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  • richardmitnick 4:27 pm on November 22, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Carbon Sequestration, ,   

    From Berkeley Lab: “An Inside Look at a MOF in Action” 


    Berkeley Lab

    Berkeley Lab Researchers Probe Into Electronic Structure of MOF May Lead to Improved Capturing of Greenhouse Gases

    November 22, 2013
    Lynn Yarris (510) 486-5375 lcyarris@lbl.gov

    A unique inside look at the electronic structure of a highly touted metal-organic framework (MOF) as it is adsorbing carbon dioxide gas should help in the design of new and improved MOFs for carbon capture and storage. Researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have recorded the first in situ electronic structure observations of the adsorption of carbon dioxide inside Mg-MOF-74, an open metal site MOF that has emerged as one of the most promising strategies for capturing and storing greenhouse gases.

    Working at Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source (ALS), a team led by Jeff Kortright of Berkeley Lab’s Materials Sciences Division, used the X-ray spectroscopy technique known as Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) to obtain what are believed to be the first ever measurements of chemical and electronic signatures inside of a MOF during gas adsorption.

    “We’ve demonstrated that NEXAFS spectroscopy is an effective tool for the study of MOFs and gas adsorption,” Kortright says. “Our study shows that open metal site MOFs have significant X-ray spectral signatures that are highly sensitive to the adsorption of carbon dioxide and other molecules.”

    Kortright is the corresponding author of a paper describing these results in the Journal of the American Chemical Society (JACS). The paper is titled Probing Adsorption Interactions In Metal-Organic Frameworks Using X-ray Spectroscopy. Co-authors are Walter Drisdell, Roberta Poloni, Thomas McDonald, Jeffrey Long, Berend Smit, Jeffrey Neaton and David Prendergast.

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    Mg-MOF-74 is an open metal site MOF whose porous crystalline structure could enable it to serve as a storage vessel for capturing and containing the carbon dioxide emitted from coal-burning power plants. (National Academy of Sciences)

    See the full article here.

    A U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory Operated by the University of California

    University of California Seal

    DOE Seal


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  • richardmitnick 3:53 pm on April 16, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , car, Carbon Sequestration, ,   

    From Livermore Lab: “Lawrence Livermore scientists discover new materials to capture methane” 


    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    04/16/2013
    Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov

    “Scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and UC Berkeley and have discovered new materials to capture methane, the second highest concentration greenhouse gas emitted into the atmosphere.

    zeo
    Methane capture in zeolite SBN. Blue represents adsorption sites, which are optimal for methane (CH4) uptake. Each site is connected to three other sites (yellow arrow) at optimal interaction distance.

    Methane is a substantial driver of global climate change, contributing 30 percent of current net climate warming. Concern over methane is mounting, due to leaks associated with rapidly expanding unconventional oil and gas extraction, and the potential for large-scale release of methane from the Arctic as ice cover continues to melt and decayed material releases methane to the atmosphere. At the same time, methane is a growing source of energy, and aggressive methane mitigation is key to avoiding dangerous levels of global warming.

    The research team, made up of Amitesh Maiti, Roger Aines and Josh Stolaroff of LLNL and Professor Berend Smit, researchers Jihan Kim and Li-Chiang Lin at UC Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, performed systematic computer simulation studies on the effectiveness of methane capture using two different materials – liquid solvents and nanoporous zeolites (porous materials commonly used as commercial adsorbents).

    While the liquid solvents were not effective for methane capture, a handful of zeolites had sufficient methane sorption to be technologically promising. The research appears in the April 16 edition of the journal, Nature Communications.”

    Operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security
    Administration
    DOE Seal
    NNSA

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  • richardmitnick 5:03 pm on January 4, 2013 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Carbon Sequestration, ,   

    From Berkeley Lab: “A New Way to Study Permafrost Soil, Above and Below Ground” 


    Berkeley Lab

    Berkeley Lab research could lead to a better understanding of the Arctic ecosystem’s impact on the planet’s climate

    January 03, 2013
    Dan Krotz

    What does pulling a radar-equipped sled across the Arctic tundra have to do with improving our understanding of climate change? It’s part of a new way to explore the little-known world of permafrost soils, which store almost as much carbon as the rest of the world’s soils and about twice as much as is in the atmosphere.

