Tagged: Fermilab MINERvA Toggle Comment Threads | Keyboard Shortcuts

  • richardmitnick 2:13 pm on August 5, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Fermilab MINERvA, , , ,   

    From Symmetry: “Neutrino researchers pull double duty” 

    Symmetry

    August 05, 2014
    Hanae Armitage

    Neutrino researchers work collaboratively, sharing and comparing results to help advance the field of neutrino physics.

    For Philip Rodrigues, a postdoc at the University of Rochester, receiving a new dataset from the MINERvA neutrino experiment means two things: that one of the neutrino experiments in which he participates has met a milestone and that the other can verify some of its predictions.

    Rodrigues, who is a member of both MINERvA in the US and the T2K experiment in Japan, is not the only neutrino physicist to double dip like this. More than 50 percent of neutrino researchers work on multiple projects simultaneously.

    minerva
    Scientists stand with the Minerva neutrino detector, located 330 feet underground at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

    t2k
    T2K experiment passes five-sigma threshold

    “You want the scientists designing future generations of experiments to have a broad experience in current neutrino research,” says Fermilab physicist Debbie Harris, co-leader of the MINERvA neutrino experiment. “So it’s great to have people on multiple projects.”

    Unlike collaborative neutrino researchers like Rodrigues, the neutrino is extremely anti-social. We can’t see it, we can’t feel it, and we don’t entirely understand it. But it may be important for understanding the formation of the universe.

    The elusive nature of neutrinos makes working together even more appealing. Scientists who share Fermilab’s neutrino beamline meet regularly to discuss neutrino flux, the quantity of neutrinos per unit area observed in the detectors, and how that information can inform their respective projects.

    “It’s impossible to have one detector that can measure every little last thing about the interaction at every neutrino energy that’s important,” Harris said. “So that’s why we need to have a lot of different experiments to help each other make these measurements.”

    Neutrino experiments are usually in one of two categories: interaction experiments and oscillation experiments. The primary goal of interaction experiments is to observe the way neutrinos interact with different materials. The primary goal of oscillation experiments is to observe the way neutrinos, which come in three types, change from one type to the next. Both types of experiments can give researchers insight into neutrino characteristics such as their masses and how the different types of neutrinos relate to each other.

    Both kinds of experiments shoot extremely intense beams of neutrinos at particle detectors, but the placement of the detector depends on the type of experiment. Detectors for oscillation experiments are located much farther away, miles from the neutrino source, to give the particles time to change.

    Data from interaction experiments is critical for scientists at oscillation experiments to understand how the particles will interact in their detectors.

    “Neutrinos are neutrinos, and we can measure how they interact with different nuclei, and those results can help us constrain models,” Harris says. “Then those models can be used for experiments that use the same type of target for their far detector.”

    In addition, data from similar experiments can be used to double-check one another.

    “I think the more data we can get, and the more measurements we can take, the more input we have to help us understand what’s going on in terms of the physics,” Rodrigues says. “It’s very useful, both for the individual experiment, as well as the advancement of the field as a whole.”

    See the full article here.

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.


    ScienceSprings relies on technology from

    MAINGEAR computers

    Lenovo
    Lenovo

    Dell
    Dell

     
  • richardmitnick 11:23 am on August 1, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Fermilab MINERvA, , ,   

    From Fermilab- “Frontier Science Result: MINERvA Pion on the break shot” 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Friday, Aug. 1, 2014
    Aaron Mislivec, University of Rochester

    graph
    This shows what an event in the MINERvA detector looks like when a neutrino comes in from the left and interacts with a proton in the detector, creating a pion that goes backwards, in addition to a proton and a muon.

    In February, the MINERvA experiment at Fermilab reported its findings of what happens when a neutrino produces a pion (a particle made of a quark and an antiquark)

    pion
    Pion

    by interacting with a proton

    prot
    Proton

    or neutron

    neut
    Neutron

    inside the nucleus. In today’s wine and cheese seminar, MINERvA will release its measurement of what happens when a neutrino or antineutrino produces a pion outside a nucleus by interacting with the nucleus as a whole but leaving the nucleus intact. Neutrino physicists refer to this reaction as coherent pion production.

    A neutrino interaction with a nucleus is like the break shot at the beginning of a billiards game where the cue ball is shot into a tightly packed group of target balls to break up the group. If coherent pion production were to happen in billiards, the target balls would remain tightly packed after being struck and an additional ball (the pion) would emerge from the collision.

    Coherent pion production can be a background to neutrino oscillation experiments that measure how neutrinos change from one type of neutrino to another as they travel through space. Predictions for coherent pion production disagree in how much background the reaction should produce in oscillation experiments. In addition, recent experiments that looked for coherent pion production at neutrino energies important to oscillation experiments came up empty — until now, that is.

    MINERvA has measured coherent pion production on carbon atoms where the interaction changes the neutrino (or antineutrino) into a muon (a heavier cousin of the electron). MINERvA searches for coherent pion production using its defining characteristic — that the interaction does not breakup the nucleus.

