inside Scoop” 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Aug 9, 2013

    FNAL Don Lincoln
    Don Lincoln

    [Don Lincoln is one of the world's best communicators of High Energy Physics.]

    In July of 2012, physicists found a particle that might be the long-sought Higgs boson. In the intervening months, scientists have worked hard to pin down the identity of this newly-found discovery. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln describes researcher’s current understanding of the particle that might be the Higgs. The evidence is quite strong but the final chapter of this story might well require the return of the Large Hadron Collider to full operations in 2015.

    Watch, enjoy, learn.

    See the full video here.

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  • richardmitnick 1:52 pm on November 7, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From FNAL: “Multilaboratory collaboration brings new X-ray detector to light” 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Friday, Nov. 7, 2014
    Troy Rummler

    A collaboration blending research in DOE’s offices of High-Energy Physics (HEP) with Basic Energy Sciences (BES) will yield a one-of-a-kind X-ray detector. The device boasts Brookhaven Lab sensors mounted on Fermilab integrated circuits linked to Argonne Lab data acquisition systems. It will be used at Brookhaven’s National Synchrotron Light Source II and Argonne’s Advanced Photon Source. Lead scientists Peter Siddons, Grzegorz Deptuch and Robert Bradford represent the three laboratories.

    BNL NSLS II PhotoBNL NSLS-II Interior
    BNL NSLS II

    ANL APS
    ANL APS interior
    ANL APS

    “This partnership between HEP and BES has been a fruitful collaboration, advancing detector technology for both fields,” said Brookhaven’s Peter Siddons.

    team
    These researchers work on the VIPIC prototype. Peter Siddons of Brookhaven National Laboratory (fifth from the left), Grzegroz Deptuch of Fermilab (third from the right) and Robert Bradford of Argonne National Laboratory (far right) lead the effort. Photo courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory

    This detector is filling a need in the X-ray correlation spectroscopy (XCS) community, which has been longing for a detector that can capture dynamic processes in samples with microsecond timing and nanoscale sensitivity. Available detectors have been designed largely for X-ray diffraction crystallography and are incapable of performing on this time scale.

    det
    The 64-by-64 pixel VIPIC prototype, pictured with a sensor on the bottom and solder bump-bonding bump on top, ready to be received on the printed circuit board. Photo: Reidar Hahn

    In 2006, Fermilab’s Ray Yarema began investigating 3-D integrated chip technology, which increases circuit density, performance and functionality by vertically stacking rather than laterally arranging silicon wafers. Then in 2008 Deptuch, a member of Yarema’s group and Fermilab ASIC [Application Specific Integrated Circuit] Group leader since 2011, met with Siddons, a scientist at Brookhaven, at a medical imaging conference. They discussed applying 3-D technology to a new, custom detector project, which was later given the name VIPIC (vertically integrated photon imaging chip). Siddons was intrigued by the 3-D opportunities and has since taken the lead on leveraging Fermilab expertise toward the longstanding XCS problem. As a result, the development of the device at Fermilab — where 97 percent of research funds come through HEP — receives BES funding.

    A 64-by-64-pixel VIPIC prototype tested at Argonne this summer flaunted three essential properties: timing resolution within one microsecond; continuous new-data acquisition with simultaneous old-data read-out; and selective transmission of only pixels containing data.

    The results achieved with the prototype have attracted attention from the scientific community.

    Deptuch noted that this partnership between BES and HEP reflects the collaborative nature of such efforts at the national labs.

    “It truly is a cooperative effort, combining the expertise from three national laboratories toward one specific goal,” he said.

    The team will grow their first VIPIC prototype tiled, seamless array of chips on a sensor to form a 1-megapixel detector. The collaboration is targeting a completion date of 2017 for the basic functionality detector. Ideas for expanded capabilities are being discussed for the future.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 1:57 pm on November 6, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From FNAL: “Physics in a Nutshell Nine weird facts about neutrinos” 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Thursday, Nov. 6, 2014
    Tia Miceli

    We don’t know much about neutrinos, but what we do know points to renegade particles that, despite their prevalence, are hard to pin down. Here are, in a nutshell, nine neutrino nuggets that scientists have figured out so far.

    neut
    Neutrinos change their flavor just as chameleons can change color. The observer needs to make sure their instruments are prepared to detect these changing beasts.

