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  • richardmitnick 1:16 pm on June 12, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , , CERN CLIC, , , , ,   

    From Symmetry: “Researchers imagine the accelerators of the future” 


    June 12, 2014
    Sarah Charley

    At the LHC Physics Conference in New York, experts looked to the next steps in collider physics.

    In the late 1800s, many scientists thought that the major laws of physics had been discovered—that all that remained to be resolved were a few minor details.

    Then in 1896 came the discovery of the first fundamental particle, the electron, followed by the discovery of atomic nuclei and revolutions in quantum physics and relativity. Modern particle physics had just begun, said Natalie Roe, the Director of the Physics Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, at the recent Large Hadron Collider Physics Conference in New York.

    Since then, physicists have discovered a slew of new elementary particles and have developed a model that accurately describes the fundamental components of matter. But this time, they know that there is more left to find—if only they can reach it. In a presentation and a panel discussion chaired by New York Times science reporter Dennis Overbye, experts at the LHCP Conference discussed the future of collider-based particle physics research.

    The discovery of a Higgs boson bolstered physicists’ confidence in the Standard Model—our best understanding of matter at its most fundamental level. But the Standard Model does not answer important questions such as why the Higgs boson is so light or why neutrinos have mass, nor does it account for dark matter and dark energy, which astronomical observations indicate make up the majority of the known universe.

    The Standard Model of elementary particles, with the three generations of matter, gauge bosons in the fourth column, and the Higgs boson in the fifth.

    “We know that the Standard Model is not a complete theory because many outstanding questions remain,” said CERN physicist Fabiola Gianotti, the former head of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, at the LHCP Conference. “We must ask, at what energy scales do these questions find their answers?”

    ATLAS at the LHC

    CERN LHC Grand Tunnel

    CERN LHC Map
    LHC at CERN

    The LHC will access an energy level higher than any previous accelerator, up to 13 trillion electronvolts, when it restarts in 2015. Scientists are already thinking about what could come next, such as the proposed International Linear Collider or hadron colliders under discussion in Europe and Asia.

    ILC schematic
    ILC design

    CLIC design at CERN

    Building any proposed future accelerator will not be easy, “and none of them are cheap,” Gianotti said. However, one should not discount the opportunities that technological advances can afford.

    Gianotti pointed out that, in a 1954 presentation to the American Physical Society, Nobel Laureate Enrico Fermi estimated that an accelerator capable of accessing up to an energy of 3 trillion electronvolts would need to encircle the Earth and would cost about $170 billion.

    Thanks to the development of colliders and superconducting magnets, the 17-mile-long LHC has reached an energy level more than twice as high for a small fraction of Fermi’s estimated cost.

    Whatever the next step may be, physicists must look toward the future as an international community, panelists said.

    “The world has become more global, and we have contributed to that,” said Sergio Bertolucci, research director at CERN. “Things have changed.”

    According to scientists at the LHCP Conference, the discovery of the Higgs boson by a large international collaboration marked an era in which the big questions are tackled not by one nation, but by a global community.

    See the full article here.

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.

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  • richardmitnick 9:46 pm on May 22, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From Fermilab: “International Linear Collider makes progress in siting, R&D” 

    Fermilab is an enduring source of strength for the US contribution to scientific research world wide.

    Friday, May 16, 2014
    No Writer Credit

    This week, members of the Linear Collider Collaboration met at Fermilab to discuss the progress and future of the proposed International Linear Collider, as well as of CERN’s Compact Linear Collider, during the Americas Workshop on Linear Colliders.

    ILC schematic
    ILC schematic proposal


    At the workshop, scientists and engineers involved in the ILC discussed both their recent successes and the work still to be done to make the 18-mile-long electron-positron collider a reality.

    One recent breakthrough took place at KEK. At the Japanese laboratory’s Accelerator Test Facility, scientists achieved an electron beam height of 55 nanometers at the final focus, or the point where the collision would occur. This is the smallest electron beam ever produced. It was a demonstration that the techniques scientists used to shrink the beam would be transferable to the ILC, whose aim is an electron beam height of 5 nanometers.

    “The ATF at KEK is an essential element in the R&D activity toward a linear collider,” said Linear Collider Collaboration Director Lyn Evans. “The latest results give great confidence that the design parameters of a linear collider can be reached.”