    MINERvA can see whether or not breakup of the nucleus occurs in two ways. First, it can detect the particles ejected from the nucleus when it is broken up and can require that only a muon and a pion are detected at the interaction point. Second, MINERvA can measure the momentum transferred to the nucleus by measuring the muon and pion momentum and can require it be consistent with not breaking the nucleus apart.

    These two signatures together greatly reduce the background and allow MINERvA to measure, for the first time, the details of coherent pion production to understand how it produces background for oscillation experiments.

    See the full article here.

    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.


    ScienceSprings is powered by MAINGEAR computers

     
  • richardmitnick 2:58 pm on February 7, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Fermilab MINERvA,   

    From Fermilab- “Frontier Science Result: MINERvA What happens in hydrocarbon stays in hydrocarbon (sometimes)” 


    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Friday, Feb. 7, 2014
    Carrie McGivern, University of Pittsburgh

    When a neutrino enters the nucleus of an atom, it can interact with the protons and neutrons inside and impart enough energy to create completely new particles. Often a pion (a particle made of a quark and an antiquark) is produced. However, the nucleus is such a dense place that sometimes the pions never make it out of the atom!

    Figuring out how many pions are produced and how many exit the nucleus is very important in the field of neutrino physics because it determines how well the energy of the incoming neutrino can be measured. Experiments such as LBNE will measure how neutrinos oscillate as a function of neutrino energy, but they will need to understand what those pions are doing in order to get the neutrino energies right.

    Particle physicists have been measuring pions and constructing models of how they interact for a long time, but the neutrino interactions that produce these pions and what happens to them as they exit the nucleus is not nearly as well modeled. The interactions felt by the pions on their way out of the nucleus are called final-state interactions, and they are difficult to calculate because there are so many moving parts — all the protons and neutrons in the nucleus. We do have a few models, but it is important to verify them with experimental data from neutrino experiments. When the MiniBooNE measurement of pion production was first released, it was clear that the most complete models of what happens inside the nucleus were not describing the data. MINERvA now has a sample of several thousand events where a pion, proton and muon are produced when a neutrino interacts with a neutron or proton in the detector’s plastic scintillator, which is made of hydrocarbons (see top figure).

    graph
    This shows what an event in the MINERvA detector looks like when a neutrino comes in from the left and interacts with a proton in the detector, creating a pion that goes backwards, in addition to a proton and a muon.

    By studying the energy distribution of the pions that make it out of the nucleus, MINERvA can determine how big an effect the nucleus has on those pions. The better we understand (and then model) that effect, the better the whole field will be able to measure neutrino energies.

    See the full article here.

    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.


    ScienceSprings is powered by MAINGEAR computers

     
  • richardmitnick 11:12 am on May 10, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Fermilab MINERvA,   

    From Fermilab- “Frontier Science Result: MINERvA Scouting the party: neutrinos and nuclei” 

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Friday, May 10, 2013
    Philip Rodrigues

    Neutrinos are notoriously difficult particles to study: For every 50 billion neutrinos that pass through the MINERvA detector at Fermilab, only about one will interact leaving a trace in our detector, producing particles that we can observe directly.

    tracker
    The likelihood of a neutrino undergoing a quasi-elastic interaction for different values of the momentum transferred to the proton or neutron (Q2) compared to several theoretical models. The data agree best with a model in which the neutrino can interact with multiple protons or neutrons at a time.

    In spite of this, we are starting to use neutrinos to learn more about protons and neutrons and how they behave when they’re together inside an atomic nucleus. We already understand a lot about the nucleus: We know that it’s made of protons and neutrons, and we know the number of protons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus for every chemical element. But there is much we still don’t fully understand, especially about what those protons and neutrons are doing inside the nucleus.

    We can study the protons’ and neutrons’ behavior in the nucleus the way we might study how people act at a party. Do the party-goers mingle according to the general spirit of the party, or do they break off into pairs? We could determine the party’s nature by sending in very shy folks and observing how quickly they leave and whether they leave through the same door they entered.

    In a nucleus, does each proton and neutron react to just the average effect of the others, or do they occasionally pair up? One way to answer this question is to fire neutrinos at nuclei and measure the particles produced when neutrinos do interact with the nuclei of atoms in our detector. By studying those particles, we can try to infer the behavior of the protons and neutrons.”

    graph
    The energy near the neutrino interaction point in neutrino quasi-elastic events. The data points, in black, are at higher energies on average than the prediction, in red, suggesting that the neutrino really is interacting with multiple protons or neutrons, which are kicked out of the nucleus.

    See the full article here.

    Fermilab campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.


    ScienceSprings is powered by MAINGEAR computers

     
  • richardmitnick 12:41 pm on June 7, 2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Fermilab MINERvA, , ,   

    From Fermilab Today: “Special Result of the Week – Fingerprinting the neutrino” 

    Fermilab continues to be a great source of strength in the U.S. Basic Research Community.