    1. Neutrinos are super abundant. The shining sun sends 65 billion neutrinos per second per square centimeter to Earth. Neutrinos are the second most abundant particle in the universe. If we were to take a snapshot, we’d see that every cubic centimeter has approximately 1,000 photons and 300 neutrinos.

    2. Neutrinos are almost massless. No one yet knows the mass of neutrinos, but it is at least a million times less massive than the lightest particle we know, the electron. We do know that each is so lightweight and so abundant that the total mass of all neutrinos in the universe is estimated to be equal to the total mass of all of the visible stars.

    3. Neutrinos are perfect probes for the weak force. All other fundamental particles interact through the strong, electromagnetic or weak force or through some combination of the three. Neutrinos are the only particles that interact solely though the weak force. This makes neutrinos important for nailing down the details of the weak force.

    4. Neutrinos are really hard to detect. On average, only one neutrino from the sun will interact with a person’s body during his or her lifetime. Since neutrino interactions are so rare, neutrino detectors must be huge. Super Kamiokande in Japan is as tall as Wilson Hall and holds 50,000 tons of ultrapure water. IceCube is buried between 1.5 and 2.5 kilometers under pure and clear ice in Antarctica, instrumenting a full cubic kilometer of ice.

    Super-Kamiokande experiment Japan
    Super Kamiokande

    ICECUBE neutrino detector
    IceCube

    5. Neutrinos are like chameleons. There are three flavors of neutrinos: electron, muon and tau. As a neutrino travels along, it may switch back and forth between the flavors. These flavor “oscillations” confounded physicists for decades.

    6. Neutrinos of electron flavor linger around electrons. When neutrinos travel through matter, they see dense clouds of electrons. Electron neutrinos will have trouble traversing these dense clouds, effectively slowing down while muon and tau flavors travel through unimpeded. The NOvA experiment is using this phenomenon to deduce more information about the neutrino masses.

    FNAL NOvA experiment
    FNAL/Nova

    7. Neutrinos let us see inside the sun. The light that reaches Earth takes 10,000 to 100,000 years to escape the thick plasma of the sun’s core. When light reaches the solar surface, it freely streams through open space to our planet in only 8 minutes. Neutrinos provide us a penetrating view into the core, where nuclear fusion powers the sun. They take only 3.2 seconds to escape to the solar surface and 8 minutes to reach Earth.

    8. Neutrinos may have altered the course of the universe. Why is everything in the universe made predominantly of matter and not antimatter? Cosmologists think that at the start of the universe there were equal parts of matter and antimatter. Neutrino interactions may have tipped this delicate balance, enabling the formation of galaxies, stars and planets like our own Earth.

    9. Neutrinos dissipate more than 99 percent of a supernova’s energy. Certain types of stellar explosions lose nearly all of their energy through neutrinos. These “core collapse” supernovae [Type II] end as either a black hole or a neutron star. Neutrinos are used to understand how supernovae explode and tell us more about other astronomical objects like active galactic nuclei.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 6:38 pm on November 3, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From FNAL: “New technique for generating RF power may dramatically cut linac costs” 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Monday, Nov. 3, 2014
    Troy Rummler

    If you own a magnetron, you probably use it to cook frozen burritos. The device powers microwave ovens by converting electricity into electromagnetic radiation. But Fermilab engineers believe they’ve found an even better use. They’ve developed a new technique to use a magnetron to power a superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity, potentially saving hundreds of millions of dollars in the construction and operating costs of future linear accelerators.