    Berkeley Permafrost

    The new approach combines several remote-sensing tools to study the Arctic landscape—above and below ground—in high resolution and over large spatial scales. It was developed by a group of researchers that includes scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab).

    They use ground-penetrating radar, electrical resistance tomography, electromagnetic data, and LiDAR airborne measurements. Together, these tools allow the scientists to see the different layers of the terrestrial ecosystem, including the surface topography, the active layer that seasonally freezes and thaws, and the deeper permafrost layer.

    The goal is to help scientists determine what will happen to permafrost-trapped carbon as the climate changes. Will it stay put? Or will it enter the atmosphere and accelerate climate change?

    lidar
    The scientists use data from airborne Lidar, surface geophysical measurements, and point measurements to explore the complex relationships between different layers of permafrost soil.

    ‘By combining surface geophysical and airborne remote-sensing methods, we have a new window that allows us to study permafrost systems like never before,’ says Susan Hubbard, a geophysicist in Berkeley Lab’s Earth Sciences Division who leads the Lab’s participation in the NGEE-Arctic collaboration.

    ngee

    Carbon sequestration and carbon dioxide are constants in our lives, making this a very important research. See the full article here.

    A U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory Operated by the University of California

    doeseal
    cal

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  • richardmitnick 3:34 pm on December 12, 2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Carbon Sequestration, ,   

    From PNNL: “Carbon dioxide reveals a predilection for tumbling alone and lining up together” 

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Carbon Dioxide emissions are very important, so this research is very important.

    December 2012
    Suraiya Farukhi
    Christine Sharp

    Results: Crowded together on a titanium dioxide surface, carbon dioxide molecules relinquish their free-tumbling ways to form crooked lines and cling to molecules in nearby lines, according to scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Bringing together a trio of instruments and a supercomputer, the team joined experiments and theory to understand carbon dioxide’s behavior.

    ‘We want to build our understanding from the ground up,’ said Dr. Zdenek Dohnalek, an experimental chemist on the study. ‘We want to understand the interaction of carbon dioxide with well-known models of oxides, such as titanium dioxide.’

    tit
    Carbon dioxide diffuses on titanium rows by a tumbling mechanism. Once bound to a titanium atom, the carbon dioxide’s axis tilts. No image credit.

    Why It Matters: Understanding how carbon dioxide molecules behave is basic science needed by the energy sector to facilitate carbon sequestration and fuel production. Sequestration stores carbon dioxide emissions from power plants underground. Fuel production uses the carbon dioxide as a building block to create fuels.

    ‘While titanium dioxide is a model material that will likely not be used to sequester carbon dioxide or serve as a catalyst for fuel conversion, the fundamental aspects of carbon dioxide reactivity revealed in our study are very intriguing,’ said Dr. Xiao Lin, a Linus Pauling Postdoctoral Fellow at PNNL, who proposed this research as part of his fellowship.”

    See the full article here.

    i1

    “Located in Richland, Washington, PNNL is one among ten U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories managed by DOE’s Office of Science. Our research strengthens the U.S. foundation for innovation, and we help find solutions for not only DOE, but for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, the National Nuclear Security Administration, other government agencies, universities and industry.”


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  • richardmitnick 6:01 pm on January 6, 2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Carbon Sequestration, , ,   

    From Berkeley Lab: “Depleted Gas Reservoirs Can Double as Geologic Carbon Storage Sites” 


    Berkeley Lab

    Berkeley Lab scientists help verify science behind geologic carbon sequestration

    Dan Krotz
    JANUARY 05, 2012

    “A demonstration project on the southeastern tip of Australia has helped to verify that depleted natural gas reservoirs can be repurposed for geologic carbon sequestration, which is a climate change mitigation strategy that involves pumping CO2 deep underground for permanent storage.

    The project, which includes scientists from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), also demonstrated that depleted gas fields have enough CO2 storage capacity to make a significant contribution to reducing global emissions.

    i1
    Aerial view of the Otway Project in Australia (Image: CO2CRC).

    During an 18-month span beginning in April 2008, an international team of researchers injected 65,000 tonnes of CO2-rich gas two kilometers underground into a depleted gas field in western Victoria, Australia. That’s about 130 tonnes of CO2 per day, or the amount emitted by a small, 10-megawatt power plant. It’s also the daily CO2 emissions required to supply 6000 average U.S. homes with electricity.

    i3
    Geological cross-section of the Otway Project. CO2-rich gas is extracted from the Buttress well (on the left), injected into the depleted gas field using CRC-1, and the Naylor-1 well houses the monitoring equipment installed by Berkeley Lab scientists. Faults are black lines.

    ‘There was no discernible leakage. The CO2 stayed within the reservoir and behaved as expected,’ says Barry Freifeld, a mechanical engineer in Berkeley Lab’s Earth Sciences Division who helped set up and interpret the site’s well-based monitoring equipment.”

    See the full article here. There is a whole lot more in this article than I could possibly include.

    A US Department of Energy National Laboratory Operated by the University of California

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  • richardmitnick 10:29 am on January 3, 2012 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Carbon Sequestration, , , , , ,   

    From DOE Pulse: “Initiative aims to speed carbon capture technology” 

    January 2, 2012
    Submitted by DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory

    “The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a partnership among five DOE national laboratories (NETL, Lawrence Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Pacific Northwest), industry, and various academic institutions that are working together to develop state-of-the-art computational modeling and simulation tools to accelerate the commercialization of carbon capture technologies from discovery to development, demonstration, and ultimately, widespread deployment at hundreds of power plants. CCSI is part of DOE/NETL’s comprehensive carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) research program, part of the President’s plan to overcome barriers to the widespread, cost-effective deployment of CCS within 10 years.”

    See the full post here.

    cs




     
  • richardmitnick 3:17 pm on November 3, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Carbon Sequestration, ,   

    From PNNL Lab: “What Are Those Molecules Doing?” 

    New technology enables molecular-level insight into carbon sequestration

    Results: Scientists decoding the reactions that occur during geologic carbon sequestration were severely hampered by the tools available. Now, thanks to a team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, scientists can examine molecular interactions at the high pressures and temperatures expected in deep geologic reservoirs. They created a device, known as High-pressure Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR), that provides detailed information on the reactions happening between minerals and carbon dioxide.

    ‘The early work with this new tool is promising,’ said Dr. Kevin Rosso, a PNNL geochemist on the study. “This unique capability brings the detailed probing power of solid-state NMR to the table for understanding mineral transformations in pressurized carbon dioxide in situ.’

    Why It Matters: Sequestering carbon-based emissions, especially from coal-fired power plants, is vital to managing climate change, which affects cities and crops. For widespread carbon sequestration adoption, complex questions about the permanence of proposed underground reservoirs must be answered. These questions include the prospect of reactions between minerals and carbon-dioxide-rich fluids affecting caprock’s sealing integrity. The new MAS NMR capability will aid in fundamentally studying these reactions, ultimately so that scientists can inform industry and policymakers on site selection and other decisions.”

    i2
    Thanks to a team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, scientists can examine molecular interactions at the high pressures and temperatures expected in deep geologic reservoirs.

    See the full article here.