    That electron beam would travel through accelerator cavities — long, hollow niobium structures that look like strings of pearls. Scientists at Fermilab have made significant advancements on this front, achieving world-record quality factors. The so-called quality factor is a measure of how effectively the cavities store energy. The more efficient they are, the lower the cost of refrigeration, which is needed to keep the superconducting cavities cold.

    “This workshop at Fermilab gives us the perfect opportunity to interact with the SRF community here at the lab,” said ILC Director Mike Harrison. “We take advantage of the workshop to catch up on the latest results at the lab.”

    For the first time, ILC researchers actively discussed the International Linear Collider in the context of a precise, geographical home — the Kitakami mountains in the Japan’s Iwate prefecture. Site pictures and films at the workshop included actual accelerator and detector locations among hills and trees.

    “This really gives a sense of reality to the project,” said Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer. “Now the site-specific design work needed to put the ILC in that location can begin in earnest. This has been a long time coming, and we are very pleased with this step forward.”

    See the full article here.

    Fermilab Campus

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.

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  • richardmitnick 6:41 pm on March 11, 2014 Permalink | Reply
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    From SLAC: “SLAC Accelerator Physicists Help Make Sure ILC Will Hit Target” 

    March 7, 2014
    Lori Ann White

    An international team of scientists at Japan’s high-energy accelerator research facility KEK has successfully demonstrated a key component of a future high-power linear collider, such as the International Linear Collider (ILC) under consideration in Japan or the Compact Linear Accelerator (CLIC) being developed at the European facility CERN.

    ILC schematic


    The component, called the final focus optics, will help produce precise beams of particles at these future research facilities, said Glen White, the SLAC accelerator physicist who is lead author on a recent paper in Physical Review Letters.

    Optics for an accelerator that boosts charged particles to near light speed aren’t lenses in the typical sense of eyeglass lenses or magnifying lenses. Instead, “optics” refers to the magnets that steer the particles. The final focus optics for an accelerator are a sequence of powerful magnets that concentrate particles into tight beams. The optics demonstrated by the Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) focused an electron beam down to only a few tens of nanometers tall.

    This special sequence of magnets was developed by former SLAC accelerator physicists Andrei Seryi and Pantaleo Raimondi nearly 15 years ago. Many more SLAC physicists are members of the ATF2 collaboration, an international group of scientists that built and continue to test the structure at the KEK accelerator facility in Japan.

    The optics for a future linear collider must take many different issues into account, said White, including the physics and the economics of extremely energetic beams of tiny particles.

    For example, a magnet will focus charged particles that have slightly different energies to slightly different places.”No bunch of particles in an accelerator is perfectly uniform,” said White. Thus, the particles can “fuzz out” around the focal point, resulting in fewer collisions and less data, unless such differences in position, called chromatic aberrations, are accounted for.

    Previous methods for correcting chromatic aberration, such as those tested during the Final Focus Test Beam experiment at SLAC, required additional lengthy sections of tunnel for the magnets used, thus adding considerable cost, White said. The design the ATF2 collaboration tested involved adding magnets called sextupoles to the focusing magnets, called quadrupoles, already in use. “The sextupoles refocus the particles according to their positions, which are determined by their energies,” he said – essentially reversing the errors introduced by the quadrupoles.

    Sextupole electromagnet as used within the storage ring of the Australian Synchrotron to focus and steer the electron beam

    A quadrupole electromagnet as used in the storage ring of the Australian Synchrotron

    Seryi, who left SLAC in 2010 to become director of the John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science at Oxford University, is a member of the ATF2 collaboration. “It is extremely gratifying to see the idea realized in practice and know that it works,” he said. “I am also tremendously happy that the ATF2 experiment has trained many young accelerator physics experts. This was actually one of the goals – to create the team who will be able to work on the linear collider’s final focus when the real project starts.”

    Now that they know it works, said White, the next steps are to work on stabilizing the beam and train more young physicists for the real thing.

    See the full article here.

    SLAC Campus
    SLAC is a multi-program laboratory exploring frontier questions in photon science, astrophysics, particle physics and accelerator research. Located in Menlo Park, California, SLAC is operated by Stanford University for the DOE’s Office of Science.

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  • richardmitnick 12:24 pm on February 14, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , CERN CLIC   

    From CERN: “Some CLIC with your free-electron laser?” 

    CERN New Masthead

    14 Feb 2014
    Barbara Warmbein

    Particle physics has a long tradition of technologies serendipitously making their way into other realms of science or even everyday life. Think of the web or particle detectors for medical diagnostics. The scientists working on the CLIC accelerator, one of the potential successors of the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, held a “High Gradient Day” specially targeted at industry during their workshop last week in order to catalyse the transfer of knowledge gathered over years of R&D.

    Happy scientists at the end of acceptance-testing a new X-band klystron at SLAC in January. The testing team consists of people from CERN, SLAC, PSI, Trieste and the klystron manufacturer CPI (Image: SLAC)

    Proposed CLIC design

    During the day, several light-source operators from Switzerland, Turkey, Italy, China, Australia and Sweden exchanged their specs, wishes and future plans with the CLIC team. For Walter Wuensch, head of the X-band R&D for CLIC, and his colleagues, a light-source free-electron laser driven by CLIC technology would be a dream come true. Wuensch says that both the technology and beam diagnostic tools have been tested to the core. “We are confident we can build linear accelerators for free-electron lasers according to the desired specifications,” he says.

    The planned CLIC accelerator would use a unique way of accelerating its electrons and their anti-particles, positrons: two accelerators would sit side by side, one, the main linear accelerator or “linac”, getting the beams of particles from source to collision, and the other, the “drive beam”, passing as much power as possible on to the main beams. This gives them a big push, it increases the rate at which they accelerate – their gradient.

    In order to test the accelerating structures, CLIC scientists build test stands that are not powered by the CLIC drive beam but by power sources called klystrons that provide radiofrequency power in the X-band range. They believe that these klystron test stands (combined with high-gradient accelerating structures) could be useful for future free-electron lasers, special accelerator-driven lasers that provide very particular laser light for studying materials, biological samples, molecular processes and much more. “The high gradient means that the accelerator can be very short because beams reach the designated energy much more efficiently,” explains Wuensch. “We have done a lot of research on getting the gradient for CLIC, we have a lot of experience with X-band systems and sources are now available commercially. All this makes an X-band accelerator comparatively affordable.” This means labs or companies can build or upgrade free-electron lasers and make them available for all sorts of applications.

    Another topic at the High Gradient Day was the involvement of CLIC expertise medical projects. One of these, TERA TULIP, looks into operating a proton accelerator for cancer therapy. CLIC’s high-gradient experience could help make the gantry through which the beam is passed to the patient shorter and lighter by installing the accelerator on the gantry itself, thus reducing the number of bending magnets needed for the proton beam and making the gantry more compact. If it could move around the patient and provide high-precision beams, damage to non-cancerous tissue could be avoided.

    A few other potential applications which might benefit from X-band and high-gradient technology were discussed at the industry day, “but these are further down the line,” says Wuensch. We’ll make sure to let you know when the first free-electron laser using CLIC technology comes online.

    See the full article here.

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Cern Courier



    CERN CMS New

    CERN LHCb New


    CERN LHC New

    LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

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  • richardmitnick 8:26 am on April 22, 2013 Permalink | Reply
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    From CERN: “Two-beam module to drive particle beams” 

    CERN New Masthead

    22 Apr 2013
    Cian O’Luanaigh

    “It may look like a steampunk locomotive, but this first prototype module for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) won’t be carrying any passengers. CLIC is a concept for a two-beam linear accelerator to collide electrons and positrons (antielectrons) head-on at energies up to several teraelectronvolts (TeV).

    The first prototype module for the Compact Linear Collider is being tested at CERN (Image:Anna Pantelia/CERN)

    The module above – the first of its kind – is being tested at CERN, with neither beam nor radiofrequency (RF) system. The CLIC two-beam module team is checking the feasibility of the engineering designs for the different technical systems, such as the RF structures, the support structures, the alignment, stabilization and vacuum.”

    In the CLIC machine, energy is extracted from a low-energy, high-intensity electron beam to drive a parallel beam of particles The main linear accelerators (linacs) have a modular design based on 2-metre long two-beam modules, and will operate under ultra-high vacuum conditions required for beam physics.


    See the full article here.

    Meet CERN in a variety of places:

    Cern Courier



    CERN CMS New

    CERN LHCb New


    CERN LHC New

    LHC particles

    Quantum Diaries

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  • richardmitnick 7:33 am on November 21, 2012 Permalink | Reply
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    From Symmetry- “A bouquet of options: Higgs factory ideas bloom” 

    November 20, 2012
    Signe Brewster

    Now that a Higgs-like boson has been discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, proposals to build colliders that churn out the new particle are gathering momentum.

    One possible signature of a Higgs boson from a simulated collision between two protons. It decays almost immediately into two jets of hadrons and two electrons, visible as lines.

    “If you hurl two oranges together at close to the speed of light, there’s going to be a lot of pulp. But, somewhere in the gooey mess will be the rare splinters left over from two seeds colliding.The Large Hadron Collider at CERN works in a similar way. Protons, each made of quarks and gluons, collide and produce other particles. Roughly once every 5 billion proton collisions, everything aligns and a Higgs-like boson pops out.

    Now that a boson with Higgs-like qualities has been found, physicists are calling for something more precise: a Higgs factory that would collide elementary particles to produce Higgs bosons in droves without all the distracting pulp. By colliding particles that don’t break down into composite parts as they produce Higgs-like particles, a Higgs factory could allow a more precise view of the new boson.

    Now that the Higgs-like particle is known to have a mass of about 125 billion electronvolts, scientists know that it is within reach of a variety of proposed colliders, both small and large. As a result, proposals for Higgs factories have emerged for colliders that smash electrons with positrons, muons with muons, or photons with photons.

    Linear electron–positron colliders are among the largest and most expensive Higgs factories because they are designed to be versatile. Two proposed machines, known as the International Linear Collider and the Compact Linear Collider, would be 3.4 miles and 1.35 miles long respectively. It would cost at least $5 billion to build the ILC or CLIC…

    A view of the two beam lines in the CLIC experimental hall.

    Electron–positron colliders can also be circular. The LHC tunnel was originally built for the Large Electron–Positron collider, which produced the first precise measurements of the W and Z bosons in the 1980s. One proposal, called LEP3, would build a Higgs factory in the LHC tunnel, most likely after the LHC shuts down. It would cut costs by using existing infrastructure, such as some of the particle detectors and the cryogenics system.”

    LEP, preceded the LHC at CERN

    See the full article here. There is much more important material here.

    Symmetry is a joint Fermilab/SLAC publication.

  • richardmitnick 1:56 pm on November 23, 2011 Permalink | Reply
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    From isgtw: “New accelerators, now just a CLIC away” 

    Neasan O’Neill
    November 23, 2011

    “In high energy physics bigger is usually better. Now a team at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, has decided to look at different instead of big. The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) team are investigating the potential of a new kind of particle accelerator, and to help them they are simulating their designs using grid resources, such the UK computing grid for particle physics, GridPP.

    Accelerators can be split into two broad categories, linear and circular. The circular ones are known as discovery machines, the experiments where new physics/particles are seen, while the linear machines are about accuracy and really nailing down specific properties and information.

    The 27 kilometer-long Large Hadron Collider at CERN is probably the best known of the discovery machines and CLIC is being designed to complement it (and others) by allowing researchers to flesh out the discoveries made and providing the detail needed for future discoveries/experiments.”

    General design of CLIC. Image courtesy CLIC.

    See the full article here.

  • richardmitnick 1:22 pm on October 27, 2011 Permalink | Reply
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    From CERN Bulletin via ILC Newsline: “Detectors on the drawing board” 

    Katarina Anthony
    Monday 24 October 2011

    ” ‘While the LHC experiments remain the pinnacle of detector technology, you may be surprised to realise that the design and expertise behind them is well over 10 years old,’ says Lucie Linssen, CERN’s Linear Collider Detector (LCD) project manager whose group is pushing the envelope of detector design. “The next generation of detectors will have to surpass the achievements of the LHC experiments. It’s not an easy task but, by observing detectors currently in operation and exploiting a decade’s worth of technological advancements, we’ve made meaningful progress.”

    The LCD team is currently working on detectors for the CLIC experiment. “Electron-positron colliders like CLIC demand detectors with significantly more precision than those at the LHC,” explains Lucie. “We’ve studied a variety of techniques to cope with this precision and other CLIC-specific issues. Many of these were pioneered for earlier linear colliders, but have since been adapted to fit CLIC’s unique parameters.” The team’s work has culminated in two detector designs, published in the CLIC Conceptual Design Report.

    A simulated event display in one of the new generation detectors.

    There is a lot of interesting information in this post. See the full article here. This article at ILC newsline is a bit of a surprise to me, as the CLIC is in direct competition with the ILC itself for future funding ans use.

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