    The technique is far from market-ready, but recent tests with Accelerator Division RF Department-developed components at the Fermilab AZero test facility have proven that the idea works. Team leaders Brian Chase and Ralph Pasquinelli have, with Fermilab’s Office of Partnerships and Technology Transfer, applied for a patent and are looking for industrial partners to help scale up the process.

    mag
    A team from the Accelerator Division has successfully powered this small SRF cavity with a magnetron. Now they aim to power a large, application-specific model. Photo: Brian Chase, AD

    team
    The magnetron project members are, from left: Brian Chase, Ed Cullerton, Ralph Pasquinelli and Philip Varghese. Photo: Elvin Harms, AD

    Both high-energy physics and industrial applications could benefit from the development of a high-power, magnetron-based RF station. The SRF cavity power source is a major cost of accelerators, but thanks to a long manufacturing history, accelerator-scale magnetrons could be mass-produced at a fraction of the cost of klystrons and other technologies typically used to generate and control radio waves in accelerators.

    “Instead of paying $10 to $15 per watt of continuous-wave RF power, we believe that we can deliver that for about $3 per watt,” Pasquinelli said.

    That adds up quickly for modern projects like Fermilab’s Proton Improvement Plan II, with more than 100 cavities, or the proposed International Linear Collider, which will call for about 15,000 cavities requiring more than 3 billion watts of pulsed RF power. The magnetron design is also far more efficient than klystrons, further driving down long-term costs.

    ILC schematic
    ILC

    But the straightforward idea wasn’t without obstacles.

    “For an accelerator, you need very precise control of the amplitude and the phase of the signal,” Chase said. That’s on the order of 0.01 percent accuracy. Magnetrons don’t normally allow this kind of control.

    One solution, Chase realized, is to apply a well-known mathematical expression known as a Bessel function, developed in the 19th century for astronomical calculations. Chase repurposed the function for the magnetron’s phase modulation scheme, which allowed for a high degree of control over the signal’s amplitude. Similar possible solutions to the amplitude problem use two magnetrons, but doubling most of the hardware would mean negating potential savings.

    “Our technique uses one magnetron, and we use this modulation scheme, which has been known for almost a hundred years. It’s just never been put together,” Pasquinelli said. “And we came in thinking, ‘Why didn’t anyone else think of that?’”

    Chase and Pasquinelli are now working with Bob Kephart, director of the Illinois Accelerator Research Center, to find an industry partner to help them develop their idea. Inexpensive, controlled RF power is already needed in certain medical equipment, and according to Kephart, driving down the costs will allow new applications to surface, such as using accelerators to clean up flue gas or sterilizing municipal waste.

    “The reason I’m not retired is that I want to build this prototype,” Pasquinelli said. “It’s a solution to a real-world problem, and it will be a lot of fun to build the first one.”

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 5:11 pm on October 27, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From FNAL: “Frontier Science Result: DarkSide-50 Report from the DarkSide” 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Friday, Oct. 24, 2014
    Stephen Pordes

    Nobody knows what dark matter, the invisible stuff that holds galaxies together, is made of, and many experiments, using many different technologies, are trying to discover it. The DarkSide-50 experiment, a U.S., Italy, France, Russia, Poland, China and Ukraine collaboration, is a search for one form suggested for dark matter, massive particles that interact weakly with ordinary matter (WIMPs).

    Our experiment looks for WIMP interactions in a vat of 50 kilograms (110 pounds) of argon. We chose argon because its chemistry makes it a particularly powerful and sensitive detector material. At room temperature, argon is a gas (it is about 1 percent of the atmosphere); cooled to minus 270 degrees Fahrenheit, it becomes a transparent liquid with a density similar to water. When something happens in the liquid — a radioactive decay produces a neutron, a photon or an electron, or a WIMP hits an argon nucleus — the argon produces a flash of light and a number of free electrons. Light sensors called photomultipliers pick up the flash of light, converting it into an electric signal. The free electrons are pulled to the region of argon gas above the liquid, where they generate a second light signal, seen by the same photomultipliers.

    The challenge in WIMP searches is identifying and removing all the “background” signals in the detector — signals from mundane sources — so that any surviving signals would be from dark matter. Backgrounds come from cosmic rays, which could produce neutrons that enter the detector and hit an argon nucleus, and from radioactivity of the material of the apparatus itself. For the latter, the combination of flashes tells us where the event occurred and allow us to identify and reject events from radioactivity on the surface of the detector.

    ds
    This schematic of the DarkSide-50 apparatus shows the various layers that shield the detector.

