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  • richardmitnick 2:07 pm on September 17, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Astrophysics, , ,   

    From NASA/Chandra: “NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory Finds Planet That Makes Star Act Deceptively Old” 

    NASA Chandra

    September 16, 2014
    Media contacts:
    Felicia Chou
    Headquarters, Washington
    202-358-0257
    felicia.chou@nasa.gov

    Janet Anderson
    Marshall Space Flight Center
    256-544-6162
    janet.l.anderson@nasa.gov

    Megan Watzke
    Chandra X-ray Center, Cambridge, Mass.
    617-496-7998
    mwatzke@cfa.harvard.edu

    A giant planet appears to be weakening the magnetic field of the star it closely orbits. The planet, called WASP 18b, is over ten times Jupiter’s mass but is so close to its star that it completes an orbit in less than a day. The extreme tidal forces by this “hot Jupiter” are apparently changing the internal structure of the star. Chandra data show the star is acting much older than the age astronomers estimate it to be.

    A planet may be causing the star it orbits to act much older than it actually is, according to new data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory. This discovery shows how a massive planet can affect the behavior of its parent star.

    The star, WASP 18, and its planet, WASP-18b, are located about 330 light-years from Earth. WASP-18b has a mass about 10 times that of Jupiter and completes one orbit around its star in less than 23 hours, placing WASP-18b in the “hot Jupiter” category of exoplanets, or planets outside our solar system.

    wasp
    Credit X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/I.Pillitteri et al; Optical: DSS; Illustration: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss
    Release Date September 16, 2014

    WASP-18b is the first known example of an orbiting planet that has apparently caused its star, which is roughly the mass of our sun, to display traits of an older star.

    “WASP-18b is an extreme exoplanet,” said Ignazio Pillitteri of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo in Italy, who led the study. “It is one of the most massive hot Jupiters known and one of the closest to its host star, and these characteristics lead to unexpected behavior. This planet is causing its host star to act old before its time.”

    Pillitteri’s team determined – WASP-18 is between 500 million and 2 billion years old, based on theoretical models and other data. While this may sound old, it is considered young by astronomical standards. By comparison, our sun is about 5 billion years old and thought to be about halfway through its lifetime.

    Younger stars tend to be more active, exhibiting stronger magnetic fields, larger flares, and more intense X-ray emission than their older counterparts. Magnetic activity, flaring, and X-ray emission are linked to the star’s rotation, which generally declines with age. However, when astronomers took a long look with Chandra at WASP-18 they didn’t detect any X-rays. Using established relations between the magnetic activity and X-ray emission of stars, as well as its actual age, researchers determined WASP-18 is about 100 times less active than it should be.

    “We think the planet is aging the star by wreaking havoc on its innards,” said co-author Scott Wolk of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

    The researchers argue that tidal forces created by the gravitational pull of the massive planet – similar to those the moon has on Earth’s tides, but on a much larger scale – may have disrupted the magnetic field of the star.

    The strength of the magnetic field depends on the amount of convection in the star, or how intensely hot gas stirs the interior of the star.

    “The planet’s gravity may cause motions of gas in the interior of the star that weaken the convection,” said co-author Salvatore Sciortino also of INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo in Italy. “This has a domino effect that results in the magnetic field becoming weaker and the star to age prematurely.”

    WASP-18 is particularly susceptible to this effect because its convection zone is narrower than most stars. This makes it more vulnerable to the impact of tidal forces that tug at it.

    The effect of tidal forces from the planet may also explain an unusually high amount of lithium found in earlier optical studies of WASP-18. Lithium is usually abundant in younger stars, but over time convection carries lithium to the hot inner regions of a star, where it is destroyed by nuclear reactions. If there is less convection, the lithium does not circulate into the interior of the star as much, allowing more lithium to survive.

    These results were published in the July issue of Astronomy and Astrophysics and are available online.

    See the full article here.

    NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra’s science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

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  • richardmitnick 12:59 pm on September 17, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Astrophysics, , ,   

    From Hubble: “Big surprises can come in small packages” 

    NASA Hubble Telescope

    Hubble

    17 September 2014
    Contacts

    Anil Seth
    University of Utah
    Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
    Tel: +1-801-585-7793
    Cell: +1-206-724-3820
    Email: aseth@astro.utah.edu

    Remco van den Bosch
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
    Heidelberg, Germany
    Tel: +1-702-337-9424 (currently travelling in USA)
    Email: bosch@mpia.de

    Georgia Bladon
    ESA/Hubble, Public Information Officer
    Garching bei München, Germany
    Tel: +44 7816291261
    Email: gbladon@partner.eso.org

    Hubble helps astronomers find smallest known galaxy with supermassive black hole

    Astronomers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have found a monster lurking in a very unlikely place. New observations of the ultracompact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1 have revealed a supermassive black hole at its heart, making this tiny galaxy the smallest ever found to host a supermassive black hole. This suggests that there may be many more supermassive black holes that we have missed, and tells us more about the formation of these incredibly dense galaxies. The results will be published in the journal Nature on 18 September 2014.

    bh

    Lying about 50 million light-years away, M60-UCD1 is a tiny galaxy with a diameter of 300 light-years — just 1/500th of the diameter of the Milky Way. Despite its size it is pretty crowded, containing some 140 million stars. While this is characteristic of an ultracompact dwarf galaxy (UCD) like M60-UCD1, this particular UCD happens to be the densest ever seen.

    Despite their huge numbers of stars, UCDs always seem to be heavier than they should be. Now, an international team of astronomers has made a new discovery that may explain why — at the heart of M60-UCD1 lurks a supermassive black hole with the mass of 20 million Suns.

    “We’ve known for some time that many UCDs are a bit overweight. They just appear to be too heavy for the luminosity of their stars,” says co-author Steffen Mieske of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. “We had already published a study that suggested this additional weight could come from the presence of supermassive black holes, but it was only a theory. Now, by studying the movement of the stars within M60-UCD1, we have detected the effects of such a black hole at its centre. This is a very exciting result and we want to know how many more UCDs may harbour such extremely massive objects.”