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  • richardmitnick 8:37 pm on May 10, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Carbon Sequestration, ,   

    From NETL: “Materials for Oxy-fuel Combustion” 

    LabNotes – May 2011

    Materials for Oxy-fuel Combustion

    “Materials research is underway at NETL to enable the development of advanced combustion technologies that can capture at least 90% of a power plant’s carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions with less than a 35% increase in the cost of electricity. Oxy-fuel combustion is a new technology that is based on burning fossil fuels in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen, rather than in air. An optimized oxy-combustion power plant will have ultra-low emissions since the flue gas that results from oxy-fuel combustion is almost all CO2 and water vapor.”

    i1
    A representative pc boiler refitted for oxy-firing. The materials performance research areas at NETL are circled. Note the two different options for CO2 circulation back into the boiler to maintain heat transfer characteristics similar to air-firing.

    There is a lot more to this story. See the full article here.

     
  • richardmitnick 12:50 pm on February 1, 2011 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Carbon Sequestration,   

    From Berkeley Labs: “A Clearer Picture of Carbon Sequestration” 

    Simulations Shed Light on Fate of Sequestered CO2

    Margie Wylie
    January 31, 2010

    “Despite progress in clean energy, Americans will continue to rely on fossil fuels for years to come. In fact, coal-, oil- and natural gas-fired power plants will generate 69 percent of U.S. electricity as late as 2035, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

    Such sobering projections have sparked a wide range of proposals for keeping the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) out of the atmosphere where it traps heat and contributes to global warming. Berkeley Lab scientists are using computer simulations to evaluate one promising idea: Pump it into salt-water reservoirs deep underground…

    i1
    Geologic sequestration in saline aquifers (3) is shown in this illustration alongside other geologic sequestration ideas. Courtesy of Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO2CRC)

    “Underground, or geologic, carbon sequestration ‘…will be key tool in reducing atmospheric CO2,’ says George Pau, a Luis W. Alvarez Postdoctoral Fellow with Berkeley Lab’s Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE). ‘By providing better characterizations of the processes involved, we can more accurately predict the performance of carbon sequestration projects, including the storage capacity and long-term security of a potential site.’ “

    This is a very important topic. There is a great deal of valuable data in this article. Read the full article here.

     
  • richardmitnick 2:52 pm on November 13, 2010 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: Carbon Sequestration,   

    From Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: “The Chemistry of Carbon Sequestration” 

    The Chemistry of Carbon Sequestration
    Geochemical expert discusses turning carbon dioxide into minerals, need for catalysts

    “Capturing and storing carbon dioxide emitted by cars, cement plants, and other sources is a global problem and one that has taken over much of Dr. Eric Oelkers’ career. A well-respected geochemist whose articles have garnered more than 4000 citations, Oelkers shared his insights on carbon sequestration at the Frontiers in Geochemistry Seminar Series on October 28, 2010. This series provides a venue for experts to share novel ideas and scientific advances with staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. “

    This article, and you can read the rest, should lead you to the Frontiers in Geochemistry article at the above link. But, it says, in part,

    “Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the ultimate fate of CO2 injected into the subsurface is its incorporation into carbonate rocks. The degree to which this actually happens depends greatly on the rates of both dissolution reactions, which release divalent metal cations into solution and precipitation reactions that combine injected CO2 with divalent cations to form stable carbonate minerals. Although it is commonly believed that the overall rate of this process will be limited by the slow dissolution rates of silicate minerals, recent work shows that other than Ca-carbonates, such as calcite, few carbonate minerals precipitate readily at low temperatures; laboratory studies show that magnesite (MgCO3) and dawsonite (NaAlCO3(OH2)) fail to precipitate at temperatures of ~100 and ~160° C, respectively. Again, read the rest here.

    eric
    Eric H Oelkers

    “A graduate of the University of California at Berkeley, Dr. Eric Oelkers is well respected in the geochemical community. He is a co-author of the software package SUPCRT92. This software calculates the thermodynamic properties of minerals, gases, aqueous species, and reactions over a range of temperatures and pressures. Oelkers is also known for his work on the journals Chemical Geology, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, and Elements. He is a Research Director at the National Center of Scientific Research in Toulouse, France. He is also Chair of the Center’s Experimental Geochemistry and Biogeochemistry Department.”

     
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