    The figure above shows other measures DarkSide uses to reject backgrounds. The cryostat that holds the argon is suspended inside a 13-foot-diameter steel sphere filled with scintillator oil designed to detect neutrons. The sphere sits inside a water tank, 33 feet high and 36 feet across, that detects muons and stops photons, and the whole apparatus sits in a hall as big as a cathedral at the Italian Gran Sasso National Laboratory under the Apennine mountains, east of Rome. The mountains stop most of the cosmic rays, and the water tank and scintillator oil sphere prevent anything (except dark matter particles and neutrinos) from getting into the argon without being spotted.

    The experiment has just finished its first data-taking, a two-month run using atmospheric argon, which is slightly radioactive itself from cosmic-ray interactions. (The experiment will soon switch to low-radioactivity argon that comes from underground.) This modest data set has given us the third most sensitive limit on dark matter at high mass (around 100 times the proton mass). More significantly, the background from the argon radioactivity provides a powerful test of the experiment’s capability to identify and reject signals from photons and electrons. The control of this background is very encouraging for longer exposures with the low-radioactivity argon and for the argon technology in general.

    graph
    This scatter-plot shows two quantities for all the events recorded in this DarkSide-50 run. The x-axis is the energy of the event — the brightness of the first light flash. The y-axis is essentially the inverse of the duration of the flash (in time) — shorter pulses equate with larger values. The big splash of color is from the radioactivity of the argon itself. A single WIMP-like signal would give a blue square in the top shaded region

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 4:39 pm on October 23, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From FNAL: “Physics in a Nutshell – Unparticle physics” 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Thursday, Oct. 23, 2014
    Jim Pivarski

    The first property of matter that was known to be quantized was not a surprising one like spin — it was mass. That is, mass only comes in multiples of a specific value: The mass of five electrons is 5 times 511 keV. A collection of electrons cannot have 4.9 or 5.1 times this number — it must be exactly 4 or exactly 6, and this is a quantum mechanical effect.

    We don’t usually think of mass quantization as quantum mechanical because it isn’t weird. We sometimes imagine electrons as tiny balls, all alike, each with a mass of 511 keV. While this mental image could make sense of the quantization, it isn’t correct since other experiments show that an electron is an amorphous wave or cloud. Individual electrons cannot be distinguished. They all melt together, and yet the mass of a blob of electron-stuff is always a whole number.

    The quantization of mass comes from a wave equation — physicists assume that electron-stuff obeys this equation, and when they solve the equation, it has only solutions with mass in integer multiples of 511 keV. Since this agrees with what we know, it is probably the right equation for electrons. However, there might be other forms of matter that obey different laws.

    fra
    One alternative would be to obey a symmetry principle known as scale invariance. Scale invariance is a property of fractals, like the one shown above, in which the same drawing is repeated within itself at smaller and smaller scales. For matter, scale invariance is the property that the energy, momentum and mass of a blob of matter can be scaled up equally. Normal particles like electrons are not scale-invariant because the energy can be scaled by an arbitrary factor, but the mass is rigidly quantized.

    It is theoretically possible that another type of matter, dubbed “unparticles,” could satisfy scale invariance. In a particle detector, unparticles would look like particles with random masses. One unparticle decay might have many times the apparent mass of the next — the distribution would be broad.

    Another feature of unparticles is that they don’t interact strongly with the familiar Standard Model particles, but they interact more strongly at higher energies. Therefore, they would not have been produced in low-energy experiments, but could be discovered in high-energy experiments.

    sm
    The Standard Model of elementary particles, with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    Physicists searched for unparticles using the 7- and 8-TeV collisions produced by the LHC in 2011-2012, and they found nothing. This tightens limits, reducing the possible parameters that the theory can have, but it does not completely rule it out. Next spring, the LHC is scheduled to start up with an energy of 13 TeV, which would provide a chance to test the theory more thoroughly. Perhaps the next particle to be discovered is not a particle at all.

    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    LHC Tunnel

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 1:08 pm on October 22, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From FNAL: “From the Office of Campus Strategy and Readiness – Building the future of Fermilab” 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Wednesday, Oct. 22, 2014
    ro
    Randy Ortgiesen, head of OCSR, wrote this column.

    As Fermilab and the Department of Energy continue to aggressively “make ready the laboratory” for implementing P5′s recommendations, I can’t help reflecting on all that has recently been accomplished to support the lab’s future — both less visible projects and the big stuff. As we continue to build on these accomplishments, it’s worth noting their breadth and how much headway we’ve made.

    The development of the Muon Campus is proceeding at a healthy clip. Notable in its progress is the completion of the MC-1 Building and the cryogenic systems that support the Muon g-2 experiment. The soon-to-launch beamline enclosure construction project and soon-to-follow Mu2e building is also significant. And none of this could operate without the ongoing, complex accelerator work that will provide beam to these experiments.

    Repurposing of the former CDF building for future heavy-assembly production space and offices is well under way, with more visible exterior improvements to begin soon.

    The new remote operations center, ROC West, is open for business. Several experiments already operate from its new location adjacent to the Wilson Hall atrium.

    The Wilson Street entrance security improvements, including a new guardhouse, are also welcome additions to improved site aesthetics and security operations. Plans for a more modern and improved Pine Street entrance are beginning as well.

    The fully funded Science Laboratory Infrastructure project to replace the Master Substation and critical portions of the industrial cooling water system will mitigate the lab’s largest infrastructure vulnerability for current and future lab operations. Construction is scheduled to start in summer 2015.

    The short-baseline neutrino program is expected to start utility and site preparation very soon, with the start of the detector building construction following shortly thereafter. This is an important and significant part of the near-term future of the lab.

    The start of a demolition program for excess older and inefficient facilities is very close. The program will begin with a portion of the trailers at both the CDF and DZero trailer complexes.

    Space reconfiguration in Wilson Hall to house the new Neutrino Division and LBNF project offices is in the final planning stage and will also be starting soon.

    The atrium improvements, with the reception desk, new lighting and more modern furniture create a more welcoming atmosphere.

    And I started the article by mentioning planning for the “big stuff.” The big stuff, as you may know, includes the lab’s highest-priority project in developing a new central campus. This project is called the Center for Integrated Engineering Research, to be located just west of Wilson Hall. It will consolidate engineering resources from across the site to most efficiently plan for, construct and operate the P5 science projects. The highest-priority Technical Campus project, called the Industrial Center Building Addition, is urgently needed to expand production capacity for the equipment required for future science projects. And lastly the Scientific Hostel, or guest house, for which plans are also under way, will complete the Central Campus theme to “eat-sleep-work to drive discovery.”

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 2:42 pm on October 20, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From FNAL: “New high-speed transatlantic network to benefit science collaborations across the U.S.” 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Monday, Oct. 20, 2014

    Karen McNulty-Walsh, Brookhaven Media and Communications Office, kmcnulty@bnl.gov, 631-344-8350
    Kurt Riesselmann, Fermilab Office of Communication, media@fnal.gov, 630-840-3351
    Jon Bashor, Computing Sciences Communications Manager, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, jbashor@lbnl.gov, 510-486-5849

    Scientists across the United States will soon have access to new, ultra-high-speed network links spanning the Atlantic Ocean thanks to a project currently under way to extend ESnet (the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Sciences Network) to Amsterdam, Geneva and London. Although the project is designed to benefit data-intensive science throughout the U.S. national laboratory complex, heaviest users of the new links will be particle physicists conducting research at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the world’s largest and most powerful particle collider. The high capacity of this new connection will provide U.S. scientists with enhanced access to data at the LHC and other European-based experiments by accelerating the exchange of data sets between institutions in the United States and computing facilities in Europe.

    esnet

    DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory—the primary computing centers for U.S. collaborators on the LHC’s ATLAS and CMS experiments, respectively—will make immediate use of the new network infrastructure once it is rigorously tested and commissioned. Because ESnet, based at DOE’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, interconnects all national laboratories and a number of university-based projects in the United States, tens of thousands of researchers from all disciplines will benefit as well.

    CERN LHC Map
    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel
    CERN LHC particles
    LHC at CERN

    CERN ATLAS New
    ATLAS at the LHC

    CERN CMS New
    CMS at CERN

    BNL Campus
    Brookhaven Lab

    The ESnet extension will be in place before the LHC at CERN in Switzerland—currently shut down for maintenance and upgrades—is up and running again in the spring of 2015. Because the accelerator will be colliding protons at much higher energy, the data output from the detectors will expand considerably—to approximately 40 petabytes of raw data per year compared with 20 petabytes for all of the previous lower-energy collisions produced over the three years of the LHC first run between 2010 and 2012.

    The cross-Atlantic connectivity during the first successful run for the LHC experiments, which culminated in the discovery of the Higgs boson, was provided by the US LHCNet network, managed by the California Institute of Technology. In recent years, major research and education networks around the world—including ESnet, Internet2, California’s CENIC, and European networks such as DANTE, SURFnet and NORDUnet—have increased their backbone capacity by a factor of 10, using sophisticated new optical networking and digital signal processing technologies. Until recently, however, higher-speed links were not deployed for production purposes across the Atlantic Ocean—creating a network “impedance mismatch” that can harm large, intercontinental data flows.

    An evolving data model

    This upgrade coincides with a shift in the data model for LHC science. Previously, data moved in a more predictable and hierarchical pattern strongly influenced by geographical proximity, but network upgrades around the world have now made it possible for data to be fetched and exchanged more flexibly and dynamically. This change enables faster science outcomes and more efficient use of storage and computational power, but it requires networks around the world to perform flawlessly together.

    “Having the new infrastructure in place will meet the increased need for dealing with LHC data and provide more agile access to that data in a much more dynamic fashion than LHC collaborators have had in the past,” said physicist Michael Ernst of DOE’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, a key member of the team laying out the new and more flexible framework for exchanging data between the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid centers.

    Ernst directs a computing facility at Brookhaven Lab that was originally set up as a central hub for U.S. collaborators on the LHC’s ATLAS experiment. A similar facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has played this role for the LHC’s U.S. collaborators on the CMS experiment. These computing resources, dubbed Tier 1 centers, have direct links to the LHC at the European laboratory CERN (Tier 0). The experts who run them will continue to serve scientists under the new structure. But instead of serving as hubs for data storage and distribution only among U.S.-based collaborators at Tier 2 and 3 research centers, the dedicated facilities at Brookhaven and Fermilab will be able to serve data needs of the entire ATLAS and CMS collaborations throughout the world. And likewise, U.S. Tier 2 and Tier 3 research centers will have higher-speed access to Tier 1 and Tier 2 centers in Europe.

    “This new infrastructure will offer LHC researchers at laboratories and universities around the world faster access to important data,” said Fermilab’s Lothar Bauerdick, head of software and computing for the U.S. CMS group. “As the LHC experiments continue to produce exciting results, this important upgrade will let collaborators see and analyze those results better than ever before.”

    Ernst added, “As centralized hubs for handling LHC data, our reliability, performance and expertise have been in demand by the whole collaboration, and now we will be better able to serve the scientists’ needs.”

    An investment in science

    ESnet is funded by DOE’s Office of Science to meet networking needs of DOE labs and science projects. The transatlantic extension represents a financial collaboration, with partial support coming from DOE’s Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) for the next three years. Although LHC scientists will get a dedicated portion of the new network once it is in place, all science programs that make use of ESnet will now have access to faster network links for their data transfers.

    “We are eagerly awaiting the start of commissioning for the new infrastructure,” said Oliver Gutsche, Fermilab scientist and member of the CMS Offline and Computing Management Board. “After the Higgs discovery, the next big LHC milestones will come in 2015, and this network will be indispensable for the success of the LHC Run 2 physics program.”

    This work was supported by the DOE Office of Science.

    The DOE Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit science.energy.gov.

    See the full article here.

    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.

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