    The supermassive black hole at the centre of M60-UCD1 makes up a huge 15 percent of the galaxy’s total mass, and weighs five times that of the black hole at the centre of the Milky Way. “That is pretty amazing, given that the Milky Way is 500 times larger and more than 1000 times heavier than M60-UCD1,” explains Anil Seth of the University of Utah, USA, lead author of the international study. “In fact, even though the black hole at the centre of our Milky Way galaxy has the mass of 4 million Suns it is still less than 0.01 percent of the Milky Way’s total mass, which makes you realise how significant M60-UCD1’s black hole really is.”

    The team discovered the supermassive black hole by observing M60-UCD1 with both the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and the Gemini North 8-metre optical and infrared telescope on Hawaii’s Mauna Kea, USA. The sharp Hubble images provided information about the galaxy’s diameter and stellar density, whilst Gemini was used to measure the movement of stars in the galaxy as they were affected by the black hole’s gravitational pull. These data were then used to calculate the mass of the unseen black hole.

    Gemini North telescope
    Gemini North Interior
    Gemini Noth

    The finding implies that there may be a substantial population of previously unnoticed black holes. In fact, the astronomers predict there may be as many as double the known number of black holes in the local Universe.

    Additionally, the results could affect theories of how such UCDs form. “This finding suggests that dwarf galaxies may actually be the stripped remnants of larger galaxies that were torn apart during collisions with other galaxies, rather than small islands of stars born in isolation,” explains Seth. “We don’t know of any other way you could make a black hole so big in an object this small.”

    One explanation is that M60-UCD1 was once a large galaxy containing 10 billion stars, and a supermassive black hole to match. “This galaxy may have passed too close to the centre of its much larger neighbouring galaxy, Messier 60,” explains co author Remco van den Bosch of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany. “In that process the outer part of the galaxy would have been torn away to become part of Messier 60, leaving behind only the small and compact galaxy we see today.”

    The team believes that M60-UDC1 may one day merge with Messier 60 to form a single galaxy. Messier 60 also has its own monster black hole an amazing 4.5 billion times the size of our Sun and more than 1000 times bigger than the black hole in our Milky Way. A merger between the two galaxies would also cause the black holes to merge, creating an even more monstrous black hole.

    The international team of astronomers in this study consists of A.C. Seth (University of Utah, USA); R. van den Bosch (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany); S. Mieske (European Southern Observatory, Chile); H. Baumgardt (University of Queensland, Australia); M. den Brok (University of Utah, USA); J. Strader (Michigan State University, USA); N. Neumayer (European Southern Observatory, Germany); I. Chilingarian (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, USA; Moscow State University, Russia); M. Hilker (European Southern Observatory, Germany); R. McDermid (Australian Astronomical Observatory, Australia; Macquarie University, Australia); L. Spitler (Australian Astronomical Observatory, Australia; Macquarie University, Australia); J. Brodie (University of California, USA); M. J. Frank (Heidelberg University, Germany); J. L. Walsh (The University of Texas at Austin, USA).

    See the full article, with notes, here.

    The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), is a free-standing science center, located on the campus of The Johns Hopkins University and operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA, conducts Hubble science operations.

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  • richardmitnick 11:47 am on September 17, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Astrophysics, , , Smithsonian.com   

    From Smithsonian.com: “What Is the Universe? Real Physics Has Some Mind-Bending Answers” 

    smithsonian
    Smithsonian.com

    September 15, 2014
    Victoria Jaggard

    blast
    Figuring out the mysteries of the universe, one galaxy collision at a time. (NASA, ESA, SAO, CXC, JPL-Caltech, and STScI)

    Read more: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science/what-universe-real-physics-has-some-mind-bending-answers-180952699/#fJkHQYFzz9hDYW6i.99
    Give the gift of Smithsonian magazine for only $12! http://bit.ly/1cGUiGv
    Follow us: @SmithsonianMag on Twitter

    Science says the universe could be a hologram, a computer program, a black hole or a bubble—and there are ways to check

    The questions are as big as the universe and (almost) as old as time: Where did I come from, and why am I here? That may sound like a query for a philosopher, but if you crave a more scientific response, try asking a cosmologist.

    This branch of physics is hard at work trying to decode the nature of reality by matching mathematical theories with a bevy of evidence. Today most cosmologists think that the universe was created during the big bang about 13.8 billion years ago, and it is expanding at an ever-increasing rate. The cosmos is woven into a fabric we call space-time, which is embroidered with a cosmic web of brilliant galaxies and invisible dark matter.

    It sounds a little strange, but piles of pictures, experimental data and models compiled over decades can back up this description. And as new information gets added to the picture, cosmologists are considering even wilder ways to describe the universe—including some outlandish proposals that are nevertheless rooted in solid science:

    image
    Will this collection of lasers and mirrors prove the universe is a 2D hologram? (Fermilab)

    The universe is a hologram

    Look at a standard hologram, printed on a 2D surface, and you’ll see a 3D projection of the image. Decrease the size of the individual dots that make up the image, and the hologram gets sharper. In the 1990s, physicists realized that something like this could be happening with our universe.

    Classical physics describes the fabric of space-time as a four-dimensional structure, with three dimensions of space and one of time. [Albert] Einstein’s theory of general relativity says that, at its most basic level, this fabric should be smooth and continuous. But that was before quantum mechanics leapt onto the scene. While relativity is great at describing the universe on visible scales, quantum physics tells us all about the way things work on the level of atoms and subatomic particles. According to quantum theories, if you examine the fabric of space-time close enough, it should be made of teeny-tiny grains of information, each a hundred billion billion times smaller than a proton.

    Stanford physicist Leonard Susskind and Nobel prize winner Gerard ‘t Hooft have each presented calculations showing what happens when you try to combine quantum and relativistic descriptions of space-time. They found that, mathematically speaking, the fabric should be a 2D surface, and the grains should act like the dots in a vast cosmic image, defining the “resolution” of our 3D universe. Quantum mechanics also tells us that these grains should experience random jitters that might occasionally blur the projection and thus be detectable. Last month, physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory started collecting data with a highly sensitive arrangement of lasers and mirrors called the Holometer. This instrument is finely tuned to pick up miniscule motion in space-time and reveal whether it is in fact grainy at the smallest scale. The experiment should gather data for at least a year, so we may know soon enough if we’re living in a hologram.

    holo
    The sensitivity of various experiments to fluctuations in space and time. Horizontal axis is the log of apparatus size (or duration times the speed of light), in meters; vertical axis is the log of the RMS fluctuation amplitude in the same units.

    The universe is a computer simulation

    Just like the plot of the Matrix, you may be living in a highly advanced computer program and not even know it. Some version of this thinking has been debated since long before Keanu uttered his first “whoa”. Plato wondered if the world as we perceive it is an illusion, and modern mathematicians grapple with the reason math is universal—why is it that no matter when or where you look, 2 + 2 must always equal 4? Maybe because that is a fundamental part of the way the universe was coded.

    In 2012, physicists at the University of Washington in Seattle said that if we do live in a digital simulation, there might be a way to find out. Standard computer models are based on a 3D grid, and sometimes the grid itself generates specific anomalies in the data. If the universe is a vast grid, the motions and distributions of high-energy particles called cosmic rays may reveal similar anomalies—a glitch in the Matrix—and give us a peek at the grid’s structure. A 2013 paper by MIT engineer Seth Lloyd builds the case for an intriguing spin on the concept: If space-time is made of quantum bits, the universe must be one giant quantum computer. Of course, both notions raise a troubling quandary: If the universe is a computer program, who or what wrote the code?

    bh
    An active supermassive black hole at the core of the
    Centaurus A galaxy blasts jets of radiation into space. (ESO/WFI (visible); MPIfR/ESO/APEX/A.Weiss et al. (microwave); NASA/CXC/CfA/R.Kraft et al. (X-ray))

    The universe is a black hole

    Any “Astronomy 101” book will tell you that the universe burst into being during the big bang. But what existed before that point, and what triggered the explosion? A 2010 paper by Nikodem Poplawski, then at Indiana University, made the case that our universe was forged inside a really big black hole.

    While Stephen Hawking keeps changing his mind, the popular definition of a black hole is a region of space-time so dense that, past a certain point, nothing can escape its gravitational pull. Black holes are born when dense packets of matter collapse in on themselves, such as during the deaths of especially hefty stars. Some versions of the equations that describe black holes go on to say that the compressed matter does not fully collapse into a point—or singularity—but instead bounces back, spewing out hot, scrambled matter.

    Poplawski crunched the numbers and found that observations of the shape and composition of the universe match the mathematical picture of a black hole being born. The initial collapse would equal the big bang, and everything in and around us would be made from the cooled, rearranged components of that scrambled matter. Even better, the theory suggests that all the black holes in our universe may themselves be the gateways to alternate realities. So how do we test it? This model is based on black holes that spin, because that rotation is part of what prevents the original matter from fully collapsing. Poplawski says we should be able to see an echo of the spin inherited from our “parent” black hole in surveys of galaxies, with vast clusters moving in a slight, but potentially detectable, preferred direction.

    The universe is a bubble in an ocean of universes

    Another cosmic puzzle comes up when you consider what happened in the first slivers of a second after the big bang. Maps of relic light emitted shortly after the universe was born tell us that baby space-time grew exponentially in the blink of an eye before settling into a more sedate rate of expansion. This process, called inflation, is pretty popular among cosmologists, and it got a further boost this year with the potential (but still unconfirmed) discovery of ripples in space-time called gravitational waves, which would have been products of the rapid growth spurt.

    gw
    image produced by gravitational waves

    If inflation is confirmed, some theorists would argue that we must live in a frothy sea of multiple universes. Some of the earliest models of inflation say that before the big bang, space-time contained what’s known as a false vacuum, a high-energy field devoid of matter and radiation that is inherently unstable. To reach a stable state, the vacuum began to bubble like a pot of boiling water. With each bubble, a new universe was born, giving rise to an endless multiverse.

    The trouble with testing this idea is that the cosmos is ridiculously huge—the observable universe stretches for about 46 billion light years in all directions—and even our best telescopes can’t hope to peer at the surface of a bubble this big. One option, then, is to look for any evidence of our bubble universe colliding with another. Today our best maps of the big bang’s relic light do show an unusual cold spot in the sky that could be a “bruise” from bumping into a cosmic neighbor. Or it could be a statistical fluke. So a team of researchers led by Carroll Wainwright at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has been running computer models to figure out what other sorts of traces a bubbly collision would leave in the big bang’s echo.

    See the full article here.

    Smithsonian magazine and Smithsonian.com place a Smithsonian lens on the world, looking at the topics and subject matters researched, studied and exhibited by the Smithsonian Institution — science, history, art, popular culture and innovation — and chronicling them every day for our diverse readership.

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  • richardmitnick 10:37 am on September 17, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Astrophysics, , , ,   

    About SKA from CIO Australia: “Pawsey rigs up petascale supercomputer” 

    SKA Square Kilometer Array

    SKA

    cio

    09 September, 2014
    Byron Connolly (CIO)

    Cray XC30 system has more than 35,000 cores.

    The $80 million Pawsey Supercomputing Centre in Western Australia has completed the final upgrade of its ‘Magnus’ machine, which provides processing power in excess of a petaflop.

    Magnus, the largest research computer in the Southern Hemisphere, is a Cray XC30 system with more than 35,000 cores using Intel’s new Xeon’s E5-2600 v3 processors. A petaflop machine can complete one quadrillion floating point operations per second.

    cray
    The ‘Magnus’ petscale supercomputer

    It follows the launch in August 2012 of Pawsey’s terascale supercomputer, dubbed Fornax.

    The Pawsey facility is run by iVEC, a collaboration between the CSIRO, the University of Western Australia, Murdoch University, Curtin University, and Edith Cowan University.

    The CSIRO has been eyeing a petascale computer since late 2011 to crunch data for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP), and Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) radio astronomy telescopes projects.

    SKA CSIRO  Pathfinder Telescope
    SKA CSIRO Pathfinder Radio Telescope

    ska murch
    SKA Murchison Widefield Array (MWA)

    Magnus will also be used by researchers in the areas of nanotechnology, high energy physics, medical research, mining and petroleum, architecture and construction, and urban planning.

    Pawsey Supercomputing Centre executive director, Dr Neil Stringfellow, said Pawsey currently runs 100 science projects being run by 500 plus users at any one time.

    Read more In pictures: Pawsey Centre

    Dr Stringfellow said researchers from Curtin University had already used the machine – running the earlier Intel Xeon E5-2600 v1 processors – to do lung simulations using a ‘moving mesh’ computational approach.

    “This helps us to understand how the lungs work – it’s the largest lung simulation in the world,” he said.

    This research will help people with asthma, for example, by creating improved aerosol medications, he said.

    Scientific researchers were so keen to get access to computing power provided by this machine that Pawsey was three times oversubscribed in the number of CPU hours that were available to give away.

    There was demand for 250 million CPU hours from researchers in mining, geoscience, bioinformatics, and ‘blue sky’ research in astronomy around galaxy formations.

    “What we have here is a world-class scientific instrument,” he said.

    Dr Stringfellow told CIO Australia that Pawsey had no plans to install a quantum computer in the near future.

    Meanwhile, the Intel Xeon E5-2600 v3 chips include platform telemetry sensors and metrics for CPU, memory and I/O usage, as well as thermal sensors that monitor airflow and outlet temperature.

    A cache monitoring feature also provides data that lets orchestration tools intelligently place and rebalance workloads, resulting in faster completion times.

    It also conducts analysis of performance anomalies due to competition for cache in a multi-tenant cloud environment where there is little visibility into what workloads consumers are running, Intel said.

    See the full article here.

    SKA Banner

    About SKA

    The Square Kilometre Array will be the world’s largest and most sensitive radio telescope. The total collecting area will be approximately one square kilometre giving 50 times the sensitivity, and 10 000 times the survey speed, of the best current-day telescopes. The SKA will be built in Southern Africa and in Australia. Thousands of receptors will extend to distances of 3 000 km from the central regions. The SKA will address fundamental unanswered questions about our Universe including how the first stars and galaxies formed after the Big Bang, how dark energy is accelerating the expansion of the Universe, the role of magnetism in the cosmos, the nature of gravity, and the search for life beyond Earth. Construction of phase one of the SKA is scheduled to start in 2016. The SKA Organisation, with its headquarters at Jodrell Bank Observatory, near Manchester, UK, was established in December 2011 as a not-for-profit company in order to formalise relationships between the international partners and centralise the leadership of the project.

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  • richardmitnick 9:27 am on September 17, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Astrophysics, , , , ,   

    From NOVA: “Chasing the Edge of the Solar System” Old But Worth a Look 

    PBS NOVA

    NOVA

    Tue, 09 Apr 2013
    David McComas

    For most of its lifetime, Voyager 1 has been traveling through uncharted territory. Initially launched to study the outer planets, Voyager 1 has soldiered on past Jupiter and Saturn and on to the outer edges of the solar system. It’s currently the farthest human-made object from Earth, but when will it be the first spacecraft to travel between the stars? Well, we won’t know until we answer two more fundamental questions: Where does our solar system end and the rest of the space between the stars begin? And if you were at the “edge” of our solar system, how would you know you had left? Recent scientific discussions on the Voyager spacecraft missions have captivated many people. And as the scientific debate swirled around the internet in near-real time, it became clear that these questions are not easy to answer. Voyager spacecraft
    The identical Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are currently probing the farthest reaches of the solar system.

    NASA Voyager 2
    NASA/Voyager 2

    As the Principal Investigator for NASA’s Interstellar Boundary Explorer, or IBEX, spacecraft, I lead a team that is also studying this last frontier of our solar system. Data from IBEX complements the Voyager spacecraft—both missions are working together to find the very farthest reaches of the solar system. Unlike the Voyager spacecraft, which are careening out into interstellar space, IBEX orbits the Earth, collecting particles that have traveled in from the solar system’s boundary region and beyond. From those particles, we can determine many things, including what the boundary is like and what, exactly, is happening out there.

    NASA IBEX
    NASA/IBEX

    More Than Planets

    Most everyone knows our solar system is composed of small solid objects orbiting the Sun—planets, comets, and asteroids. But there’s more to it than that. Our Sun continuously emits a “wind” of material outward in all directions, typically at speeds of about a million miles per hour (1.6 million kilometers per hour). The solar wind is composed mostly of charged particles, such as electrons and protons. It also carries the Sun’s magnetic field. As the solar wind streams away from the Sun, it races out past all the planets, past Pluto, and toward the space between the stars more than 10 billion miles away. We tend to think of that space as empty, but it’s not. Rather, it contains cold hydrogen gas, dust, ionized gas, and traces of other material. Called the interstellar medium, it’s a very thin mix that comes from exploded stars and the stellar wind of other stars. When the magnetic fields of the solar wind hit the magnetic fields of the interstellar medium, they do not intermix. The expanding solar wind pushes against the interstellar medium, clearing out a cavity in interstellar space known as the heliosphere. The boundary of that bubble is where the solar wind’s strength exactly matches the pressure of the interstellar medium. We call it the heliopause, and it’s often considered to be the very outer edge of our solar system.

    The Heliopause.

    A few things about the heliopause: It isn’t an impermeable wall. Instead, it’s more like the edge of a forest clearing—the boundary is well defined, but easily negotiated. It’s also shaped more like a drop of water than a uniform sphere. That’s because our entire heliosphere, which contains our Sun, the planets, and everything else in our solar system, is moving through the interstellar medium at about 50,000 miles per hour (80,000 kilometers per hour). That motion creates a wake in the interstellar medium, much like a boat moving through water. As the solar system travels through the interstellar medium the heliopause is closest at the “front,” or the foremost point in the direction in which our solar system is traveling. At that point, the heliopause is still over 10 billion miles, or 16 billion kilometers, from the Sun.

    hh
    Heliosphere and heliopause

    As solar wind pushes out against the interestellar medium, it creates a bubble known as the heliosphere; the boundary between the two is known as the heliopause. The termination shock is where the solar wind slows as it presses against more of the interstellar medium, which also raises the plasma’s temperature. The bow wave is where the interstellar medium material piles up in front of our heliosphere, similar to water in front of a moving boat
    At least, that’s our best guess. We don’t know exactly where the boundary is or what it’s like. That’s what the IBEX and Voyager missions are trying to find out. IBEX lets us peer into the boundaries of our solar system to get a better idea of what it’s like and what’s happening there. However, because IBEX orbits the Earth, we cannot use it to mark where the boundary is located. That’s where Voyager 1 and 2 come in. Currently, they are directly sampling the boundary region. Several of the instruments on Voyager 1 and 2 are no longer working, including the cameras used to snap the stunning fly-by photos of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, but others that detect charged particles and magnetic fields are still gathering data. Both Voyagers are traveling in roughly the same direction as our solar system through the interstellar medium. We expect Voyager 1, the quicker and farther out of the two, to reach the heliopause first. Currently, it’s just over 11 billion miles, or 18 billion kilometers, from the Sun. This is so distant that radio signals from Voyager 1, which are traveling at the speed of light, take 17 hours to reach Earth.

    Three Criteria

    Before we can declare that Voyager 1 has crossed the heliopause, we are waiting to observe three main changes:

    A decrease in highly energetic charged particles from inside our heliosphere,
    An increase in highly energetic charged particles from outside our heliosphere,
    And a change in the strength and direction of the magnetic field, matching that outside the heliosphere.

    Voyager 1 observed the first two in late 2012, and IBEX has provided what are likely the best observations of the third. By using IBEX to look at particles that have traveled in from outside the heliosphere, we have an idea of the direction of the magnetic field beyond the solar system, and it’s very different from the Sun’s, which is carried out by the solar wind. So far Voyager 1 hasn’t observed this change direction of the magnetic field. That’s why we don’t think that Voyager 1 has crossed the heliopause—yet.

    The IBEX satellite orbits the Earth, capturing particles that have traveled into the solar system from beyond the heliosphere.
    Now, Voyager 1 has clearly passed into a new region of space, one that we have not detected before. Every new bit of data coming from the venerable spacecraft is teaching us more about this uncharted territory. All of this information is new, and we are learning more every day. So, do we know when Voyager 1 will cross the heliopause? We really have no idea. And that’s part of the fun. But learning about the edge of space is more than just an esoteric pursuit. Our heliosphere is a protective cocoon, a crucial layer of shielding against dangerous charged particles, known as galactic cosmic rays, that are harmful to living things. Understanding it will help us understand how the heliosphere has protected our solar system, enabling life to flourish on this planet we call home. And someday, that knowledge will help us prepare for our first voyage beyond the protective cocoon of the solar system, when we step across the threshold and venture into deep space.

    See the full article here.

    NOVA is the highest rated science series on television and the most watched documentary series on public television. It is also one of television’s most acclaimed series, having won every major television award, most of them many times over.

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  • richardmitnick 9:59 pm on September 16, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Astrophysics, , ,   

    From ALMA: “Violent Origins of Pancake Galaxies Probed by ALMA” 

    ESO ALMA Array
    ALMA

    Wednesday, 17 September 2014

    Contacts

    Junko Ueda
    JSPS postdoctoral fellow/NAOJ
    Tel: +88 422 34 3117
    Email: junko.ueda@nao.ac.jp

    Lars Lindberg Christensen
    Head of ESO ePOD
    Garching bei München, Germany
    Tel: +49 89 3200 6761
    Cell: +49 173 3872 621
    Email: lars@eso.org

    Masaaki Hiramatsu
    NAOJ Chile Observatory EPO officer
    Tel: +88 422 34 3630
    Email: hiramatsu.masaaki@nao.ac.jp

    New observations explain why Milky Way-like galaxies are so common in the Universe

    For decades scientists have believed that galaxy mergers usually result in the formation of elliptical galaxies. Now, for the the first time, researchers using ALMA and a host of other radio telescopes have found direct evidence that merging galaxies can instead form disc galaxies, and that this outcome is in fact quite common. This surprising result could explain why there are so many spiral galaxies like the Milky Way in the Universe.

    bunch
    Distribution of gas in merging galaxies observed by radio telescopes. Contours indicate the radio intensity emitted from CO gas. The colour shows the motion of gas. The red color indicates gas is moving away from us while the blue colour is coming closer to us. The gradation from red to blue means that gas is rotating in a disc-like manner around the centre of the galaxy. | Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/SMA/CARMA/IRAM/J. Ueda et al

    disc
    Example of disc galaxy, The Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253)
    Atlas Image [or Atlas Image mosaic] courtesy of 2MASS/UMass/IPAC-Caltech/NASA/http://www.nsf.gov/

    An international research group led by Junko Ueda, a Japan Society for the Promotion of Science postdoctoral fellow, has made surprising observations that most galaxy collisions in the nearby Universe — within 40–600 million light-years from Earth — result in so-called disc galaxies. Disc galaxies — including spiral galaxies like the Milky Way and lenticular galaxies — are defined by pancake-shaped regions of dust and gas, and are distinct from the category of elliptical galaxies.

    It has, for some time, been widely accepted that merging disc galaxies would eventually form an elliptically shaped galaxy. During these violent interactions the galaxies do not only gain mass as they merge or cannibalise each-other, but they are also changing their shape throughout cosmic time, and therefore changing type along the way.

    Computer simulations from the 1970s predicted that mergers between two comparable disc galaxies would result in an elliptical galaxy. The simulations predict that most galaxies today are elliptical, clashing with observations that over 70% of galaxies are in fact disc galaxies. However, more recent simulations have suggested that collisions could also form disc galaxies.

    To identify the final shapes of galaxies after mergers observationally, the group studied the distribution of gas in 37 galaxies that are in their final stages of merging. The Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) and several other radio telescopes were used to observe emission from carbon monoxide (CO), an indicator of molecular gas.

    The team’s research is the largest study of molecular gas in galaxies to date and provides unique insight into how the Milky Way might have formed. Their study revealed that almost all of the mergers show pancake-shaped areas of molecular gas, and hence are disc galaxies in the making. Ueda explains: “For the first time there is observational evidence for merging galaxies that could result in disc galaxies. This is a large and unexpected step towards understanding the mystery of the birth of disc galaxies.”

    Nonetheless, there is a lot more to discover. Ueda added: “We have to start focusing on the formation of stars in these gas discs. Furthermore, we need to look farther out in the more distant Universe. We know that the majority of galaxies in the more distant Universe also have discs. We however do not yet know whether galaxy mergers are also responsible for these, or whether they are formed by cold gas gradually falling into the galaxy. Maybe we have found a general mechanism that applies throughout the history of the Universe.”

    The team is composed of Junko Ueda (JSPS postdoctoral fellow/National Astronomical Observatory of Japan [NAOJ]), Daisuke Iono (NAOJ/The Graduate University for Advanced Studies [SOKENDAI]), Min S. Yun (The University of Massachusetts), Alison F. Crocker (The University of Toledo), Desika Narayanan (Haverford College), Shinya Komugi (Kogakuin University/ NAOJ), Daniel Espada (NAOJ/SOKENDAI/Joint ALMA Observatory), Bunyo Hatsukade (NAOJ), Hiroyuki Kaneko (University of Tsukuba), Yoichi Tamura (The University of Tokyo), David J. Wilner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), Ryohei Kawabe (NAOJ/ SOKENDAI/The University of Tokyo) and Hsi-An Pan (Hokkaido University/SOKENDAI/NAOJ)

    The data were obtained by ALMA, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy: a millimeter array consisting of 23 parabola antennas in California, the Submillimeter Array a submillimeter array consisting of eight parabola antennas in Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer, the NAOJ Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45m radio telescope, USA’s National Radio Astronomy Observatory 12m telescope, USA’s Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 14m telescope, IRAM’s 30m telescope, and the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope as a supplement.

    carma
    CARMA Array

    Submillimeter Array Hawaii SAO
    SAO Submillimeter Array on Mauna Kea

    IRAM Interferometer Submillimeter Array of Radio Telescopes
    IRAM Interferometer

    naoj
    NAOJ Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45m radio telescope

    aro
    ARO KP12M Radio Telescope

    IRAM 30m Radio telescope
    IRAM 30m Radio Telescope

    ESO
    Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope

    See the full article, with notes, here.

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and in East Asia by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan.

    ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by ESO, on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) and on behalf of East Asia by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.

    NRAO Small

    ESO 50

    NAOJ

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  • richardmitnick 3:55 pm on September 16, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Astrophysics, , , ,   

    About SKA in Botswana: “Botswana to play part in SKA project ” 

    SKA Square Kilometer Array

    SKA

    From
    bus

    Sept. 15, 2014
    John Churu, Gaborone, Botswana

    Botswana has confirmed its participation in the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Radio Astronomy project. This was revealed by the Minister of Infrastructure Science and Technology Johnny Swartz during the International Association of Science and Technology for Development Africa (IASTED) conference recently.

    dish

    Swartz told participants that Botswana would “host a subset of radio telescope dishes as part of a 3000-strong compliment of dishes stretching across Southern and East Africa.” According to the minister, taking part in the SKA project will enable the country participate in and contribute to frontier fundamental science research as well as enhance its scientific capacity. In addition, Swartz said this will help build related infrastructure and advance other areas such as high performance computing for the analysis of large data sets generated by telescopes. Swartz has met with the South African minister responsible for Science and Technology more than once, both in Botswana and South Africa.

    Earlier he explained that the government had introduced several programmes in an effort to create an enabling environment for research science and technology as well as innovation.

    “This shows Botswana’s commitment in prioritizing and placing science and technology as a major driver of our economy.” The policies alluded to by the Minister include the ‘Revised National Infrastructure and Communications Policy and the Research, Science, Technology and Innovation Policy of 2012.’

    The government was also in the process of formulating strategies to speed up the transformation of the country from being a natural-resource driven to a technology-driven and knowledge-driven economy.

    Meanwhile, in a related development, the Ministry of Transport and Communication (MTC) through its department of Telecommunications and Postal Services (DTPS) has established collaboration with IST-Africa consortium. IST-Africa consortium is a strategic partnership between international Information Management Corporation of Ireland and Ministries and National Councils responsible for ICT in 18 African countries, supported by the European Union and the African Union Commission.

    “This programme will facilitate the development of Botswana’s research sector through collaboration and funding. Its main objectives are to promote International Research Cooperation, Innovation and entrepreneurship as well as knowledge sharing and Skills Transfer between IST-Africa partners.

    In November 2013 MCT hosted two IST-Africa training workshops focused on Research Collaboration under programmes of Horizon 2020 and Living Labs. “The workshops helped in guiding relevant organisations on processes in place used to acquire funds from European organs during open calls,” said an official from DTPS.

    See the full article here.

    SKA Banner

    About SKA

    The Square Kilometre Array will be the world’s largest and most sensitive radio telescope. The total collecting area will be approximately one square kilometre giving 50 times the sensitivity, and 10 000 times the survey speed, of the best current-day telescopes. The SKA will be built in Southern Africa and in Australia. Thousands of receptors will extend to distances of 3 000 km from the central regions. The SKA will address fundamental unanswered questions about our Universe including how the first stars and galaxies formed after the Big Bang, how dark energy is accelerating the expansion of the Universe, the role of magnetism in the cosmos, the nature of gravity, and the search for life beyond Earth. Construction of phase one of the SKA is scheduled to start in 2016. The SKA Organisation, with its headquarters at Jodrell Bank Observatory, near Manchester, UK, was established in December 2011 as a not-for-profit company in order to formalise relationships between the international partners and centralise the leadership of the project.

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  • richardmitnick 12:15 pm on September 16, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Astrophysics, , , ,   

    From Science Daily: “Martian meteorite yields more evidence of the possibility of life on Mars” 

    ScienceDaily Icon

    Science Daily

    September 15, 2014
    Source: Manchester University
    Katie Brewin/Aeron Haworth
    Media Relations Officer
    The University of Manchester

    A tiny fragment of Martian meteorite 1.3 billion years old is helping to make the case for the possibility of life on Mars, say scientists.

    The finding of a ‘cell-like’ structure, which investigators now know once held water, came about as a result of collaboration between scientists in the UK and Greece. Their findings are published in the latest edition of the journal Astrobiology.

    While investigating the Martian meteorite, known as Nakhla, Dr Elias Chatzitheodoridis of the National Technical University of Athens found an unusual feature embedded deep within the rock. In a bid to understand what it might be, he teamed up with long-time friend and collaborator Professor Ian Lyon at the University of Manchester.

    met
    Nakhla meteorite (BM1913,25): two sides and its inner surfaces after breaking it in 1998

    Professor Lyon, based in Manchester’s School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences explains: “In many ways it resembled a fossilized biological cell from Earth but it was intriguing because it was undoubtedly from Mars. Our research found that it probably wasn’t a cell but that it did once hold water, water that had been heated, probably as a result of an asteroid impact.”

    These findings are significant because they add to increasing evidence that beneath the surface, Mars does provide all the conditions for life to have formed and evolved. It also adds to a body of evidence suggesting that large asteroids hit Mars in the past and produce long-lasting hydrothermal fields that could sustain life on Mars, even in later epochs, if life ever emerged there.

    As part of the research, the feature was imaged in unprecedented detail by Dr Sarah Haigh of The University of Manchester whose work usually involves high resolution imaging for next generation electronic devices ,which are made by stacking together single atomic layers of graphene and other materials with the aim of making faster, lighter and bendable mobile phones and tablets. A similar imaging approach was able to reveal the atomic layers of materials inside the meteorite.

    Together their combined experimental approach has revealed new insights into the geological origins of this fascinating structure.

    Professor Lyon said: “We have been able to show the setting is there to provide life. It’s not too cold, it’s not too harsh. Life as we know it, in the form of bacteria, for example, could be there, although we haven’t found it yet. It’s about piecing together the case for life on Mars — it may have existed and in some form could exist still.”

    Now, the team is using these and other state-of-the-art techniques to investigate new secondary materials in this meteorite and search for possible bio signatures which provide scientific evidence of life, past or present. Professor Lyon concluded: “Before we return samples from Mars, we must examine them further, but in more delicate ways. We must carefully search for further evidence.”

    See the full article here.

    ScienceDaily is one of the Internet’s most popular science news web sites. Since starting in 1995, the award-winning site has earned the loyalty of students, researchers, healthcare professionals, government agencies, educators and the general public around the world. Now with more than 3 million monthly visitors, ScienceDaily generates nearly 15 million page views a month and is steadily growing in its global audience.

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  • richardmitnick 11:14 am on September 16, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , Astrophysics, , , ,   

    From RAS: “219 million stars: a detailed catalogue of the visible Milky Way” 

    Royal Astronomical Society

    Royal Astronomical Society

    16 September 2014
    Media contact

    Dr Robert Massey
    Royal Astronomical Society
    Tel: +44 (0)20 7734 3307
    Mob: +44 (0)794 124 8035
    rm@ras.org.uk

    Science contacts

    Dr Geert Barentsen
    University of Hertfordshire
    Tel: +44 (0)1707 284603
    g.barentsen@herts.ac.uk

    Prof. Janet Drew
    University of Hertfordshire
    Tel: +44 (0)1707 286576
    j.drew@herts.ac.uk

    A new catalogue of the visible part of the northern part of our home Galaxy, the Milky Way, includes no fewer than 219 million stars. Geert Barentsen of the University of Hertfordshire led a team who assembled the catalogue in a ten year programme using the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) on La Palma in the Canary Islands. Their work appears today in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

    Isaac Newton 2.5m telescope
    Isaac Newton 2.5m telescope interior
    Isaac Newton Telescope

    dense
    A density map of part of the Milky Way disk, constructed from IPHAS data. The axes show galactic latitude and longitude, coordinates that relate to the position of the centre of the galaxy. The mapped data are the counts of stars detected in i, the longer (redder) wavelength broad band of the survey, down to a faint limit of 19th magnitude. Although this is just a small section of the full map, it portrays in exquisite detail the complex patterns of obscuration due to interstellar dust. Credit: Hywel Farnhill, University of Hertfordshire.

    From dark sky sites on Earth, the Milky Way appears as a glowing band stretching across the sky. To astronomers, it is the disk of our own galaxy, a system stretching across 100,000 light-years, seen edge-on from our vantage point orbiting the Sun. The disk contains the majority of the stars in the galaxy, including the Sun, and the densest concentrations of dust and gas.

    The unaided human eye struggles to distinguish individual objects in this crowded region of the sky, but the 2.5-metre mirror of the INT enabled the scientists to resolve and chart 219 million separate stars. The INT programme charted all the stars brighter than 20th magnitude – or 1 million times fainter than can be seen with the human eye.

    Using the catalogue, the scientists have put together an extraordinarily detailed map of the disk of the Galaxy that shows how the density of stars varies, giving them a new and vivid insight into the structure of this vast system of stars, gas and dust.

    The image included here, a cut-out from a stellar density map mined directly from the released catalogue, illustrates the new view obtained. The Turner-like brush strokes of dust shadows would grace the wall of any art gallery. Maps like these also stand as useful tests of new-generation models for the Milky Way.

    The production of the catalogue, IPHAS DR2 (the second data release from the survey programme The INT Photometric H-alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane, IPHAS), is an example of modern astronomy’s exploitation of ‘big data’. It contains information on 219 million detected objects, each of which is summarised in 99 different attributes.

    With this catalogue release, the team are offering the world community free access to measurements taken through two broad band filters capturing light at the red end of the visible spectrum, and in a narrow band capturing the brightest hydrogen emission line, H-alpha. The inclusion of H-alpha also enables exquisite imaging of the nebulae (glowing clouds of gas) found in greatest number within the disk of the Milky Way. The stellar density map illustrated here is derived from the longest (reddest) wavelength band in which the darkening effect of the dust is moderated in a way that brings out more of its structural detail, compared to maps built at shorter (bluer) wavelengths.

    See the full article here.

    The Royal Astronomical Society (RAS), founded in 1820, encourages and promotes the study of astronomy, solar-system science, geophysics and closely related branches of science.

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  • richardmitnick 10:06 am on September 16, 2014 Permalink | Reply
    Tags: , , Astrophysics, , ,   

    From SPACE.com: “US Military’s Meteor Explosion Data Can Help Scientists Protect Earth” 

    space-dot-com logo

    SPACE.com

    September 15, 2014
    Leonard David

    The U.S. Air Force and NASA have ironed out problems that prevented scientists from obtaining a steady stream of military tracking data on meteor explosions within Earth’s atmosphere.

    Ever since the meteor explosion over Chelyabinsk, Russia, in February 2013, scientists have been hungry for data that can help them assess the threat of fireballs, meteors and near-Earth objects (NEOs).

    Meteor detonations within Earth’s atmosphere can be seen by U.S. military sensors on secretive spacecraft. Using this government data, in early 2013, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) launched a new website to share the details of meteor explosion events.

    But earlier this year, the site became stagnant, with no new updates. Due to budget cuts and personnel reductions, NASA’s military partner was no longer able to carry out the work.

    Repairing the meteor explosions pipeline

    However, documents are now in place to ensure that the site is updated with a constant stream of data on meteor explosions, which are also known as bolides. In January 2013, the Air Force Space Command’s Air, Space and Cyberspace Operations directorate formalized its work with NASA’s Science Mission directorate with a memorandum of agreement (MOA).

    bolide
    Artist’s view of 2013 fireball explosion over Chelyabinsk, Russia — termed a “superbolide” event. Credit: Don Davis

    “The MOA was amended effective June 24, 2014, in order to ensure that the flow of bolide data to the scientific community is uninterrupted,” a representative for the U.S. Air Force Space Command’s Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC), which oversees military space systems, told Space.com. “With added language to the formal MOA, SMC will provide bolide data on a consistent basis and alleviate any concerns of data flow getting cut off.”

    Furthermore, there is a separate SMC team at Schriever Air Force Base in Colorado that’s responsible for the processing and dissemination of the data, the SMC representative said.

    Trove of data

    bos
    Data gleaned from hush-hush satellite sensors can be folded into other data sets to better model just how much the Earth is on the receiving end of incoming natural objects. Picture shows Sandia National Laboratories researcher Mark Boslough reviewing a supercomputer simulation of an asteroid fireball exploding in Earth’s atmosphere. Credit: Randy Montoya/Sandia

    One big reason why the military data on bolides is so important is that there is increasing evidence that Earth is on the receiving end of a sizable amount of natural asteroid/comet material, otherwise known as “spacefall.”

    By reviewing military-sensor data collected over the years, scientists hope to better understand spacefall rates. However, all of the data isn’t available just yet.

    “The plan is to release all appropriate data, although it will take some time for processing to occur,” the SMC representative told Space.com. “The Air Force has maintained a database of all detected events. The archived raw data requires very intricate and specific processing through a software program so that it can be useful to an external organization.”

    The data will give scientists a better idea of the population of very small asteroids that regularly encounter the Earth, and help researchers estimate how many larger objects may exist, said Lindley Johnson, NEO program executive within the Planetary Science Division of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington, D.C.

    Peter Brown, director of the Center for Planetary Science and Exploration at the University of Western Ontario in Canada, called the partnership a “major step forward.”

    “Speaking from the science community perspective, I would say this partnership and agreement between Air Force Space Command and NASA is a major step forward in terms of being able to study and analyze small impactors,” Brown told Space.com.

    For example, the data from the JPL fireball website helps correlate U.S. government sensor observations of fireballs with infrasound detections by the International Monitoring System (IMS), a network overseen by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

    Independent check

    Researchers can calibrate the current global detection efficiency of the IMS, Brown said. This U.S. government sensor-infrasound comparison also provides an independent check on the fireball energies and flags unusual events, he said.

    “The timely release of this information on the JPL website now also permits rapid follow-up of interesting bolides to facilitate time-sensitive studies, such as meteorite or airborne dust recovery, for the first time,” Brown said.

    In addition, the data contain a “potential goldmine of information,” particularly regarding meteorite-producing fireballs and their pre-atmospheric orbits, as well as information that helps address the general question of meteorite-asteroid linkages, he said.

    Regular space rock reports

    But in order for the data to be useful, it must be distributed regularly, scientists say.

    “The [Air Force] responses sound positive,” said Clark Chapman, asteroid expert with the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado.”But the proof of any change in practices will come with actual, regular distribution of such information to interested scientists, hopefully very shortly after a detected event,” he told Space.com.

    Chapman said he and other specialists look forward to receiving timely and regular reports of bolide events via the Air Force/NASA relationship.

    To view the “Fireball and Bolide Reports” website, overseen by NASA’s Near-Earth Object Program, visit http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/fireballs/.

    See the full article here.

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