    Thursday, June 7, 2012
    Laura Fields, Northwestern University

    Neutrino scientists are currently trying to answer some exciting questions. How much do neutrinos weigh and why are they so light? How much do neutrinos change from one kind to another (called mixing) and why are their transformations so different from quark mixing? Do neutrinos mix differently from anti-neutrinos? To answer these questions, neutrino physicists must study how neutrinos and anti-neutrinos mix over time, which means using neutrino interactions to measure their energies and the distances they travel.

    neut
    This plot shows the likelihood of an anti-neutrino colliding with a proton to produce a muon and a neutron as a function of the square of the four-momentum (a property that is proportional to the energy) given to the neutron (Q2). The red lines show theoretical predictions that include (dashed) and exclude (solid) a model in which the anti-neutrino can collide with several particles in the nucleus rather than just one.

    “…if future experiments see a difference between neutrino and anti-neutrino mixing, it will be hard to determine the reason. On one hand, it could be caused by the neutrino and anti-neutrino actually mixing differently. On the other, it could be a difference between their interactions in the detector, which by definition is made only of matter (no antimatter).

    The MINERvA collaboration has recently measured one of the most important interactions for mixing measurements. In this interaction, an anti-neutrino meets a proton, producing a muon and a neutron. This interaction is special because the energy of the anti-neutrino can be estimated simply by measuring the muon energy and direction. However, this isn’t as straightforward as it seems, and that may hamper our ability to infer neutrino energy.”

    minerva
    MINERvA

    See the full article here.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:51 pm on April 9, 2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Fermilab MINERvA, ,   

    From D.O.E. Pulse: “First message transmitted via neutrinos” 

    Kurt Riesselmann

    April 9, 2012

    “Scientists have for decades contemplated communicating via neutrinos when other methods won’t do. For the first time, physicists and engineers have successfully transmitted a message through 240 meters of rock using the ghost-like particles.

    ‘It’s beginning to look more feasible,’ said Dan Stancil, professor of electrical and computer engineering at North Carolina State University, who had proposed the recent neutrino communication test. He collaborated with scientists of the MINERvA collaboration at DOE’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, who use a 170-ton particle detector and a powerful, pulsed accelerator beam to produce neutrinos and measure their interactions with matter.  Based on Stancil’s proposal, scientists were able to manipulate the pulsed beam and turn it for a couple of hours into a neutrino telegraph. ‘It’s impressive that the accelerator is flexible enough to do this,’ said Fermilab physicist Debbie Harris, co-spokesperson of the MINERvA experiment.

    minerva

    See the full article here.
    The MINERvA detector

     
  • richardmitnick 8:04 pm on March 15, 2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , Fermilab MINERvA, , ,   

    From Symmetry/Breaking: “Scientists send encoded message through rock via neutrino beam” 

    March 14, 2012
    Kathryn Grim

    “Scientists recently proved possible a new way to converse when radio waves won’t do. For the first time, physicists and engineers have successfully transmitted a message using neutrinos…’It’s beginning to look more feasible,’ said electrical engineer Dan Stancil of North Carolina State University, who proposed the recent neutrino communication test as a side experiment at Fermilab’s MINERvA neutrino detector.

    mt
    Scientists used Fermilab’s MINERvA neutrino detector to decode a message in a neutrino beam. Image: Fermilab

    The 170-ton MINERvA detector was designed to study neutrino interactions in unprecedented detail, not to function as the receptor in a neutrino telegraph. But luckily for Stancil, the detector sits close to one of the most intense neutrino beams in the world, and that beam is pulsed. Using just over two hours of beam time, scientists were able to manipulate that pulse to convey a message: the word “neutrino.”

    See the full article here.

    lbne

    Symmetrybreaking is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication

     
  • richardmitnick 8:02 am on November 30, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Fermilab MINERvA, ,   

    From Fermilab via Quantum Diaries: “MINERvA becomes first neutrino experiment to use helium target” 


    Fermilab

    Laura Fields
    11.29.11

    “The MINERvA experiment is all about trying to understand what happens when neutrinos collide with ordinary matter, as we’ve mentioned a few other times here on Fermilab’s Quantum Diaries blog: Meet MINERvA: a blend of particle and nuclear physics and A particle physics private eye takes on the great interaction caper.

    One thing we really want to understand is how neutrino interactions change depending on what kind of atomic nucleus is involved in the interaction. To study this, MINERvA has several layers of special materials — iron, lead and carbon – interspersed between the plastic layers that make up most of our detector.

    This past month, we got an exciting new target made of liquid helium. Designing and building the target was no small feat. The helium has to be kept ultra cold, and because MINERvA sits in an underground cavern, lots of care had to be taken so that people working in the cavern would be safe in the event of a gas leak.”

    i1
    Vacuum storage tank for helium lowered into a tunnel at Fermilab to the waiting MINERvA detector 350 feet below. Photo: Tona Kunz

    h1
    Helium target attached to MINERvA detector. Photo: Laura Fields

    See the full article here.

    Participants in Quantum Diaries:

    Fermilab

    Triumf

    US/LHC Blog


    CERN

    Brookhaven Lab

    KEK

     
c
Compose new post
j
Next post/Next comment
k
Previous post/Previous comment
r
Reply
e
Edit
o
Show/Hide comments
t
Go to top
l
Go to login
h
Show/Hide help
shift + esc
Cancel
Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 345 other followers

%d bloggers like this: